User:Kayoty/sandbox 1

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Cette liste recense les lacs situés au moins en partie sur le territoire du Canada et dont la superficie totale excède 1 000 km²[1].


Nom  Superficie(km²)
Lac Supérieur  82 100 [n 1]
Lac Huron  59 600 [n 2]
Grand lac de l'Ours  31 800
Grand-Lac-des-Esclaves  28 930
Lac Érié  25 700 [n 3]
Lac Winnipeg  24 387 [n 4]
Lac Ontario  18 960 [n 5]
Lac Athabasca  7 935
Lac Reindeer  6 650
Réservoir Smallwood  6 527
Lac Nettilling  5 542
Lac Winnipegosis  5 374
Lac Nipigon  4 848
Lac Manitoba  4 624
Lac des Bois  4 350 [n 4]
Réservoir de Caniapiscau  4 318
Lac Dubawnt  3 833
Lac Amadjuak  3 115
Lac Melville  3 069 [n 6]
Lac Wollaston  2 681
Lac Mistassini  2 335
Lac Nueltin  2 279
Lac De-l'Indien-du-Sud  2 247
Réservoir Manicouagan  1 942
Lac Baker  1 887
Lac La-Martre  1 776
Lac Williston  1 761
Lac Seul  1 657
Réservoir Gouin  1 570
Lac Yathkyed  1 449
Lac Clair  1 436
Lac Cree  1 434
Lac la Ronge  1 413
Lac À-l'Eau-Claire  1 383
Lac Du-Cèdre  1 353
Lac Kasba  1 341
Lac Bienville  1 249
Lac De-l'Île  1 223
Petit-Lac-des-Esclaves  1 168
Lac Des-Dieux  1 151
Lac Champlain  1 130 [n 4]
Lac Sainte-Claire  1 114 [n 4]
Lac Aberdeen  1 100
Lac Bras d'Or  1 099 [n 6]
Lac Napaktulik  1 080
Lac MacKay  1 061
Lac Saint-Jean 1043




Kayoty/sandbox 1 is located in Saskatchewan
Kayoty/sandbox 1
Location of Quill Lakes in Saskatchewan


English River District[edit]

The English River District was an administrative district of the Hudson's Bay Company in what would later become the North-West Territories in Canada. In 1870 Canada gained control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory from the Hudson's Bay Company.

In 1856 still under the rule of the Hudson's Bay Company it included major fur trade posts on Lac La Biche in Alberta and on Green Lake, Lac Île-à-la-Crosse, Lac La Loche and Lac la Ronge in Saskatchewan. The administrative centre was in Île-à-la-Crosse. The population of the district was made up of 1,370 Cree and Dene people.[1][2]

English River was another name for the Churchill River. The English River First Nation based in Patuanak is named for the river and the district.

Paquette[edit]

On April 27, 1885 during the North-West Rebellion most of the personnel and dependants of the Hudson's Bay Company Post and the Roman Catholic Mission of Île-à-la-Crosse alarmed at the looting of the Green Lake Post the previous day left the village. That first night the fugitives camped on a large sand point and the next day they reached the Churchill River. Eventually they set up a permanent camp on a small wooded island north of Patuanak and were guarded by the Denesuline who lived in the vicinity.

Meanwhile in Île-à-la-Crosse on April 30 about 60 Métis, Dene and Cree men from the area had gathered and on May 2 a force of 50 armed men left on three boats for Green Lake. Hearing rumours of a large attack force the men turned around midway and returned to Île-à-la-Crosse announcing that the warriors of Big Bear in all probability would attack the fort that night. Later being persuaded that there was no longer any danger the defenders of Île-à-la-Crosse who were being supplied by the fort returned to their homes and occupations. [3] As for the exiles on May 24 they erected a large cross on their island of refuge (now known as Cross Island 55°59′46.1″N 107°40′26.9″W / 55.996139°N 107.674139°W / 55.996139; -107.674139) and returned to the village on May 29.


Roderick Ross the Chief Factor of Île-à-la-Crosse alarmed by the persistent rumours of war and suspicious of the arrogant attitude of a few of the local Métis sent one of his clerks for information. On April 27 the clerk returned with the alarming news that Cree rebels were advancing and had already looted the Green Lake Post after having chased away the loyal Métis. The fearful M. Ross unable to judge the situation called his clerks and Father Rapet of the Mission together and all agreed to leave immediately. Father Rapet announced this decision to his people who felt that the decision was premature. But the Grey Nuns were terrified that Riel who had accused them of letting his younger sister Sister Marguerite-Marie (Sara Riel) die would seek revenge. The residents started to leave. The animals of the mission were sent to Canoe Lake. Precious objects were hidden away. Necessary items were packed in haste. The dogs and cattle were hitched and led away and the Holy Eucharist was taken.

So, like the monks of the Middle Ages harassed by barbarian hordes, they carried their treasures, statues, relics to far away places so they could be permitted to pray in peace and also serve their neighbour while Brother Némoz stayed alone guarding the mission.

