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Mathematics
Computer science (CS) and Electrical engineering (EE)
History, culture, nations, societies

Contents

Philosophy[edit]

Template:Greek schools of philosophy
Cynic (Cynic#Cynicism and Christianity)
Stoicism, contains a bit of cynicism (Stoicism#Stoicism and Christianity)
Marcus Aurelius +
Template:Metaphysics: Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality (MOQ)
Determinism & Template:Determinism {causal determinism (cause-and-effect)}: linguistic, cultural, biological
Escapism: mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an "escape" from the perceived unpleasant or banal aspects of daily life. It can also be used as a term to define the actions people take to help relieve persisting feelings of depression or general sadness (boredom?). J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Karl Marx (religion - "opium of the people")
Digital philosophy: direction in philosophy and cosmology advocated by certain mathematicians and theoretical physicists, e.g., Gregory Chaitin, Edward Fredkin, Stephen Wolfram, and Konrad Zuse; grew out of an earlier digital physics (both terms are due to Fredkin), which proposes to ground much of physical theory in cellular automata.
Dehellenization: disillusionment with Greek Philosophy stemming from the Hellenistic Period and the use of reason in particular, usually committed by a religion or faith-based system. Coined by Pope Benedict XVI in 2006 during his speech entitled “Faith, Reason, and the University: Memories and Reflections,” in order to refer to the attempt of some recent scholars to separate Christianity from Greek philosophical thought.
Platonic Academy: founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) studied there for twenty years (367 BC – 347 BC) before founding his own school, the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC.
Socrates (470/469 – 399 BC): classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato". As British philosopher Martin Cohen has put it, "Plato, the idealist, offers an idol, a master figure, for philosophy. A Saint, a prophet of 'the Sun-God', a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic." For a time, Socrates fulfilled the role of hoplite, participating in the Peloponnesian war—a conflict which stretched intermittently over a period spanning 431 to 404 B.C. Several of Plato's dialogues refer to Socrates' military service. Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material wealth. He always invited others to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, for Socrates felt this was the best way for people to grow together as a populace. It is argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand", making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others. In Plato's dialogue the Republic, Socrates openly objected to the democracy that ran Athens during his adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates found short of ideal any government that did not conform to his presentation of a perfect regime led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that. It is, however, possible that the Socrates of Plato's Republic is colored by Plato's own views.
Socratic problem: term for the situation in the history of scholarship with respect to the existing materia pertaining to the individual known as Socrates which scholars rely upon as the only extant sources for knowing anything at all about this individual, but when compared, show contradictions and do not agree. It is apparent to scholarship (c.2011) that this problem is now deemed a task seeming impossible to clarify and thus perhaps now classified as unsolvable. It is widely understood that in later dialogues Plato used the character Socrates to give voice to views that were his own. Besides Plato, three other important sources exist for the study of Socrates: Aristophanes, Aristotle, and Xenophon.
Plato (428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition. Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Plato's entire œuvre is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. In addition to being a foundational figure for Western science, philosophy, and mathematics, Plato has also often been cited as one of the founders of Western religion and spirituality, particularly Christianity, which Friedrich Nietzsche, amongst other scholars, called "Platonism for the people."
Epistles (Plato): series of thirteen letters traditionally included in the Platonic corpus. Their authenticity has been the subject of some dispute, and scholarly consensus has shifted back and forth over time.
List of speakers in Plato's dialogues
Epicureanism: system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that what he called "pleasure" is the greatest good, but the way to attain such pleasure is to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires. This led one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain (aponia). The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure to be the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life makes it different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood. Epicurus defined justice as an agreement "neither to harm nor be harmed". It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly (agreeing "neither to harm nor be harmed"), and it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life.
Existence precedes essence: central claim of existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the essence (the nature) of a thing is more fundamental and immutable than its existence (the mere fact of its being). To existentialists, human beings—through their consciousness—create their own values and determine a meaning for their life because the human being does not possess any inherent identity or value. As Sartre puts it in his Existentialism is a Humanism: "man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world – and defines himself afterwards." Since the world "in-itself" is absurd, that is, not "fair", then a meaningful life can at any point suddenly lose all its meaning; Albert Camus, for instance, famously claimed in Le Mythe de Sisyphe that "there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide."

Analytic philosophy[edit]

Category:Analytic philosophy
Category:Philosophical logic
Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889.04.26–1951.04.29): Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a large fortune from his father in 1913.
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus: the only book-length philosophical work published by the German-Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. It was an ambitious project – to identify the relationship between language and reality and to define the limits of science – and is recognized as a significant philosophical work of the twentieth century.
Philosophical Investigations
Haidbauer incident (Der Vorfall Haidbauer): took place in April 1926 when Josef Haidbauer, an 11-year-old schoolboy in Otterthal, Austria, reportedly collapsed unconscious after being hit on the head during class by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Apology: "Last year with God's help I pulled myself together and made a confession. This brought me into more settled waters, into a better relation with people, and to a greater seriousness. But now it is as though I had spent all that, and I am not far from where I was before. I am cowardly beyond measure. If I do not correct this, I shall again drift entirely into those waters through which I was moving then."

Ontology[edit]

Mathematical universe hypothesis (Ultcimate Ensemble): speculative "theory of everything" (TOE) proposed by the cosmologist Max Tegmark.

Epistemology[edit]

Category:Epistemology of science
Epistemology: The Gettier problem

Philosophy of life[edit]

Seriousness: attitude of gravity, solemnity, persistence, and earnestness toward something considered to be of importance. Some notable philosophers and commentators have criticised excessive seriousness, while others have praised it. Seriousness and comedy; detecting presence and absence of seriousness in humor; detecting degree of seriousness in developmental psychology; measuring degree of seriousness in crime; medical triage; cultural variation in measurement and detection (of seriousness).

Aesthetics[edit]

Aesthetics & Template:Aesthetics (æsthetics or esthetics):
Female body shape (figure):
Waist–hip ratio (WHR): 0.8-0.9 in Africa, S. America; 0.7 in Indo-European, 0.6 in China.
The four most common female body shapes: banana (straight, rectangular), apple (triangle downward), pear (spoon, bell, triangle upward), and hourglass (triangles opposing, facing in)
Cuteness:
Physical attractiveness: Sexual dimorphism; Symmetry; Body scent; Genetics; Hairiness; Skin color

Entertainment[edit]

Entertainment: something that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight; can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of keeping an audience's attention; storytelling, music, drama, dance, and different kinds of performance exist in all cultures. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with appropriate music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience. Amusement, fun, laughter; serious entertainment (e.g. ceremony, celebration, religious festival, or satire). Audience turns a private recreation or leisure activity into entertainment; passive audience for play, opera, television show, or film; active: games (participant/audience roles may be routinely reversed). Public or private; unscripted and spontaneous vs formal, scripted performance. Some activities that once were considered entertaining, particularly public punishments, have been removed from the public arena; fencing or archery were necessary skills - now are serious sports and professions, developing into entertainment. Entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another.
Festival (gala; feast; fiesta)
List of electronic music festivals
Woodstock (Woodstock Music & Art Fair, Woodstock Festival; White Lake, NY, USA; 1969: 500,000 concert-goers)
Wave-Gotik-Treffen (1987: Potsdam, GDR; 1992: Eiskeller club, Leipzig, DE): considered the largest gothic festival on this planet. "Dark music": Gothic rock, Gothic Metal, Dark Electro, EBM, Industrial, Noise, Darkwave, Neofolk, Neoclassical, Medieval Music, Acoustic Folk, Experimental, Deathrock, Symphonic Metal, Punk... Goth-, Cybergoth-, Steampunk and Rivethead- subcultures. de:Wave-Gotik-Treffen: Seit Jahren bezeichnen Antifa-Gruppen das Wave-Gotik-Treffen als „Nazi-Treffen“. Antifa-Gruppen kritisieren, Besucher mit Uniformen, die den Uniformen der Schutzstaffel oder der Wehrmacht zum Verwechseln ähnlich seien, würden toleriert. Die Veranstalter betonen, ein unpolitisches Festival auszurichten, distanzieren sich jedoch nicht von rechts. {dressing style from sci-fi/neo-Victorians and a bit of military, rave: steampunk, cyberpunk, the Matrix, the Dark City, militaristic fashion}
Fusion Festival (Lärz, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, DE): slogan: "5 days of Holiday communism"; political theme: pronounced anti-fascist, anti-sexism, anti-racism, anti-homophopia and of course somewhat anti-government.
Teknival: large free parties which take place worldwide; grown out of the rave, UK traveller and Burning Man scenes and spawned an entire subculture; summer time. French Teknivals (Teknival negotiators deal directly with the Ministry of Interior, not the Ministry of Culture (with whom the commercial ventures seeking official status must deal) indicating that they are largely not cultural but security concerns); UK Teknivals; Czech Teknivals; Bulgarian Teknivals
CzechTek
Legendary Entertainment (Legend Pictures, LLC): USA media company based in Burbank, CA. The company was founded by Thomas Tull in 2000 and in 2005, concluded an agreement to co-produce and co-finance films with Warner Bros. In 2014, Legendary began a similar arrangement with Universal Studios. Since 2016, Legendary has been a subsidiary of the Chinese, PRC, conglomerate Wanda Group ($3.5 bln purchase).

Philosophy of science[edit]

Thomas Kuhn (1922.07.18–1996.06.17): USA physicist, historian, and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term "paradigm shift", which has since become an English-language idiom.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962): book about the history of science by philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn. Its publication was a landmark event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge and triggered an ongoing worldwide assessment and reaction in—and beyond—those scholarly communities; argued for an episodic model in which periods of such conceptual continuity in normal science were interrupted by periods of revolutionary science. One of the aims of science is to find models that will account for as many observations as possible within a coherent framework. Together, Galileo's rethinking of the nature of motion and Keplerian cosmology represented a coherent framework that was capable of rivaling the Aristotelian/Ptolemaic framework.

Mathematics[edit]

Mathematics

Systems science, systems[edit]

Category:Systems
Category:Systems science
Category:Cybernetics
Category:Biomedical cybernetics
Category:Systems engineering
Category:Systems theory
Category:Dynamical systems
Category:Self-organization
Category:Cellular automata
Category:Systems thinking
Category:Dynamical systems

{q.v.

}

Template:Systems science
System
Complex systems and Complex system
Systems thinking: process of understanding how those things which may be regarded as systems influence one another within a complete entity, or larger system. In nature, systems thinking examples include ecosystems in which various elements such as air, water, movement, plants, and animals work together to survive or perish. In organizations, systems consist of people, structures, and processes that work together to make an organization "healthy" or "unhealthy".

Humanity, survival of humanity, economics, natural resources:

The Limits to Growth (1972): book about the computer modeling of exponential economic and population growth with finite resource supplies.
World3: model is a system dynamics model for computer simulation of interactions between population, industrial growth, food production and limits in the ecosystems of the Earth. It was originally produced and used by a Club of Rome study that produced the model and the book The Limits to Growth. ince World3 was originally created it has had minor tweaks to get to the World3/91 model used in the book Beyond the Limits, later improved to get the World3/2000 model distributed by the Institute for Policy and Social Science Research and finally the World3/2004 model used in the book Limits to growth: the 30 year update. Model: Agricultural system, Nonrenewable resources system, Reference run predictions.
World3 nonrenewable resource sector
Beyond the Limits (1992): book continuing the modeling of the consequences of a rapidly growing global population that was started in Limits to Growth.
Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Societies (1996; by Joseph Tainter): paper on energy economics. "Industrialism illustrates this point. It generated its own problems of complexity and costliness. <...> such elements of complexity are usually thought to facilitate economic growth, in fact they can do so only when subsidized by energy." "<...> Fossil fuels made industrialism, and all that flowed from it (such as science, transportation, medicine, employment, consumerism, high-technology war, and contemporary political organization), a system of problem solving that was sustainable for several generations." "Energy has always been the basis of cultural complexity and it always will be."
Twelve leverage points (1997; by Donella Meadows): She started with the observation that there are levers, or places within a complex system (such as a firm, a city, an economy, a living being, an ecosystem, an ecoregion) where a "small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything"
Natural Capitalism (1999 book by Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins and Hunter Lovins): "next industrial revolution" depends on the espousal of four central strategies: "the conservation of resources through more effective manufacturing processes, the reuse of materials as found in natural systems, a change in values from quantity to quality, and investing in natural capital, or restoring and sustaining natural resources"
Cybernetics: transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, and possibilities. In the 21st century, the term is often used in a rather loose way to imply "control of any system using technology;" this has blunted its meaning to such an extent that many writers avoid using it.
Norbert Wiener (1894.11.26–1964.03.18): USA mathematician and philosopher; famous child prodigy. Early researcher in stochastic and noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering, electronic communication, and control systems. Considered the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback. Strong advocate of automation to improve the standard of living, and to end economic underdevelopment.
Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (1948): first public usage of the term "cybernetics" to refer to self-regulating mechanisms. Computing Machines and the Nervous System; On Learning and Self-Reproducing Machines.
The Human Use of Human Beings (1950; revised 1954): argues for the benefits of automation to society. It analyzes the meaning of productive communication and discusses ways for humans and machines to cooperate, with the potential to amplify human power and release people from the repetitive drudgery of manual labor, in favor of more creative pursuits in knowledge work and the arts. Automatons must not be taken for granted, because with advances in technology that allow them to learn, the machines may be able to escape human control if humans do not continue proper supervision of them; we might become entirely dependent on them, or even controlled by them; There is danger in trusting decisions to something which cannot think abstractly, and may therefore be unlikely to identify with intellectual human values which are not purely utilitarian.
Von Neumann universal constructor: self-replicating machine in a cellular automata (CA) environment. It was designed in the 1940s, without the use of a computer.

Systems engineering, optimization, information retrieval, search algorithms[edit]

Category:Systems engineering
Category:Systems analysis
Category:Mathematical optimization
Category:Combinatorial optimization
Category:Optimization algorithms and methods
Category:Information retrieval techniques
Category:Search algorithms
Category:Combinatorial optimization
Template:Graph search algorithm

Combinatorial optimization:

Greedy algorithm
Branch and bound: algorithm design paradigm for discrete and combinatorial optimization problems, as well as general real valued problems.
Beam search: heuristic search algorithm that explores a graph by expanding the most promising node in a limited set. Beam search is an optimization of best-first search that reduces its memory requirements.

Continuous optimization:

Quasi-Newton method: methods used to either find zeroes or local maxima and minima of functions, as an alternative to Newton's method. They can be used if the Jacobian or Hessian is unavailable or is too expensive to compute at every iteration.

Process management, workflow[edit]

Category:Process engineering
Category:Industrial processes
Category:Process management
Category:Workflow technology
Category:Workflow software
Category:Systems thinking
Category:Quality management
Category:Quality control
Category:Quality control tools
Seven Basic Tools of Quality: designation given to a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality. 7 are: cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram), check sheet, control chart, histogram, Pareto chart, scatter plot, stratified sampling.
Statistical process control (SPC): method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates at its full potential. At its full potential, the process can make as much conforming product as possible with a minimum (if not an elimination) of waste (rework or scrap). SPC can be applied to any process where the "conforming product" (product meeting specifications) output can be measured. Key tools used in SPC include control charts; a focus on continuous improvement; and the design of experiments. An example of a process where SPC is applied is manufacturing lines.
Ishikawa diagram (fishbone diagrams, herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or Fishikawa): causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event. The categories typically include: People, Methods, Machines, Materials, Measurements, Environment.
Design of experiments (DOE, experimental design): design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. The term is generally associated with true experiments in which the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but may also refer to the design of quasi-experiments, in which natural conditions that influence the variation are selected for observation.
Factorial experiment: experiment whose design consists of two or more factors, each with discrete possible values or "levels", and whose experimental units take on all possible combinations of these levels across all such factors; allows the investigator to study the effect of each factor on the response variable, as well as the effects of interactions between factors on the response variable.
Process management: ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process. The term usually refers to the management of business processes and manufacturing processes. Application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define, visualize, measure, control, report and improve processes with the goal to meet customer requirements profitably.
Workflow application: software application which automates, to at least some degree, a process or processes. The processes are usually business-related but can be any process that requires a series of steps to be automated via software. Some steps of the process may require human intervention, such as an approval or the development of custom text, but functions that can be automated should be handled by the application. Advanced applications allow users to introduce new components into the operation.
Workflow management system: provides an infrastructure for the set-up, performance and monitoring of a defined sequence of tasks, arranged as a workflow application.
Scientific workflow system: specialized form of a workflow management system designed specifically to compose and execute a series of computational or data manipulation steps, or workflow, in a scientific application. The simplest computerized scientific workflows are scripts that call in data, programs, and other inputs and produce outputs that might include visualizations and analytical results.
Bioinformatics workflow management system: specialized form of workflow management system designed specifically to compose and execute a series of computational or data manipulation steps, or a workflow, that relate to bioinformatics.
UGENE (FOSS; OS: cross-paltform): computer software for bioinformatics; provides GUI for the pre-built tools so biologists with no computer programming skills can access those tools more easily. Sequence View; Alignment Editor; Phylogenetic Tree Viewer; Assembly Browser; Workflow Designer.
Galaxy (computational biology) (OS: Linux, OSX): aims to make computational biology accessible to research scientists that do not have computer programming experience; largely domain agnostic and is now used as a general bioinformatics workflow management system; an open, web-based platform for performing accessible, reproducible, and transparent genomic science
Apache Taverna (FOSS; OS: Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows): allows users to integrate many different software components, including WSDL SOAP or REST Web services, such as those provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the European Bioinformatics Institute, the DNA Databank of Japan (DDBJ), SoapLab, BioMOBY and EMBOSS.
Apache ODE (cross-platform)

Dynamical systems[edit]

Category:Dynamical systems
Category:Entropy
Category:Entropy and information
Category:Thermodynamic entropy {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/Physical_sciences#Thermodynamics}
Entropy (disambiguation):
Introduction to entropy: idea of "irreversibility" is central to the understanding of entropy. In a physical system, entropy provides a measure of the amount of thermal energy that cannot be used to do work.
Entropy (statistical thermodynamics): statistical physics
Entropy: measure of the number of specific realizations or microstates that may realize a thermodynamic system in a defined state specified by macroscopic variables. Entropy is commonly understood as a measure of molecular disorder within a macroscopic system. According to the second law of thermodynamics the entropy of an isolated system never decreases.
Entropy (information theory)
Kullback–Leibler divergence: measure of the difference between two probability distributions P and Q. It is not symmetric in P and Q. In applications, P typically represents the "true" distribution of data, observations, or a precisely calculated theoretical distribution, while Q typically represents a theory, model, description, or approximation of P.

Automata[edit]

Category:Automata (computation)
Category:Automata theory
Category:Cellular automata
Wolfram code: naming system often used for one-dimensional cellular automaton rules, introduced by Stephen Wolfram in a 1983 paper and used in his book A New Kind of Science.
Elementary cellular automaton
Moore neighborhood: comprises the eight cells surrounding a central cell on a two-dimensional square lattice.
Speed of light (cellular automaton): propagation rate across the grid of exactly one step (either horizontally, vertically or diagonally) per generation.
Category:Cellular automaton rules
Template:Conway's Game of Life
Conway's Game of Life (1970; B3/S23):
  • Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies, as if caused by under-population.
  • Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives on to the next generation (S23: Stays alive).
  • Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies, as if by overcrowding.
  • Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction (B3: Born).
Glider (Conway's Life) (1970; Richard K. Guy): pattern that travels across the board in Conway's Game of Life. Gliders are the smallest spaceships, and they travel diagonally at a speed of c/4. Hacker emblem.
Life-like cellular automaton
Life without Death (Toffoli & Margolus (1987); B3/S012345678): in contrast to the more complex patterns that exist within Conway's Game of Life, Life without Death commonly features still life patterns, in which no change occurs, and ladder patterns, that grow in a straight line.
HighLife (1994; Nathan Thompson; B36/S23)
Day & Night (1997; Nathan Thompson; rule notation B3678/S34678): dead cell becomes live (is born) if it has 3, 6, 7, or 8 live neighbors, and a live cell remains alive (survives) if it has 3, 4, 6, 7, or 8 live neighbors, out of the eight neighbors in the Moore neighborhood. Name "Day & Night" because its on and off states are symmetric: if all the cells in the Universe are inverted, the future states are the inversions of the future states of the original pattern.
Seeds (cellular automaton) (B2/S)
Brian's Brain: In each time step, a cell turns on if it was off but had exactly two neighbors that were on, just like the birth rule for Seeds. All cells that were "on" go into the "dying" state, which is not counted as an "on" cell in the neighbor count, and prevents any cell from being born there. Cells that were in the dying state go into the off state. The "dying state" cells tend to lead to directional movement, so almost every pattern in Brian's Brain is a spaceship.
Still life (cellular automaton): a pattern that does not change from one generation to the next. Common examples: Blocks; Hives; Loaves; Tubs, barges, boats and ships. Eaters and reflectors. Maximum density.
Spaceship (cellular automaton): is a finite pattern which reappears after a certain number of generations in the same orientation but in a different position.
Speed of light (cellular automaton): propagation rate across the grid of exactly one step (either horizontally, vertically or diagonally) per generation. In a single generation, a cell can only influence its nearest neighbours, and so the speed of light (by analogy with the speed of light in physics) is the maximum rate at which information can propagate. It is therefore an upper bound to the speed at which any pattern can move.
Breeder (cellular automaton): a pattern that exhibits quadratic growth, by generating multiple copies of a secondary pattern, each of which then generates multiple copies of a tertiary pattern.

Control theory[edit]

Category:Control theory
Control theory: interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems with inputs, and how their behavior is modified by feedback.
PID controller (proportional-integral-derivative controller): control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID controller calculates an error value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process through use of a manipulated variable. P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change.

Science[edit]

Category:Metatheory of science
Category:Epistemology of science
Category:Philosophy of science
Scientific method vs Mathematics (which is not science (natural/physical science), nor has a method as scientific method)
The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences (1960 article by Eugene Wigner): "the enormous usefulness of mathematics in the natural sciences is something bordering on the mysterious and that there is no rational explanation for it."
Philosophy of science and Philosophy of mathematics
Scientific revolution: emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
The central science: Chemistry is often called the central science because of its role in connecting the physical sciences, which include chemistry, with the life sciences and applied sciences such as medicine and engineering. The nature of this relationship is one of the main topics in the philosophy of chemistry and in scientometrics.
Unity of science: thesis in philosophy of science that says that all the sciences form a unified whole.
Hard and soft science: colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor and legitimacy. Roughly speaking, the natural sciences are considered "hard" while the social sciences are usually described as "soft". There are some measurable differences between hard and soft sciences. For example, hard sciences make more extensive use of graphs, and soft sciences are more prone to a rapid turnover of buzzwords.

Scientific communication, networking:

Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings: scientific conference held yearly in Lindau, Germany, inviting Nobel prize winners to present to and interact with young researchers from all over the world.
Uniformitarianism: assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe; key principle of geology and virtually all fields of science, but naturalism's modern geologists, while accepting that geology has occurred across deep time, no longer hold to a strict gradualism

Technology[edit]

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Robotics, automation}

Technology Life Cycle (TLC): different Technologies, different lifespans: steel, paper - long; electronic or pharmaceutical products - short. TLC is concerned with the time and cost of developing the technology, the timeline of recovering cost and modes of making the technology yield a profit proportionate to the costs and risks involved. TLC may, further, be protected during its cycle with patents and trademark seeking to lengthen the cycle and to maximize the profit from it. R&D phase, ascent phase (strongest phase of the TLC because it is here that the technology is superior to alternatives and can command premium profit or gain), maturity phase, decline/decay phase. Licensing options: in R&D phase (small firms (SMEs), venture capitalists, strategic alliances, IPO, cross-licensing); technology-owning firm would tend to exclusively enjoy technology's profitability, preferring not to license it in ascent phase; maturity phase: joint ventures rather than licensing (e.g. in regions (developing country) where the technology would be in the ascent phase); decline phase: to prolong the lifetime, the originator can license at lower cost the technology, also if the licensees cannot learn the technique and the technology without the help of the originator - (encountered often in developing country contracts) technical service and technical assistance contracts. Technology adoption lifecycle: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority adopters, laggards. Technology lifecycle (technology maturity lifecycle): bleeding edge, leading edge, state of the art, dated, obsolete.
Hype cycle: maturity, adoption and social application of specific technologies. Technology Trigger → Peak of Inflated Expectations → Trough of Disillusionment → Slope of Enlightenment → Plateau of Productivity. Hype in new media

Types of Innovation:

Disruptive technology, aka disruptive innovation: an innovation that disrupts an existing market
Ford Model T: John Steinbeck's Cannery Row: "Someone should write an erudite essay on the moral, physical, and esthetic effect of the Model T Ford on the American nation. Two generations of Americans knew more about the Ford coil than about the clitoris, about the planetary system of gears than the solar system of stars. With the Model T, part of the concept of private property disappeared. Pliers ceased to be privately owned and a tire iron belonged to the last man who had picked it up. Most of the babies of the period were conceived in Model T Fords and not a few were born in them. The theory of the Anglo Saxon home became so warped that it never quite recovered." :D. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, where Henry Ford is regarded as a messianic figure, graveyard crosses have been topped off and become T's.

Technologies and innovations, R&D (Civilization (game) style):

Mass production and Interchangeable parts: Spare parts:
Knock-down kit: production of parts in one set of "countries" and assembly in another set, because of cheap labor, tax incentives, "buy-national products": how the business people circumvent politics.
Cannibalization#Maintenance: practice of removing parts or subsystems necessary for repair from another similar device, rather than from inventory, usually when resources become limited. The source system is usually crippled as a result, if only temporarily, in order to allow the recipient device to function properly again.

Startups

Lean Startup (Eric Ries): relies on validated learning, scientific experimentation, and iterative product releases to shorten product development cycles, measure progress, and gain valuable customer feedback.
Kickstarter (2009-): global crowdfunding platform based in USA.
Indiegogo (2008-): international crowdfunding web site.

Innovation, creativity[edit]

Category:Creativity
Category:Innovation
Category:Innovation economics
Creative destruction (Schumpeter's gale): theory of economic innovation and the business cycle; "process of industrial mutation that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old one, incessantly creating a new one".

Space technology[edit]

Category:Technology by type
Category:Space technology
Category:Spaceflight
Category:Human spaceflight
Category:Astronauts
Astronaut (astronaut (in the U.S.) or cosmonaut (in Russia) or taikonaut (in China)): person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Until 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military, or by civilian space agencies. With the sub-orbital flight of the privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.
NASA:
Saturn V: was USA human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1966 until 1973; 3 stages (1st: 2,300,000 kg; 2nd: 480,000 kg; 3rd: 120,800 kg); 13 launches (at the hugest budget of NASA ever)
List of Apollo astronauts
Apollo program: third human spaceflight program carried out by NASA and the program was responsible for the landing of the first humans on Earth's Moon in 1969.
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster: first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight. After burnout, they were jettisoned and parachuted into the Atlantic Ocean where they were recovered, examined, refurbished, and reused. The SRBs were the most powerful rocket motors ever flown.
Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle (Shuttle-Derived Vehicle):
Constellation program: was a human spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009. The major goals of the program were "completion of the International Space Station" and a "return to the Moon no later than 2020" with a crewed flight to the planet Mars as the ultimate goal.
Space Launch System (SLS): USA Space Shuttle-derived heavy launch vehicle being designed by NASA. The SLS will be the most powerful rocket ever built, with about 20% more thrust than the Saturn V and a comparable payload capacity, putting the SLS into the super heavy-lift launch vehicle class of rockets.
Exploration Mission 1: is the first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. As 2012.04, the launch was projected to occur on 2017.12.17 from Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, and the Orion spacecraft would perform a circumlunar trajectory during the seven day mission.
Earth Departure Stage: name given to the second stages of two Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicles, the Ares V and the Block II Space Launch System.
Orion (spacecraft) (Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle): planned, beyond-low Earth orbit (LEO) manned spacecraft that is being built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, and Astrium for the European Space Agency for crewed missions to the Moon, asteroids and Mars.
ESA Automated Transfer VehicleOrion Service Module
Template:Commercial Crew and Cargo
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services: was a NASA program to coordinate the delivery of crew and cargo to ISS by private companies. The COTS program was successfully concluded in November 2013 after two companies, SpaceX and Orbital Sciences, designed, built and launched "a pair of new spacecraft on rockets that also were newly designed".
Commercial Resupply Services: contracts signed by NASA for the delivery of cargo to (ISS) by commercial firms; contracts include a minimum of 12 missions for SpaceX and 8 missions for Orbital Sciences.
Commercial Crew Development: multiphase space technology development program, funded by the U.S. government, and administered by NASA; program is intended to stimulate development of privately operated crew vehicles to low Earth orbit. The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, SpaceX.
Orbital Sciences Corporation: USA company specializing in the manufacturing and launch of satellites.
Template:SpaceX
SpaceX: Elon Musk believes the high prices of other space-launch services are driven in part by unnecessary bureaucracy. He has stated that one of his goals is to improve the cost and reliability of access to space, ultimately by a factor of ten. Besides NASA contracts, SpaceX has signed contracts with private sector companies, non-American government agencies and the American military for its launch services, filling a growing launch manifest.
SpaceX reusable launch system development program: privately funded program to develop a set of new technologies for an orbital launch system that may be reused many times in a manner similar to the reusability of aircraft. The project's long-term objectives include returning a launch vehicle first stage to the launch site in minutes and to return a second stage to the launch pad following orbital realignment with the launch site and atmospheric reentry in up to 24 hours. SpaceX's long term goal is that both stages of their orbital launch vehicle will be designed to allow reuse a few hours after return.
Falcon 9 first-stage landing tests: series of controlled-descent flight tests that have been conducted by SpaceX since 2013. The program's objective is to execute a controlled re-entry, descent and landing (EDL) of the Falcon 9 first stage into Earth's atmosphere after it completes the boost phase of an orbital spaceflight. The first tests aimed to touch down vertically in the ocean at zero velocity. Later tests attempted to land the rocket precisely on an autonomous spaceport drone ship (a barge commissioned by SpaceX to provide a stable landing surface at sea) or on terra firma on a ground pad at Cape Canaveral. As of May 2016, twelve test flights have been conducted, four of which achieved a soft landing and recovery of the booster: flight 20 safely touching down on the ground pad upon first attempt in December 2015, flight 23 finally achieving a vertical landing at sea in April 2016 after four previous attempts, and flight 24 and flight 25 returning at higher speed from GTO missions in May 2016.
List of Falcon 9 launches
Mars Colonial Transporter
Raptor (rocket engine) (MCT): name of the privately funded development project by U.S. company SpaceX to design and build a spaceflight system of reusable rocket engines, launch vehicles and space capsules to transport humans to Mars and return to Earth. MCT will not be operational earlier than the mid-2020s.
Key People:
Elon Musk (CEO, CTO)
Tom Mueller: USA rocket engineer and rocket engine designer; founding employee of SpaceX; best known for his engineering work on the TR-106, the Dragon spacecraft propulsion, and Merlin Rocket Engines. Chief Technology Officer of Propulsion at SpaceX.
Gwynne Shotwell (1963.11.23-): USA businesswoman; President and COO of SpaceX.
Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39: rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida. As of 2016, its launch pads are being modified to support launches of the SpaceX Falcon 9, Dragon 2 and Falcon Heavy, and NASA's Space Launch System, with a new pad, C, added to support smaller launches. 2013.12.13 NASA announced that they had selected SpaceX as the new commercial tenant; SpaceX signed the lease agreement in 2014.04.14 and have been given a twenty-year exclusive lease of Pad 39A.
United Launch Alliance: joint venture of Lockheed Martin Space Systems and Boeing Defense, Space & Security. Company restructuring after 2014: One of the reasons given for the restructuring and new cost reduction goals was competition from SpaceX; In May 2015, ULA stated that it would go out of business unless it won commercial and civil satellite launch orders to offset an expected slump in U.S. military and spy launches.