That first night the fugitives reached the large sand point where they set up camp. They were cold and wet after crossing the lake however the prudent M. Ross ordered that no fire be lit. Not one of the shivering group stopped an old French Canadian in the group who carried log by log an enormous quantity of wood and lit a great fire.

The next day on April 28 the voyageurs arrived at the English River and established a permanent camp. Brother Labelle, Brother Marcilly and a few employees of the Hudson's Bay Company left to bring the cattle. Several of these employees found themselves on the small sand point when they heard the rifle fire from the Beaver River the joyous salvos saluting the birth of the Sinclair baby. To the Métis of Île-à-la-Crosse it was a sinister sign of things to come. It was without doubt the last echo of the execution of Father Paquette and his Métis companions who were expected to arrive from Green Lake. Quickly they thought they must bring the news to M. Ross.

The news brought new terrors to the camp. Several nuns were sick with emotion. They must go further still to be secure. At once they broke up the camp with all the baggage and moved to a small wooded island protected by a double set of rapids and guarded by the Denesuline.

The night of this second move Father Paquette having walked all day over the ice arrived at the fort tired and irritable. The clerk Franklin in pity fed him and dressed him in his own clothes. The missionary stunned to find no one in these large buildings was told of the cause of the exodus of the population.

The mission was also deserted. Brother Némoz was there and Brother Marcilly coming with the cattle was ready to leave but decided to wait till the next day and bring Father Paquette if he wanted. During his slumber Paquette's feelings of peace and security he felt earlier disappeared replaced by a sudden panic. He told himself "If everyone believes there is danger who am I to pretend there is none". Sitting up suddenly he sees a red glow on the horizon like the reflection of a huge fire. There is no doubt the enemy is coming. Quickly he wakes his companions and tells Brother Marcilly to harness the dogs while he throws bags out of the window. The young men and Brothers in fear run to see what the fuss is all about and Father Paquette points to the sky where the fire was only to see the moon in a red glow. Everyone laughs and return to bed.

When he had arrived at the Fort Father Paquette had suggested a meeting of all the Metis and Indians of the area and this was done. So the next day on the afternoon of April 30 about 60 men had gathered: Metis, Dene and Cree from Canoe Lake. As Paquette entered the hall he found them arguing with the clerk. Since it was in the interest of the Company that they had to leave their homes and occupations they asked to be fed by the Company during these troubled times. One Metis pretended to have received permission from M. Clarke and Ross to take whatever they needed from the store. MM. Franklin and Sinclair said it was not true. Father Paquette asked who had authorized it. Angus Mckay he said and Paquette called him a liar. So one Metis said menacingly: "Who would stop us from taking supplies by force since you have refused us?" Eventually the clerk promised to distribute supplies and ammunition to the men so they could feed their families and everyone calmed down.

So on May 2 three York boats manned by 50 armed men left for Green Lake. Midway they met a couple of Indians who warned them of the danger they might expect on the way. The warriors of Big Bear were in the vicinity. A group of volunteers from Prince Albert had gone to Green Lake and met these warriors and were sent back on foot their horses stolen. The Metis turned around in fear and returned to Ile a la Crosse announcing that the warriors of Big Bear in all probability would attack the Fort that night. In face of this new danger Father Paquette decided to leave with his two companions to the island of refuge.

M. Ross who was always anxious seeing three strangers coming to the camp ordered one of the guards to fire on them but a Metis never fires without seeing and soon recognized Paquette who had long been awaited.

The story of Paquette and his news reawakened the fears of the refugees. M. Ross fearing that the Indians and the Metis of Ile a la Crosse would help the warriors of Big Bear begged Father Rapet and Father Dauphin to go preach peace and loyalty to the Queen to them. The two missionaries found the Fort in perfect calm and the two clerks on best terms with the people. They had but to give a little wise advice. Father Dauphin thinking that his presence would be helpful at the mission refused to return to the island of refuge. Mass was begun in the parish church and the exercises of May the month of Mary were done every night. Persuaded that there was no longer any danger he advised the defenders of Ile a la Crosse to return to their homes and occupations.


[4]

Looting of Green Lake House[edit]

At the time of the North-West Rebellion in 1885 the Hudson's Bay Company post in Green Lake was waiting for the ice to break on the northern lakes and rivers so that the stockpile of goods in their warehouses could be safely sent up the Beaver River to posts further north including the Athabasca and Mackenzie River Districts. Within these warehouses were a years supply of goods for these northern posts hauled from Fort Carlton by an ox cart trail built in 1875-76 .