Moon exploration[edit]

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon in a low 50 km polar mapping orbit; precursor to future manned missions to the Moon by NASA; provided some of the first images of Apollo equipment left on the Moon.
Moon landing conspiracy theories

Mars exploration[edit]

The Case for Mars: Zubrin decisively denounces and rejects suggestions that the Moon should be used as waypoint to Mars or as a training area. It is ultimately much easier to journey to Mars from low Earth orbit than from the moon and using the latter as a staging point is a pointless diversion of resources. While the Moon may superficially appear a good place to perfect Mars exploration and habitation techniques, the two bodies are radically different. The moon has no atmosphere, no analogous geology and a much greater temperature range and rotational period. Antarctica or desert areas of Earth provide much better training grounds at lesser cost.
Mars Science Laboratory:
Curiosity (rover): car-sized robotic rover exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).

Astrobiology[edit]

Category:Astrobiology
Category:Extraterrestrial life
Fermi paradox: apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, such as in the Drake equation, and the lack of evidence for such civilizations. Hypothetical explanations for the paradox: No other civilizations have arisen; It is the nature of intelligent life to destroy itself; It is the nature of intelligent life to destroy others; Life is periodically destroyed by naturally occurring events; Inflation hypothesis and the youngness argument; Intelligent civilizations are too far apart in space or time; It is too expensive to spread physically throughout the galaxy; Humans are not listening properly; Everyone is listening, no one is transmitting; Earth is purposely isolated (planetarium hypothesis); It is dangerous to communicate; The Fermi paradox itself is what prevents communication
Great Filter: whatever prevents "dead matter" from giving rise, in time, to "expanding lasting life". The concept originates in Robin Hanson's argument that the failure to find any extraterrestrial civilizations in the observable universe implies the possibility something is wrong with one or more of the arguments from various scientific disciplines that the appearance of advanced intelligent life is probable; this observation is conceptualized in terms of a "Great Filter" which acts to reduce the great number of sites where intelligent life might arise to the tiny number of intelligent species with advanced civilizations actually observed (currently just one: human). This probability threshold, which could lie behind us (in our past) or in front of us (in our future), might work as a barrier to the evolution of intelligent life, or as a high probability of self-destruction. The main counter-intuitive conclusion of this observation is that the easier it was for life to evolve to our stage, the bleaker our future chances probably are.
Kardashev scale: method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize directed towards communication. The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. A Type I civilization is able to utilize and store energy available from its neighboring star which reaches their planet, Type II is able to harnesses the energy of the entire star (hypothetic concept: the Dyson Sphere), and Type III civilization are galactic travelers and posses knowledge of everything having to do with energy.

Technological convergence[edit]

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Networks (Internet: Web), (tele)communications}

Technological convergence (Telecommunications convergence, network convergence, convergence): tendency for different technological systems to evolve toward performing similar tasks. Convergence can refer to previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications), and video that now share resources and interact with each other synergistically; emerging telecommunications technologies, and network architecture used to migrate multiple communications services into a single network. Rise of digital communication in the late 20th c.; deliver text, audio, and video material over the same wired, wireless, or fiber-optic connections. Convergence services, such as VoIP, IPTV, Mobile TV, etc., will replace the old technologies and is a threat to the current service providers.
Template:Home theater PC (application software): HDTV & PC & gaming console become one; super PC in combination with screens (LCD) of various sizes and in various places for all uses prevails
Telecommunication convergence: cable connection (also optical fiber connection), wireless connections (from mobiles (e.g. GSM), to Wi-Fi, to any antenna, satellite dish); all could be driven into one where only (digital) information quantity is shuffled around at different latency and speed (conversations/conferences: chat, voice, video; streaming, watching, online gaming); the unifying principle is Internet.

Usually any technological battles (involving lots of lawyers at the level of patent, trademark, copyright & co litigation) produce the losers and the winners, and the winners make some standards:

The battles about non-Internet during pre-Internet (Microsoft didn't know that Internet will become important):
  1. IE (1995.08.15; outcompeted Netscape; but then Netscape turned into Firefox) vs Safari (web browser) (2003.01.07) vs Google Chrome (2008.09.02)
  2. iTunes (2001.01.09) & Apple Retail Store (Apple Store; 2001) vs Google doesn't sell hardware nor has an official media player
  3. Mac OS X (2001.03.24) vs Google Chrome OS (announced: 2009.07.07; shipped 2011.06.15 with HW)
  4. iLife (2003.01.07) & iWork (2005.01.11) & iWork.com (2009.01.06) vs Google Docs (2007.02; Writely (2005.08) + Google Labs Spreadsheets (2006.06.06)) vs Microsoft Office Web Apps (2010.06.07) & Microsoft Office website (2004.05-) & Microsoft Office Live (2006-)
Battle between Apple and Google (per Tim Wu "battle for the Internet" in 21st c.):
  1. iTunes Store (2003.04.28; includes iBookstore, App Store, Video, Audiobooks, Music) vs Google Play (2012.03.06; includes Android Market (Apps and games), Movies, Music, Books)
  2. iOS (2007.06.29; EULA) vs Android (2008.09.20; Apache License; Linux kernel under GPL2)
  3. App Store (iOS) (2008.07.10) vs Android Market (2008.10.22)
  4. Google Cloud Storage (2010.05.19) vs iCloud (2011.10.12)
  5. iBooks & iBookstore (2010.04.02) vs Google Books ?? (Google Book Search; 2004)

Research and development[edit]

Research and development (R&D)

SRI International (founded as Stanford Research Institute): one of the world's largest contract research institutes. 2010 financials: US DoD 67%, NIH 10%, US companies 5%.

Implementation[edit]

Conglomerates:

Aero/space:
EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V.): global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide.
Airbus: aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS. Produces 1/2 of the world's jet airliners. Operates in FR, DE, UK & ES. Final assembly production at: Toulouse, Hamburg, Seville and since 2009 Tianjin (PRC; first Airbus assembly line outside EU).
Airbus Military
Eurocopter: largest in the industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries; main facilities: Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH in Donauwörth and at Eurocopter España in Albacete.
Astrium: aerospace subsidiary of EADS; provides civil and military space systems and services. Astrium Satellites, Space Transportation, Services.
Cassidian (till 2010: EADS Defence & Security): defence and security division of the EADS; major provider of global security solutions, lead system integration and aerial, land, naval and joint systems.
BAE Systems: British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London, United Kingdom and with operations worldwide.

Engineering[edit]

Category:Engineering
Category:Engineering disciplines
Category:Biological engineering {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Work#Bioengineering}
Category:Chemical engineering {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/Physical_sciences#Chemical engineering}
Category:Civil engineering
Category:Electrical engineering {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS}
Category:Genetic engineering {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Work#Genetics}
Category:Systems science & Category:Systems engineering {q.v. #Systems science, systems}
Category:Computer-aided engineering {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Computer animation, graphics, CAD}
Neuromorphic engineering: concept developed by Carver Mead, in the late 1980s, describing the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system. In recent times the term neuromorphic has been used to describe analog, digital, and mixed-mode analog/digital VLSI and software systems that implement models of neural systems (for perception, motor control, or multisensory integration). The implementation of neuromorphic computing on the hardware level can be realized by oxide-based memristors, threshold switches and transistors.

Civil engineering[edit]

Category:Civil engineering
Category:Civil engineering journals
Journal of Structural Engineering: principal professional peer-reviewed journal of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the oldest professional civil engineering society in the United States.

Computer science (CS) and Electrical engineering (EE)[edit]

Computer science (CS) and Electrical engineering (EE)

Order, security[edit]

Locksmithing: science and art of making and defeating locks
Key_(lock)#Master_key and [1], never be safe when at office, school, university, dorm
Secret sharing: cryptography
Cypherpunk: the idea, philosophy behind security in modern age
Full disclosure: there are differing policies about when, to whom, and how much to disclose

Cryptography[edit]

{q.v.:

}

One-way function: (in computer science) is a function that is easy to compute on every input, but hard to invert given the image of a random input. Here "easy" and "hard" are to be understood in the sense of computational complexity theory, specifically the theory of polynomial time problems. Not being one-to-one is not considered sufficient of a function for it to be called one-way.
Template:Cryptographic hash functions and message authentication codes (MACs):
Cryptographic hash function: hash function that can be defined as a deterministic procedure that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the (cryptographic) hash value, such that an accidental or intentional change to the data will change the hash value. The data to be encoded is often called the "message," and the hash value is sometimes called the message digest or simply digest.
Preimage attack: (First-) preimage attack: given a hash h, find a message m (a preimage) such that hash(m) = h; Second-preimage attack: given a fixed message m1, find a different message m2 (a second preimage) such that hash(m2) = hash(m1).
Rainbow table: precomputed lookup table offering a time-memory tradeoff used in recovering the plaintext password from a password hash generated by a hash function, often a cryptographic hash function
Avalanche effect: is evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip)
Confusion and diffusion: Claude Shannon in his paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, published in 1949: confusion refers to making the relationship between the key and the ciphertext as complex and involved as possible; diffusion refers to the property that the redundancy in the statistics of the plaintext is "dissipated" in the statistics of the ciphertext.
Salt (cryptography): consists of random bits that are used as one of the inputs to a one-way function. The other input is usually a password or passphrase.
Not so secured hash functions (many attacks and at least one collision are found): MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5)
A bit more secure hash functions: SHA-2
Secured crypto-functions: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES, aka Rijndael; Advanced Encryption Standard process) - competition started on September 12, 1997; the winner was announced on October 2, 2000; announced NIST as U.S. FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) 197 on November 26, 2001;
Future of cryptographic standards: NIST hash function competition - announced on November 2, 2007; deadline on October 31, 2008; the winner in 2012 to be announced and become SHA-3. Advanced Encryption Standard process
Template:Crypto public-key (Public-key cryptography):
Public-key cryptography: cryptographic system requiring two separate keys, one to lock or encrypt the plaintext, and one to unlock or decrypt the cyphertext. Neither key will do both functions. One of these keys is published or public and the other is kept private. No fully satisfactory solution to the public key authentication problem is known: i.e. if you receive a public key, there is no reliable verification, that this public key came from the specific source (MITM).
Digital signature (digital signature scheme): mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document.
Public key infrastructure (PKI): a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. In cryptography, a PKI is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective user identities by means of a certificate authority (CA).
Man-in-the-middle attack (MITM): form of active eavesdropping in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making them believe that they are talking directly to each other over a private connection, when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker. It is an attack on mutual authentication. Public keys can be verified by a Certificate Authority (CA), but CAs can be attacked and the certificates on behalf of the compromised CAs be issued.
Alice and Bob: party A and B in cryptography. Mallory: malicious attacker
Certificate authority (certification authority, CA): entity that issues digital certificates. The digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate; CA is a trusted third party that is trusted by both the subject (owner) of the certificate and the party relying upon the certificate.
Revocation list (certificate revocation list (CRL))
Diffie–Hellman key exchange: specific method of exchanging cryptographic keys. It is one of the earliest practical examples of key exchange implemented within the field of cryptography. The Diffie–Hellman key exchange method allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel. This key can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric key cipher.
Elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman: anonymous key agreement protocol that allows two parties, each having an elliptic curve public–private key pair, to establish a shared secret over an insecure channel. This shared secret may be directly used as a key, or better yet, to derive another key which can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric key cipher.
Forward secrecy (perfect forward secrecy (PFS)): property of key-agreement protocols that ensures that a session key derived from a set of long-term keys will not be compromised if one of the long-term keys is compromised in the future.
Enigma machine: any of a family of related electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines used in the twentieth century for enciphering and deciphering secret messages. Early models were used commercially from the early 1920s, and adopted by military and government services of several countries — most notably by Nazi Germany before and during World War II. An estimated 100,000 Enigma machines were constructed. After the end of World War II, the Allies sold captured Enigma machines, still widely considered secure, to a number of developing countries. As these countries did not know that the machine had been broken, their supposedly secure communications were in fact being read regularly by the major Western intelligence agencies.

Security and anonymity[edit]

Tor (anonymity network): weaknesses: users should not mistake Tor's anonymity for end-to-end encryption (always use HTTPS with Tor); in March 2011, researchers with the Rocquencourt, France based National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique, INRIA) have documented an attack ("bad apple attack") that is capable of revealing the IP addresses of BitTorrent users on the Tor network.
I2P (Invisible Internet Project): computer network layer that allows applications to send messages to each other pseudonymously and securely (web surfing, chatting, blogging, file transfers).
de:Sofortüberweisung: Online-Zahlungssystem der Sofort AG zur bargeldlosen Zahlung im Internet. Es handelt sich um keinen in der Finanzwelt feststehenden oder allgemeinen Begriff. Bei der Sofortüberweisung übermittelt der „Zahlende“ neben seinen Kontoinformationen seine persönliche PIN sowie eine gültige TAN auf einer Website an die Sofort AG, woraufhin diese die eigentliche Transaktion im Namen des Kunden ausführt. Das Zahlungsverfahren ist unsicher gegenüber Man-in-the-middle-Angriffen. Da ITAN-Verfahren hiergegen typischerweise nicht schützen, funktionieren diese mit Sofortüberweisung. Mit modernen, sichereren Zahlungsverfahren wie HBCI funktioniert das Verfahren nicht.
Mint.com USA free web-based personal financial management service for the US and Canada created by entrepreneur Aaron Patzer; primary service allows users to track bank, credit card, investment, and loan transactions and balances through a single user interface as well make budgets and goals. MITM attack?

PC, software (OS, programs)[edit]

Pwn2Own: computer hacking contest; SW: browsers, OS; HW: PC, mobiles
OS:
Address Space Layout Randomization
Windows (NT: XP, Vista, 7, Server):
Data Execution Prevention
Browser (the most frequently used program on any OS; the default way to connect to internet, LAN, to a huge network):
Browser Security Handbook, CC-3.0-BY; ultimate reading for anyone designing a browser and to know the weaknesses of the Internet usage
Man in the Browser: form of Internet threat related to Man-in-the-Middle (MitM), is a trojan that infects a web browser and has the ability to modify pages, modify transaction content or insert additional transactions, all in a completely covert fashion invisible to both the user and host application.
Metasploit Project: open-source computer security project which provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing

Malware[edit]

Template:Malware
Backdoor (computing): method of bypassing normal authentication, securing illegal remote access to a computer, obtaining access to plaintext, and so on, while attempting to remain undetected. "Reflections on Trusting Trust" by Ken Thompson: modified version of the Unix C compiler that would put backdoors into compiled code of programs or of compilers (and itself, the modified Unix C compiler!); Davi A. Wheeler counters this with "diverse double-compiling".
Cryptovirology: field that studies how to use cryptography to design powerful malicious software. Asymmetric backdoor: can be used only by the attacker, even after it is found. The vast majority of cryptovirology attacks are covert in nature.
Kleptography: study of stealing information securely and subliminally; natural extension of the theory of subliminal channels (pioneered by Gustavus J. Simmons); related to steganography.
Trojan horse (computing): history of Trojans: Beast Trojan (trojan horse)
Remote administration software (RAT): piece of software that allows a remote "operator" to control a system as if he has physical access to that system. Many trojans and backdoors have RAT capabilities, aka RAT trojans.
Warden (software): what's the difference between anti-cheat SW and spyware? What are the limits? E-sports pro-competition and privacy?
LOIC (Low Orbit Ion Cannon, per Command&Conquer series): license=Public domain (!!!); DDoS attack
Major malwares:
Conficker (first detected Nov. 2008): computer worm targeting the MS Windows OS. Formed largest till that time botnet.
Stuxnet (discovered in June 2010): advanced malware. 500 kB size. Infects in this order: Windows (uses 4 zero-day exploits plus CPLINK vulnerability); PCS7, WinCC and STEP7; Siemens S7 PLCs. Still under heavy research (11/12/14). Developed by a pro-team of programmers (5-30 ppl). C, C++. Target: Natanz uranium enrichment centrifuges, Iran (?).
Realtek & JMicron: both in Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan; their digital signatures for SW were stolen for the digital signature of Stuxnet (for Windows infections).
Duqu (discovered 1 September, 2011; "~DQ"): thought to be related to Stuxnet. Nomenclature: Duqu malware, Duqu flaw, Operation Duqu (related to Op. Stuxnet?). Duqu has valid, but abused digital signature (stolen from C-Media, Taipei), and collects information to prepare for future attacks. Duqu uses a 54×54 pixel jpeg file and encrypted dummy files as containers to smuggle data to its command and control center; original malware sample automatically removes itself after 36 days.
Flame (malware) (first detected 2012.05; Flamer, sKyWIper, Skywiper): modular computer malware for MS Windows OS. '"twenty times" more complicated than Stuxnet' Kaspersky Lab. 20 MB; Lua + compiled C++ code linked in; 5 different encryption methods; SQLite DB; detects antivirus SW and adopts file extensions to minimize being detected; fake audio driver to maintain persistenc on the compromised system. Infected mainly Iranian and other Middle Eastern (also Western-Bank Israel) PCs.

Cyberwarfare, cyber intrusion[edit]

Category:Cyberwarfare
Category:Computer security exploits
Category:Cybercrime
Category:Hacking (computer security)
Cyberattacks (only the ones known to public!):
HBGary (February 5-6, 2011, Anonymous compromised the HBGary website) & Wikileaks, Bank of America, Hunton & Williams, and Anonymous. Other affected PC security companies: Endgame systems, Berico Technologies, Palantir Technologies.
Security companies live on being little known, but they can attract big fishes/clients only by "showing off". How to balance exposure and keeping anonymity and security intact?
Stuxnet (discovered in June 2010), {q.v.}
Operation Aurora (began in mid-2009; disclosed by Google on January 12, 2010): attack on Google, Adobe, Juniper, Rackspace, Yahoo, Symantec, Northrop Grumman, Morgan Stanley and Dow Chemical. Primary goal of the attack was to gain access to and potentially modify source code repositories. Aurora exploited zero-day vulnerabilities (unfixed and previously unknown to the target system developers) in Internet Explorer.
GhostNet (discovered in March 2009): large-scale cyber spying operation; C&C infrastructure is based mainly in PRC and has infiltrated high-value political, economic and media locations in 103 countries. Social engineering through emails with attachments; Trojan: Ghost Rat (Gh0st RAT)
Operation Shady RAT (starting mid-2006): attack on defense contractors, businesses worldwide, the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee; "a five year targeted operation by one specific actor".
Moonlight Maze (began in March 1998, for 2 years): incident in which U.S. officials accidentally discovered a pattern of probing of computer systems at The Pentagon, NASA, United States Department of Energy, private universities, and research labs.
Farewell Dossier: collection of documents that Colonel Vladimir Vetrov, a KGB defector (code-named "Farewell"), gathered and gave to the French DST in 1981–82 (Cold War).
Siberian pipeline sabotage (1982): alleged or true sabotage?
Information Warfare Monitor (IWM): advanced research activity tracking the emergence of cyberspace as a strategic domain; in Canada: Citizen Lab + SecDev Group;
Advanced persistent threat (APT): group, such as a foreign government, with both the capability and the intent to persistently and effectively target a specific entity. The term is commonly used to refer to cyber threats, in particular that of Internet-enabled espionage, but applies equally to other threats such as that of traditional espionage or attack.
Template:Botnets
Cyberwarfare in the United States
Hacktivism: hacking + activism; hacking = "illegally breaking into computers" OR "clever computer usage/programming" (depends on the person or organization, e.g. popular media vs. EFF), activism includes both explicitly non-violent action (Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi) and violent revolutionary activities (Malcolm X and Che Guevara)
Template:Anonymous and the Internet:
Operation Payback: anti-antipiracy, help (?) for Wikileaks
Timeline of events involving Anonymous
LulzSec (Lulz Security): compromise of user accounts from Sony Pictures in 2011 and several other high profile attacks

Cyber intrusion in literature:

Daemon (technothriller series)
The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo : Lisbeth Salander

Risk[edit]

Category:Risk
Category:Risk analysis
Precautionary principle

IT risk, personal risk and erisk[edit]

IT risk
Laptop theft
Comparison of device tracking software: Prey (SW) is FOSS
Data theft
Identity theft: ID cloning and concealment, criminal ID theft, synthetic ID theft, medical ID theft, child ID theft
National identification number

Industries[edit]

Category:Industries
Category:Automotive industry
Category:Transport
Category:Industrial design
Transgenerational design:
  1. young people become old
  2. young people can become disabled
  3. old people can become disabled
  4. disabled people become old

Transport industry[edit]

Category:Transport
Category:Transport by mode
Category:Land transport
Category:Transport systems
Category:Vehicles
Category:Vehicles
Category:Vehicles by type
Category:Vehicles by media
Category:Land vehicles
Category:Road vehicles
Category:Vehicles by period
Category:Road vehicles
Category:Automobiles
Category:Automotive industry
Category:History of the automobile
Category:Automobiles by period
Japanese domestic market (JDM): Japan's home market for Japanese vehicles and components. For the importer, these terms refer to Japanese-brand automobiles and parts designed to conform to Japanese regulations and to suit Japanese buyers. {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/History#Japan}
Template:Automobile history eras
Veteran era: first production of automobiles was by Karl Benz in 1888 in DE and, under license from Benz, in FR by Emile Roger. First motor car in Central Europe was produced by Czech company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau (later renamed to Tatra) in 1897, the Präsident automobil.
Präsident: automobile was more of a carriage without horses than a car in modern sense.
Term "Brass Era car": retronym for "horseless carriage", the original name for such vehicles, which is still in use today. Within the 15 years that make up this era, the various experimental designs and alternative power systems would be marginalised. Key developments included the electric ignition system (by dynamotor on the Arnold in 1898, though Robert Bosch, 1903, tends to get the credit), independent suspension (actually conceived by Bollée in 1873), and four-wheel brakes (by the Arrol-Johnston Company of Scotland in 1909). Leaf springs were widely used for suspension, though many other systems were still in use, with angle steel taking over from armored wood as the frame material of choice. Transmissions and throttle controls were widely adopted, allowing a variety of cruising speeds, though vehicles generally still had discrete speed settings, rather than the infinitely variable system familiar in cars of later eras. Safety glass also made its debut, patented by John Wood in England in 1905.
Vintage car: old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930.
Classic car (Pre-WWII era)
Category:Magnetic levitation
Hyperloop
Shanghai Maglev Train (30.5 km): magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China. The line is the first commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world. Connect Shanghai Pudong International Airport and the outskirts of central Pudong where passengers could interchange to the Shanghai Metro to continue their trip to the city center. It cost $1.2 billion to build. Built by a joint venture of Siemens and ThyssenKrupp in Kassel.

Public transport[edit]

Category:Public transport
Category:Public transport by mode
Category:Rapid transit
Category:Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit: bus-based mass transit system. A true BRT system generally has specialized design, services and infrastructure to improve system quality and remove the typical causes of delay. Sometimes described as a "surface subway", BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of light rail or metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system. The first BRT system was the Rede Integrada de Transporte ('Integrated Transportation Network') in Curitiba, Brazil, which entered service in 1974.
BRT Standard: evaluation tool for Bus Rapid Transit corridors around the world, based on international best practices. The Standard establishes a common definition for BRT and identifies BRT best practices, as well as functioning as a scoring system to allow BRT corridors to be evaluated and recognized for their superior design and management aspects.

Economics, resources, scarcity, wars[edit]

Category:Economics
Category:Economic development, technological change, and growth
Category:Economic development
Category:Economics laws
Category:Underlying principles of microeconomic behavior
Category:Elasticity (economics)
Category:Labor and demographic economics
Category:Demographic economics
History of economic thought:
early: Chanakya's Arthashastra or Xenophon's Oeconomicus (both 4th c. BC), Aristotle's Politics (c.a. 350 BC)
mid: mercantilism and nationalism
modern:
British enlightenment: John Locke, Dudley North, David Hume
Adam Smith's An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Edmund Burke;
Classical political economy: Jeremy Bentham: utilitarianism; Jean-Baptiste Say vs Thomas Malthus; David Ricardo: comparative advantage, economy is bound to tend towards a steady state
John Stuart Mill proposed 4 scenarios: Malthus' - population grew quicker than supplies, leading to falling wages and rising profits, Smith's - if capital accumulated faster than population grew then real wages would rise, Ricardo's - should capital accumulate and population increase at the same rate, yet technology stay stable, there would be no change in real wages because supply and demand for labour would be the same, fourth - technology advanced faster than population and capital stock increased, result would be a prospering economy (that's what's happening since industrial revolution?)
Karl Marx: defined "Capitalism"; Robert Owen: first capitalist to have better working conditions for the lower pay; Pierre-Joseph Proudhon; Friedrich Engels; Das Kapital. Marx never suggested how Communism would work but criticized the then-current situation of boom and bust in capitalist societies.
Neoclassical: Marginal utility; mathematical analysis. Lausanne school: Vilfredo Pareto - "Pareto efficiency"; Cambridge school: Alfred Marshall - supply and demand graph, "Marshallian cross"; Vienna school (aka Austrian school; advocated the use of deductive logic instead): Schumpeter - entrepreneurs, von Mises - praxeology ("science of human action"), von Hayek - The Road to Serfdom, socialism requires central economic planning leading to totalitarianism.
Depression and reconstruction: John Maynard Keynes - dissatisfied with Versailles conference quit it and proposed: 1) reduce war reparation payment by Germany (or it could lead to WWII), 2) arrangement to set off debt repayments between the Allies, 3) complete reform of international currency exchange and international loan fund, 4) reconciliation of trade relations with Russia and Eastern Europe. Keynesian economics: deficit spending (printing money?) to avert crises and maintain full employment.
"American Way": John R. Commons - government ought to be the mediator between the conflicting groups (monopolies, large corporations, labor disputes and fluctuating business cycles). Adolf Berle's and Gardiner C. Means' The Modern Corporation and Private Property (1932): detailed the evolution in the contemporary economy of big business, and argued that those who controlled big firms should be better held to account. John Kenneth Galbraith's The Affluent Society (1958): argued voters reaching a certain material wealth begin to vote against the common good; big business set prices and use advertising to create artificial demand for their own products, distorting people's real preferences (private-bureaucracy: a technostructure of experts who manipulate marketing and public relations channels). Paul Samuelson's Foundations of Economic Analysis (1947), 2 assumptions: people and firms will act to maximise their self interested goals, markets tend towards an equilibrium of prices, where demand matches supply; adapted thermodynamics formulae to economic theory. Ronald Coase The Nature of the Firm, law and economics. Milton Friedman advocated the quantity theory of money (Capitalism and Freedom), permanent income hypothesis - rational consumers would spend a proportional amount of what they perceived to be their permanent income and windfall gains would mostly be saved.
History of macroeconomic thought
Template:Schools of economic thought
New classical macroeconomics (new classical economics): analysis entirely on a neoclassical economics framework; emphasizes the importance of rigorous foundations based on microeconomics, especially rational expectations; in contrast with its rival new Keynesian school. 1970s and early 1980s: stagflation occurred - Keynesians were puzzled by it because the original Phillips curve ruled out concurrent high inflation and high unemployment. New Classical school emerged in the 1970s as a response to the failure of Keynesian economics to explain stagflation. Productivity/efficiency wedge is a simple measure of aggregate production efficiency (economy is less productive given the capital and labor resources available in the economy); capital wedge is a gap between the intertemporal marginal rate of substitution in consumption and the marginal product of capital (“deadweight” loss that affects capital accumulation and savings decisions acting as a distortionary capital (savings) tax); Labor wedge is the ratio between the marginal rate of substitution of consumption for leisure and the marginal product of labor (acts as a distortionary labor tax, making hiring workers less profitable (i.e. labor market frictions)).
Real business cycle theory (RBC theory)
Cambridge capital controversy: University of Cambridge vs MIT (Cambridge, MA)
Law of one price: economic concept which posits that "a good must sell for the same price in all locations"; constitutes the basis of the theory of purchasing power parity. Assume different prices for a single identical good in two locations, no transport costs and no economic barriers between both locations.
Income elasticity of demand (IED): measures the responsiveness of the demand for a good to a change in the income of the people demanding the good, ceteris paribus; calculated as the ratio of the percentage change in demand to the percentage change in income. Inferior goods: IED<0; normal goods: IED>0, necessity good: 1>IED>0, luxury good or superior good: IED>1, sticky good: IED=0.
Value of life: economic value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms; marginal cost of death prevention in a certain class of circumstances. In industrial nations, the justice system considers a human life "priceless", thus illegalizing any form of slavery; i.e., humans cannot be bought for any price. However, with a limited supply of resources or infrastructural capital (e.g. ambulances), or skill at hand, it is impossible to save every life, so some trade-off must be made. $50,000 per year of quality life (international standard whether to cover a new medical procedure) [2008]; $129,000 per year of quality life (based on analysis of kidney dialysis procedures) in USA [2008].
Kuznets curve: represents graphically the hypothesis advanced by Simon Kuznets in the 1950s and 1960s that as an economy develops, a natural cycle of economic inequality occurs, driven by market forces which at first increase inequality, and then decrease it after a certain average income is attained. Criticisms: East Asian miracle. Environmental Kuznets curve: externalities - is pollution is exported?
Hubbert peak theory: water (partly renewable, intensive on energy) and phosphorus are needed for food (and energy), fisheries are renewable; energy: oil, gas, coal, uranium; helium (inert gas!) - special case; transition metals, precious metals
Pareto efficiency: state of allocation of resources in which it is impossible to make any one individual better off without making at least one individual worse off. The term is named after Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923), Italian engineer and economist, who used the concept in his studies of economic efficiency and income distribution. The concept has applications in academic fields such as economics, engineering, and the life sciences. Pareto improvement is defined to be a change to a different allocation that makes at least one individual better off without making any other individual worse off, given a certain initial allocation of goods among a set of individuals. An allocation is defined as "Pareto efficient" or "Pareto optimal" when no further Pareto improvements can be made.
Market failure
Tragedy of the commons
Tragedy of the anticommons#Classic example
Econophysics: interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics; statistical finance.
Complexity economics: application of complexity science to the problems of economics; computer simulations to gain insight into economic dynamics, and avoids the assumption that the economy is a system in equilibrium.
The Observatory of Economic Complexity: multidisciplinary effort between the Macro Connections group at the MIT Media Lab and the Center for International Development at Harvard University; develop new tools that can help visualize and make sense of large volumes of data.
The Product Space: network that formalizes the idea of relatedness between products traded in the global economy
Economic complexity index (ECI): holistic measure of the production characteristics of large economic systems, usually whole countries; attempt to synthesize the collective knowledge of a society.
List of countries by economic complexity: ECI was calculated with trade data from the UN Comtrade, thus the information is only based on exports (and not goods produced)
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): USA private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community"; well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in US; largest economics research organization in US; many USA Nobel laureates in Economic Sciences and many members of the Council of Economic Advisers (to the USA president). Aging, Asset Pricing, Children, Corporate Finance, Development of the American Economy, Economics of Education, Economics of Fluctuation Growth, Energy and the Environment, Health Care, Health Economics, Industrial Organization, International Finance and Macroeconomics, International Trade and Investment, Labor Studies, Law and Economics, Monetary Economics, Political Economy, Productivity, and Public Economics.
Economic bubble
Law and economics (economic analysis of law): application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law. Economic concepts are used to explain the effects of laws, to assess which legal rules are economically efficient, and to predict which legal rules will be promulgated.

Economic history[edit]

Category:Economic history
Financial position of the United States

Macroeconomics[edit]

Category:Macroeconomics
Sudden stop (economics): in capital flows is defined as a sudden slowdown in private capital inflows into emerging market economies, and a corresponding sharp reversal from large current account deficits into smaller deficits or small surpluses.

Microeconomics[edit]

Category:Microeconomics
Category:Production economics
Total factor productivity (TFP): variable which accounts for effects in total output not caused by traditionally measured inputs of labor and capital. Technology growth and efficiency are regarded as two of the biggest sub-sections of Total Factor Productivity, the former possessing "special" inherent features such as positive externalities and non-rivalness which enhance its position as a driver of economic growth. TFP may account for up to 60% of growth within economies.

Banking[edit]

Asset–liability mismatch: financial terms of an institution's assets and liabilities do not correspond. Currency mismatch: one currency for borrowing, another currency for using (e.g. lending, national currency (original sin)). Maturity mismatch: duration gap; long-term assets vs short-term liabilities. Asset–liability mismatches are important to insurance companies and various pension plans, which may have long-term liabilities (insurance/pension plans) that must be backed by assets; choosing assets that are appropriately matched to their financial obligations is therefore an important part of their long-term strategy.
de:Liste der Banken in Deutschland (größten Banken in Deutschland)
  1. Deutsche Bank
  2. Commerzbank
  3. de:Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau): die größte nationale Förderbank der Welt. Die Gründung der KfW erfolgte auf der Grundlage des „KfW-Gesetzes“ als eine Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts (AöR). Die Rechtsaufsicht hat das Bundesministerium der Finanzen. 1948.12.16 mit dem Ziel gegründet, den Wiederaufbau der deutschen Wirtschaft zu finanzieren; Das Startkapital stammte vor allem aus Marshallplan.

Wall Street[edit]

Den of Thieves (book) (1992; James B. Stewart): recounts the insider trading scandals involving Ivan Boesky, Michael Milken (junk bond and Drexel Burnham Lambert (in)fame) and others during the 1980s such as Martin Siegel, Dennis Levine, Robert Freeman, Richard Wigton, Timothy Tabor, John A. Mulheren, Lowell Milken, Robert Wilkis, ...
High-yield debt (non-investment-grade bond, speculative-grade bond, or junk bond): bond that is rated below investment grade.

Debt, default, insolvency, bankruptcy, economic problems/crises, financial crises[edit]

Debt[edit]

Odious debt
Sovereign default: failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full; formal declaration of a government not to pay (repudiation) or only partially pay its debts (due receivables), or the de facto cessation of due payments; sometimes countries escape the real burden of some of their debt through inflation; sometimes countries devaluate their currency by ending or altering the convertibility of their currency into precious metals or foreign currency at fixed rates. Most authorities will limit the use of "default" to mean failure to abide by the terms of bonds or other debt instruments. Dramatic rise in the interest rate faced by a government due to fear that it will fail to honor its debt is sometimes called a sovereign debt crisis. Since a sovereign government, by definition, controls its own affairs, it cannot be obliged to pay back its debt; governments may face severe pressure from lending countries; in the most extreme cases, a creditor nation may declare war on a debtor nation for failing to pay back debt, in order to enforce creditor's rights (e.g. UK invaded Egypt 1882, gunboat diplomacies, 1915 USA occupied Haiti); government which defaults may also be excluded from further credit and some of its overseas assets may be seized. Governments rarely default on the entire value of their debt - they often enter into negotiations with their bondholders to agree on a delay or partial reduction of their debt payments, which is often called a debt restructuring or 'haircut'. IMF often assists in sovereign debt restructurings. Causes: insolvency/over-indebtedness of the state; change of government; decline of the state.
List of sovereign debt crises: world economic elite: FR (1812), DE (Prussia (1807, 1813); 1932, 1939, 1948), JP (1942, 1946-1952), RU (1839, 1885, 1918, 1947, 1957, 1991, 1998.08.17), UK (1822, 1834, 1888-1889, 1932), USA (1779, 1790, 1798, 1862, 1933, 1971 (Nixon Shock)); China (1921, 1932, 1939), India (1958, 1969, 1972), Brazil (1898, 1902, 1914, 1931, 1937, 1961, 1964, 1983, 1986–1987, 1990).

By country:

USA:
Financial position of the United States: assets of at least $269.6 trillion (1576% of GDP) and debts of $145.8 trillion (852% of GDP) to produce a net worth of at least $123.8 trillion (723% of GDP,) as of Q1 2014.
History of the United States public debt
National debt of the United States
UK (GB):
History of the British national debt
United Kingdom national debt

Crisis, financial crisis[edit]

Long Depression: worldwide price recession, beginning in 1873 and running through the spring of 1879; most severe in Europe and USA, which had been experiencing strong economic growth fueled by the Second Industrial Revolution in the decade following the American Civil War. The episode was labeled the "Great Depression" at the time, and it held that designation until the Great Depression of the 1930s. Economy of UK had been in continuous depression from 1873 to as late as 1896 and some texts refer to the period as the Great Depression of 1873–96. While the production of iron doubled between the 1870s and 1890s, the price of iron halved; steel production increased twentyfold (0.5 mln. t to 11 mln. t), and railroad development boomed.
1997 Asian financial crisis: hardest hit: Indonesia (-83%), the rest only by about -40%: Thailand, Phillippines, Malaysia, South Korea (why South Korea among these nations in 1997?).
South Korean won: started floating just before 1997 Asian financial crisis.
Miracle on the Han River
Economy of South Korea
Great Recession (Lesser Depression, Long Recession, global recession of 2009): major global recession characterized by various systemic imbalances and was sparked by the outbreak of the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and financial crisis of 2007–08; European sovereign debt crisis, austerity, high levels of household debt, trade imbalances, high unemployment and limited prospects for global growth in 2013 and 2014 continue to provide obstacles to full recovery from the Great Recession. Countries that avoided recession: Poland (the only one in EU); China, India, and Iran; South Korea (the only large OECD country); Australia (experiencing only one quarter of negative growth in 2008.Q4); financial crisis did not affect developing countries to a great extent.
Financial crisis of 2007–08 (Global Financial Crisis, 2008 financial crisis): considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s; resulted in the threat of total collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of banks by national governments, and downturns in stock markets around the world.
Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission: ten-member commission appointed by US government with the goal of investigating the causes of the financial crisis of 2007–08
Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: Anatomy of a Financial Collapse: conflicts of interest; banks betting against their clients.
Synthetic CDO: is a variation of a CDO (collateralized debt obligation) that generally uses credit default swaps and other derivatives to obtain its investment goals; synthetic CDOs have been criticized as serving as a way of hiding short position of bets against the subprime mortgages from unsuspecting triple-A seeking investors, and contributing to the 2007-2008 financial crisis by amplifying the subprime mortgage housing bubble. From value of $5 trl in 2006 to $2 bln in 2012.
Naked Capitalism: blog published by Susan Webber, the principal of Aurora Advisors, Inc., a management consulting firm; focus on legal and ethical issues of the banking industry and the mortgage foreclosure process. Banking crisis of 2008, the 2007–2012 global financial crisis.
Yanis Varoufakis (1961.03.24-): political economist and author of dual Greek-Australian nationality; active participant in the current debates on the global and European crisis; professor of Economic Theory at the University of Athens and a private consultant for Valve Corporation. 2004.01-2006.12: economic adviser to George Papandreou, whose government he was to become an ardent critic of a few years later. Varoufakis compares the role of the US economy since the 1970s in relation to the rest of the world with the minotaur.
2014–15 Russian financial crisis: result of the collapse of the Russian ruble beginning in the second half of 2014, and the associated shrinking of the Russian economy.

Eurozone crisis[edit]

Eurozone crisis (previously [2013.07.15]: European sovereign-debt crisis): ongoing crisis that has been affecting the countries of the Eurozone since early 2009, when a group of 10 central and eastern European banks asked for a bailout. In 1992, members of the European Union signed the Maastricht Treaty, under which they pledged to limit their deficit spending and debt levels {UTOPISTIC agreement? Is this agreement even possible to abide? Can ECB NOT print more € notes?}. It allowed the sovereigns to mask ("Enronise") their deficit and debt levels through a combination of techniques, including inconsistent accounting, off-balance-sheet transactions as well as the use of complex currency and credit derivatives structures. Structure of the Eurozone as a currency union (i.e. all use €) without fiscal union (e.g., different tax and public pension rules {there are tax heavens in EU which use euros}) contributed to the crisis and harmed the ability of European leaders to respond. European banks own a significant amount of sovereign debt, such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing. 2010 and later: EFSF and ESM; crisis had a major political impact on the ruling governments in 8 out of 17 eurozone countries, leading to power shifts in Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Slovakia, and the Netherlands [13/06/23]. Odious debt (e.g. Siemens sold to Greece). (OLD: to get money from EFSF, EFSM, IMF, the Eurozone country should be unable to borrow on markets at acceptable rates and then it would take three to four weeks to draw up a support programme including sending experts from the Commission, the IMF and the ECB to the Eurozone country in difficulty. Greece got €110 bln in 2010 before EFSF was there, so those moneys are on bilateral commitment by the Eurozone countries (excluding Slovakia and newest Euro member Estonia [11/12/19]).)
Causes of the European sovereign-debt crisis: Ireland's banks lent the money to property developers, generating a massive property bubble. When the bubble burst, Ireland's government and taxpayers assumed private debts. Greek government increased its commitments to public workers in the form of extremely generous wage and pension benefits, with the former doubling in real terms over 10 years. Iceland's banking system grew enormously, creating debts to global investors (external debts) several times GDP.
Controversies surrounding the European sovereign-debt crisis: European sovereign-debt crisis resulted from a combination of complex factors, including the globalization of finance; easy credit conditions during the 2002–2008 period that encouraged high-risk lending and borrowing practices; the 2007–2012 global financial crisis; international trade imbalances; real-estate bubbles that have since burst; the 2008–2012 global recession; fiscal policy choices related to government revenues and expenses; and approaches used by nations to bail out troubled banking industries and private bondholders, assuming private debt burdens or socializing losses. Ireland's banks lent the money to property developers, generating a massive property bubble; bubble burst, Ireland's government and taxpayers assumed private debts. Greek government increased commitments to public workers in the form of extremely generous wage and pension benefits, with the former doubling in real terms over 10 years. Iceland's banking system grew enormously, creating debts to global investors (external debts) several times GDP. Greece hid its growing debt and deceived EU officials with the help of derivatives designed by major banks; some financial institutions clearly profited from the growing Greek government debt in the short run. European bailouts are largely about shifting exposure from banks and others, who otherwise are lined up for losses on the sovereign debt they have piled up, onto European taxpayers. Speculation about the breakup of the eurozone: Breakup vs. deeper integration.
2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis: 2013.03.25 €10bln bailout was announced in return for Cyprus agreeing to close its second largest bank, the Cyprus Popular Bank (also known as Laiki Bank), levying all uninsured deposits there, and possibly around 40% of uninsured deposits in the Bank of Cyprus (the Island's largest commercial bank), many held by wealthy citizens of other countries - many of them from Russia - who were using Cyprus as a tax haven. No insured deposit of 100,000 Euros or less would be affected.
Greek government-debt crisis: statistical credibility - problems with unreliable data had existed ever since Greece applied for membership of the Euro in 1999; tax evasion and corruption. Downgrading of creditworthiness. German banks were lenders & Greek government was the borrower - both sides were corrupt & made huge mistakes? Bailout of the Greek debts is the bailout of the German banks which financed those debts.
2011.10.26 (EU summit): Euro countries agreed on a plan to cut the debt of Greece from today's 160% to 120% of GDP by 2020. As part of that plan, it was proposed that all owners of Greek governmental bonds should "voluntarily" accept a 50% haircut of their bonds (resulting in a debt reduction worth €100bn), and moreover accept interest rates being reduced to only 3.5%.
2012.03: According to Forbes magazine Greece’s restructuring represents a default; Combined this will result in a 53.5% haircut of the face value, so that the Greek debt pile overall will decrease from its current level at €350bn, to a more sustainable [sic?!] level around €250bn.
2012.05: several EU officials reminded Greece, that no matter the outcome of the parliamentary elections, they had a choice to either: "respect and follow the agreed debt rescue plan, with the needed requirement to approve the next round of €11.9bn fiscal austerity for the budget years 2013 and 2014" XOR "have the second bailout loan immediately cancelled, followed by an uncontrolled default and exclusion from the eurozone".
Tax evasion and corruption in Greece: tax evasion has been described by Greek politicians as “a national sport” - with up to €30 billion per year going uncollected. 2009.08 size of the Greek black market to be around €65bn (equal to 25% of GDP). Fakelaki ("little envelope").
Greek government-debt crisis countermeasures: tax evasion and tax collection improvements: seven out of 10 self-employed Greeks significantly under-report their earnings, only 200 Greeks declaring incomes of over €500,000. By 2012, wages have been cut to the level of the late 1990s. Purchasing power equals that of 1986. The suicide rate in Greece used to be the lowest in Europe, but by 2012.03 it had increased by 40%. Estimates in 2012.03 were that 1/11th residents of greater Athens (~400,000 people) were visiting a soup kitchen daily.
Greek bailout referendum, 2015: as a result of the referendum, the bailout conditions were rejected by a majority of over 61% to 39% approving, with the "No" vote winning in all of Greece's regions.
Proposed long-term solutions for the Eurozone crisis. Proposals: European fiscal union; European bank recovery and resolution authority; Eurobonds; European Monetary Fund (EMF); Drastic debt write-off financed by wealth tax.
Controversies surrounding the Eurozone crisis
  • EU treaty violations:
  • Actors fueling the crisis: Credit rating agencies; Media; Speculators
  • Speculation about the breakup of the eurozone: Breakup vs. deeper integration
  • Odious debt
  • Manipulated debt and deficit statistics
  • Collateral for Finland
  • Effects of IMF/EU austerity policies

USA[edit]

Bankruptcy in the United States: largest corps going bust post 2007-2009 mess (bust date): Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. (2008.9.15), Washington Mutual (2008.9.26), Worldcom, Inc. (2002.7.21), General Motors (2009.6.1), CIT Group (2009.11.1), MF Global (2011.11.08), Chrysler (2009.4.30), Thornburg Mortgage (2009.5.01), IndyMac Bancorp (2008.7.31), General Growth Properties (2009.4.16), Lyondell Chemical (2009.1.06). Exempt property; Spendthrift trusts; Debtor's discharge ("fresh start"); Entities that cannot be debtors = banks and other deposit institutions, insurance companies, railroads, and certain other financial institutions and entities regulated by the federal and state governments (in legalese: "insolvent", "in liquidation", "in receivership", but NOT "bankrupt"). Social and economic factors: majority of personal bankruptcies involve substantial medical bills.
Panic of 1837: financial crisis in USA that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices and wages went down while unemployment went up. Pessimism abounded during the time. The panic had both domestic and foreign origins.
State bankruptcies in the 1840s: in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, and the territory of Florida.
Orange County, California#bankruptcy (1994.12.06): county lost at least $1.5 billion through high-risk investments in derivatives; criminal prosecution of County of Orange treasurer Robert Citron. 1996.06.12: emergence from bankruptcy.
Chrysler Chapter 11 reorganization (2009.04.30): equity ownership of the "New Chrysler": Fiat=20%, US gov.=9.85%, CA gov.=2.46%, UAW retiree medical fund=67.69%. US fed. gov. paid $6.6 bln in financing of the "Old Chrysler".
General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization (2009.06.01): total debt: before=$94.7bln, after=$17bln; employees: before=91k, after=68.5k. 2009.07.10 new entity completed the purchase of continuing operations, assets and trademarks of GM as a part of the 'pre-packaged' Chapter 11 reorganization. New entity with the backing of US Treasury was formed to acquire profitable assets, under section 363 of the Bankruptcy Code, with the new company planning to issue IPO of stock in 2010.
Jefferson County, Alabama#2011 Bankruptcy filing (2011.11.09; pop(2010)=660k): debt=$4.2 bln; debts of $3.14 billion relating to sewer work.
Stockton, California#Bankruptcy (2012.06.28; pop(2010): city=292k, metro=685k) & San Bernardino, California#Bankruptcy (2012.07.10; pop(2010): city=210k, metro=4.2mln): CalPERS is the largest debt holder.
Detroit bankruptcy (2013.07.18; pop(2012): city=700k, urban=3.8mln, metro=4.3mln, CSA=5.3mln): debt=$18-20bln (largest municipal bankruptcy filing in USA history by debt); one-third of the city’s budget was going toward retiree benefits. 2013.06 the government of Detroit stopped making payments on some of its unsecured debts, including pension obligations.
Decline of Detroit: local crime rates are among the highest in the United States, and vast areas of the city are in a state of severe urban decay. Detroit riots:
Detroit race riot of 1943: it occurred in a period of dramatic population increase associated with the military buildup as Detroit's auto industry was converted to the war effort; nearly 400,000 migrants, both African American and European American, came from the Southeastern United States from 1941 to 1943 and were competing for jobs and housing in an already crowded city, both between each other and with foreign immigrants.
1967 Detroit riot: precipitating event was a police raid of an unlicensed, after-hours bar. Police confrontations with patrons and observers on the street evolved into one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in the history of USA, lasting five days and surpassing the violence and property destruction of Detroit's 1943 race riot.

Humans and economics[edit]

Sex-selective abortion (and sex-selective infanticide): practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the baby. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where cultural norms value male children over female children, especially in parts of PRC, India, Pakistan, the Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia), and Southeast Europe (Albania, Montenegro; Macedonia, Kosovo).
Missing women of Asia: "Das Gupta observed that the preference for boys and the resulting shortage of girls was even more pronounced in the more highly developed Haryana and Punjab regions of India than in poorer areas, and also the high prevalence of this prejudice among the more educated and affluent women (mothers) there"; "The bias against girls is very evident among the relatively highly developed, middle-class dominated nations (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) and the immigrant Asian communities in the United States and Britain."; "A different development occurred in South Korea which in the early 1990s had one of the highest male to female ratios in the world. By 2007 however, South Korea, had a male to female ratio comparable to that found in Western Europe, US and Sub Saharan Africa."
Brain drain (human capital flight): large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge; coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration of "scientists and technologists" to North America from post-war Europe. brain drain from Germany to US in terms of Nobel laureates
Lump of labor fallacy (lump of jobs fallacy, fallacy of labour scarcity): contention that the amount of work available to labourers is fixed. Historically, the term "lump of labour" originated to rebut the idea that reducing the number of hours that employees are allowed to labour during the working day would lead to a reduction in unemployment. The term has also been used to describe the commonly held beliefs that increasing labour productivity and immigration cause unemployment.

Economic indicators[edit]

List of largest consumer markets: "% of GDP" is of interest: if it is ~>100% (or maybe even >80%), these countries are supported by other governments or by NGOs (receiving foreign aid); those with ~<50% are living on oil money or have huge amounts of currency in the banks - these countries are investing into the other countries or the leaders are accruing money in their Swiss/Bermuda accounts. Or?
List of countries by research and development spending: sort by % of GDP (PPP) and at the top are the developed, in the middle - developing, at the bottom - poor or natural resources rich (e.g. oil, tourism) countries.
List of countries by tax rates
List of regions by past GDP (PPP) per capita: the growth in PPP of the core of EU is envied by neighbors (Spain, Portugal) and the Eastern Europe, Russia. Japan and tiny East Asian nations set the stage for PRC and maybe South East Asia and South Asia (Indian subcontinent). In Americas, the North American PPP is envied by the Central and South. Africa as a continent lags behind all other continents [12/12/16].
Developing country (less developed country, underdeveloped country): nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low HDI relative to other countries. On the other hand, since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones.
Least developed country: country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest HDI ratings of all countries in the world. A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria: Poverty, Human resource weakness, Economic vulnerability.
Newly industrialized country: countries whose economies have not yet reached developed country status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Another characterization of NICs is that of nations undergoing rapid economic growth (usually export-oriented). South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey.

Economic growth[edit]

Post–World War II economic expansion: Italy, France, Japan


Poverty[edit]

World map showing percent of population living on less than $1.25 (ppp) per day using the latest data from 2000-2006.
Theories of poverty: foundation upon which poverty reduction strategies are based. Grondona, Harrison, and Lindsay all feel that at least some aspects of development-resistant cultures need to change in order to allow under-developed nations (and cultural minorities within developed nations) to develop effectively.
Feminization of poverty: concept that describes the idea that women represent disproportionate percentages of the world's poor. UNIFEM describes it as "the burden of poverty borne by women, especially in developing countries". This concept is not only a consequence of lack of income, but is also the result of the deprivation of capabilities and gender biases present in both societies and governments. This includes the poverty of choices and opportunities, such as the ability to lead a long, healthy, and creative life, and enjoy basic rights like freedom, respect, and dignity. Women's increasing share of poverty is related to the rising incidence of lone mother households.

Market research[edit]

Mystery shopping (mystery consumer): tool used externally by market research companies or watchdog organizations or internally by companies themselves to measure quality of service or compliance to regulation, or to gather specific information about products and services.
Stiftung Warentest (since 1964.12.4, by BRD): German consumer organisation and foundation involved in investigating and comparing goods and services in an unbiased way. Financed by its publications (test and Finanztest) and €6 mln. by Federal Ministry of Nutrition, Agriculture and Consumer Protection to have no ads.
de:Test (Zeitschrift)
Finanztest: consumer magazine which focuses on providing objective information about financial services. "Legal and Everyday Life Issues", "Investment and Provision for Retirement", "Home and Living", "Tax", "Health and Insurance".

Money[edit]

Category:Monetary policy
Category:Currency unions
Optimum currency area: geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. It describes the optimal characteristics for the merger of currencies or the creation of a new currency. The theory is used often to argue whether or not a certain region is ready to become a currency union, one of the final stages in economic integration.
Electronic money
Eagle Cash: US Military e-money
M-Pesa: mobile-phone based money transfer service for Safaricom, which is a Vodafone affiliate. Kenya, Tanzania, Afghanistan.
Credit card fraud: stolen cards, identity theft. Merchants bear the cost and not credit card companies.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)
Interchange fee: fee paid between banks for the acceptance of card based transactions.
Black market (underground economy): there is also grey market. Black market provides 1.8 billion jobs. Sexual exploitation and forced labor; Illegal drugs; Prostitution; Weapons; Illegally logged timber; Animals and animal products; Alcohol; Tobacco (differences in taxes between the US states); Biological organs; Racketeering; Transportation providers; Counterfeit medicine, essential aircraft and automobile parts; Copyrighted media (Since digital information can be duplicated repeatedly with no loss of quality, and passed on electronically at little to no cost, the effective underground market value of media is zero, differentiating it from nearly all other forms of underground economic activity; crime of duplication, with no physical property being stolen); Currency; Fuel prices in EU (exchange rate between Euro and Pound Sterling: smuggling between Norther Ireland and Republic of Ireland). Appearance and disappearance (prohibition in USA; marijuana). Wars; Indian black money (According to the data provided by the Swiss Banking Association, India has more black money than the rest of the world combined).

Capital:

Capital flight: occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
Illicit financial flows: form of illegal capital flight and occurs when money is illegally earned, transferred, or spent; money is intended to disappear from any record in the country of origin, and earnings on the stock of illicit financial flows outside of a country generally do not return to the country of origin.
Silver Thursday: event that occurred in USA in the silver commodity markets on Thursday, 1980.03.27. A steep fall in silver prices led to panic on commodity and futures exchanges. Hunt brothers (Nelson Bunker Hunt and William Herbert Hunt) tried to corner the silver market.

Payment systems[edit]

Category:Payment systems
Category:Digital currencies
Category:Cryptocurrencies
Category:Bitcoin
Category:Blockchains

{q.v.:

}

Payment service provider: offers shops online services for accepting electronic payments by a variety of payment methods including credit card, bank-based payments such as direct debit, bank transfer, and real-time bank transfer based on online banking. Typically, they use a software as a service model and form a single payment gateway for their clients (merchants) to multiple payment methods.
Worldpay: provides payment services for mail order and Internet retailers, as well as point of sale transactions. Customers are a mix of multinational, multichannel retailers, with the majority being small business merchants. Worldpay started as an electronic payment provider called Streamline in 1989 in the UK but has extended into mail order/telephone order, "unattended" payments and handling secure payments over the Internet through merger and acquisition of several other companies.
Blockchain (database): distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of data records hardened against tampering and revision. It consists of data structure blocks—which hold exclusively data in initial blockchain implementations, and both data and programs in some of the more recent implementations—with each block holding batches of individual transactions and the results of any blockchain executables. Each block contains a timestamp and information linking it to a previous block.
Ethereum: public blockchain platform with programmable transaction functionality. It provides a decentralized virtual machine that can execute peer-to-peer contracts using a cryptocurrency called ether.
The DAO (organization): digital decentralized autonomous organization and a form of investor-directed venture capital fund. The DAO is stateless, and is not tied to any particular nation state. As a result, many questions of how government regulators will deal with a stateless fund have not yet been dealt with. On June 17, 2016 The DAO was subjected to a hack that deployed a combination of vulnerabilities, including the one concerning recursive calls, and the hacker gained control of 3.6 million Ether, around a third of the 11.5 million Ether that had been committed to The DAO; the stolen Ether had a value of about $50M at the time of the hack.
Vitalik Buterin (1994.01.31-): programmer and writer. He is primarily known as a co-founder of Ethereum, and as a co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine. In 2014 Buterin received the Thiel Fellowship.
Legality of bitcoin by country

Finance, financial system[edit]

Finance: study of how people allocate their assets over time under conditions of certainty and uncertainty; time value of money; aims to price assets based on their risk level, and expected rate of return.
Financial system: allows the transfer of money between savers (and investors) and borrowers. Financial Services and Systems: "a set of complex and closely interconnected financial institutions, markets, instruments, services, practices, and transactions."
Global financial system (GFS): consists of institutions, their customers, and financial regulators that act on a global level. Banks, hedge funds, IMF, Bank for International Settlements (BIS); central banks of G20, finance ministries of EU, NAFTA, OPEC; regulators of the GFS: IMF, BIS, USA (many regulatory authorities), EU (ECB), Bank of China, a few others.
Financial regulation
Financial institution
Wall Street: financial district of New York City
Global Settlement (2003.04.28): enforcement agreement between the SEC, NASD, NYSE, and ten of the United States's largest investment firms to address issues of conflict of interest within their businesses; firms would have to literally insulate their banking and analysis departments from each other physically and with Chinese walls.
Category:Stock exchanges in North America
Category:Stock exchanges in Europe
Category:Stock exchanges in Asia
Nasdaq, Inc.: USA multinational financial services corporation that owns and operates the NASDAQ stock market and eight European stock exchanges, namely Armenian Stock Exchange, Copenhagen Stock Exchange, Helsinki Stock Exchange, Iceland Stock Exchange, Riga Stock Exchange, Stockholm Stock Exchange, Tallinn Stock Exchange, and NASDAQ OMX Vilnius. It is headquartered in New York City.
OMX (Aktiebolaget Optionsmäklarna/Helsinki Stock Exchange): Swedo-Finnish financial services company, formed in 2003 through a merger between OM AB and HEX plc and is a part of the NASDAQ OMX Group since February 2008.

Money printing[edit]

Central bank
Repurchase agreement
Direct operations: central bank purchases bonds directly from its government. "Essentially, the government prints and sells bonds to the central bank on an ad-hoc basis; the central bank in turns issues currency to pay for them. Essentially the government is provided with cash to meet its needs, although it has created a corresponding liability."
Gresham's law: monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good". For example, if there are two forms of commodity money in circulation, which are accepted by law as having similar face value, the more valuable commodity will disappear from circulation.
Criticism of fractional reserve banking

Trade, shipping[edit]

See also: Globalization

Template:Intermodal containers: Containerization (standard containers made the shipping very straightforward and highly automated, thus reducing the shipping costs)
Shipping industry of the People's Republic of China: COSCO (China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company) {PRC government owned company}. PRC is the hugest shipper of containers, hugest ISO container producer. The Port of Shanghai is the busiest in the world.
Economic integration: The degree of economic integration can be categorized into seven stages: (1) Preferential trading area, (2) Free trade area, (3) Customs union, (4) Common market, (5) Economic union, (6) Economic and monetary union, (7) Complete economic integration.
Customs union: type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. Most famous: EU + 3 countries; CAN, MERCOSUR, EAC, SACU.

Economics and psychology[edit]

Choice overload (people are confronted with many choices versus just a few choices), Overchoice (problem facing consumers in the postindustrial society: too many choices), The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less (Schwartz argues that eliminating consumer choices can greatly reduce anxiety for shoppers)

Human economic behavior[edit]

Homo economicus (Economic human): concept in some economic theories of humans as rational and narrowly self-interested actors who have the ability to make judgments toward their subjectively defined ends.
Homo reciprocans (Reciprocal human): concept in some economic theories of humans as cooperative actors who are motivated by improving their environment.

European Union (EU)[edit]

{q.v. #International organizations}

Portal:European Union
EU in the world; areas of EU members which are not in EU. Map of European Union in the world (with overseas countries and territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR))
In EU, but not in NATO: Ireland (why?), Sweden (why?), Finnland (due to "losing" WWII, foreign USSR policy), Austria (due to "losing" WWII, foreign USSR policy). In NATO, but not in EU: Iceland (fishery policy), Norway (über rich land, oil), Albania (Muslim?), Turkey (Muslim?).
Special member state territories and the European Union
European Union VAT area: "Goods are only considered as imported or exported if they enter or leave the area. The VAT percentage does, however, differ from country to country within the area, which is a complicating factor, especially when, for example, an Internet-based reseller in one EU country sells to an EU customer in a different EU country." Amazon suffers in service due to EU politics?
Excluded areas: UK: Gibraltar, Channel Islands, British Overseas; Spain: Canary Islands, Ceuta, Melilla; Netherlands: Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Caribbean Netherlands; Italy: Campione d'Italia, Livigno, Lake Lugano; Greece: Mount Athos (autonomous monastic region); Germany: Büsingen am Hochrhein, Heligoland; France: overseas; Finland: Åland; Denmark: Faroe Islands, Greenland.
VAT Information Exchange System (VIES): electronic means of transmitting information relating to VAT-registration (i.e., validity of VAT-numbers) of companies registered in EU.
Eurosphere (European Empire): grown in popularity in the early years of the 21st century
Citizenship of the European Union: Multiple nationality permitted: CZ: Yes [effective 2014.01.01]. DE & AT: No (some exceptions: USA/CA, ...); LT, EE, DK: No; all others: Yes. Acquisition by birth; Acquisition by descent; Acquisition by marriage; Acquisition by naturalisation.
Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification (CVM): safeguard measure invoked by the European Commission when a new member or acceding state of EU has failed to implement commitments undertaken in the context of the accession negotiations in the fields of the Area of freedom, security and justice or internal market policy.
Enhanced cooperation: procedure where a minimum of nine EU member states are allowed to establish advanced integration or cooperation in an area within EU structures but without the other members being involved. [As of 2013.02] this procedure is being used in the fields of divorce law and patents, and is approved for the field of a financial transaction tax.
Withdrawal from the European Union
EU three: FR, DE, UK who collectively wield most influence within EU.
Big Four (European Union): FR, DE, IT, UK; they are the EU countries individually represented as full members of the G7, the G8 and the G20.
G6 (EU): unofficial group of the interior ministers of the six European Union member states – DE, FR, UK, Italy, Spain, and PL – with the largest populations and so with the majority of votes in the Council of the European Union.
Institutional seats of the European Union: Brussels, Frankfurt, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, rather than being concentrated in a single capital city. The Hague is the only exception, as the fixed seat of European Police Office (Europol).