On April 25, 1885 James Sinclair the factor of the post having been forewarned by Father Mélasyppe Paquette O.M.I. of rebels loyal to Louis Riel approaching immediately gave the order to submerge into the lake all the lead balls and shot. He loaded four York boats with 286 barrels of powder and 200 rifles along with a large quantity of stock and sent the boats that night towards Ile a la Crosse. The next morning on April 26 he loaded the rest of his men and their families along with the missionary and his companions on another boat. As they were ready to leave the shore 25 Indians from Loon Lake stopped them. Sinclair was taken prisoner but the others were let go to continue on their way. From Sinclair they demanded food saying they were starving but their demands did not stop there. They started breaking boxes, opening bales, slashing open bags of sugar and flour with their knives taking whatever pleased them and destroying the rest. While the post was being looted Sinclair managed to slip away from his guards and fled by canoe with two Métis men from Fort Carlton. Sinclair was able to rejoin the boats and while they camped on the side of the river his wife gave birth to a girl who was baptised immediately by Father Paquette.[5]


Maskeg Lake, founded in 1878 by Father Mélasyppe Paquette.

STARVING INDIANS. (The Sacred Heart Review, Volume 8, Number 17, 17 September 1892) Father Paquette, missionary to the Indians in North-West Territory, Canada, writes as follows about his people : — I have just arrived from a trip to my people who live east of Lake Maskeg and on the Saskatchewan River. Nearly all these poor creatures are sick. It is no surprise, for they subsist on food which your dogs would refuse. I saw them eat the decaying flesh of wild beasts, prairie squirrels and crows. They eat it because they have nothing else. The Indians are dying out; but a few years more and the priest need not call on the charitable to aid him in saving their souls. http://newspapers.bc.edu/cgi-bin/bostonsh?a=d&d=BOSTONSH18920917-01.1.6&e=-------en-20--1--txt-IN-----#

Father Paquette O.M.I. arrived in Green Lake and found the locals ready to fight and die for Riel. He talked to them and even threatened excommunication to all those who would fight for Riel. Having been persuaded they all left the post so as not to meet the rebels that could come at any time. Paquette then went to meet James Sinclair at the Hudson's Bay Post and told him all that happened since he left Saint Laurent on the 18 of March. James Sinclair who was in charge of all the merchandise held there for the Mackenzie District had no doubt that his post would soon be pillaged by the rebels. He immediately gave the order to submerge into the lake all the lead and balls and loaded four York boats with 286 barrels of powder and 200 rifles along with a large quantity of stock and sent the brigade that night towards Ile a la Crosse. The next morning on April 26 (1885) he loaded the rest of his men and their families along with the missionary and his companions on another boat destined also for Ile a la Crosse. As they were ready to leave the shore 25 Indians from Loon Lake stopped them. Sinclair was taken prisoner but the others were let go to continue on their way. So were the orders coming from Riel.

From Sinclair they demanded food saying they were starving but their demands did not stop there. They started breaking boxes, untying the bales, cutting open bags of sugar and flour with their knives taking whatever pleased them and destroying the rest. This act of vandalism it is said cost the Hudson's Bay Company the enormous sum of $40,000.00.

While the post was being looted Sinclair managed to slip away from his guards and fled by canoe with two Metis men from Fort Carlton. As they were escaping an Indian by the name of Makesis shot at Sinclair but his life was saved when his aim was broken by the chief to whom he had earlier given a pair of embroidered gloves.

Meanwhile the three other boats continued their trip to Ile a la Crosse in the cold and rain. On the third day while they camped on the side of the river Mrs. Sinclair gave birth to a girl who was baptised immediately by Father Paquette. Mr. Sinclair who had joined them rejoiced and the Metis decided it was a good time to celebrate. Since they had 6,000 pounds of powder with them they used some of it to discharged their rifles into the air around 300 times after which Sinclair gave them a feast. The discharge of weapons was heard as far as Ile a la Crosse and caused much concern as they too had heard of the events further south.[6]

  1. ^ George Bryce. (1910), The remarkable history of the Hudson's Bay Company (page 491), London: Sampson Low, Marston 
  2. ^ Richard Somerset Mackie (1997), Trading Beyond the Mountains; The British Fur Trade on the Pacific, 1793-1843 (Map 1, p. xvi), Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press 
  3. ^ "Batoche: les missionnaires du nord-ouest pendant les troubles de 1885". Le Chevallier, Jules Jean Marie Joseph. Montreal: L'Oeuvre de presse dominicaine. 1941. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  4. ^ "Batoche: les missionnaires du nord-ouest pendant les troubles de 1885". Le Chevallier, Jules Jean Marie Joseph. Montreal: L'Oeuvre de presse dominicaine. 1941. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  5. ^ "Batoche: les missionnaires du nord-ouest pendant les troubles de 1885". Le Chevallier, Jules Jean Marie Joseph. Montreal: L'Oeuvre de presse dominicaine. 1941. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  6. ^ "Batoche: les missionnaires du nord-ouest pendant les troubles de 1885". Le Chevallier, Jules Jean Marie Joseph. Montreal: L'Oeuvre de presse dominicaine. 1941. Retrieved 2013-07-20.