Institutions of the European Union[edit]

Category:Institutions of the European Union
Category:European Parliament
Category:European Commission
Template:EU institutions & Institutions of the European Union: 7 institutions. European Parliament ("lower house") + Council of EU ("upper house") = legislative; European Commission = executive; European Council = sets impetus and direction; Court of Justice of EU = judiciary; ECB = central bank / euro; European Court of Auditors = financial auditor.
President of the European Commission: head of the European Commission; most powerful officeholder in the EU; represents the EU abroad
President of the European Council: representative of the European Union (EU) on the world stage, and the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council
European Parliament[edit]
Category:European Parliament
Category:European Parliament party groups
Political groups of the European Parliament
Academic studies of the political groups of the European Parliament
European Commission[edit]
Category:European Commission
Category:Civil Service of the European Union
Category:General Services in the European Commission
Eurostat: Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg; provide statistical information to the institutions of EU and to promote the harmonisation of statistical methods across its member states and candidates for accession as well as EFTA countries.
Eurostat wiki: using MediaWiki
de:Volkszählung 2011 (Deutschland: Zensus 2011): EU's first census starting 2011.05.09.

European Union law (EU law)[edit]

Category:European Union law
Supremacy (European Union law): principle by which the laws of European Union member states that conflict with laws of the European Union must be ignored by national courts so that the European Union law can take effect. The legal doctrine emerged from the European Court of Justice through a number of decisions.
Treaties of the European Union: sets out the EU's constitutional basis; establish the various EU institutions together with their remit, procedures and objectives.
Opt-outs in the European Union: occasionally member states negotiate certain opt-outs from legislation or treaties of the European Union, meaning they do not have to participate in certain policy areas. Denmark (four opt-outs: euro, AFSJ (defense), CSDP), Ireland (two opt-outs: Schengen, AFSJ), Poland (one opt-out: Charter of Fundamental Rights of EU) and the United Kingdom (four opt-outs: Schengen, euro, Charter of Fundamental Rights of EU, AFSJ). Sweden has "opt-out" de facto (euro).
Edinburgh Agreement (1992) (1992.12): agreement that granted Denmark four exceptions to the Maastricht Treaty so that it could be ratified by Denmark. The opt-outs are outlined in the Edinburgh Agreement and concern the EMU (as above), the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) and the citizenship of the European Union (this opt-out was rendered meaningless when the Amsterdam Treaty adopted the same wording for all members).
Opt outs out of Schengen Area: UK and Ireland; Andorra: special case.
Eurozone: opt outs: Denmark & UK, Sweden does NOT enter ERM II and does NOT hold a referendum on euro on purpose.
Community acquis (acquis communautaire, EU acquis, FR: acquis - "that which has been agreed upon"): accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of EU law.
Area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ): ensure security, rights and free movement within the EU; cross border police cooperation had to increase to counter cross border crime, and thus also minimum judicial standards. European Arrest Warrant, the Schengen Area and Frontex. European crimes (7): counterfeiting euro notes and coins; credit card and cheque fraud; money laundering; people-trafficking; computer hacking and virus attacks; corruption in the private sector; and marine pollution (possible others: racial discrimination and incitement to racial hatred; trafficking in human organs and tissue; and corruption in awarding public contracts).
Schengen Area: EU opt outs: UK & Ireland; Eu microstate opt outs: Andorra; still to join: Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus (Cyprus dispute), Croatia.
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP): major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of EU and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects, as well as civilian crisis management. The ESDP was the successor of the European Security and Defence Identity under NATO, but differs in that it falls under the jurisdiction of EU itself, including countries with no ties to NATO.
Official Journal of the European Union: official gazette of record for EU; published every working day in all of the official languages of the member states. Only legal acts published in the Official Journal are binding.
General Data Protection Regulation
Right to be forgotten
Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC)

EU economics, finances, budget, currencies, crisis[edit]

European Exchange Rate Mechanism#Exchange rate bands: if nominally the currency is pegged and the inflation is several times higher than EU-15 average, who pays for the debts & the risk of the would-be Eurozone member at the introduction of Euro? - Eurozone members.
Economy of the European Union: 2009: DE - 20%, FR - 15%, UK - 15% of EU's GDP
Convergence criteria: ERM II
European System of Central Banks (ESCB) = ECB + national central banks (NCBs); 1+27
European Central Bank (ECB): eurozone
European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF): agreed by the 27 member states of the European Union on 9 May 2010 (€440 bln); 2011 7 21 : €780 bln; 2011 10 27: €1 trln ⇒ money put to good use, used at risk, or wasted?
European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM): €60 bln (much less than EFSF).
European Stability Mechanism (ESM): permanent rescue funding programme to succeed the temporary EFSF and European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism in the 17-member Eurozone. The ESM is due to be launched as soon as Member States representing 90% of the capital commitments have ratified it, which is expected in July 2012.
European Fiscal Compact (Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union)
Budget of the European Union: 5% of expenditure is on administration, 95% on policies. Policies (2006 percentages):
Common Agricultural Policy (47%): income support for farmers (70%), rural development (20%), market support (10%; e.g. bad weather).
Regional policy of the European Union (30%; Cohesion Policy): stated aim of improving the economic well-being of regions in the EU and also to avoid regional disparities. Convergence objective (82%; poorest regions), regional competitiveness and employment (the other regions; funding managed by ERDF or ESF)
Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development: abbreviated FP1 through FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020".
Horizon 2020: project became embroiled with the 2014 referendums held by Switzerland, which opted to impose a quota on immigration between that country and the EU. Switzerland, which maintains bilateral agreements with the EU, was intended to be a participant of Horizon 2020, but negotiations that would have ensured this were put on hold in the aftermath of the decision. Turkey joined this funding program. This funding programme also includes Israel, which joined after protracted negotiations about whether funding could be directed to projects beyond the Green Line; eventually the two parties agreed to disagree, and Israel published its views in an Appendix to the official documents. Open access is an underlying principle of Horizon 2020.
European Research Area
Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (European Commission)
Joint Research Centre: European Commission's in-house science service.
European Investment Bank (EIB): international financial institution, a publicly owned bank (owners: Member States of the European Union, who subscribe to the Bank's capital – EUR 232 billion (end of 2009)). Subscribed capital: end-2009 EUR 232 billion.
European Investment Fund (EIF): provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises), EIF does not lend money to SMEs directly; rather it provides finance through private banks and funds. Its main operations are in the areas of venture capital and guaranteeing loans. EIB: 62%, Eu Communities (EC)/Eu Commission 29%, 9% - private.
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF): fund allocated by EU.
Interreg (1989-): initiative that aims to stimulate cooperation between regions in EU.
Template:Supranational European Bodies: in the center: "Eurozone"; other circles: EU, EEA, Schengen Area, EU Customs Union, Monetary Agreement with EU, CEFTA. Periphery: Council of Europe. Neighboring "union": Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia.
Free trade areas in Europe: BAFTA was a free trade agreement between Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania that existed between 1994 and 2004. EFTA; CEFTA. CISFTA.
European Free Trade Association (EFTA): free trade organisation between four European countries that operates in parallel with – and is linked to – EU. Today's EFTA members are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland, of which the latter two were founding members. Three of the EFTA countries are part of the European Union Internal Market through the Agreement on EEA, which took effect in 1994; the fourth, Switzerland, opted to conclude bilateral agreements with the EU. In 1999, Switzerland concluded a set of bilateral agreements with EU covering a wide range of areas, including movement of people, transport, and technical barriers to trade.
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA): trade agreement between non-EU countries in Southeast Europe. Former Yugoslavian nations (except: Croatia and Slovenia are in EU) + Albania + Moldova (Moldova is also in CISFTA).
European Economic Area (EEA): comprises three member states of EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway), and 27 member states of EU, excluding Croatia which is set to join once its accession agreement is ratified by all EEA countries [2014].
European Union Customs Union (EUCU): consists of all the member states of the European Union and Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Turkey {q.v. European Union–Turkey Customs Union}.
Euro, eurozone[edit]
Category:Eurozone
Eurozone (euro area): economic and monetary union (EMU) of 18 EU member states that have adopted the euro (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender.
Sweden and the euro: Sweden does not currently use the euro as its currency and has no plans to replace the krona in the near future. Sweden maintains that joining the ERM II (a requirement for euro adoption) is voluntary, and has chosen to remain outside ERM II pending public approval by a referendum, thereby intentionally avoiding the fulfilment of the adoption requirements.
Eurogroup: meeting of the finance ministers of the eurozone.
Kosovo and the euro
Montenegro and the euro

EU and surrounding nations[edit]

Third-country economic relationships with the European Union:
EFTA & EEA
customs unions:
European Union–Turkey Customs Union: 1995.03.06 decision of the EC-Turkey Association Council to implement a customs union (tr: Gümrük Birliği) between Turkey and EU on 1995.12.31. Goods can travel between the two entities without any customs restrictions. Customs Union does not cover essential economic areas, such as agriculture, services or public procurement, to which bilateral trade concessions apply.
Switzerland:
Switzerland–European Union relations: Swiss Franc is pegged to € from 2011.08.06. 1.20 francs=1 €. It is pseudo ERM II, maintained by the Swiss National Bank (SNB).
[[Swiss referendum, February 2009]: on extending the freedom of movement for workers within the European Union to Bulgaria and Romania. 60% Yes, 40% No.
Microstates and the European Union: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City. All have Euro except Liechtenstein (has Swiss Franc). EU law application is fishy; still to be dragged to court in any of these microstates and see if EU law would apply.
European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP): foreign relations instrument of the EU which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the EU into the EU. Action Plan: EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation. The ENP does not cover countries which are in the current EU enlargement agenda, the European Free Trade Association or the western European microstates.
EU-Russia Common Spaces: RU did not want to participate in ENP, because RU sees ENP as "junior partnership", therefore the 4 Common Spaces (which are seen by RU as "equal partnering") were developed. EU treats these Common Spaces as another ENP (same laws, same source of funding, just different naming per request from RU).
Union for the Mediterranean (UfM): created in July 2008 as a relaunched Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (the Barcelona Process), when a plan to create an autonomous Mediterranean Union was dropped
Euro-Mediterranean free trade area (EU-MED FTA, EMFTA; Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area or Euromed FTA): based on UfM/Barcelona Process and ENP
Eastern Partnership (EaP): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine.
European Union and the United Nations:
in 2011.10: row between UK and its fellow EU members reached a head as the UK had blocked more than 70 EU statements to UN committees. The row was over the wording used; the statements read they were on behalf of the EU, rather than "EU and its member states" as the UK insisted. The UK's actions were intended to stop the perceived drift towards a common EU foreign policy and were insisted upon by British Prime Minister David Cameron and Foreign Secretary William Hague.

EU foreign trade and foreign policy[edit]

energy (oil & gas):

Russia in the European energy sector - RU is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to EU. West financed Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline in 1982-1984. Gazprom invested in infrastructure in EU countries (piping, distribution) and in collecting the moneys (pricing, services). Transneft.
Nord Stream: gas from RU to DE (NEL pipeline (Norddeutsche Erdgasleitung) & OPAL pipeline (Ostsee-Pipeline-Anbindungsleitung)) by pipeline on the Baltic seabed.
Map of the major existing and proposed Russian natural gas transportation pipelines to Europe.

EU Military[edit]

Berlin Plus agreement: short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002:
The use of NATO assets by the EU is subject to a "right of first refusal": NATO must first decline to intervene in a given crisis.
Approval of the use of assets has to be unanimous among NATO states. For example, Turkish reservations about Operation Concordia using NATO assets delayed its deployment by more than five months.

EU Border and immigration[edit]

Melilla: Spanish city on the north coast of Morocco; area=12.3 km². Immigration.
Melilla border fence: stop illegal immigration and smuggling
Ceuta: autonomous city of Spain sharing a western border with Morocco; area=18.5 km²
Ceuta border fence
Royal Walls of Ceuta
Asylum applicants in Europe between 1 January and 30 June 2015. Central Mediterranean Route, Eastern Mediterranean Route (Turkey) → Western Balkan Route.
European migrant crisis: of 2015 arose through the rising number of refugees and migrants going to the European Union, across the Mediterranean Sea, or through Southeast Europe, and applying for asylum. They come from areas such as the Middle East (Syria, Iraq), Africa (Eritrea, Nigeria, Somalia, Sudan, Gambia), South Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh), and the Western Balkans (Serbia, Kosovo, Albania). According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, as of November 2015, the top three nationalities of the over half a million Mediterranean Sea arrivals since the beginning of the year are Syrian (52%), Afghan (19%) and Iraqi (6%), all overwhelmingly Muslim entrants. Most of the refugees and migrants are adult men (65%): of the unauthorized entrants arriving in Europe by sea in 2015, 58% were adult males over 18 years of age, 17% were adult females over 18 years of age, and 25% were minor males and minor females under 18 years of age. Individual countries have at times reintroduced border controls within the Schengen Area, and rifts have emerged between countries willing to allow entry of asylum seekers for processing of refugee claims and others countries trying to discourage their entry for processing. Article 26 of the Schengen Convention says that carriers which transport people into the Schengen area shall, if they transport people who are refused entry into the Schengen Area, be responsible to pay for the return of the refused people, and pay penalties; Further clauses on this topic are found in EU directive 2001/51/EC; This has had the effect that migrants without a visa are not allowed on aircraft, boats or trains going into the Schengen Area, so migrants without a visa have resorted to migrant smugglers.
Calais jungle
Migrants around Calais
Calais migrant crisis
Austrian border barrier: border barriers and migration management facilities constructed by Austria 2015.11-2016.01 on its border with Slovenia and in 2016 on its border with Italy, as a response to European migrant crisis. They are located on internal European Union borders, since Austria, Italy and Slovenia are members of the EU and the free travel Schengen Area with a common visa policy. The barrier on the Slovenian border is several kilometers long, located near the busiest border crossing, Spielfeld-Šentilj and includes police facilities for screening and processing migrants. Foreign ministers of Austria, Slovenia and other Balkan countries met in Austria without Greece and agreed to reduce the flow of migrants into Central Europe and "sooner or later (...) to shut their doors entirely".
Hungarian border barrier: built by Hungary in 2015 on its border with Serbia and Croatia. The fence was constructed during the European migrant crisis (see timeline), with the aim to ensure border security by preventing immigrants from entering illegally, and enabling the option to enter through official checkpoints and claim asylum in Hungary in accordance with international and European law.

China, Greater China[edit]

Bamboo network: network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in Southeast Asia; usually family owned and managed through a centralized bureaucracy. ASEAN & bamboo network?

Post-Soviet alliances (ex-USSR, Russia in the center)[edit]

Category:Post-Soviet alliances
Post-Soviet states (former Soviet Union (FSU); former Soviet Republics): 15 independent states that emerged from USSR. Geographical groupings: Baltic states, East-Central Europe, Southern Caucasus, Central Asia -- all attached to Russia. Largest PPP/capita: Baltic states (~20k $), Russia (~18k $), Belarus (16k $), Kazachstan (14k $), ..., Tajikistan (2.3k $) [2013].
Post-Soviet conflicts: violent political and ethnic conflicts in the countries of the former USSR. Some of these conflicts ended in a stalemate or without a peace treaty, and are referred to as frozen conflicts.
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Georgia left in 2008.08.18. Ukraine: was de facto participating, but officially not a member; 2014.05 Ukraine has confirmed its intentions to officially withdraw from CIS as "absolutely ineffective organization" and has registered the required law draft in its parliament. Between 2003 and 2005, three CIS member states experienced a change of government in a series of colour revolutions: Eduard Shevardnadze was overthrown in Georgia; Viktor Yushchenko was elected in Ukraine; and Askar Akayev was toppled in Kyrgyzstan. So far Russian is an official language in only four of these states: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Russian is also considered an official language in the region of Transnistria, and the autonomous region of Gagauzia in Moldova [2014].
CISFTA: FTA signed 2011.10.18 among 8 CIS member states: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Moldova (Moldova is also in CEFTA) and Armenia. Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, although CIS members, did not sign this FTA agreement. Ratified by Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Moldova, and Armenia, and is in force only between those states [2013].
Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC; EurAsEC): originated from CIS and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia on 1996.03.29. Common Economic Space: maybe in 2015.01.01.
Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (2010.01.01-): member states are planning to continue with economic integration and were set to remove all customs borders between each other after July 2011. Copying "EU model" or "good-ol'" USSR? [2014.03; Crimea...]
Eurasian Union (lang=ru): proposed political and economic union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan

International economic organizations[edit]

Category:International economic organizations
Category:BRICS
Category:G7
Category:G8
Category:G20
G8
G7 = G8 - RU
G-20 major economies: 19 countries and EU (European Commission European Central Bank). 19 countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China (PRC), FR, DE, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, RU, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, UK, USA. Collectively, the G-20 economies account for around 85% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding EU intra-trade, 75%), and two-thirds of the world population.
G8+5: G7 (G8) + BRICS

Latin America[edit]

Template:Supranational American Bodies
Latin American integration
Union of South American Nations (USAN; nl: Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; pt: União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; es: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR): intergovernmental union integrating two existing customs unions – Mercosur and CAN.
Bank of the South (BancoSur): monetary fund and lending organization established in 2009.09.26 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela with an initial capital of US$20 billion.
Mercosur (or Mercosul): full customs union of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela; Bolivia (2012). Purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency.
Andean Community of Nations (es: Comunidad Andina, CAN): customs union of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Africa[edit]

Economics and politics, ruling[edit]

Low-ball: persuasion and selling technique in which an item or service is offered at a lower price than is actually intended to be charged, after which the price is raised to increase profits.
Competition regulator: government agency, typically a statutory authority, sometimes called an economic regulator, which regulates and enforces competition laws, and may sometimes also enforce consumer protection laws; ECA (European Competition Authorities), ICN (International Competition Network), and OECD

Public economics[edit]

Category:Public economics
Category:Political economy
Category:Government budgets
Category:Public finance
Category:Taxation and redistribution
Category:Welfare state
Criticisms of welfare: Classical liberals, libertarians and conservatives often argue that the provision of tax-funded services or transfer payments reduces the incentive for workers to seek employment, thereby by reducing the need to work, reducing the rewards of work, and exacerbating poverty. Socialists typically criticize the welfare state as championed by liberals and social democrats as an attempt to legitimize and strengthen the capitalist economic system, which conflicts with the socialist goal of replacing capitalism with a socialist economic system.
Welfare state: "concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization". T.H. Marshall: distinctive combination of democracy, welfare, and capitalism. E.g. Nordic countries. Progressive tax. In the period following the World War II, many countries in Europe moved from partial or selective provision of social services to relatively comprehensive coverage of the population. Paxton: "All the modern twentieth-century European dictatorships of the right, both fascist and authoritarian, were welfare states…. They all provided medical care, pensions, affordable housing, and mass transport as a matter of course, in order to maintain productivity, national unity, and social peace". DE: Otto von Bismarck created the modern welfare state by building on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the 1840s, and by winning the support of business; introduced old age pensions, accident insurance and medical care. Esping-Andersen (1990): 1) Social Democracy, 2) Christian Democracy (conservatism), 3) Liberalism; 18 OECD countries are divided as follows: 1) Social Democratic: Nordics and the Netherlands, 2) Christian Democratic: AT, BE, FR, DE, ES and IT, 3) Liberal: AU, CA, JA, CH and USA, 4) Not clearly classified: IE, NZ and UK.
Nordic model (Nordic capitalism, Nordic social democracy): although there are significant differences among the Nordic countries, they all share some common traits; support for a "universalist" welfare state (relative to other developed countries) which are aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, promoting social mobility and ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights, as well as for stabilizing the economy; maximizing labor force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, the large magnitude of wealth redistribution, and liberal use of expansionary fiscal policy. Neither fully capitalistic or socialistic, and attempts to merge the most desirable elements of both into a "hybrid" system. Overall tax burdens (%GDP) are among the world's highest: SE (51.1%), DK (46% in 2011), and FI (43.3%), compared to non-Nordic countries like DE (34.7%), CA (33.5%), IE (30.5%).
Flexicurity (flexibility and security): welfare state model with a pro-active labour market policy. The term was first coined by the social democratic Prime Minister of Denmark Poul Nyrup Rasmussen in the 1990s; “golden triangle” with a “three-sided mix of (1) flexibility in the labour market combined with (2) social security and (3) an active labour market policy with rights and obligations for the unemployed”.
Welfare in Finland: compared internationally, very comprehensive. Created almost entirely during the first three decades after WWII, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf. Child-Care services: charge relatively low fees, also based on law; availability of quality day care (the staff are university-educated in early childhood education) has allowed the female population to pursue careers more commonly than in other parts of the world. Services for the disabled. Services for substance abusers: alcoholism.
Maternity package: kit granted by the Finnish social security institution Kela, to all expectant or adoptive parents who live in Finland or are covered by the Finnish social security system. Since 1949 it has been given to all mothers-to-be, provided they visited a doctor or municipal pre-natal clinic before their fourth month of pregnancy, and the pregnancy has lasted at least 154 days.
Social protection in France: make up for about 500 billion euros annually, or more than 30% of GDP. However, the desire to establish a universal system has faced opposition; this explains why the French welfare system is plural, with a wide variety of actors. The most important is the general scheme for employees of industry, commerce and services.
French special retirement plan: enjoyed by employees of some government-owned corporations: SNCF (national railways), the RATP (Parisian transport), the electrical and gas companies (EDF and GDF) which used to be government-owned; as well as some employees whose functions are directly related to the State such as the military, French National Police, sailors, Civil law notaries' assistants, employees of the Opéra de Paris... The main differences between the special retirement plan and the usual private sector retirement plans are the retirement age and the number of years a worker must contribute to the fund before being allowed a full pension.
Grenelle Insertion (concluded 2008.05.27): open multi-party debate in France that gathered representatives of national and local government and organizations (industry, labor, professional associations, non-governmental organizations) on an equal footing, with goal of unifying a position on the reform of the national policy of insertion. It insisted on the need to reform the insertion system to make it more attractive for people to return to work.
Revenu de solidarité active: French form of in work welfare benefit aimed at reducing the barrier to return to work. It was implemented 2009.06.01 by the French government.
Welfare in South Korea: National Pension Service (NPS), introduced in 1988; about one-fifth of the elderly receive pensions, which is a major factor contributing to the fact that nearly a half of the South Korean elderly live in relative poverty, which is the highest proportion among OECD countries; South Korean tax and welfare system is the least effective in reducing inequality among all of OECD countries.
Welfare in Japan: Beginning in the 1920s, the government enacted a series of welfare programs, based mainly on European models, to provide medical care and financial support. During the postwar period, a comprehensive system of social security was gradually established. Government expenditures for all forms of social welfare increased from 6% of the national income in the early 1970s, to 18% in 1989. But a much older tradition calls for support within the family and the local community.

Water[edit]

Sanitation: hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards (physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease) of wastes (human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes) as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage wastewater.
World Toilet Organization (WTO; :D NOT the World Trade Org; 2001-): global non-profit organization committed to improving toilet and sanitation conditions worldwide; working towards eliminating the toilet taboo and delivering sustainable sanitation.
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA): network formed by organisations active in the field of sustainable sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Sub-Saharan Africa is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goals of halving the share of the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation between 1990 and 2015. There are, however, large disparities among Sub-Saharan countries, and between the urban and rural areas. Usually, water is provided by utilities in urban areas and municipalities or community groups in rural areas. Sewerage is not common and wastewater treatment even less. Sanitation is often in the form of individual or communal latrines. The best performer in the region is South Africa (S.A. introduced free basic utility services for all, including 6m3 of water per month for free).
Water politics in the Jordan River basin: Arab-Israeli conflict and water
Water supply and sanitation in India

Food, sewage, environment[edit]

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/Physical_sciences#Environment}

Economics and war[edit]

Hunger Plan (der Hungerplan, der Backe-Plan): economic management scheme that was put in place to ensure that Germans were given priority over food supplies, at the expense of everyone else. Historian Timothy Snyder estimates: “4.2 million Soviet citizens (largely Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians) starved by the German occupiers in 1941-1944.” In the Western Europe no large starvation occurred.

Business, pricing[edit]

Category:Business
Category:Marketing
Category:Pricing
Category:Sales
Category:Pricing (???)
Category:Sales (???)
Category:Retailing
Category:Distribution, retailing, and wholesaling
Category:Retailing
Category:Payment systems
Odd pricing: Consumers tend to perceive “odd prices” as being significantly lower than they actually are, tending to round to the next lowest monetary unit. Thus, prices such as $1.99 is associated with spending $1 rather than $2. Another phenomenon noted by economists is that a price point for a product (such as $4.99) remains stable for a long period of time, with companies slowly reducing the quantity of product in the package until consumers begin to notice. At this time the price will increase marginally (to $5.05) and then within an exceptionally short time will increase to the next price point (to $5.99).
Point of sale (POS, Checkout): place where a retail transaction is completed; point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or services; merchant will also normally issue a receipt for the transaction. Customized hardware and software as per their requirements
Automated sales suppression device (zapper): software program that falsifies the electronic records of POS systems for the purpose of tax evasion.
Square, Inc.: merchant services aggregator and mobile payments company based in San Francisco, CA. Two applications & services: Square Register and Square Wallet; allows individuals and merchants in USA and CA to accept debit and credit cards on their iOS or Android smartphone or tablet computer. The app supports manually entering the card details or swiping the card through the Square Reader, a small plastic device which plugs into the audio jack of a supported smartphone or tablet and reads the magnetic stripe. On the iPad version of the Square Register app, the interface resembles a traditional cash register.
Corporate group ("group of companies"): collection of parent and subsidiary corporations that function as a single economic entity through a common source of control.
Concern (business) (German: Konzern, Cyrillic: Концерн): type of business group common in Europe, particularly in Germany. It results from the merger of several legally independent companies an economic entity under unified management. These associated companies are called "Group" companies.
Template:Keiretsu (Zaibatsu, Keiretsu, modern Groups)
Pay what you want (PWYW): pricing strategy where buyers pay any desired amount for a given commodity, sometimes including zero. In some cases, a minimum (floor) price may be set, and/or a suggested price may be indicated as guidance for the buyer. The buyer can also select an amount higher than the standard price for the commodity.

Planning, product development (product management), projects (project management)[edit]

Category:Products
Category:Product management
Category:Product development
Category:Planning
Category:Projects
Category:Project management

{q.v. #Process management, workflow}

Project management triangle: model of the constraints of project management. It is a graphic aid where the three attributes show on the corners of the triangle to show opposition. It is useful to help with intentionally choosing project biases, or analyzing the goals of a project. It is used to illustrate that project management success is measured by the project team's ability to manage the project, so that the expected results are produced while managing time and cost. Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope" (features and quality, what's the end result), "time", and "cost". You are given the options of Fast (time), Good (quality), and Cheap (cost, $, €, £), and told to pick any two.
Work breakdown structure: deliverable-oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components. A work breakdown structure is a key project deliverable that organizes the team's work into manageable sections. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK 5) defines the work breakdown structure as a "A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables." "On Time, On Spec, On Budget."
Critical path method: The Nome Trilogy (part 2 "Diggers" by Terry Pratchett) mentions "the doctrine of the Critical Path" and says that it means that "There's always something that you should have done first."

Enterprise resource planning[edit]

Category:ERP software
Enterprise resource planning (ERP): business-management software—typically a suite of integrated applications—that an organization can use to collect, store, manage and interpret data from many business activities (product planning & cost, manufacturing or service delivery, marketing & sales, inventory management, shipping & payment). Backend: database.
Microsoft Dynamics NAV (formerly: Navision): ERP software product from Microsoft. The product is part of the Microsoft Dynamics family, and intended to assist with finance, manufacturing, customer relationship management, supply chains, analytics and electronic commerce for Small and Medium-sized Enterprise and local subsidiaries of large international Groups. For modifications of the system, the proprietary programming language C/AL is used.
JD Edwards: ERP: EnterpriseOne

Economics, business and networks[edit]

Category:Networks
Network effect (network externality, demand-side economies of scale): effect that one user of a good or service has on the value of that product to other people. When a network effect is present, the value of a product or service is dependent on the number of others using it. Positive feedback: telephone, Facebook, Twitter. Negative feedback: "congestion" (as in traffic congestion or network congestion). Over time, positive network effects can create a bandwagon effect as the network becomes more valuable and more people join, in a positive feedback loop.

Information, Information economics[edit]

Category:Information economics
Category:Information, knowledge, and uncertainty
Category:Asymmetric information
Category:Imperfect competition
Category:Asymmetric information
Information economics: studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions. Information is easy to create but hard to trust; easy to spread but hard to control; influences many decisions.
Information asymmetry: study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other. This creates an imbalance of power in transactions, which can sometimes cause the transactions to go awry, a kind of market failure in the worst case. E.g. adverse selection, moral hazard, and information monopoly. Tshilidzi Marwala and Evan Hurwitz studied the influence of artificial intelligence on the theory of asymmetric information and observed that artificial intelligent agents decrease the degree of information asymmetry and thus the market where these agents are used are more efficient than when they are not used.

Economic inequality[edit]

Category:Economic problems
Category:Economic inequality
Motherhood penalty: term coined by sociologists who argue that in the workplace, working mothers encounter systematic disadvantages in pay, perceived competence, and benefits relative to childless women. Specifically, women may suffer a per-child wage penalty, resulting in a pay gap between non-mothers and mothers that is larger than the gap between men and women. Mothers may also suffer worse job-site evaluations indicating that they are less committed to their jobs, less dependable, and less authoritative than non-mothers. Thus, mothers may experience disadvantages in terms of hiring, pay, and daily job experience. The motherhood wage penalty is not limited to the United States, and has been documented in over a dozen other industrialized nations including Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, Poland, and Australia. A study by Stanford sociologist Shelley Correll found that employers perceived mothers as less competent than childless women, and also perceived childless men as less competent and committed than men who were fathers.
Maternity leave in the United States: includes a provision mandating 12 weeks of unpaid leave annually for mothers of newborn or newly adopted children. This policy is distinct to other industrialized countries for its relative scarcity of benefits, in terms of the short length of protected maternity leave and not offering some form of wage compensation for the leave of absence.

File:Federally mandated maternity leave by country.gif Mandated maternity leave by country in 2008.

Politics, governance[edit]

Category:Politics
Category:Governance
Category:Government
Effective number of parties: e.g. 1.7 - 2.1 → two-party system
List of political parties by United Nations geoscheme: showing which party system is dominant in each country.
Eu: 'mostly multi party (esp. Northern Eu), except: two party: GE, MT, ES, LI, MC; dominant party: AZ, RU; no party: VA.
Americas:
SA: mostly multi party, except: two party: Guyana, Honduras; single party: Cuba
NA: multi party: CA; two party: USA, MX
CA: multi party: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama; two party: Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua
Caribbean: mostly two party, except: multi party: Aruba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Suriname, US Virgin Islands; single party: Cuba.
Asia:
Central Asia: mostly dominant party, except: multi party: Kyrgyzstan; single party: Turkmenistan
Eastern Asia: mostly multi party, except: dominant party: Japan; single party: PRC, North Korea
Southern Asia: mostly multi party, except: two party: Sri Lanka.
South-Eastern Asia: many multi party, except: dominant party: Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore; single party: Laos, Vietnam
Western Asia: many multi party, except: dominant party: AZ, JO, SY, YE; no party: KW (in practice several political groups act as de facto parties), OM, QA, SA, UAE
European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes:

The descent into barbarism has comparable structural elements:

  • Abuse of national sentiment to carry out racial and class revolutionary projects;
  • Cult of a great leader, who permits his fanatics to murder, steal and lie;
  • Dictatorship of one party;
  • Militarisation of society, police state – almighty secret political police;
  • Collectivism, subjection of the citizen to the totalitarian state;
  • State terrorism with systematic abuses of basic human rights;
  • Aggressive assumption of power and struggle for territory.
European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism (International Black Ribbon Day; 23 August): esignated by the European Parliament in 2008/2009 as "a Europe-wide Day of Remembrance for the victims of all totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, to be commemorated with dignity and impartiality"
European Parliament resolution of 2 April 2009 on European conscience and totalitarianism: European Parliament condemned totalitarian crimes and called for the recognition of "Communism, Nazism and fascism as a shared legacy" and "an honest and thorough debate on all the totalitarian crimes of the past century."
Prometheism (Prometheanism; PL: "Prometeizm"): political project initiated by Poland's Józef Piłsudski; aim was to weaken the Russian Empire and its successor states, including the Soviet Union, by supporting nationalist independence movements among the major non-Russian peoples that lived within the borders of Russia and the Soviet Union. During Interwar Prometheism and Piłsudski's other concept of an "Intermarum federation" constituted two complementary geopolitical strategies for him and some of his political heirs.
The Black Book of Communism: documents a history of repressions, both political and civilian, by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, and artificial famines.
Declaration of independence (declaration of statehood): assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. In 2010, UN's International Court of Justice ruled in the an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence", though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis. Not all declarations of independence succeed in the formation of an independent state.

Political science terms[edit]

Category:Political science terms
Multitude: term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact of existence. The term has a history of use reaching back to antiquity, but took on a strictly political concept when it was first used by Machiavelli and reiterated by Spinoza. The multitude is a concept of a population that has not entered into a social contract with a sovereign political body, such that individuals retain the capacity for political self-determination. For Hobbes the multitude was a rabble that needed to enact a social contract with a monarch, thus turning them from a multitude into a people. For Machiavelli and Spinoza both, the role of the multitude vacillates between admiration and contempt.
Stateless nation: ethnic group, religious group, linguistic group or other cohesive group which is not the majority population in any nation state. The term implies that the group "should have" such a state, and thus expresses irredentism.

Political system, economic system[edit]

{q.v. #Philosophy of politics}

Anarchist symbolism: Ⓐ (circled A; or to have on the keyboard: "@", "(A)") and black flag.
Template:Austrian School sidebar: Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Lew Rockwell, Murray Rothbard
Austrian School: school of economic thought that is based on the concept of methodological individualism – that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals. Originated in the late-19th and early-20th c. Vienna with the work of Carl Menger, Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Friedrich von Wieser, and others. According to economist Bryan Caplan, by the late twentieth century, a split had developed among those who self-identify with the Austrian School: 1) building on the work of Hayek, follows the broad framework of mainstream neoclassical economics, including its use of mathematical models and general equilibrium; 2) following Mises and Rothbard, rejects the neoclassical theories of consumer and welfare economics, dismisses empirical methods and mathematical and statistical models as inapplicable to economic science, and asserts that economic theory went entirely astray in 20th c.; they offer the Misesian view as a radical alternative paradigm to mainstream theory.
Praxeology: "Human action is purposeful behavior. Or we may say: Action is will put into operation and transformed into an agency, is aiming at ends and goals, is the ego's meaningful response to stimuli and to the conditions of its environment, is a person's conscious adjustment to the state of the universe that determines his life" von Mises. Is "Praxeology" science, social science, pseudoscience, philosophy?
Economic calculation problem: criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production. It was first proposed by Ludwig von Mises in his 1920 article "Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth" and later expanded upon by Friedrich Hayek.
Methodenstreit: intellectual history beyond German-language discourse, was an economics controversy commenced in the 1880s and persisting for more than a decade, between that field's Austrian School and the (German) Historical School; debate concerned the place of general theory in social science and the use of history in explaining the dynamics of human action. It also touched on policy and political issues, including the roles of the individual and state.
Historical school of economics (Prussian Historical School): approach to academic economics and to public administration that emerged in the 19th century in Germany, and held sway there until well into the 20th c. Among the central tenets of this School was that "from her origins, it had been Prussia's historical mission to unite Germany".
Essays in Positive Economics (1953; Milton Friedman): collection of earlier articles with its lead an original essay "The Methodology of Positive Economics".
Non-aggression principle (non-aggression axiom, anti-coercion principle, zero aggression principle, non-initiation of force, or NAP)
Template:Types of justice
Social justice: idea of creating a society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being. Criticism: no full definition; how one can treat somebody in a socially just way if the other does not treat you that way? Whats the difference between "justice" and "social justice"? Is "social justice" injustice?

Think tanks, advocacy organizations[edit]

Category:Advocacy groups
Category:Political advocacy groups
Category:Science advocacy organizations
Category:Think tanks
Category:Think tanks by topic
Category:Science and technology think tanks
Union of Concerned Scientists (1969-): nonprofit science advocacy organization based in the United States. The UCS membership includes many private citizens in addition to professional scientists.
Competitive Enterprise Institute: non-profit libertarian think tank. Financial ills as of 2009.
Mont Pelerin Society: international organization composed of economists, philosophers, historians, intellectuals, business leaders, and others who favor classical liberalism. It advocates freedom of expression, free market economic policies, and the political values of an open society. Had strong influence on many governments (including USA). Secretive? What did they accomplish? Where did they fail?
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS): bipartisan Washington, D.C., foreign policy think tank; conducts policy studies and strategic analyses on political, economic and security issues, focusing on technology, public policy, international trade and finance, and energy
Google Ideas: cross-sector, inter-disciplinary "think tank" or "think/do tank" based in New York City, dedicated to understanding global challenges and applying technological solutions.
Edge Foundation, Inc.: association of science and technology intellectuals created in 1988 as an outgrowth of The Reality Club. Currently, its main activity is contributing to the edge.org website, edited by publisher and businessman John Brockman. The site is an online magazine exploring scientific and intellectual ideas.

Power ranking of states, corporations[edit]

Category:Power (social and political)
Category:Influence (social and political)
Category:Superpowers
Sphere of influence (SOI): spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it. Historical remnants: Many areas of the world are considered to have inherited culture from a previous sphere of influence, that while perhaps today halted, continues to share the same culture, e.g. Anglosphere, Arab World, Eurosphere, Francophonie, Françafrique, Greater India, legacy of the Roman Empire/Latin America, East Asian cultural sphere (Chinese cultural sphere), Slavisphere (RU vs other slavs?), Spanish sphere of influence (i.e. language?). Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: WWII (Axis vs USSR; later Axis vs USSR + Allies); Cold War.
Map reflecting the categories of power in international relations.
Major regional powers in their political regions.
Power (international relations): Those states that have significant amounts of power within the international system are referred to as middle powers, regional powers, great powers, superpowers, or hyperpowers/hegemons, although there is no commonly accepted standard for what defines a powerful state. The G-20 is seen as a meeting of governments that exercise varying degrees of influence within the international system. Entities other than states can also acquire and wield power in international relations; such entities can include multilateral international organizations, military alliance organizations (e.g. NATO: 70% global military expenditure), multinational corporations (e.g. Wal-Mart), NGOs, the Roman Catholic Church, Al-Qaeda, or other institutions such as the Hanseatic League.
Regional power
Superpower: Alice Lyman Miller: "a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time, and so may plausibly attain the status of global hegemony". British Empire (WWII) → USA + USSR (Cold War) → USA.
Superpower collapse: USSR; USA: PRC's Government views USA as "a superpower in decline"; UK: Suez Crisis of 1956 is generally considered as the beginning of the end of Britain's period as a superpower.
Great power: state that is recognized as having the ability to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own.
1815 1878 1900 1919 1939 1945 c. 2000
 Austria[1][2][3]  Austria-Hungary[4]  Austria-Hungary[5]
 British Empire[1][2][3]  British Empire[4]  British Empire[5]  British Empire[6]  United Kingdom[nb 1][7]  United Kingdom[1][8][9]  United Kingdom[10][11][8][1][12][13][14][15][16][17]
 China[1][8]  China[1][8][11][15][18][19]
 France[1][2][3]  France[4]  France[5]  France[6]  France[7]  France[1][8]  France[10][1][8][11][12][13][15]
 Prussia[1][2][3]  Germany[4]  Germany[5]  Germany[7]  Germany[10][1][11][12][13][15]
 Italy[20][21][22][23]  Italy[5]  Italy[6]  Italy[7]
 Japan[5]  Japan[6][nb 2]  Japan[7]  Japan[1][11][18][24][12][15]
 Russia[1][2][3]  Russia[4]  Russia[5]  Soviet Union[7]  Soviet Union[1][8][9]  Russia[1][8][11][18][12][13][15]
 United States[5]  United States[6]  United States[7]  United States[1][8][9]  United States[10][1][8][11][25][12][13][15]
Potential superpowers: state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be, or is in the process of becoming, a superpower at some point during the 21st century. Presently, only USA fulfills the criteria to be considered a superpower. States most commonly mentioned as being potential superpowers are PRC, EU, India, and Russia. {Obsolete [2014]: Comparison by: population, HDI, GDP, Global 2000 firms, Patents in force, Oil reserves, Security Council, IMF voting power, IBRD voting power, Defense spending, Military personnel, Nuclear weapons}. Notably, the EU as a whole has some of the world's largest and most influential languages being official within its borders.
American Century: characterization of the 20th century as being largely dominated by USA in political, economic, and cultural terms.
Chinese Century
The European Dream
Indian century
Pacific Century
European balance of power: international relations concept that applies historically and currently to the states of Europe. It is often known by the term European State System. Its basic tenet is that no single European power should be allowed to achieve hegemony over a substantial part of the continent and that this is best curtailed by having a small number of ever-changing alliances contend for power.

Political systems[edit]

Category:Political systems
Category:Voting systems
Category:Multi-winner electoral systems
Category:Proportional representation electoral systems
Category:Party-list PR: party-list proportional representation
Category:Electoral systems
Category:Proportional representation electoral systems
Closed list: variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected. If voters have at least some influence then it is called an open list. In closed list systems the party has pre-decided on who will receive the votes for the political parties in the elections, that is, the candidates positioned highest on this list tend to always get a seat in the parliament while the candidates positioned very low on the closed list will not.
Mixed-member proportional representation
Testimonial party (nl: beginselpartij/getuigenispartij): political party that focuses on its principles, instead of adapting them to local or temporal issues in the pursuit of coalition government participation. Specific phenomenon in NL, because of the Dutch system of proportional representation, in which any party which has over 0.66% of the vote can enter parliament, resulting in a large number of relatively small political parties, none of which are able to obtain a supermajority in the house of representatives. As a result, Dutch political parties will negotiate and compromise to form a coalition government. Testimonial parties will not compromise, and combined with the fact that they are usually small parties, participation in a coalition government is extremely unlikely.

Political processes[edit]

Mediatisation: loss of imperial immediacy; subsumption of one monarchy into another monarchy in such a way that the ruler of the annexed state keeps his sovereign title and, sometimes, a measure of local power.
German Mediatisation (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss): series of mediatisations and secularisations that took place in the Holy Roman Empire 1795-1814 and that drastically altered the political map of the country under relentless military and diplomatic pressure from revolutionary France and later Napoleon.

Intelligence, espionage, secret agencies, "privacy is dead"[edit]

Category:Government
Category:National security
Category:Intelligence (information gathering)
Category:Espionage

Spies = Espionage:

Tradecraft:
Dead drop
Agent handling: management of agents, principal agents, and agent networks (called "assets") by intelligence officers typically known as case officers.
Template:National intelligence agencies
USA: CIA + FBI + DIA + NSA
Israel: Mossad + Shin Bet + MID + Unit 8200
Russia: SVR + FSB + GRU = ex-KGB
Chilling Effects (group): Google sends the cease-and-desist letters it receives to this group; backed by EFF and many law schools in USA
Industrial espionage: Concerns of national governments: DE: main perpetrator was thought to be China, although it has been revealed that a significant amount of economic espionage on Germany was conducted by USA

United States government secrecy[edit]

Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF): enclosed area within a building that is used to process SCI level classified information. A SCIF prevents physical, electromagnetic and any other eavesdropping in SCIF facilities.
Intellipedia: online system for collaborative data sharing used by the United States Intelligence Community. Uses MediaWiki and Google was contracted to provide the servers and search to rank the pages. Three separate wikis running on JWICS, SIPRNet, Intelink-U.
SIPRNet: "a system of interconnected computer networks used by the United States Department of Defense and the U.S. Department of State to transmit classified information (up to and including information classified SECRET) by packet switching over the TCP/IP protocols in a 'completely secure' environment". Bradley Manning & WikiLeaks; US diplomatic cables.
Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS): system of interconnected computer networks primarily used by the United States Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice to transmit classified information by packet switching over TCP/IP in a secure environment. Cleared up to Top Secret and SCI.
Intelink: group of secure intranets used by the United States Intelligence Community. Intelink refers to the web environment on protected top secret, secret, and unclassified networks. Intelink-U: sensitive but unclassified; Intelink-S: secret-level variant of Intelink, operates on SIPRNet; Intelink-TS: sharing intelligence products up to the Top Secret and SCI level, operates on JWICS; Intelink-P (CapNet): CIA’s sole-source link to the White House and other high-level, intelligence consumers; Intelink-C (Commonwealth; STONEGHOST): links the USA, the UK, Canada, and Australia intelligence communities at the TS/SCI level.
In 1975 Church Committee; Frank Church (about NSA): "That capability at any time could be turned around on the American people, and no American would have any privacy left, such is the capability to monitor everything: telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn't matter. There would be no place to hide", "I don't want to see this country ever go across the bridge... I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return".
Utah Data Center (Intelligence Community Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative Data Center): data storage facility for the United States Intelligence Community that is designed to store data on the scale of yottabytes (1024 bytes).

Template:NRO satellites (Satellites of USA National Reconnaissance Office)

KH-9 Hexagon: series of photographic reconnaissance satellites launched by USA between 1971 and 1986. Of twenty launch attempts by the National Reconnaissance Office, all but one were successful. Photographic film aboard Big Bird was sent back to Earth in recoverable film return capsules for processing and interpretation. The best ground resolution achieved by the main cameras was better than 0.6 meters.
Global surveillance: Main targets: China, Russia, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan were ranked highly on the NSA's list of spying priorities, followed by France, Germany, Japan, and Brazil. Irrelevant : From a US intelligence perspective, countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Nepal were largely irrelevant, as were most European countries like Finland, Denmark, Croatia and the Czech Republic.
Global surveillance disclosures (1970–2013)
Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)
Aftermath of the global surveillance disclosure
Global surveillance by category
Mastering the Internet
Total Information Awareness
Template:NSA surveillance
Terrorist Surveillance Program (~2001.09.11-): NSA implemented the program to intercept al Qaeda communications overseas where at least one party is not a U.S. person
NSA call database: NSA maintains a database containing hundreds of billions of records of telephone calls made by U.S. citizens from the four largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, BellSouth (all three now called AT&T), and Verizon.
Stellar Wind (STELLARWIND): open secret code name for certain information collection activities performed by NSA and revealed by Thomas Tamm to The New York Times reporters James Risen and Eric Lichtblau. W. Binney goes on to say that the NSA has highly secured rooms that tap into major switches, and satellite communications at both AT&T and Verizon.
SIGINT Activity Designator (SIGAD): SIGINT line of collection activity; associated with a signals collection stations, which may be a base or a ship.
PRISM (surveillance program): in-depth surveillance on live communications and stored information; provides for the targeting of any customers of participating corporations who live outside the United States, or American citizens whose communications include people outside the USA; allegedly includes email, video and voice chat, videos, photos, voice over IP conversations, file transfers, login notifications and social networking details.
XKeyscore: searching and analyzing Internet data about foreign nationals across the world
Boundless Informant
Tailored Access Operations
UKUSA Agreement (United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement; Five Eyes (FVEY)): multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. 9 Eyes, 14 Eyes, other "third parties": NATO members, other European democracies (Sweden), Pacific allies (Singapore, South Korea), Israel, Japan...
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)[edit]
Template:CIA activities in Africa
Template:CIA activities in Asia and the Pacific
Template:CIA activities in Russia and Europe
CIA activities in the Soviet Union
Template:CIA activities in the Americas
Template:CIA activities in the Near East, North Africa, South and Southwest Asia

Russia's government and USSR's secrecy[edit]

Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia) (SVR): successor of the First Chief Directorate (PGU) of the KGB
Federal Security Service (Russia) (FSB): main successor of KGB
GRU (Main Intelligence Directorate): more powerful than SVR; Spetsnaz GRU
Template:Secret police of Communist Europe
KGB:
Mitrokhin Archive: collection of notes made secretly by KGB Major Vasili Mitrokhin during his thirty years as a KGB archivist in the foreign intelligence service and the First Chief Directorate.
First Chief Directorate (of KGB): responsible for foreign operations and intelligence collection activities by the training and management of the covert agents, intelligence collection management, and the collection of political, scientific and technical intelligence. After USSR collapse it became Foreign Intelligence Service.
Oleg Gordievsky (1938.10.10-): former colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezident) and bureau chief in London, who was a secret agent of the British Secret Intelligence Service from 1974 to 1985.
Pavel Sudoplatov (1907.07.07–1996.09.26) was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. He was involved in several famous episodes, including the assassination of Leon Trotsky, the Soviet espionage program which obtained information about the atomic bomb from the Manhattan Project, and Operation Scherhorn, a Soviet deception operation against the Germans in 1944. His autobiography, Special Tasks, made him well-known outside the USSR, and provided a detailed look at Soviet intelligence and Soviet internal politics during his years at the top.
Metro-2: informal name for a purported secret underground metro system which parallels the public Moscow Metro (known as Metro-1 when in comparison with Metro-2). The system was supposedly built, or at least started, during the time of Joseph Stalin and was codenamed D-6 (Д-6) by the KGB. It is said to connect the Kremlin with FSB headquarters, the government airport at Vnukovo-2, and an underground town at Ramenki, in addition to other locations of national importance.

Germany's secret services and secrecy[edit]

"Bundestrojaner": :)
de:Online-Durchsuchung & Computer surveillance
Stasi 2.0: 2013.08 German Chancellor Angela Merkel rejected the comparison between NSA and the Stasi, suggesting that the comparison trivialises what state security did to people in East Germany
de:Fefes Blog
de:Sperrungen von Internetinhalten in Deutschland
de:Freiheit statt Angst
de:Volkszählungsboykott#Volkszählungsboykott: interesting; why? Before people were asked even stronger and stranger questions? Anonymity and privacy vs (efficient) service provision and open society... What is "open society"? Freedom of speech? Freedom to be anonymous?..

Media manipulation, control of information[edit]

Category:Media manipulation
Category:Media manipulation techniques
Category:Propaganda
Category:Propaganda techniques
Category:Black propaganda
Template:Propaganda (Propaganda techniques)
Fear, uncertainty and doubt vs. Public relations vs. Spam (electronic)
Black propaganda: false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. It is typically used to vilify, embarrass or misrepresent the enemy. Black propaganda is covert in nature in that its aims, identity, significance, and sources are hidden.
Active measures: form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB) to influence the course of world events; "Not intelligence collection, but subversion: active measures to weaken the West, to drive wedges in the Western community alliances of all sorts, particularly NATO, to sow discord among allies, to weaken the United States in the eyes of the people of Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and thus to prepare ground in case the war really occurs" - retired KGB Maj. Gen. Oleg Kalugin.
Useful idiot

Privacy[edit]

Category:Privacy

{q.v.:

}

Information privacy (data privacy): relationship between collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them. Privacies: medical, financial, political (voting), Internet (ISPs, websites, databases, logging of data).
Personally identifiable information (PII): information technology and the Internet have made it easier to collect PII, leading to a profitable market in collecting and reselling PII. Forensics: criminals hide their PII (wear masks, gloves, no handwriting, proxy IP address). Intelligence agencies: sometimes employees do not disclose to their family and friends where they work.
Privacy law and regulations worldwide:
Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications: privacy regulation in EU.
@DE: de:Datenkrake (data + octopus): "steht für Systeme und Organisationen, die personenbezogene Informationen in großem Stil auswerten und/oder sie an Dritte weitergeben".
Expectation of privacy (in US constitutional law): legal test which is crucial in defining the scope of the applicability of the privacy protections of the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution.
Organizations:
Privacy International (PI): UK-based non-profit organisation formed in 1990, "as a watchdog on surveillance and privacy invasions by governments and corporations": rankings of countries by Privacy index.
de:FoeBuD (FoeBuD, Verein zur Förderung des öffentlichen bewegten und unbewegten Datenverkehrs): DE privacy and digital rights organisation. Moto: "a world worth living in the digital age". Has links with CCC.
de:Big Brother Awards (Big Brother Awards): practically all major institutions and huge companies have infringed on privacy one way or another.
Freiheit statt Angst (Freedom not Fear): yearly demonstration for data/info privacy and against surveillance, in DE from 2006; from 2008 in other countries.
Some companies using the web users for their financial gain (and privacy breach):
Claria Corporation (formerly: Gator Corporation) [1998-2006/2008]: produced spyware containing products. Going for advertisement money: replace websites' ads with their own ads.
NebuAd [2006-2009]: developing behavioral targeting advertising systems, seeking deals with ISPs to enable them to analyse customer's websurfing habits in order to provide them with more relevant, micro-targeted advertising.
Phorm (previously: 121Media): at first produced spyware containing products. Then produced Webwise - behavioral targeting service (similar to NebuAd) that uses deep packet inspection to examine traffic. UK ISPs used/use Phorm.

Fictional agents and spies[edit]

Category:Fictional secret agents and spies
Stierlitz (Шти́рлиц): lead character in a popular Russian book series written in the 1960s by novelist Yulian Semyonov and of the television adaptation Seventeen Moments of Spring. Stierlitz has become a stereotypical spy in Soviet and post-Soviet culture, similar to James Bond in Western culture. Ivan Zassoursky notes that Vladimir Putin, a former KGB agent, has been portrayed as "embod[ying] the image—very important for the Russian television audience—of Standartenführer von Stierlitz... If anyone missed the connection between Putin, who served in Germany, and von Stierlitz, articles in the press reminded them of the resemblance and helped create the association." The connection went both ways; Putin was strongly influenced by the novels, commenting: "What amazed me most of all was how one man's effort could achieve what whole armies could not."

Philosophy of politics[edit]

Kant (de version):
A. Gesetz und Freiheit ohne Gewalt (Anarchie).
B. Gesetz und Gewalt ohne Freiheit (Despotism).
C. Gewalt ohne Freiheit und Gesetz (Barbarei).
D. Gewalt mit Freiheit und Gesetz (Republik).
Translation:
A Law And Freedom without Violence (Anarchy)
B Law And Violence without Freedom (Despotism)
C Violence without Freedom And Law (Barbarism)
D Violence with Freedom And Law (Republic)
Template:Libertarianism sidebar
Minarchism: small government, or limited-government libertarianism. The only governmental institutions would be the military, police, courts, and legislatures, with some theories also including prisons.
Template:Anarcho-capitalism: Anarcho-capitalist literature: Neal Stephenson's: Snow Crash and The Diamond Age: "franchise operated quasi-national entities": free market for sovereignty services; Ayn Rand's: Atlas Shrugged: isolated community with no government, that operates strictly according to the non-aggression principle
Outline of libertarianism:
  • supports:
    Individual responsibility
    Self-Sufficiency
    Constitutionalism
    Economic freedom
    Self-ownership
    Voluntary association
    Self-management
    Free will
    Non-aggression
  • rejects:
    Authoritarianism
    Coercion
    Military conflict
    Tax
    War on Drugs
    Imperialism
  • debates among schools:
    Free market / Laissez-faire vs. Socialism/Communism:
    Libertarian socialism (social anarchism, sometimes left libertarianism): group of political philosophies that promote a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic, stateless society without private property in the means of production. Libertarian socialism is opposed to all coercive forms of social organization, and promotes free association in place of government and opposes what it sees as the coercive social relations of capitalism, such as wage labor. The term libertarian socialism is used by some socialists to differentiate their philosophy from state socialism or by some as a synonym for left anarchism.
    Anarchism vs. Minarchism/Libertarian municipalism

International relations[edit]

Category:Foreign policy
Category:Global politics
Category:Political geography
Category:International relations
Category:Bilateral relations
Category:International disputes
Category:Territorial disputes

{q.v. #EU and surrounding nations}

Japan–United States relations: notion that Japan is becoming the "Great Britain of the Pacific", or the key and pivotal ally of USA in the region.
United States–European Union relations: Cooperation: NATO Quint = US and EU big four (France, Germany, Italy and the UK), Arms embargo on the People's Republic of China

Territorial disputes[edit]

Category:Territorial disputes
Category:Disputed territories by location
Maritime claims in the South China Sea.
Territorial disputes in the South China Sea#Background: involve both island and maritime claims among seven sovereign states within the region: Brunei, PRC (China), Taiwan (ROC), Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Nine-dotted line
Haiyang Shiyou 981 standoff: tensions between China and Vietnam arising from the Chinese state-owned China National Offshore Oil Corporation moving its Haiyang Shiyou 981 (known in Vietnam as "Hải Dương - 981") oil platform to waters near the disputed Paracel Islands in South China Sea, and the resulting Vietnamese efforts to prevent the platform from establishing a fixed position.
Paracel Islands
Aksai Chin#Strategic importance: China National Highway 219 runs through Aksai Chin connecting Lazi and Xinjiang in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Despite this region being nearly uninhabitable and having no resources, it remains strategically important for China as it connects Tibet and Xinjiang. Construction started in 1951 and the road was completed in 1957. The construction of this highway was one of the triggers for the Sino-Indian War of 1962.

Political geography[edit]

Category:Political geography
Category:Administrative divisions
Category:Country subdivisions
Category:Types of country subdivisions
March (territory) (mark): border region similar to a frontierq; during the Frankish Carolingian Dynasty, usage of the word spread throughout Europe. Generally circumscribed the same or similar land area as a county but was differentiated from other counties by its special position at the border of the state. In contrast to regular counties, which were ruled over by counts, marches were (at least in theory) ruled over by nobles with the title of Marquess (English), Marquis (French or Scots), Margrave (Markgraf i.e. count of the mark) or nobles with corresponding titles (other European states).
Welsh Marches (Welsh: Y Mers)
Marches of Neustria: two Marches created in 861 by the Carolingian king of West Francia Charles the Bald that were ruled by officials appointed by the crown, known as wardens, prefects or margraves (or "marquis" in French).

Geopolitics[edit]

Category:Political geography
Category:Geopolitics
Geostrategy

Political history, changes in political power[edit]

Category:Political history
Category:Changes in political power
Category:Revolutions
Revolutionary wave: series of revolutions occurring in various locations in a similar time period. In many cases, past revolutions and revolutionary waves may inspire current ones, or an initial revolution inspires other concurrent "affiliate revolutions" with similar aims.
Atlantic Revolutions: United States (1775–1783), France and French-controlled Europe (1789–1814), Haiti (1791–1804), and Spanish America (1810–1825).
Revolutions of 1848 (Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples, the Year of Revolution)
Caricature by Ferdinand Schröder on the defeat of the revolutions of 1848/49 in Europe (published in Düsseldorfer Monatshefte, 1849.08.)
Revolutions of 1917–23: formed a revolutionary wave precipitated by the end of World War I in general and the Russian Revolutions of 1917 in particular.

Government, government intervention and government regulation[edit]

Regulatory capture: examples: USA: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) (formerly: Minerals Management Service (MMS)) - Deepwater Horizon oil spill; Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC): ponzi scheme in silver and gold trading; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): hydraulic fracturing of rocks "posed little or no threat" to drinking water; Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): unsafe planes flying; New York Fed: flirting with Wall Street; FDA: Monsanto's rBGH (growth hormone); ICC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): 1979 Three Mile Island accident; OCC: financial crisis of 2008 and banks OCC controls; SEC: Wall Street, crisis of 2008. Japan: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA): Fukushima.
Crony capitalism: "The larger the government budget and the more the economy is regulated, the more opportunities for cronyism exists." Examples: military-industrial complex of USA; USDA (US dept. of Agriculture: Creekstone Farms); Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac.
Government failure: when a government intervention causes a more inefficient allocation of goods and resources than would occur without that intervention. Government's failure to intervene in a market failure that would result in a socially preferable mix of output is referred to as passive Government failure. Government vs. economics = Politicians vs. economists.
Democracy (EL: δημοκρατία (dēmokratía) "rule of the people"): all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives; contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, and monarchic elements. Concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle Ages, the Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the American and French Revolutions.
Criticism of democracy: Economic: irrational voters, efficiency of the system, wealth disparity. Sociological: lack of political education, benefits of a specialised society. Political: uncontested good, cyclical theory of government, Political Coase Theorem, political instability (many people have put forward the idea that democracy is undesirable for a developing country in which economic growth and the reduction of poverty are top priority). Philosophical: mob rule (Plato's the Republic: "Democracy, which is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder, and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequaled alike"), violation of Property Rights (libertarians), timocracy and oligarchy, role of republicanism, moral decay. Administrative: short-termism (instability of coalition governments), corruption within democratic governments, volatility/unsustainability.
Democracy Index: index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. 4 regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes, and authoritarian regimes.
Anti-democratic thought: 1.1 Plato's rejection of Athenian democracy; 1.2 Nietzsche on democracy; 1.5 Michels on democracy (iron law of oligarchy)
Democracy: The God That Failed (BOOK): by Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is a German-born academic, libertarian theorist and an Austrian School economist. {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/History#Soviet Union, USSR (1922-1991)}
The Economist's Democracy Index survey for 2012.
Continuity of government: principle of establishing defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of nuclear war or other catastrophic event.

Government self-regulation[edit]

JASON (advisory group): independent group of scientists which advises the USA government on matters of science and technology. The group was first created as a way to get a younger generation of scientists—that is, not the older Los Alamos and MIT Radiation Laboratory alumni—involved in advising the government. It was established in 1960 and has somewhere between 30 and 60 members.

Forms of government[edit]

Category:Forms of government
Category:Federalism
Category:Welfare state
Federation (Latin: foedus, foederis, 'covenant'; aka federal state): political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. Important ones: Argentina, Mexico, USA. Alleged de facto federations: Spain, European Union, Russian Federation, South Africa.
Regional state: more centralized than a federation, but more decentralized than a unitary state. Important ones: China, France, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

International organizations[edit]

{q.v.:

}

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO; HQ=The Hague; 1991.02.11-): purpose is to facilitate the voices of unrepresented and marginalised nations and peoples worldwide. Technically, it is not a non-governmental organisation (NGO) as some of its members are governments or government agencies of unrecognized states

Eurasia:

Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM; 1996-): EU Commission, ASEAN Plus Three (the Three: China (PRC), Korea, Japan); from 2008: India, Mongolia, Pakistan; from 2010: Australia, Russia, New Zealand; from 2012: Bangladesh, Norway, Switzerland.
Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF)
Asia-Europe Museum Network (ASEMUS)
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE; langs=en, fr, de, it, ru, es): world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control and the promotion of human rights, freedom of the press and fair elections. The OSCE is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation.
Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty: post–Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed 1999.11.19 during OSCE's 1999 Istanbul summit. The main difference with the earlier treaty is that the troop ceilings on a bloc-to-bloc basis (NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact) would be replaced with a system of national and territorial ceilings. NATO member-states link their ratification of the Adapted CFE Treaty with the fulfillment by Russia of the political commitments it undertook at the 1999 OSCE Istanbul Summit (so called "Istanbul commitments") to withdraw its forces from Georgia and Moldova. Russia has strongly criticized this linkage, which it considers artificial, and has on several occasions questioned the relevance of the Adapted CFE Treaty, given its continued non-ratification by NATO states. Russia suspended its ratification in 2007.07.14 amidst cooling relations between the US and Russia.
Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations: Transnistria, Abkhazia and South Ossetia recognize each other; Nagorno-Karabakh joined later (?)
Science and Development Network: not-for-profit organisation dedicated to providing reliable and authoritative information about science and technology in the developing world to policymakers, researchers, the media and civil society.
International Criminal Court (ICC): permanent international tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression (although jurisdiction for the crime of aggression will not be active until 2017 at the earliest). Intended to complement existing national judicial systems, and may only exercise its jurisdiction when national courts are unwilling or unable to investigate or prosecute such crimes.
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO): Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: international financial institution that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region. The bank was proposed as an initiative by the government of China, supported by 37 regional and 20 non-regional Prospective Founding Members (PFM), all of which have signed the Articles of Agreement that form the legal basis for the proposed bank. On 2015.12.25, 17 states (Australia, Austria, Brunei, China, Georgia, Germany, Jordan, Luxembourg, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Singapore, South Korea and the United Kingdom) together holding 50.1% of the initial subscriptions of Authorized Capital Stock, had deposited the instrument of ratification for the agreement, triggering entry into force, and making them all founding members. The capital of the bank is $100 billion, equivalent to 2⁄3 of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank.

United Nations (UN)[edit]

Template:United Nations & United Nations (UN): international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. Founded in 1945 after WWII to replace League of Nations. General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). FAO (food and agriculture), IAEA, ICAO (aviation), IFAD, ILO, IMO (maritime), IMF, ITU, UNESCO, UNIDO (industrial development), UPU (postal), WB (World Bank, or World Bank Group (WBG)?), WFP, WHO, WIPO, WMO (meteorological), UNWTO (tourism).
Defamation of religion and the United Nations: issue that has been repeatedly addressed by some member states of UN since 1999. Several non-binding resolutions have been voted on and accepted by the UN condemning "defamation of religion". The motions, sponsored on behalf of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, aim to prohibit expression that would "fuel discrimination, extremism and misperception leading to polarization and fragmentation with dangerous unintended and unforeseen consequences". Religious groups, human rights activists, free-speech activists, and several countries in the West have condemned the resolutions arguing it amounts to an international blasphemy law. Critics of the resolutions including human rights groups argue that they are used to politically strengthen domestic anti-blasphemy and religious defamation laws, which are used to imprison journalists, students and other peaceful political dissidents.
Durban Review Conference: 2009 United Nations World Conference Against Racism (WCAR). Conference was boycotted by Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and USA. The Czech Republic discontinued its attendance on the first day, and twenty-three other EU countries sent low-level delegations. The western countries had expressed concerns that the conference would be used to promote anti-Semitism and laws against blasphemy perceived as contrary to the principles of free speech, and that the conference would not deal with discrimination against homosexuals. European countries also criticized the meeting for focusing on the West and ignoring problems of racism and intolerance in the developing world.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
World Digital Library (WDL): international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress; aims to expand non-English and non-western content on the Internet, and contribute to scholarly research; make available on the Internet, free of charge and in multilingual format, significant primary materials from cultures around the world, including manuscripts, maps, rare books, musical scores, recordings, films, prints, photographs, architectural drawings, and other significant cultural materials
International Court of Justice (ICJ): primary judicial branch of the United Nations. It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. Its main functions are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly.
World Bank Group[edit]
World Bank Group (WBG): family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries. It is the largest and most famous development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group. Technically the World Bank is part of the United Nations system, but its governance structure is different: each institution in the World Bank Group is owned by its member governments, which subscribe to its basic share capital, with votes proportional to shareholding. Membership gives certain voting rights that are the same for all countries but there are also additional votes which depend on financial contributions to the organization. The President of the World Bank is nominated by the President of USA and elected by the Bank's Board of Governors.
World Bank: international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. Official goal is the reduction of poverty. However, according to its Articles of Agreement, all its decisions must be guided by a commitment to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and to the facilitation of Capital investment.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries. It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated by WWII.
International Development Association: international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries.
International Finance Corporation: international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset management services to encourage private sector development in developing countries. It was established in 1956 as the private sector arm of the World Bank Group to advance economic development by investing in strictly for-profit and commercial projects that purport to reduce poverty and promote development. The IFC's stated aim is to create opportunities for people to escape poverty and achieve better living standards by mobilizing financial resources for private enterprise, promoting accessible and competitive markets, supporting businesses and other private sector entities, and creating jobs and delivering necessary services to those who are poverty-stricken or otherwise vulnerable.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)[edit]

International Monetary Fund (IMF): "hedge fund of the world" run by US (~17% of all votes)? SDRs are proportional to vote percentage. Is it socialist or libertarian or somebody-to-get-rich (like in arms trading)? IMF's impact on: access to food, public health, environment. IMF's support to dictators during the Cold War.
Special Drawing Rights: supplementary foreign exchange reserve assets. Not a currency, SDRs instead represent a claim to currency held by IMF member countries for which they may be exchanged. As they can only be exchanged for Euros, Japanese yen, UK pounds, or US dollars, SDRs may actually represent a potential claim on IMF member countries' nongold foreign exchange reserve assets, which are usually held in those currencies. ISO 4217 code: XDR. As of March 2011, the amount of SDRs in existence is around XDR 238.3 billion, but this figure is expected to rise to XDR 476.8 by 2013.
Institute of International Finance (IIF): world's only global association or trade group of financial institutions - world's largest commercial banks and investment banks, as well as a growing number of insurance companies and investment management firms; associate members include multinational corporations, trading companies, export credit agencies, and multilateral agencies. Created by 38 banks of leading industrialized countries in 1983 in response to the international debt crisis of the early 1980s. IIF played a role in the global financial crisis of 2008 by advocating to relax subsequent attempts of self-regulation (Basel III rules), the debt crises of Latin American, Asia, and the Euro zone. Greek debt crisis

World Trade Organization (WTO)[edit]

World Trade Organization (WTO, NOT part of UN; i.e. UN is for politics, WTO is for economics and trade, but UN & WTO work "closely" together politically as economics goes hand-in-hand with politics, e.g. International Trade Centre (ITC)): supervise and liberalize international trade. Before Jan. 1, 1995 - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. The WTO is governed by a ministerial conference, meeting every two years; a general council, which implements the conference's policy decisions and is responsible for day-to-day administration; and a director-general, who is appointed by the ministerial conference. Languages: en, fr, es.
International Trade Organization (ITO): Bretton Woods Conference 1944; but by 1950 ITO still was non-existent, while "GATT 1947" gained significance leading to GATT and later WTO to be the replacement for never-to-be ITO.
World Trade Organization accession and membership: huge economies joining WTO (all others, like EU, USA, Japan, South Korea were from GATT times): India (1995 1 01), Indonesia (1995 1 01), China (PRC, 2001 12 11), Taiwan (ROC, 2002 1 01), Russia (2011 12 16).
Template:GATT and WTO trade rounds: Uruguay (full access for textiles and clothing from developing countries to the OECDs)
Multi Fibre Arrangement: Bangladesh for the cheapest clothing, China for better quality "bras". EU & USA fight Chinese textile imports outside WTO/GATT agreement.
Criticism of the World Trade Organization
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS): TRIPS contains requirements that nations' laws must meet for copyright rights, including the rights of performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations; geographical indications, including appellations of origin; industrial designs; integrated circuit layout-designs (Mickey-Mouse copyright by Disney meets the IC "copyright-like" IP rights of Intel); patents; monopolies for the developers of new plant varieties; trademarks; trade dress; and undisclosed or confidential information. TRIPS also specifies enforcement procedures, remedies, and dispute resolution procedures.
Doha Declaration (Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, 2001 Nov.): the old guard of patents and the new cheap "essential medicines". Similar to Linux vs. MS Windows/Mac OS X patent battles, just now human lives are at stake.
Essential medicines: List of World Health Organization Essential Medicines

NATO[edit]

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE): central command of NATO military forces. Location: at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons (at first located in Paris (1951-1967), but then France (under de Gaulle) left NATO). From 1951, SHAPE was the headquarters of operational forces in the European theatre (Allied Command Europe, ACE), but since 2003 SHAPE has been the headquarters of Allied Command Operations (ACO) controlling all allied operations worldwide. The commanding officer of Allied Command Operations has also retained the title "Supreme Allied Commander Europe" (SACEUR), and continues to be a U.S. four-star general officer or flag officer who also serves as Commander, U.S. European Command.
Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum (JFC-B): NATO military command based in Brunssum, Netherlands.
Contact Countries (2000): Australia (AUSCANNZUKUS) [formerly also UK], New Zealand (AUSCANNZUKUS) [formerly also UK], Japan [WWII & USA occupation of Japan], South Korea [USA and Korean War]
AUSCANNZUKUS ("Five Eyes"): Anglosphere nations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK, and USA.
Enlargement of NATO: After the Cold War ended, and Germany reunited in 1990, there was a debate in NATO about continued expansion eastward. In 1999, Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic joined the organization, amid much debate within the organization and Russian opposition. Cyprus and Macedonia are stalled from accession by, respectively, Turkey and Greece, pending the resolution of disputes between them. Other countries which have a stated goal of eventually joining include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Georgia. The incorporation of countries formerly in the Soviet sphere of influence has been a cause of increased tension between NATO countries and Russia.
  • Formation (1949)
  • +Greece, +Turkey (1952)
  • +West Germany (1955)
  • +Spain (1982)
  • Germany reunited (1990; Cold War ended)
  • +Poland, +Hungary, +Czech Republic (1999)
  • +Estonia, +Latvia, +Lithuania, +Slovenia, +Slovakia, +Bulgaria, +Romania (2004)
  • +Albania, +Croatia (2009)

Corruption, anti-corruption[edit]

Category:Corruption
Category:Political corruption
Category:Anti-corruption measures
Category:Accountability
Category:Transparency (behavior)
Category:Whistleblowing
Category:Dissent
Category:Whistleblowing
Category:Accountability
Category:Transparency (behavior)
Category:Whistleblowing

Whistleblowing, hacktivism[edit]

Category:Whistleblowing
Category:WikiLeaks
Category:Whistleblower support organizations

{q.v.:

}

Template:WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks: international, online, non-profit, journalistic organisation which publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media from anonymous sources. Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organization Sunshine Press, claimed a database of more than 1.2 million documents within a year of its launch. Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its founder, editor-in-chief, and director. Kristinn Hrafnsson, Joseph Farrell, and Sarah Harrison are the only other publicly known and acknowledged associates of Julian Assange.
GlobaLeaks: open-source, free software intended to enable anonymous whistleblowing initiatives.

Language[edit]

Category:Language
Category:Linguistics

Languages are divided into:

Natural languages, e.g. English, German, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Hindi-Urdu, Japanese, Lithuanian
Vernacular: literary language variant vs vernacular, e.g. Classical Latin vs Vulgar Latin or classical Arabic vs spoken Arabic. The vernacular (idiom, dialect, mother tongue, {"spoken"}) is evolving all the time according to (small) groups of persons, but the literary variant is slower to evolve and more "frozen" in time, as it will be read at the time when vernacular will be so far away from the classical/written language as French/Italian/Spanish & Portuguese/Romanian from Classical Latin. Undefined concept.
Constructed languages:
Engineered language:
Programming/Computer languageComputer programming, but programming languages are written in English (keywords!) with strict math-logic (syntax, semantics; specification (idealism) and implementation (realism); type system; library(ies)), but it's also an art of writing in the same sense as writing book/poem/Wikipedia article...
An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language

Language bragging:

Universal language
World language
Lingua franca
First language (native language, mother tongue, arterial language, L1)
Multilingualism: Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population; becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness

What is language?

"Dialect" or "language (similar as in bio: "species problem"):
Dialect continuum (dialect area; language continuum): defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate such that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible. The lines we can draw between areas that differ with respect to any feature of language are called isoglosses. There are occasions when various nations of the same linguistic origins occupy the same territory and thus speak the same dialect, but have split standard languages located at different parts of the continuum, sometimes causing doubt as to precisely which language the dialect in question is a member of, e.g. Kashmir (Muslims - Urdu, Sikhs - Punjabi, Hindus - Hindi, but they can communicate with each other easily!), ex-Yugoslavia (Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs can communicate easily!). Language continuum: said to exist when two or more different languages or dialects merge one into the other(s) without a definable boundary, e.g. large parts of India; historically in various parts of Europe - from Portuguese to Walloon, from Portuguese to southern Italian dialects, between German and Dutch, but due to nation-states and standardized national languages, this no longer exists in Europe. Current examples: Turkic dialect continuum; Arabic - diglossia (Modern Standard Arabic: written standard; modern vernacular dialects/languages); Assyrian Neo-Aramaic; Iran and Central Asia (Persian, Dari and Tajik); Chinese (continuum comparable to that of the Romance languages, however they share a common written language - firstly Classical Chinese (till early 20th c.), nowadays - from báihuà {Written Vernacular Chinese} to Pǔtōnghuà {Modern Standard Chinese; Modern Standard Mandarin}; Mandarin continuum, Yue continuum, Min Nan continuum); Germanic (North Germanic continuum {Scandinavia}, Continental West Germanic continuum {High/Low German, Dutch, Frisian}); Indic dialect continuum; Romance languages; Slavic languages (West and East Slavic (also North Slavic); South Slavic continuum); Cree and Ojibwa.
Dialect levelling: refers to the assimilation, mixture and/or eradication of certain dialects, often due to language standardisation. Dialect levelling has been observed in most languages with large numbers of speakers after the industrialisation and modernisation of the area or areas in which they are spoken. Standard German: Urbanization and Standard Language (five forms of ‘Printer’s Language’ in 15th - 16th c.; Luther); Mandarin tonal levelling in Taiwan.
India, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Cameroon and around them are the areas that are the most linguistically diverse in the world.
Endangered language: While languages have always gone extinct throughout human history, they are currently disappearing at an accelerated rate due to the processes of globalization and neo-colonialism, where the economically powerful languages dominate other languages. The general consensus is that there are between 6000 and 7000 languages currently spoken, and that between 50-90% of those will have become extinct by the year 2100. The top 20 languages spoken by more than 50 million speakers each, are spoken by 50% of the world's population, whereas many of the other languages are spoken by small communities, most of them with fewer than 10,000 speakers. endangeredlanguages.com
Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages
Language documentation: process by which a language is documented from a documentary linguistics perspective; aims to “to provide a comprehensive record of the linguistic practices characteristic of a given speech community”.

Natural languages[edit]

Category:Linguistic typology
Fusional language: type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to overlay many morphemes to denote grammatical, syntactic or semantic change.Indo-European languages are: Sanskrit (and the modern Indo-Aryan languages), Greek (classical and modern), Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, German, Icelandic, Polish, Croatian, Serbian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Czech; another notable group of fusional languages is the Semitic languages group.
Synthetic language: high morpheme-per-word ratio

Classification, taxonomy of languages - difficult:

Language code: assigns letters and/or numbers as identifiers or classifiers for languages. Difficulties of classification - language code schemes attempt to classify within the complex world of human languages, dialects, and variants. Most schemes make some compromises between being general and being complete enough to support specific dialects.
IETF language tag: BCP 47; each language tag is composed of one or more "subtags" separated by hyphens (-), each subtag is made with basic Latin letters or digits only. There are exceptions and grandfathered cases, but the subtags occur in the following order: single primary language subtag (2 letter: ISO 639-1 or 3 letter: ISO 639-2/3/5); up to three optional extended language subtags composed of three letters each, separated by hyphens; optional script subtag (composed of a four letter script code from ISO 15924 (usually written in title case)); optional region subtag (composed of a two letter country code from ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 (usually written in upper case), or a three digit code from UN M.49 for geographical regions); optional variant subtags; optional extension subtags; optional private use subtag (composed of the letter x and a hyphen followed by subtags of one to eight characters each, separated by hyphens).
List of language regulators
Linguistic map of the Altaic, Turkic and Uralic languages.

Indo-European[edit]

  Hellenic
  Indo-Iranian
  Italic
  Celtic
  Germanic
  Armenian
  Balto-Slavic
  Balto-Slavic
  Albanian
  Non-Indo-European languages
Indigenous Aryans
Out of India theory (Indian Urheimat Theory)
Balto-Slavic[edit]
Baltic languages[edit]
Category:Researchers of Lithuanian language
lt:Kategorija:Lietuvos kalbininkai
ru:Категория:Литуанисты
ru:Категория:Балтисты
ru:Категория:Лингвисты Литвы
Daniel Klein (grammarian) (1609-1666)
Kristijonas Donelaitis (Christian Donalitius; 1714.01.1 - 1780.02.18): Prussian Lithuanian Lutheran pastor and poet
The Seasons (poem) (Metai)
Ludwig Rhesa (1776.01.9 - 1840.08.30)
Kazimieras Jaunius (1848-1908)
Kazimieras Būga (1879.11.6 - 1924.12.2)
lt:Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija (Commission of the Lithuanian Language; VLKK): Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo įsteigta valstybės įstaiga, kuri kolegialiai sprendžia Valstybinės kalbos įstatymo įgyvendinimo klausimus.
lt:Valstybinė kalbos inspekcija
Slavic languages[edit]

West and East Slavic (also North Slavic):

Lech, Čech, and Rus
East Slavic languages
Rusyn language (alive)
Ukrainian language
Belarusian language (White Ruthenian)
Ruthenian language (dead): With the beginning of romanticism at the turn of the 19th century, literary Belarusian and literary Ukrainian appeared, descendant from the popular spoken dialects and little-influenced by literary Ruthenian. Meanwhile, Russian retained a layer of Church Slavonic "high vocabulary", so that nowadays the most striking lexical differences between Russian on the one hand and Belarusian and Ukrainian on the other are the much greater share of Slavonicisms [sic!] in the former and of Polonisms [sic!] in the latter. The interruption of the literary tradition was especially drastic in Belarusian: In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish had largely replaced Ruthenian as the language of administration and literature. After that Belarusian only survived as a rural spoken language with almost no written tradition until the mid-19th century. In contrast to the Belarusians and Eastern Ukrainians, the Western Ukrainians who came to live in Austria-Hungary retained not only the name Ruthenian but also much more of the Church Slavonic and Polish elements of Ruthenian. For disambiguation, in English these Ukrainians are usually called by the native form of their name, Rusyns.
West Slavic languages
Czech–Slovak languages
Lechitic languages: language group consisting of Polish and several other languages that are or were spoken in areas of modern Poland and northeastern parts of modern Germany.
Sorbian languages


South Slavic languages: All South Slavic languages form a dialect continuum. It comprises, from West to East, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bulgaria. Standard Slovene, Macedonian, and Bulgarian are each based on a distinct dialect, but the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard varieties of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language are all based on the same dialect, Shtokavian. For that reason Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks and Montenegrins communicate fluently with each other in their own standard language. On the other hand, Croats speaking one dialect (Kajkavian) can hardly communicate with Croats speaking a different dialect (Chakavian). Same goes for Serbian Shtokavian and Torlakian dialects. Torlakian is closer to the Eastern branch of South Slavic languages, Bulgarian and Macedonian, than to Western South Slavic idioms. South Slavic languages share a set of grammatical features that set them apart from all other Slavic languages. The barrier between East South Slavic and West South Slavic is natural and not political: the speakers' ancestors inhabited their respective lands having taken alternative routes thus being apart for some generations. Because of this, an intermediate dialect linking western and eastern variations came into existence over time: this is called Torlakian and is spoken on the fringes of Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia (northern) and Serbia (eastern).
Eastern:
Bulgarian dialects: The dialects of Macedonian were for the most part classified as part of Bulgarian in the older literature. The Bulgarian linguistics continue to treat it as such in. Since the second half of the 20th century, foreign authors have mostly adopted the convention of treating these in terms of a separate Macedonian language, following the codification of Macedonian as the literary standard language of Yugoslav Macedonia. However, some contemporary linguists still consider Macedonian as a dialect of Bulgarian.
Dialects of Macedonian: part of the dialect continuum of South Slavic languages that joins the Macedonian language with Bulgarian to the east and Serbo-Croatian to the north. The precise delimitation between these languages is fleeting and controversial.
Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic language: conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine.
Transitional:
Torlakian dialect: group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia (southern Kosovo – Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian and Macedonian. Some linguists classify it as an Old Shtokavian dialect or as a fourth dialect of Serbo-Croatian along with Shtokavian, Chakavian, and Kajkavian. Others classify it as a western Bulgarian dialect, in which case it is referred to as a transitional dialect. Torlakian is not standardized, and its subdialects vary significantly in some features.
Western:
Chakavian dialect
Kajkavian dialect
Shtokavian dialect: prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin standards.
Serbo-Croatian
Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian are different national variants and official registers of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language. With the breakup of the Federation, in search of additional indicators of independent and separate national identities, language became a political instrument in virtually all of the new republics. With a boom of neologisms in Croatia, an additional emphasis on Turkisms in the Muslim parts of Bosnia and a privileged position of the Cyrillic script in Serb inhabited parts of the new states, every state and entity showed a 'nationalization' of the language. The language in Bosnia started developing independently after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence in 1992. The independent development of the language in Montenegro became a topic among some Montenegrin academics in the 1990s.
Slovene dialects
=Russian=[edit]
Yoficator: computer program or extension for a text editor that restores the Cyrillic letter Yo ‹Ё› in Russian texts in places where the letter Ye ‹Е› was used instead.
Yo (Cyrillic)
Germanic languages[edit]

global shift from German to English as main language of science (Science Nobel Prizes 1901-2009 by language)

Template:Germanic languages (Modern Germanic languages and dialects):
North Germanic:
West Scandinavian
East Scandinavian
West:
Anglo-Frisian
Low Franconian
Low German/Dutch Low Saxon
High German:
Central German
Upper German
Yiddish
Template:Germanic languages:
present-day distribution of the Germanic languages in Europe.
English and its smaller brothers/sisters[edit]

{q.v. #English grammar}

approximate present day distribution of native speakers of the Anglo-Frisian languages in Europe. Anglic
  Scots
Frisian
Anglo-Frisian languages:
Anglic (English languages)
English language
Scots (Scots language)
Yola and Fingalian (both extinct)
Frisian (Frisian languages):
West Frisian
Saterland Frisian
North Frisian
The distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around AD 1:
  North Germanic
  North Sea Germanic, or Ingvaeonic
  Weser-Rhine Germanic, or Istvaeonic
  Elbe Germanic, or Irminonic
  East Germanic
Additionally, corrections have been made (e.g. North Germanic spoken on the island of Zealand, rather than East Germanic).
English languages
Old English (Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, West Saxon)
Early Northern
Middle English
Early Midland & Southeastern
Middle English
Early Southern & Southwestern
Middle English
Early Scots Northern
Middle English
Midland
Middle English
Southeastern
Middle English
Southern
Middle English
Southwestern
Middle English
Middle Scots Northern Early Modern English Midland Early Modern English Metropolitan Early Modern English Southern Early Modern English Southwestern EME, Yola, Fingallian
Modern Scots Northern Modern English East West Modern English Standard Modern English Southern Modern English West Country Modern English
Selected Languages And Accents Of The British Isles
English language, my personal (read: biased, about which I can brag a lot) favorite due to technological development, engineering, science, partly arts, literature, history, very very partly culture
Template:English dialects by continent, it's not unified (but more unified than Chinese or Arabic, plainly because CN & AR are much much and only much older correspondingly; also CN script is so much like Egyptian hieroglyphs [my other bias...]), EN is not governed (unlike Spanish, French, partly German), although some do try
List of countries by English-speaking population, look at the countries & then see the richest countries & then see the developing world & then see who does science/engineering/art/culture... Most importantly, not the native speakers, but second-language speakers will drive EN forward; new terms coming to EN from DE, FR, ES, CN, Hindi-Urdu, Latin, even RU or AR
German language#German loanwords in the English language: schadenfreude, ubermensch, kitsch, Blitz, angst, Gestalt, leitmotif, realpolitik, reich, sprachraum, Leitkultur, Kulturnation
English-language spelling reform: seeks to change English spelling so that it is more consistent, matches pronunciation better, and follows the alphabetic principle.
English language in England (English English, Anglo-English, English in England)
Linguistic purism in English (Anglish):
Politics and the English Language (essay by George Orwell, 1946):
  1. Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
  2. Never use a long word where a short one will do.
  3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
  4. Never use the passive where you can use the active.
  5. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
  6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
List of English words with disputed usage: some English words are often used in ways that are contentious between writers on usage and prescriptive commentators. The contentious usages are especially common in spoken English.
Common English usage misconceptions: widespread modern beliefs about English language usage that are documented by a reliable source to be myths or misconceptions.
Comparison of American and British English: AmE=revenue, sales, BrE=turnover;
American and British English spelling differences: Latin-derived spellings: -our, -or; -re, -er; -ce, -se; -xion, -ction. Greek-derived spellings: -ise, -ize (-isation, -ization); -yse, -yze; -ogue, -og; ae and oe. Doubled consonants. Dropped e. Past tense differences. Different spellings for different meanings. Different spellings for different pronunciations. Miscellaneous spelling differences. Compounds and hyphens. Acronyms and abbreviations. Punctuation.
Phonological history of English high back vowels: Foot–goose merger. Foot–strut split. Merger of Middle English /y/, /ɛu/, /eu/, and /iu/. Shortening of /uː/ to /ʊ/. Change of /uː.ɪ/ to [ʊɪ].
Phonological history of English short A
Commonly misspelled English words: words that are often unintentionally misspelled in general writing. A selected list of common words is presented below. Although the word "common" is subjective depending on the situation, the focus is on general writing, rather than in a specific field.
German (Deutsch)[edit]
German language (Deutsch): L1=90 mln (Hochdeutsch), 120 mln (all dialects); L2=80 mln
Sprachwarietäten Deutsch.
Darstellungskarte des historischen Verlaufes der Benrather und der Speyerer Linie als Trenngrenze zwischen Nieder- und Mitteldeutsch.
de:Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung: wurde im Jahr 2004 als Nachfolger der Zwischenstaatlichen Kommission für deutsche Rechtschreibung von Deutschland, Österreich, der Schweiz, Südtirol, Liechtenstein und der deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens gemeinsam eingerichtet.

Hochdeutsch:

Central German
Mitteldeutsche Mundarten.
Upper German
Oberdeutsche Dialekte.
Distribution map of the Low Saxon and Low Franconian languages since 1945.

Low German OR Dutch Low Saxon:

Middle Low German (Middle Saxon; 1100-1600): served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League
Low German (Low Saxon; Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch; de: Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; nl: Nedersaksisch; L1=5 mln (???))
West Low German (Low Saxon; de: Niedersächsisch; nl: Nedersaksisch; L1=4 mln (DE, NL, DK)
Dutch Low Saxon (nl: Nedersaksisch)
East Low German (Pomeranian, Prussian; L1=??? (DE, PL, BR)): before 1945 the dialect was spoken along the entire German Baltic Coast, from Mecklenburg, through Pomerania, West Prussia into certain villages of the East Prussian Memel-Klaipėda Region.
Indo-Aryan languages[edit]
Linguistic map of modern Iranian languages: Farsi (green), Pashto (purple) and Kurdish (turquoise), Lurish (red), Baloch (Yellow) and other communities.
Iranian languages distribution.png
Iranian languages: most are written in Arabic script
Template:Indo-Iranian languages: largest subgroups: Indo-Aryan (Indic), Iranian (Persian-like)

Hindustani = Hindi-Urdu = Hindi (mainly India) + Urdu (lingua franca in Pakistan and huge numbers in India)

Sanskrit: historical Indo-Aryan language, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in Jainism and Buddhism. Classical Sanskrit is laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini ~4 BCE.
Italic languages, Romance languages[edit]
Category:Italic languages
Category:Latino-Faliscan languages
Category:Latin language
Category:Romance languages

{q.v. #Latin literature}

Romance languages.
Late Latin: old Roman empire
Mediterranean Lingua Franca: ~1000
Medieval Latin (9th-14th)
Renaissance Latin (14th-15th)
New Latin (16th-up to now)
Ecclesiastical Latin: special type of Latin
Romance languages: modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin in 6-9th c. A.D.

CJK[edit]

Character amnesia: phenomenon whereby experienced speakers of some East Asian languages forget how to write Chinese characters previously well known to them. The phenomenon is specifically tied to prolonged and extensive use of input methods, such as those that use romanizations of characters, and is documented to be a significant issue in China and Japan. Modern technology, such as mobile phones and computers, allows users to enter Chinese characters using their phonetic transcription without knowing how to write them by hand.
Chinese[edit]
Chinese language could be considered a group (family) of Sinitic languages
Varieties of Chinese: primary ones - Mandarin, Wu, Cantonese, Min. Chinese people make a strong distinction between written language (文, Pinyin: wén) and spoken language (语/語 yǔ).
Chinese writing: at least two ?types? -- traditional and simplified
Chinese character classification:
pictograms (e.g. Sun, Moon, mountain, water)
simple ideograms (e.g. one (一), two (二), three (三), up (上), below (下))
ideogrammatic compounds
rebus (phonetic loan) chars: characters that are "borrowed" to write another homophonous or near-homophonous morpheme, comparable with using "4" as a rebus for English "for" in "4ever"
phono-semantic compound characters (aka: radical-phonetic; form over 90% of Chinese chars)
Spoken Chinese: a group of Sinitic languages; Chinese as a language in the broad sense to the foreigner: at least Mandarin ((vernacular) Standard Mandarin in written form is the main one, still has local vernaculars even in written, e.g. the chemical element names in PRC vs ROC; official in PRC (Hong Kong and nearby Macau) and ROC (Taiwan), Singapore (one of 4 official langs)), but also exist (minority compared to standard Mandarin): Wu, Cantonese, Min, Jin, Xiang, Hakka, Gan, Hui, Ping...
The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy {John DeFrancis}
Classical Chinese: from the times of Confucius; only learned in Taiwan at school and in PRC during the specialized university courses. The reading aloud is difficult, as the rhymes in poetry are distorted by Mandarin or other dialect pronunciation. One needs to know how to read aloud Chinese characters in Classical Chinese spoken language (which is not fully known, as it was changing with each emperor, who came always from different corner of the greater historical China)
Standard Chinese (aka: Mandarin, Putonghua): phonology of the standard is based on the Beijing dialect, but its vocabulary is drawn from the large and diverse group of Mandarin dialects spoken across northern, central, and southwestern China. The language is usually written using Chinese characters, in either simplified or traditional form, augmented by Hanyu Pinyin romanization for pedagogical purposes. the most popular written Chinese variant after 1920s, when the Classical Chinese was superseded by Written Vernacular Chinese (not to be confused with the broader dialect group -- Mandarin Chinese).
Written vernacular Chinese (aka: Standard Written Chinese, Modern Written Chinese {to avoid ambiguity with spoken vernaculars, with the written vernaculars of earlier eras, and with modern unofficial written vernaculars such as written Cantonese or written Hokkien}): refers to forms of written Chinese based on the vernacular language, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China to the early twentieth century; written vernacular based on Mandarin Chinese was used in novels in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and later refined by intellectuals associated with the May Fourth Movement. Since the early 1920s, this modern vernacular form has been the standard style of writing for speakers of all varieties of Chinese throughout mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore as the written form of Modern Standard Chinese.
Simplified Chinese characters: used in PRC and Singapore; in some cases a few traditional chars point to a single simplified char; many simplification rules
Debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters: ongoing debate concerning Chinese orthography among users of Chinese characters. It has stirred up heated responses from supporters of both sides in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities with its implications of political ideology and cultural identity. The effect of simplified characters on the language remains controversial decades after their introduction. Automated conversion, from simplified to traditional is not straightforward because there is not a one-to-one mapping of a simplified character to a traditional character; one simplified character may equate to many traditional characters; as a result a computer can be used for the bulk of the conversion but will still need final checking by a human.
Ambiguities in Chinese character simplification: relatively small number of Chinese characters do not have a one-to-one mapping between their simplified and traditional forms.
Sinophone: neologism that fundamentally means "Chinese-speaking", typically referring to a person who speaks at least one variety of Chinese.
Chinese Wikipedia: proof of variety of Chinese languages/dialects, vernacular vs classical: conversion table for 6 different written variants, and 6 Wikipedias in 6 other varieties of Chinese language (Minnan (Taiwanese), Cantonese (Standard Cantonese), Mindong (Fuzhou dialect), Wu (Shanghai & Suzhou dialects, classical (old) Wu literature), Hakka (Siyen dialect), Gan (Nanchang dialect)) and Classical Chinese Wikipedia (something like Latin Wikipedia for Romance language speakers)
m:Automatic conversion between simplified and traditional Chinese: the technical part of 6 different written variants in order not to split the Chinese Wikipedia (written by ROC, PRC, Hong Kong, Macau and other Chinese) into 6 projects
Naming taboo: cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere; discouraged the use of the emperor's given name and those of his ancestors; discouraged the use of the names of one's own ancestors; discouraged the use of the names of respected people.
Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese: some historical Chinese characters for non-Chinese peoples were graphically pejorative ethnic slurs, where the racial insult derived not from the Chinese word but from the character used to write it. Wilkinson (2000: 38) compared these "graphic pejoratives selected for aborigines and barbarians" with the "flattering characters chosen for transcribing the names of the Western powers in the nineteenth century", for instance, Meiguo 美國 "United States". Almost all logographically pejorative Chinese characters are classified as "phono-semantic compounds", characters that combine a phonetic element approximately or exactly suggesting pronunciation and a radical or determinative approximately indicating meaning. The most common radical among graphic pejoratives is Radical 94 犬 or 犭, called the "dog" or "beast" radical, which is ordinarily used in characters for animal names (e.g., mao 猫 "cat", gou 狗 "dog", zhu 猪 "pig").
History of the Chinese language[edit]
History of the Chinese language: Proto-Sino-Tibetan ⇒ Sinitic + Tibeto-Burman languages (unproven hypothesis).
Historical Chinese phonology: deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past. Progress in Chinese linguistics was seriously hampered up to early 20th c. by the lack of any concept of a phoneme (basic unit of sound, including vowels and vowel-like segments as well as consonants). This made it impossible to go beyond determination of systems of rhyming categories to reconstruction of the actual sounds involved. Methods of reconstruction: rime dictionaries and rime tables; modern Chinese speaking variants; Sino-Xenic data (Chinese loanwords borrowed in large number into Vietnamese, Japanese and Korean in 500-1000); other early cases of Chinese words borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g. Sanskrit; early cases of transliteration of foreign words from Sanskrit and Tibetan into Chinese; 'Phags-pa script (1270-1360, Yuan dynasty) - alphabetic script; transcriptions of Chinese by foreigners starting in 15th c. (Hangul, Portuguese-Chinese dictionary).
Old Chinese (1122 BC (1300 BC) - 256 BC (early centuries AD) [early and middle Zhou Dynasty]; 上古汉语/上古漢語; pinyin: Shànggǔ Hànyǔ; "Archaic Chinese"; more narrowly: 1000-700 BC [Shījīng, Classic of Poetry]): possesed a rich sound system; probably was without tones.
Middle Chinese (6th - 10th (12th) c. [Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties]; 中古汉语/中古漢語; pinyin: Zhōnggǔ Hànyǔ; MC): early MC (6th c.) - Qieyun, late MC - Guangyun.
Modern varieties (13th c - present): most modern varieties appear to have split off from a Late Middle Chinese koine of about 1000 AD (although some remnants of earlier periods are still present).

How come after several thousands of years, the official spoken Chinese was based on Beijing Mandarin dialect (an not on some spoken Southern Chinese variety):

Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation (讀音統一會): was established in ROC from 1912 to 1913 to select ancillary phonetic symbols for Mandarin (Zhuyin (Bopomofo) was the product), and set the standard Guoyu pronunciation of basic Chinese characters.
National Languages Committee (en: Mandarin Promotion Council, National Languages Promotion Committee): as established by the Ministry of Education of ROC with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Mandarin in ROC. Created 1919.04.21; Commission was renamed to the Preparatory Committee for the Unification of the National Language, headed by Woo Tsin-hang and had 31 members on 1928.12.12
Template:Dictionaries of Chinese:
Qieyun (切韻/切韵; pinyin: Qièyùn; 601 CE): Chinese rime dictionary used as the primary source for reconstructing Middle Chinese.
Japanese[edit]
Japanese language - one of the most complicated written systems (combines kanji, hiragana, katakana, and rōmaji; arabic and Sino-Japanese numerals) with 'small sound inventory', 'pitch-accent':
Kanji
Korean[edit]
Hangul: Korean alphabet written in blocks (blocks are like Chinese character' blocks) of syllables (similar to written Chinese in this block issue, the blocks represent full morphophonology). List of modern Hangul syllabic blocks by strokes: 11,172 precomposed Hangul syllables → Is this (Hangul: featural linear alphabet) easier for reading as compared to alphabets (Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, ...)?
CJK handled by Western technologies together[edit]
Technical aspects of CJK languages: Line breaking rules in East Asian language (cf. to Indo-European: Word wrap)

Afroasiatic languages (Semitic: Arabic, Amharic, Hebrew; Egyptian; Cushitic (Somali))[edit]

Semitic (Hebrew, Arabic), Berber, Cushitic, Omotic, Chadic

Egyptian hieroglyphs: were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. The last known inscription is from Philae, known as The Graffito of Esmet-Akhom, from 394 CE. Rosetta Stone.
Eastern Aramaic languages
Aramaic language: speakers=approximately 2,105,000 (1994–1996); 3,000-year written history; Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship; day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period (539 BC – 70 AD), the language that Jesus Christ probably used the most; language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and is the main language of the Talmud. However, Jewish Aramaic was different from the other forms both in lettering and grammar. Parts of the Dead Sea Scrolls are in Jewish Aramaic showing the unique Jewish lettering, related to the unique Hebrew script. Modern Aramaic is spoken today as a first language by many scattered, predominantly small, and largely isolated communities of differing Christian, Jewish, and Mandean ethnic groups of West Asia—most numerously by the Assyrians in the form of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic —that have all retained use of the once dominant lingua franca despite subsequent language shifts experienced throughout the Middle East; Aramaic languages are considered to be endangered.
Neo-Aramaic languages (Neo-Aramaic, or Modern Aramaic)
Northeastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA)
Neo-Syriac [syr] (Sooreth, Suret, Soorath, Soorith, Suras, Sureth):
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (219k; aii)
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (220k; cld)
Judeo-Aramaic varieties, spoken by Jewish communities in Israel: Hulaulá or Judeo-Aramaic [huy], Lishana Deni [lsd], Lishán Didán [trg], Lishanid Noshan [aij]
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic [bhn] (Georgia)
Hértevin [hrt] (Turkey)
Koy Sanjaq Surat [kqd] (Iraq)
Senaya [syn] (Iran)
Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic [bjf] (Israel), extinct
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic [tmr] (Iraq), extinct
Syriac language: Disappeared as a vernacular language after the 14th century

Egyptian language (ancient Egyptian):

Egyptian language: oldest known language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. The earliest known complete sentence in the Egyptian language has been dated to about 2690 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.
Hieratic: cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia. It developed alongside cursive hieroglyphs, to which it is separate yet intimately related. It was primarily written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs.

Dravidian languages[edit]

Tamil (66 mln, 1997)
Malayalam (50 mln, 2012)
Telugu (74 mln, 2000)
Kannada (Canarese) (35 mln, 1997)

Uralic languages[edit]

Linguistic maps of the Uralic languages.
Uralic languages.
Uralic languages
Livonian language & Votic language

Turkic languages[edit]

Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Oghuz (Southwestern Turkic) languages.
Kipchak (Northwestern Turkic) languages.
Karluk (Southeastern Turkic) languages.
Turkic languages: 43% Turkish, 15% Azerbaijani, 14% Uzbek, 10% Kazakh, 6% Uyghur, 4% Turkmen, 3% Tatar, 2% Kyrgyz, 3% Other. Division: Southwestern Common Turkic (Oghuz), Northwestern Common Turkic (Kipchak), Southeastern Common Turkic (Karluk), Northeastern Common Turkic (Siberian), (Arghu) {Khalaj}, Oghur {Chuvash}.
Template:Turkic languages
Oghuz languages:
  • Western group:
    • Turkish: Turkish, Ottoman Turkish, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, and the language of the Meskhetian Turks
    • Azerbaijani: the northern and southern varieties of Azerbaijani of Iran and Azerbaijan, and the languages of the Iraqi Turkmen of Iraq
  • Eastern or Turkmen group: Turkmen, Khorasani Turkish, and the Oghuz dialect of Uzbek
  • Southern group: Qashqa'i, Sonqori, Aynallu, and Afshar
Kipchak languages:
  • Kipchak–Bulgar (Uralian, Uralo-Caspian): Bashkir and Tatar
  • Kipchak–Cuman (Ponto-Caspian): Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, Karaim, Krymchak. Urum and Crimean Tatar appear to have a Kipchak–Cuman base, but have been heavily influenced by Oghuz languages.
  • Kipchak–Nogay (Aralo-Caspian): Nogay (also Nogai or Nogay Tatar), Karakalpak, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz.
Karluk languages
Siberian Turkic languages
Oghur languages (Bulgar): only extant member is the Chuvash language
List of alphabets used by Turkic languages: main alphabets: Latin, Cyrillic, Arabic; sometimes: Greek. E.g. Turkish: tur-Arab → tur-Latn; Azerbaijani: Arab ~→ Cyrl/Latn.
Old Turkic script
Ottoman Turkish language
Turkish language
Semitic[edit]
Approximate historical distribution of Semitic languages.
Semitic languages
Different dialects of Arabic in the Arab world.
Varieties of Arabic: five regional forms; native language (vernacular) vs formal language learned in school. The formal language: Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Classical Arabic (CA; Quranic Arabic; serves as inspiration for MSA). Further differences Bedouin and sedentiary speech, men and women, the young and the old, social classes, religious groups. Many registers, but (educated) Arabic speakers usually know several registers and use them accordingly. Regional vernaculars are as different as Dutch and German or Italian and French (Roman Empire collapse in 5th c, Muslim Arabic Quran came into existence after 8th c.).

Mongolic languages[edit]

Linguistic maps of the Mongolic languages.
Mongolic languages

Tungusic languages[edit]

Linguistic maps of the Tungusic languages.

Austronesian languages[edit]

Austronesian languages: divided in several primary branches, all but one of which are found exclusively on Taiwan.
Malayo-Polynesian languages (Extra-Formosan): approximately 385.5 million speakers; language family shows a strong influence of Sanskrit and later Arabic as the region has been a stronghold of Buddhism, Hinduism and since the 10th century, Islam.
Oceanic languages
Austronesian peoples: various populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania that speak languages of the Austronesian family. Include: Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of Malaysia, East Timor, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia; also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China.

Proposed language families[edit]

Category:Proposed language families
Yeniseian languages: language family whose languages are and were spoken in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia.
Na-Dene languages

Language change[edit]

Euphemism: categories: Phonetic Euphemisms or Minced Oaths, Semantic Euphemisms (abstractions ("tired and emotional" for drunk), understatements, metaphors), slang... Euphemism treadmill: lavatory - toilet - W.C. - bathroom - restroom (US EN) - washroom (Canada); lame → crippled → spastic → handicapped → disabled → physically challenged → differently abled; shell shock (WWI) → battle fatigue (WWII) → operational exhaustion (Korean War) → posttraumatic stress disorder (Vietnam War); USA: "war" (1942 declaration of war on Romania) - pacification - presence (Cold War) - humanitarian intervention - conflict/aggression/action/tension/unrest/crisis - limited kinetic action (2011 military intervention in Libya)
Template:Interlanguage varieties:
Denglisch (Denglish): pseudo-anglicisms: Handy (cell/mobile), Beamer (projector)

Linguistics[edit]

Category:Linguistics
Category:Grammar
Category:Lexicology
Category:Linguistic morphology
Category:Philology
Category:Phonology
Category:Translation studies
Template:Linguistics
Template:Semantics

Lexicology[edit]

Category:Lexicology
Template:Lexicography

Lexicography == Lexicology? Lexicography >= Lexicology? Lexicology belongs to Lexicography but not vice versa?

Lexicology: "only lexicologists who do write dictionaries are lexicographers"
Computational lexicology
Lexical item (lexical unit, lexical entry): single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (=catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon (≈vocabulary). E.g. cat, traffic light, take care of, by the way, and it's raining cats and dogs. Lexical items can be generally understood to convey a single meaning, much as a lexeme, but are not limited to single words.

Morphology[edit]

Category:Linguistic morphology
Morphology (linguistics): identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology).

Phonology[edit]

Category:Phonology
Phonology: branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Metathesis (linguistics) (from Greek μετά-θε-σις, from μετα-τί-θη-μι "I put in a different order": Latin trānspositiō): re-arranging of sounds or syllables in a word, or of words in a sentence.
Whistled language: use whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication.

Grammar[edit]

Category:Grammar
Grammar = morphology + syntax + phonology; often complemented by phonetics + semantics + pragmatics.
Double negative (multiple negation): in most logics and some languages, double negatives cancel one another and produce an affirmative sense; in other languages, doubled negatives intensify the negation. Languages where multiple negatives intensify each other are said to have negative concord, e.g. pt, fr, es. Standard en, de, la do not have negative concord.
Subject complement
Placeholder name
Generic antecedent
Preposition stranding: syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object. (The preposition is then described as stranded or hanging.) Found in Germanic languages: en, Scandinavian, but maybe not in de or nl.
English grammar[edit]
Category:English grammar
History of English grammars: begins late in the sixteenth century with the Pamphlet for Grammar by William Bullokar (1586). In the early works, the structure and rules of English grammar were contrasted with those of Latin.
Template:English grammar (English grammar series)
English grammar
Disputes in English grammar: politics & grammar: from gender issues to complicated syntaxes
Template:English gender-neutral pronouns: Singular they, He#Generic, One (pronoun), generic you
English relative clauses: are formed principally by means of relative pronouns; basic relative pronouns are who, which, and that; who also has the derived forms whom and whose. Human or non-human antecedents; Restrictive or non-restrictive relative clauses;
Syntax and lexicon[edit]

Construction grammar#Syntax-lexicon continuum: lexicon (vocabulary) and syntax - from smallest pieces to full sentences?

Lexicon: words and expressions; vocabulary
Template:Lexical categories: Part of speech (aka a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category)
Article (grammar)#Variation among languages (Linguists believe the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, Proto Indo-European, did not have articles; Balto-Slavic langs, Homeric Greek. Joseph Greenberg describes "the cycle of the definite article": Definite articles (Stage I) evolve from demonstratives, and in turn can become generic articles (Stage II) that may be used in both definite and indefinite contexts, and later merely noun markers (Stage III) that are part of nouns other than proper names and more recent borrowings. Eventually articles may evolve anew from demonstratives.), lt:Artikelis (Artikeliai kilo ypač kalbose, neišsaugojusiose arba stipriai redukavusiose linksnių sistemą???), de:Artikel (Wortart)#Artikellose Sprachen (jaunas vyras - jaunasis vyras), ru:Артикль#Определённые_артикли_в_русских_диалектах
Lexeme: abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of forms taken by a single word.
Topic-prominent language: e.g. East Asian langs (as opposed to Indo-European langs which are subject-prominent)
Standard Mandarin grammar: (other spoken varieties are similar, therefore as well) in both written varieties there is only one grammatical form of words (but this distinction could be obvious from the context; lots of freedom for puns?), i.e. the Standard Mandarin lexemes are invariant (no "see, saw, seen, sees, seeing", just "see" when verb is taken as an example): (e.g. adverbs and adjectives?)
Question sentences have a special character at the end of the sentence, "?" could be added in addition
Syntax (programming languages)#Syntax versus semantics
Iteration mark: ditto mark (〃). CJK(V): ZH: 二 (usually appearing as 〻) or 々; kanji repetition symbol: 々; hiragana: ゝ; katakana: ヽ
Syntactic ambiguity: property of sentences which may be reasonably interpreted in more than one way, or reasonably interpreted to mean more than one thing. In syntactic ambiguity, the same sequence of words is interpreted as having different syntactic structures. In contrast, in semantic ambiguity, the structure remains the same, but the individual words are interpreted differently.
Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana & Time flies like an arrow
Languages by region[edit]
Languages of the European Union#Language skills of citizens

Philology[edit]

Category:Philology
Category:Textual criticism
Textual criticism: branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of transcription errors in texts, both manuscripts and printed books. Given a manuscript copy, several or many copies, but not the original document, the textual critic seeks to reconstruct the original text (the archetype or autograph) as closely as possible. Eclecticism; Stemmatics; Copy-text editing; Cladistics (taken from biology); Application of textual criticism to religious documents.

Deafness and speech[edit]

Visible Speech: Alexander Melville Bell
Martha's Vineyard Sign Language: sign language popularity with relatively huge percentage of death people in the population. Also sign language as a visual communication over the distance vs. spoken word which loses its intensity over distance as .

Writing (and display (+printing)): writing systems, characters, symbols ...[edit]

Category:Writing systems
Category:Alphabets
Category:Greek alphabet
Template:List of writing systems:
Undeciphered writing systems
  1. Abjads: <consonant alphabets>, represent consonants only, or consonants plus some vowels. E.g. Arabic, Hebrew
  2. Abugidas, aka alphasyllabary: segmental writing system which is based on consonants, and in which vowel notation is obligatory but secondary. E.g. North Indic, South Indic, Thaana (for Dhivehi; Maldives), Ethiopic (Ge'ez), Canadian Syllabic
  3. Alphabets: e.g. Latin, Cyrrilic, small ones: Greek, Armenian, Georgian
  4. Ideograms and pictograms (aka pictographs): e.g. SignWriting (e.g. hand signs, flag signs), Aztec, DanceWriting (dance poses), ...
  5. Logograms (aka logographs): grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (the smallest meaningful unit of language). E.g. Chinese, (logo-syllabic: Maya, Cuneiform, ...), (logo-consonantal: hieroglyphs {Ancient Egypt}, derivatives), (numerals: Hindu-Arabic, Roman, Greek (Attic), Abjad)

Unicode: writing system of all writing systems (aka "alphabet" of all "alphabets"); a universal charset[edit]

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Character encoding}

Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.; 1991.01 in California): non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard.
Unicode (& UCS). {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Character encoding}
Unicode equivalence: specification by the Unicode character encoding standard that some sequences of code points represent essentially the same character.
Universal Character Set characters: The Unicode Consortium (UC) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) collaborate on the Universal Character Set. By creating this mapping, the UCS enables computer software vendors to interoperate and transmit UCS encoded text strings from one to another. Because it is a universal map, it can be used to represent multiple languages at the same time. This avoids the confusion of using multiple legacy character encodings, which can result in the same sequence of codes having multiple meanings and thus be improperly decoded if the wrong one is chosen.
Plane (Unicode): in Unicode standard, planes are groups of numerical values (code points) that point to specific characters. Unicode code points are logically divided into 17 planes, each with 65,536 (= 216) code points. Planes: 0 (BMP); 1 (SMP); 2 (SIP); 3-13 (unassigned); 14 (Supplementary Special-purpose Plane (SSP)); 15 and 16 (Supplementary Private Use Area-A and -B: Private Use (Unicode))
Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP, plane 0): where most characters have been assigned so far; contains characters for almost all modern languages, and a large number of special characters.
Supplementary Multilingual Plane (SMP, plane 1): contains historic scripts; historic and modern musical notation; mathematical alphanumerics; Emoji and other pictographic sets; reform orthographies like Shavian and Deseret; and game symbols for playing cards, Mah Jongg, and dominoes.
Supplementary Ideographic Plane (SIP, plane 2): is used for CJK Ideographs, mostly CJK Unified Ideographs, that were not included in earlier character encoding standards.
Unicode block: defined as one contiguous range of code points. Blocks are named uniquely and have no overlap.
b:Unicode/Character_reference & Template:Planes (Unicode): all planes of code point ranges
Han unification
Unicode input: MS Windows, Mac OS, Linux; Vim, Emacs.
  1. RFC1345: Character Mnemonics & Character Sets (1893 chars) for human input; Vim, Emacs
  2. Unicode and HTML: Some web browsers, such as Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Safari and Internet Explorer (from version 7 on), are able to display multilingual web pages by intelligently choosing a font to display each individual character on the page. They will correctly display any mix of Unicode blocks, as long as appropriate fonts are present in the operating system.
  3. Help:URL
  4. Help:Special characters: From MediaWiki 1.5, all projects use UTF-8 character encoding.
Universal Character Set (UCS; ISO/IEC 10646) (& Unicode): standard set of characters upon which many character encodings are based. The UCS contains nearly one hundred thousand abstract characters, each identified by an unambiguous name and an integer number called its code point. In 1990, Unicode and ISO 10646 were separate developments, which had meet together and ISO 10646 synchronized the repertoire of the BMP with Unicode. {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Character encoding}

Natural language and computing:

Internationalization and localization (i18n & L10n; localizability: L12y; NLS (National Language Support or Native Language Support))
Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR): project of the Unicode Consortium to provide locale data in the XML format for use in computer applications. Used in Mac OSX, OpenOffice.org, and IBM's AIX.
Unicode characters[edit]
Punctuation marks[edit]
Punctuation (Template:Punctuation marks):
Space (punctuation): not in CJ(K), but modern Korean uses spaces
Full stop: CJ - solid dot ("。"), for Thai - the space is the period and no separation between words (as CJ)
(solidus) vs Slash (punctuation)
Dash:
dash-like: hyphen-minus ("-", U+002D) vs soft hyphen (U+00AD), hyphen ("‐", U+2010), minus sign (−, U+2212)
dashes: figure dash ("‒", U+2012), en dash ("–", U+2013), em dash ("—", U+2014), horizontal bar ("―", U+2015), swung dash ("⁓", U+2053)
Quotation mark (quotes, inverted commas): punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character.
Quotation marks in English: "" OR .
Mathematical symbols[edit]
List of mathematical symbols & Mathematical operators and symbols in Unicode:
Equals sign: = (U+003D), ≈ (U+2248), ≃ (U+2243), ≅ (U+2245), ~ (U+007E), ≒ (U+2252)

Alphabets[edit]

Category:Alphabets
Category:Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet:
Sigma (Σ, σ, ς - lower case in word-final position; Ϲ, ϲ - lunate forms): lunate sigma: in handwritten Greek during the Hellenistic period (4th and 3rd c. BC), the epigraphic form of Σ was simplified into a C-like shape, also found on coins from 4th c. BC onwards.
Epsilon (Ε, ε; ϵ - lunate)

Alphabets in biology[edit]

DNA/RNA sequences
Amino acid sequences
Many possible nucleotide modifications & even more possible amino acid modifications (like 21st & 22nd amino acids)
More fluid alphabets for lipids, sugars (carbohydrates), and the derivatives of nucleotides, amino acids, sugars, lipids, metabolic intermediates and any combination of them to produce cellular biochemicals ⇒ metabolome

Orientation of writing[edit]

Bi-directional text: Hebrew and Arabic are written from right to left (RTL)
Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts: CJK can be written: vertically from top to bottom, columns from right to left (pseudo-RTL; becomes RTL when a column is of 1 symbol); horizontally LTR (Western influence; or in the old times: pseudo RTL due to column writing)

Printing (display)[edit]

Category:Publishing
Category:Printing
Prepress:
Raster image processor
PostScript (it's a Turing-complete programming language)
PostScript fonts
TrueType: outline font standard developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. Many agreements between Apple and Microsoft/Adobe.
Font hinting
Press:
Computer to plate (output the printing plates directly by the machine connected to PC)
Lithography (from limestone+chemicals and ink to metal drums+emulsion+lasers and oily inks)
Post-press: cutting, binding, covers
Small scale:
Plotter: for vector graphics; not raster image; almost not used today because of raster printer high PPI + huge amount of RAM and CPU power replacing them
Display:
Subpixel rendering
Heidelberger Druckmaschinen : one of the largest printer producer for offset publishing not small scale printing
Typography[edit]
Category:Printing
Category:Typography
Category:Digital typography
Category:Typography software
Category:Desktop publishing software
Category:Typesetting
Category:Publishing
Category:Typesetting

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Computer graphics}

Template:Typography terms
Paragraph:
Typographic alignment
Justification (typesetting)
Character:
Vertical aspects:
x-height (corpus size; ex)
Typographic units:
Point (typography) = 1/72 inch (e.g. 10 point font; due to DPI and PPI being not the same, the font displayed on LCD is not the same size as the point on the printed paper).
Typesetting
Complex text layout (CTL; complex text rendering; complex scripts): typesetting of writing systems which require complex transformations between text input and text display for proper rendering on the screen or the printed page. E.g. Arabic alphabet, Brahmic script family (Devanagari), Thai alphabet. CTL is a generalization of the concept of ligature. Main CTL characteristics: bi-directional text, context-sensitive shaping (ligatures), ordering - the displayed order is not the same as the logical order.
Homoglyph: one of two or more characters, or glyphs, with shapes that either appear identical or cannot be differentiated by quick visual inspection. This designation is also applied to sequences of characters sharing these properties. Antonym is synoglyph (display variant), which refers to glyphs that look different but mean the same thing. In 2008, the Unicode Consortium published its Technical Report #36[2] on a range of issues deriving from the visual similarity of characters both in single scripts, and similarities between characters in different scripts. Typefaces containing homoglyphs are considered unsuitable for writing formulas, URLs, source code, IDs and other text where characters cannot always be differentiated from the context. 0-O, 1-l-I, rn-m; cl-d, vv-w; fi-A. Unicode homoglyphs: security risks (internationalized domain names; Greek Α = Latin A = Cyrrilic А); in the Chinese language, many simplified Chinese characters are homoglyphs of the corresponding traditional Chinese characters.
IDN homograph attack (internationalized domain name (IDN) homograph attack; script spoofing)
Fonts[edit]
Template:Free and open source typography: DejaVu fonts (tries to cover the whole of Unicode. Work in progress. Bad looking zero {0} in Sans Mono for programming, BUT good looking 1, l, I ("one", "lowercase L", "capitalized I")).
Monotype Corporation: type foundry; conglomerate in typography: Linotype, International Typeface Corporation.
List of CJK fonts
Times New Roman
X logical font description (XLFD): font standard used by the X Window System. FontName = sequence of fourteen hyphen-prefixed, X-registered fields (FOUNDRY, FAMILY_NAME, WEIGHT_NAME, SLANT, SETWIDTH_NAME, ADD_STYLE_NAME, PIXEL_SIZE, POINT_SIZE, RESOLUTION_X, RESOLUTION_Y, SPACING, AVERAGE_WIDTH, CHARSET_REGISTRY, CHARSET_ENCODING).

Language and brain[edit]

Linguistic relativity (Sapir–Whorf hypothesis): structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers are able to conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view. 2 versions:
  1. the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories (1960s disproved (?) strong version)
  2. the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior (from 1980s some support is found for the weak version)
Color term: All languages distinguishing six colors contain terms for black, white, red, green, yellow, and blue. These colors roughly correspond to the sensitivities of the retinal ganglion cells, leading Berlin and Kay to argue that color naming is not merely a cultural phenomenon, but is one that is also constrained by biology—that is, language is shaped by perception.
Distinguishing blue from green in language: green+blue=grue, e.g. Vietnamese: tree leaves and the sky are xanh (xanh lá cây "leaf grue" for green and xanh dương "ocean grue" for blue). CJK: Japan: even though most Japanese consider them to be green, the word ao is still used to describe certain vegetables, apples, and vegetation; Ao is also the word used to refer to the color on a traffic light that signals one to "go"; however, most other objects—a green car, a green sweater, and so forth—will generally be called midori.

Language learning and education[edit]

English as a foreign or second language: English as a second language (ESL); English for speakers of other languages (ESOL); English as a foreign language (EFL); all refer to the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages. English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centred term. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL). English as an additional language (EAL), English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF); English for specific purposes (ESP), English for academic purposes (EAP). Some terms that refer to those who are learning English: English language learner (ELL), limited English proficiency (LEP) and culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD).
TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language): evaluates the ability of an individual to use and understand English in an academic setting.
Duolingo: learning the language and helping translate the web sources from the language one learns into the language one knows.
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and, increasingly, in other countries. Put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between 1989 and 1996. [A-C]*[1-2]: A1 - beginner, C2 - mastery or proficiency.

Translation[edit]

Category:Translation
Category:Translation databases
Category:Translation studies
Translation: communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. "Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages."
Computer-assisted translation (CAT; computer-aided translation): human translator uses computer software to support and facilitate the translation process. Translation memory; Language Search Engine; Terminology management; Alignment; Interactive machine translation; Crowd translation.
Machine translation (MT): investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. Formal (legal) language is easier to translate than informal (speech). Using statistical methods, huge training set (parallel corpus, e.g. legal texts of UN, EU in many different languages).
Comparison of machine translation applications: Google Translate, Asia Online
Sense-for-sense translation: oldest norm for translating; translating the meaning of each whole sentence before moving on to the next, and stands in normative opposition to word-for-word translation (also known as literal translation).
Dynamic and formal equivalence
Untranslatability: property of a text, or of any utterance, in one language, for which no equivalent text or utterance can be found in another language when translated. Adaptation (free translation), Borrowing (loanword), Calque (loan translation; word-for-word), Compensation, Paraphrase, Translator's note.
Linguee: web service that provides an online dictionary for a number of language pairs. Linguee incorporates a search engine that provides access to large amounts of bilingual, translated sentence pairs, which come from the World Wide Web. As a translation aid, Linguee therefore differs from machine translation services like Babelfish and is more similar in function to a translation memory.

Translation between different writing systems[edit]

Alphabets meet logograms:

Chinese word for "crisis"

Language and politics, history[edit]

Language secessionism (linguistic secessionism or linguistic separatism): attitude supporting the separation of a language variety from the language to which it normally belongs, in order to make this variety considered as a distinct language (each dialect tries to become a language of its own with a distinct writing system and grammar). E.g. Occitano-Catalan language (Catalan: Valencian, Balearic languages and La Franja area; Occitan: Auvernhat, Provençal, Gascon dialect {note that the Catalan subdialects are called languages, while Occitan subdialects are called dialects}), English (African American Vernacular English), Romanian (Moldova vs Romania), Serbo-Croatian (Bosniaks, Croats, Montenegrins, Serbs: 3 religions, 2 writing systems), Portuguese (Portugal (& Galicia) vs Brazil), Tagalog and Filipino.
Minority language: language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory; such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. Lacking recognition in some countries: ru (RU, co-official in Belarus and Kazakhstan; lacking in Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia), hu (HU, co-official in Serbia's Vojvodina; lacking in RO, Slovakia, Ukraine), ro (RO, co-official in Vojvodina; lacking in Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine), Macedonian lang (lacking in Bulgaria, Greece), Bulgarian lang (lacking in Greece).
Language shift (language transfer or language replacement or assimilation): process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language; languages perceived to be "higher status" stabilise or spread at the expense of other languages perceived by their own speakers to be "lower-status". Historical examples for status shift are the early Welsh and Lutheran bible translations, leading to the liturgical languages Welsh and High German thriving today, unlike other Celtic or German variants. Language/Y-chromosome correlation (NOT mtDNA/language correlation): males were the bringers of technology and military prowess, mixed-language marriages with these males, prehistoric women prefer to transmit the "higher-status" spouse's language to their children. Belarus: Belarusian→Russian; Belgium: Dutch/Flemish→French; China/PRC: Mandarin; Finland: Swedish elite→Finnish; Hong Kong: Mandarin→Cantonese; Singapore: Malay→English, among Chinese→Mandarin

Sociolinguistics[edit]

Category:Sociolinguistics
Category:Language contact
T–V distinction: contrast, within one language, between second-person pronouns that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee
de:Hamburger Sie

Language contact[edit]

Category:Language contact
Category:Pidgins and creoles
Relexification: mechanism of language change by which one language replaces much or all of its lexicon, including basic vocabulary, with that of another language, without drastic change to its grammar. It is principally used to describe pidgins, creoles, and mixed languages.

Education, learning[edit]

Category:Education
Category:Academia
Category:Alternative education
Category:Educational stages
Category:Educational psychology
Category:Learning
Category:Lifelong learning
Category:Philosophy of education

{q.v. #Language learning and education}

Educational perennialism: Perennialists believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlasting pertinence to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Particular strategy with modern perennialists is to teach scientific reasoning, not facts. Although perennialism may appear similar to essentialism, perennialism focuses first on personal development, while essentialism focuses first on essential skills. Essentialist curricula thus tend to be much more vocational and fact-based, and far less liberal and principle-based.
Progressive education: pedagogical movement that began in the late 19th c. and has persisted in various forms to the present. Progressive education finds its roots in present experience.
Ideal of education (utopia):
The Republic (Plato): one of the utopistic perspectives on the person as a whole education. Body, brain, mind and/or soul is educated at the same time. Also discussing the societal impact upon upbringing and education. Separation of children from parents.
Numerus clausus (Latin: "closed number"): one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. In many cases, the goal of the numerus clausus is simply to limit the number of students to the maximum feasible in some particularly sought-after areas of studies. DE.
School counselor: counselor and an educator who works in elementary, middle, and high schools to provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social competencies to all K-12 students through a school counseling program; school counseling core curriculum classroom lessons and annual academic, career/college readiness, and personal/social planning for every student; and group and individual counseling for some students.

Practical education, innovators:

European Graduate School: 2 years coursework and summer seminars with famous academicians + 3 years thesis writing and final oral defense; media + communications, art + health + society
Template:MOOC & Massive open online course (MOOC): aimed at large-scale interactive participation and open access via the web; features associated with early MOOCs, such as open licensing of content, open structure and learning goals, and connectivism may not be present in all MOOC projects, in particular with the 'openness' of many MOOCs being called into question. 2012 "The Year of the MOOC" (NYT). 2011 fall: Standford (S. Thrun and P. Norvig) → Udacity; Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng launched Coursera; MIT launched the MITx not-for-profit with the first course in 2012.03, then Harvard joined MITx and renamed to edX, later to be joined by UC Berkeley in 2012 summer. "Lurkers". MOOC hype; what happens to the "traditional universities"?
Khan Academy
Udacity: private institution of higher education founded by Sebastian Thrun and David Evans with the goal of free, online classes available to everyone.
Coursera: founded by computer science professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller from Stanford University; reduces the cost of courses it offers by making students grade their peers' homework and employing statistical methods to validate the assessment
EdX (2012 Fall-): founded by MIT and Harvard; offer online university-level courses in a wide range of disciplines to a worldwide audience at no charge; nonprofit project. Open sourced on 2013.06.01
Edupunk (DIY education): do it yourself attitude to teaching and learning practices; Tom Kuntz: "an approach to teaching that avoids mainstream tools like PowerPoint and Blackboard, and instead aims to bring the rebellious attitude and D.I.Y. ethos of ’70s bands like The Clash to the classroom". E.g. University of British Columbia's course "Wikipedia:WikiProject Murder Madness and Mayhem"
Peer to Peer University (P2PU): nonprofit online open learning community which allows users to organize and participate in courses and study groups to learn about specific topics. An example of the "edupunk" approach to education, P2PU charges no tuition and courses are not accredited.
Mozilla Open Badges (Open Badge Infrastructure or OBI): project is a program by Mozilla that issues digital badges to recognize skills and achievements; allows one to display real-world achievements and skills which may help with future career and education opportunities. NASA, Disney-Pixar, 4H, and DigitalMe have developed badges for the Open Badges project.

Academia:

Nachlass (Nachlaß): collection of manuscripts, notes, correspondence, and so on left behind when a scholar dies. Alfred North Whitehead, in contrast, asked that his Nachlass be destroyed, a wish that his widow carried out. According to Lowe (1982), Whitehead "idealized youth and wanted young thinkers to develop their own ideas, not spend their best years on a Nachlass." Gilbert Ryle likewise disapproved of scholars spending their time editing a Nachlass. According to Anthony Palmer, he "hated the Nachlass industry and thought that he had destroyed everything of his that he had not chosen to publish himself so that there would be no Ryle Nachlass." ("One or two" papers (Palmer) did survive, however, and were published.)

Universities[edit]

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University; MIPT, MIPT (SU) or informally Phystech): leading RU university, originally established in the Soviet Union; prepares specialists in theoretical and applied physics, applied mathematics, and related disciplines; sometimes referred to as "the Russian MIT;" famous in the countries of the former Soviet Union, but is less known abroad. Emphasis on practical research in the educational process, MIPT "outsources" education and research beyond the first two or three years to institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Andre Geim: "The pressure to work and to study was so intense that it was not a rare thing for people to break and leave, and some of them ended up with everything from schizophrenia to depression to suicide."
CalArts: Disney established as "CalTech for arts"

Conferences, talks, educational videos[edit]

List of educational video websites

TED (conference) (Technology, Entertainment and Design): global set of conferences owned by the private non-profit Sapling Foundation, formed to disseminate "ideas worth spreading."
Digital Life Design (DLD): global conference network, organized by the Munich based DLD Media, a company of Burda Digital.

How-to[edit]

Category:How-to
Category:How-to websites
WikiHow (license: CC by-nc-sa): extensive database of how-to guides

Law[edit]

Template:Law
Code (law)
Lexicon:
Judgment proof: refers to defendants or potential defendants who are financially insolvent.
Rebuttal: form of evidence that is presented to contradict or nullify other evidence that has been presented by an adverse party. By analogy the same term is used in politics and public affairs. In law, rebuttal evidence or rebuttal witnesses must be confined solely to the subject matter of the evidence rebutted.
Multidistrict litigation (MDL): special federal legal procedure designed to speed the process of handling complex cases such as air disaster litigation or complex product liability suits. Usually involves hundreds or more plaintiffs. United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (JPML or the Panel) decide whether to consolidate the cases under MDL. The cases are one of the most complicated, involving many different law systems (e.g. if plaintiffs are from different states and countries).
Power of attorney (POA, letter of attorney)
Do Not Resuscitate (DNR, allow natural death (AND), No Code): law & death.
Due diligence: term used for a number of concepts, involving either an investigation of a business or person prior to signing a contract, or an act with a certain standard of care. E.g. underwrites of mortgages must apply due diligence to evaluate the documents and allow or not to take mortgage; due to people failing to apply the due diligence the mortgage financial crisis of 2007 happened.
Standard of care: degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care. Professional standard of care: medical standard of care; children; persons with disabilities (but NOT mental disabilities); duty to inform self of responsibilities; person below average intelligence; negligence per se
Legal writing: type of technical writing used by lawyers, judges, legislators, and others in law to express legal analysis and legal rights and duties; legalese: legal writing that is very difficult for laymen to read and understand, the implication being that this abstruseness is deliberate for excluding the legally untrained and to justify high fees.

Legal concepts[edit]

Eminent domain (US, Phillippines: eminent domain; UK, NZ, Ireland: compulsory purchase; Australia: resumption/compulsory acquisition; South Africa, Canada: expropriation)
Public figure: term applied in the context of defamation actions (libel and slander) as well as invasion of privacy; public figure (such as a politician, celebrity, or business leader) cannot base a sample on incorrect harmful statements unless there is proof that the writer or publisher acted with actual malice (knowledge of falsity or reckless disregard for the truth). Burden of proof in defamation actions is higher in the case of a public figure. Limited purpose public figure.
Piercing the corporate veil (lifting the corporate veil): legal decision to treat the rights or duties of a corporation as the rights or liabilities of its shareholders.

Criminal law[edit]

Template:Criminal procedure (investigation)
Indictment: common law system - formal accusation that a person has committed a crime (for felony or indictable offence). UK and Wales: all indictments are phrased as "R v Smith", where "R" stands for "Regina" or "Rex" (Queen or King) - indictment is issued by the public prosecutor (in most cases this will be the Crown Prosecution Service) on behalf of the Crown, i.e. the Monarch.
Indictable offence: common law - offence which can only be tried on an indictment after a preliminary hearing to determine whether there is a prima facie case to answer or by a grand jury (in contrast to a summary offence). In US this is felony. Offences triable only on indictment: murder, rape.
Template:Sex and the law
Sex and the law: Female genital mutilation, Incest, Age of consent, Sex crimes (sexual acts which are prohibited by law in a jurisdiction)
Sexual abuse (molestation): Spousal sexual abuse, Positions of power, Child sexual abuse, Sexual abuse of people with developmental disabilities, Sexual abuse and minorities, Survivor (to honor and empower the strength of an individual to heal, in particular a living victim of sexual abuse or assault).
Female genital mutilation
Prevalence of female genital mutilation from UNICEF 2013.

Intellectual property law[edit]

Template:Intellectual property: copyright (©), patent, trademark (™: does not mean that the trademark has been registered; ®: registered trademark), trade secret
Intellectual property (IP): refers to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law. Common types of IP: copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets. Should copyright/patent be for 100+ years or for 5- years for the fast changing technology or for the slow changing technology (usually all current 20th-21st century techs are fast changing)?
Life-Line: short story by Robert A. Heinlein; "There has grown in the minds of certain groups in this country the idea that just because a man or corporation has made a profit out of the public for a number of years, the government and the courts are charged with guaranteeing such a profit in the future, even in the face of changing circumstances and contrary to public interest. This strange doctrine is supported by neither statute or common law. Neither corporations or individuals have the right to come into court and ask that the clock of history be stopped, or turned back."

Patent law[edit]

Patent family: "set of patents taken in various countries to protect a single invention (when a first application in a country – the priority – is then extended to other offices)". "The same invention disclosed by a common inventor(s) and patented in more than one country."
Software patent: "patent on any performance of a computer realised by means of a computer program" (FFII definition). U.S. patent law excludes "abstract ideas", and this has been used to refuse some patents involving software; in Europe, "computer programs as such" are excluded from patentability and European Patent Office policy is consequently that a program for a computer is not patentable if it does not have the potential to cause a "further technical effect" beyond the inherent technical interactions between hardware and software.
List of software patents: notable patents and patent applications involving computer programs, often labelled software patents; lists patents relating to software which have been the subject of litigation or have achieved notoriety in other ways.
Software patent debate: argument about the extent to which, as a matter of public policy, it should be possible to patent software and computer-implemented inventions. For patentability: Public disclosure, Protection, Economic benefit, International law, Patent challenges, Copyright limitations; against patentability: Software is math, Hinders R&D, Cost and loss of R&D funds, Copyright is sufficient, Software is different (from electromechanical devices), Trivial patents (are easy to file), Open source disadvantage, Software patents usefulness as an information source is limited, Patent examination is too slow.

USA:

Method (patent) ("process"): in US patent law is one of the four principal categories of things that may be patented through "utility patents"; series of steps or acts, for performing a function or accomplishing a result.

EU:

Representation before the European Patent Office: professional representatives bear the title of European patent attorney (EPA).
European Patent Convention
European Patent Organisation
Administrative Council of the European Patent Organisation
European Patent Office
Patent trolls and wars[edit]
Wright brothers patent war: centers on the patent they received for their method of an airplane's flight control. Wright's legal threats suppressed development of the U.S. aviation industry for several years.

Copyright and Urheberrecht (author rights)[edit]

Category:Licenses
Category:Copyright law
Category:Copyright licenses
Category:Software licenses & Category:Public copyright licenses
Category:Free and open-source software licenses
Category:Open content
Category:Intellectual property law
Category:Free culture

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Semantic web, open data, knowledge base}

Rule of the shorter term (comparison of terms): provision in international copyright treaties. The provision allows that signatory countries can limit the duration of copyright they grant to foreign works under national treatment, to at most the copyright term granted in the work's origin country.
Copyright infringement
Open Letter to Hobbyists: by Bill Gates (co-founder of Microsoft), to early personal computer hobbyists; dismay at the rampant copyright infringement with regard to Microsoft's software; 1976
Trade group efforts against file sharing: RIAA (music labels) & MPAA (film studios) vs. people (some of them sharers). Peer-to-peer file sharing; Impact of illegal downloading on the film industry.
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
Universal Copyright Convention
HADOPI law: FR
Amie Street: Demand-based pricing for songs!!! Supply-demand, economics; just need the agreement of artist; the idea did not live long due to (giant) Amazon.com.
What will Google Music or even Google Yinyue (translates as "Google Music") do in the future?
Songza: good idea died young. Copyright; Youtube
End-user license agreement (EULA; software license agreement): license agreement: contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software..
Clickwrap ("clickthrough" agreement or clickwrap license)
Browse wrap (Browserwrap, browse-wrap license): term used in Internet law to refer to a contract or license agreement covering access to or use of materials on a web site or downloadable product. In a browse-wrap agreement, the terms and conditions of use for a website or other downloadable product are posted on the website, typically as a hyperlink at the bottom of the screen.
Freedom of panorama (FOP; de: Panoramafreiheit): provision in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions that permits taking photographs or video footage, or creating other images (such as paintings), of buildings and sometimes sculptures and other art which are permanently located in a public place, without infringing any copyright that may otherwise subsist in such works, and to publish such images; exception to the normal rule that the copyright owner has the exclusive right to authorize the creation and distribution of derivative works. Exceptions: FR, IT, BE. Anti-terrorism laws in UK conflict with the freedom of panorama laws.
Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG): set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is a free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in Debian; part of DSC. debian-legal tests for DFSG compliance: "The Desert Island test"; "The Dissident test"; "The Tentacles of Evil test".
Debian Social Contract (DSC): frames the moral agenda of the Debian project:
  • Ensuring that the operating system remains open and free.
  • Giving improvements back to the community which made the operating system possible.
  • Not hiding problems with the software or organization.
  • Staying focused on the users and the software that started the phenomena.
  • Making it possible for the software to be used with non-free software.
Copyright Clearance Center (CCC): independent USA company based in Danvers, MA, (although it is incorporated in New York State), that provides collective copyright licensing services for corporate and academic users of copyrighted materials; procures agreements with rightsholders, primarily academic publishers, and then acts as their agent in arranging collective licensing for institutions and one-time licensing for document delivery services, coursepacks, and other access and uses of texts. CCC earns a 15% commission on the fees it collects. RightsLink (or Rightslink) is a product released by the CCC in 2000 "in recognition of the growing prevalence of digital media and the challenges and opportunities it presents"
Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF; 2004.05.24-; Cambridge, UK): nonprofit organization that promotes open knowledge, including open content and open data; published the Open Knowledge Definition and runs several projects (e.g. CKAN).
de:Open Data Commons: ein Projekt der OKF, das rechtliche Lösungen für freie Daten bereitstellt; pflegt eine Reihe von Lizenzen für freie Datenbanken
Open Database License (ODbL): "Share Alike" license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and use a database while maintaining this same freedom for others
Open knowledge: knowledge that one is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it without legal, social or technological restriction; set of principles and methodologies related to the production and distribution of knowledge works in an open manner. Open Knowledge Definition is directly derived from the Open Source Definition
Copyfraud: form of copyright misuse; situations where individuals and institutions illegally claim copyright ownership of the public domain and other breaches of copyright law with little or no oversight by authorities or legal consequence for their actions.
"Infringement" or infringement?[edit]

Old media living in stone age? Esp. considering the growth of Internet, ebooks, emails, e-everything (digital everything) from 2D to 3D, to 4D (time included), to video, to audio, to audio-video...

Radio music ripping: old analog audio recording on tapes could do it, but digital age brought exact reproduction (aka lossless) of any media. EU: Copyright Directive (2001/29/EC, also refers to DRM) - still not appeared in court hearing [12/04/03]; UK: brainwash campaign "HOME TAPING IS KILLING MUSIC"/"AND IT'S ILLEGAL"; USA: why TiVo survived while ReplayTV didn't (ReplayTV's case never was judged)?
Commercial skipping: digital video recorders (DVRs) can do it [11/04/07]
Ad blocking:
Adblock Plus (ABP): for Firefox; also there is a Google Chrome extension
AdBlock (Chrome): copy-cat of ABP; native Google Chrome extension
These ^ two and others push the content providers into making Paywalls, but again RefSpoof (for Firefox) and co are going around these paywalls.

As one can see, the most intrusive ads made users/consumers to block all ads. This means that only the most creative ads will be watched as a good entertainment on Youtube (e.g. early Apple ads, which are now a famous history). The only non-blocked places are public places, so street ads will only proliferate.

Legal cases[edit]
Golan v. Holder: (2001) challenges the constitutionality of restoring copyright of foreign works that were previously in the United States public domain by the United States Congress.
Kahle v. Ashcroft: (2006) challenges the change in the copyright system of the United States from an opt-in system to an opt-out system. Rejected & denied (2008, Jan. 7).
Eldred v. Ashcroft: (2002) challenges the constitutionality of the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA). Supreme Court held the CTEA constitutional by a 7-2 decision (2003, Jan. 15).

Legal systems[edit]

Legal systems of the world
Civil law (legal system)#Differentiation from other major legal systems: Civil vs common, socialist and Islamic laws
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
French civil code
European civil code
Common law: precedent, but also Constitution and federal laws exist (kinda "civil law")
Law of the United States
United States Code
List of landmark court decisions in the United States
Template:US1stAmendment: Freedom of speech (Obscenity - changes over time according to the changes in society)
Islamic law, (socialist law - almost nonexistent)
Usually countries have a combination of several law practices (e.g. Constitution vs common law in USA)

Freedom, censorship[edit]

Freedom of press
Press Freedom Index
Freedom of the Press Foundation (2012-): fund and support free speech and freedom of the press; organization is headed by both mainstream and alternative journalists such as Daniel Ellsberg and Xeni Jardin as well as activists, celebrities, and filmmakers. Supported organizations include WikiLeaks, MuckRock, the National Security Archive, The UpTake, The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, the Center for Public Integrity and Truthout.
Internet censorship: Reporters Without Borders:
Enemies of the Internet: Bahrain (2012-), Belarus (2006-2008, 2012-), Burma (2006-2013), China (2008-), Cuba (2006-), Egypt (2006-2010), Ethiopia (2014-), India (2014-), Iran (2006-), North Korea (2006-), Pakistan (2014-), RU (2014-), Saudi Arabia (2006-), Sudan (2014-), Syria (2006-), Tunisia (2006-2010), Turkmenistan (2006-), United Arab Emirates (2014-), UK (2014-), USA (2014-), Uzbekistan (2006-), Vietnam (2006-)
Countries Under Surveillance: Australia (2009-), Belarus (2009-2011), Bahrain (2008-2009 and 2011), Egypt (2011-), Eritrea (2008-2009, 2011-), France (2011-), India (2008-2013), Jordan (2008), Kazakhstan (2008-), Libya (2008 and 2011), Malaysia (2008-2009, 2011-), RU (2010-2013), South Korea (2009-), Sri Lanka (2008-2009, 2011-), Thailand (2008-), Tajikistan (2008), Tunisia (2011-), Turkey (2010-), United Arab Emirates (2008-2013), Venezuela (2011), Yemen (2008-2009).
most countries are communistic-like dictatorships; Arab and/or Muslim countries; former USSR countries and the new "freedom bringers", like UK, USA, Australia (NSA-scandal & co); both Koreas; most of Indian subcontinent; Ethiopia; Russia.
Censorship of YouTube: Armenia (shortly), Brazil (very shortly, single trial case), Bangladesh (one incident), Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Morocco (several times), Pakistan, PRC, Sudan, Russia (block of Chechen posts), Thailand (politics and monarchy), Tunisia (politics), Turkey ((!) religion & politics), Turkmenistan, UAE.
Blocking of YouTube videos in Germany: GEMA (de:Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte)
Censorship of Wikipedia: China, France, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, the United Kingdom, and Uzbekistan.
Wikipedia:List of Wikipedia articles censored in Saudi Arabia
ru:Википедия:Страницы Википедии, внесённые в Единый реестр запрещённых сайтов: Wikipedia pages blocked in RU.
Censorship in the Federal Republic of Germany: Federal Republic of Germany guarantees freedom of speech, expression, and opinion to its citizens as per Article 5 of the constitution. Despite this, censorship of various materials has taken place since the Allied occupation after WWII and continues to take place in Germany in various forms due to a limiting provision in Article 5, Paragraph 2 of the constitution.
Censorship in Germany
Censorship in Turkey

Censorship in EU:

Google Spain v AEPD and Mario Costeja González (2014): decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). It held that an internet search engine operator is responsible for the processing that it carries out of personal information which appears on web pages published by third parties. The outcome of the ruling is that an internet search engine must consider requests from individuals to remove links to freely accessible web pages resulting from a search on their name. Grounds for removal include cases where the search result(s) "appear to be inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant or excessive in the light of the time that had elapsed."

Cyberlaw, Internet law[edit]

Legal aspects of computing (information technology law, IT law); Cyberlaw, Internet law): software law, jurisdiction in case of the Internet: 1) nation where user resides, 2) nation where server hosting the transaction is located, 3) nation of the person/business whom/which the user makes a transaction with; Internet: net neutrality, free speech on the Internet, Internet censorship, privacy (publications, yellow press; electronic communication); electronic signatures.
Internet governance: 2011.09 summit between India, Brazil, and South Africa - proposal to seek to move Internet governance into their sphere of dominance, subordination of ICANN and ITU under the auspices of UN.
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS, organized by ITU): as of 2011 US Department of Commerce made it clear it intends to retain control of the Internet's root servers indefinitely and ICANN is US-based; digital divide: Vatican & UN. Digital solidarity fund (DSF).
Working Group on Internet Governance: 'US gov is inflexible on the need for US control to remain for the foreseeable future in order to ensure the "security and stability of the Internet"'.
Internet Governance Forum (IGF): just talking, no resolutions or implementations so far [12/05/06].
United States v. Ivanov: Aleksey Vladimirovich Ivanov of Chelyabinsk, Russia was indicted for conspiracy, computer fraud, extortion, and possession of illegal access devices; all crimes committed against the Online Information Bureau (OIB) whose business and infrastructure were based in Vernon, Connecticut. Ivanov committed the crimes while he was outside USA, but FBI lured him to Seattle, asked him to perform a break-in into a honeypot and after recording Ivanov's actions arrested and charged him. Sentenced to 48 months in prison.

Cases[edit]

Mark Whitacre: cooperation, embezzlement, punishment, who knows the truth?

Corporations (corporate world) vs people, society[edit]

Category:McDonald's legal cases
Category:Anti-corporate activism
McLibel case (McDonald's Corporation v Steel & Morris [1997] EWHC QB 366): English lawsuit for libel filed by McDonald's Corporation against environmental activists Helen Steel and David Morris over a pamphlet critical of the company; each of two hearings in English courts found some of the leaflet's contested claims to be libellous and others to be true. The partial nature of the victory, the David-and-Goliath nature of the case, and the drawn-out litigation embarrassed McDonald's. Following the decision, ECHR ruled in Steel & Morris v United Kingdom that the pair had been denied a fair trial, in breach of Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to a fair trial) and that their conduct should have been protected by Article 10 of the Convention (right to freedom of expression).

Society[edit]

Societal collapse: collapse (stronger, e.g. extinction of the Polynesian island dwellers) vs. decline (weaker, e.g. the decline of Western Roman empire, decline (called <collapse>) of Soviet Union). Antidote to collapse: social cohesion (more equality, no "huge class of underdogs" who would incite revolution) and adaptability. Features of collapse: either reversion/simplification or incorporation/absorption into some greater society (e.g. old Egyptian society: Greeks, Romans, Christianity, Arabs & Muslims, Turks & Muslims, nowadays); destratification (become more egalitarian), despecialization, decentralization, destructuralization (large civilization produces profound artifacts; after the collapse: the artifacts become much less profound and much fewer in quantity; simpler tools), depopulation (war, plague, natural disasters, famine contribute to this).
Public transport (public transportation, public transit)
High-speed rail in Europe
Railteam: alliance of European high-speed rail operators: Deutsche Bahn, SNCF, Kingdom Eurostar UK, NS Hispeed, ÖBB, SBB-CFF-FFS, SNCB
Rail Baltica: link Finland (Helsinki-Tallinn Tunnel?), the Baltic States (Tallinn, Riga, Kaunas), Poland (Warsaw), and Germany (Berlin)
Taiwan High Speed Rail
Integrated ticketing: allows a person to make a journey that involves transfers within or between different transport modes with a single ticket that is valid for the complete journey.

Anthropology (human, humanity)[edit]

Category:Anthropology
Category:Biological anthropology
Category:Humans
Anthropology: "science of humanity"; origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences
World Values Survey

Work:

Buzzword bingo, aka Bullshit Bingo

Archeology (Archaeology)[edit]

Category:Archaeology
Category:Archaeological theory
Template:Archaeological Theory:
Culture-historical archaeology: emphasises defining historical societies into distinct ethnic and cultural groupings according to their material culture.
Marxist archaeology: developed by archaeologists in USSR during the early twentieth century; "generally adopted a materialist base and a processual approach whilst emphasising the historical-developmental context of archaeological data.".
Processual archaeology (formerly the New Archaeology): genesis in 1958 with the work of Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips; pair stated that "American archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing" (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2), a rephrasing of Frederic William Maitland's comment that "[m]y own belief is that by and by, anthropology will have the choice between being history and being nothing. This idea implied that the goals of archaeology were, in fact, the goals of anthropology, which were to answer questions about humans and human society. This was a critique of the former period in archaeology, the Culture-Historical phase in which archaeologists thought that any information which artifacts contained about past people and past ways of life was lost once the items became included in the archaeological record. All they felt could be done was to catalogue, describe, and create timelines based on the artifacts.
Post-processual archaeology (interpretative archaeologies): movement in archaeological theory that emphasizes the subjectivity of archaeological interpretations; wide variety of theoretical viewpoints have been embraced, including structuralism and Neo-Marxism, as have a variety of different archaeological techniques, such as phenomenology.

Cultural anthropology[edit]

Category:Cultural anthropology
Category:Kinship and descent
Cultural anthropology (Socio-cultural anthropology): study of cultural variation among humans, collecting data about the impact of global economic and political processes on local cultural realities. Anthropologists have argued that culture is "human nature", and that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically (i.e. in language), and teach such abstractions to others.
Culture: meaning of the word from Cicero ("cultura animi") to 18th and 19th c. to the 20th c. changed ("culture" emerged as a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be attributed to genetic inheritance). Current meaning: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living differently classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.
Cultural studies: aiding cultural researchers who theorize about the forces from which the whole of humankind construct their daily lives; cultural studies is not a unified theory, but a diverse field of study encompassing many different approaches, methods and academic perspectives; focussed upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture and its historical foundations, conflicts and defining traits; how a particular communication medium or message relates to ideology, social class, nationality, ethnicity, sexuality and/or gender, rather than providing an encyclopedic identification, categorization or definition of a particular culture or area of the world; seeks to understand how meaning is generated, disseminated, and produced from the social, political and economic spheres within a given culture. Opposition to cultural studies was most dramatically demonstrated with the 2002 closing of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) at the University of Birmingham, UK.
Low context culture & High context culture: Spectrum: Lower < German-Swiss < German < Scandinavian < American < English Canadian < French Canadian < French < Italian < Spanish < Mexican < Greek < Arab < Chinese < Japanese < Higher
Kinship terminology
Parallel and cross cousins: parallel cousin (or ortho-cousin) is a cousin from a parent's same-sex sibling, while a cross cousin is from a parent's opposite-sex sibling

East Asia[edit]

Huaxia: although still used in conjunction, Hua (simplified Chinese: 华; traditional Chinese: 華) and Xia (Chinese: 夏) are more often used separately to represent things Chinese. Hua, in particular, has become almost synonymous with the Chinese civilization. The official Chinese names of both PRC and ROC refer to Huaxia in using the term Zhonghua (中华 / 中華) to refer the Chinese civilization. The PRC's Chinese name is "中华人民共和国" and the ROC's Chinese name is "中華民國". Zhongguo (中国 / 中國) usually refers to the country.
Sinocentrism: different and changing over history and places views on sinocentrism from Korea(s), Japan (Ryūkyū Kingdom), Vietnam (constant war with big China after 1000s), Myanmar, the West (UK, USA, continental Europe); gǔ yǐ yǒu zhī (古已有之, literally 'this already existed in ancient times') & Lu Xun: "The True Story of Ah Q" (satirizes the ridiculous way in which the protagonist claimed 'spiritual victories' despite being humiliated and defeated). Nowadays, China (PRC) will never seek hegemony (永不称霸). Not to be confused with Chinese nationalism and Han chauvinism.
Kowtow: kneel and bow so that the head touches the ground; ancient East Asian give of absolute respect (to supreme ruler and/or out of fear); not used anymore in the modern times.
Zuiikin' English (Eikaiwa taisō Zuiikin' English): series combines English language lessons with gymnastic exercise programs. At the beginning of the show, the host and mastermind, Fernandez Verde, explains his philosophy in learning languages. He proclaims that different cultures use muscles in different proportions due to their customs. For example, in one episode he states Japanese people have stronger lower back muscles (from bowing and keeping a lower posture), and a different leg muscle structure (due to squatting for long periods of time). He feels that using those particular muscles while learning the language of that culture will create strong connotations in your mind and faster learning.

Human behavior[edit]

Category:Human behavior
Category:Man-made disasters

{q.v. #Human economic behavior}

Gender roles[edit]

Category:Gender
Category:Role status
Category:Gender roles
MRS Degree: term used to describe when a young woman attends college or university with the intention of meeting and finding a husband.

Sexual behavior[edit]

Human sexuality: capacity to have erotic experiences and responses. Nature vs nurture.
Alfred Kinsey (1894.06.23-1956.08.25): USA biologist and professor of entomology and zoology, who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University (now: Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction). Kinsey Reports: two books on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953).
LGBT symbols: two most-recognized international LGBTQ symbols are the pink triangle and the rainbow flag; pink triangle, employed by the Nazis in World War II as a badge of shame, was re-appropriated but retained negative connotations; rainbow flag was created to be a more organic and natural replacement without any negativity attached to it.
Asexuality (nonsexuality): may be considered the lack of a sexual orientation, or one of the four types thereof; 2004 study: 1%. Some asexual people do engage in sexual activity despite lacking a desire for sex or sexual attraction, due to a variety of reasons, such as a desire to please romantic partners or a desire to have children
Comparison of online dating websites: IAC (Match.com (owns OkCupid), Chemistry.com), Zoosk, Meetic (Eu), PlentyofFish, Ashley Madison ("Life is short. Have an affair"), Mamba (International Dating Platform; former CIS, RU language), SpeedDate.com, Parship (Eu, DE mainly), GayRomeo (PlanetRomeo; GBT men; DE huge, Eu mainly, world wide), Anastasia International (AnastasiaDate; CIS women and the Western men), eHarmony, SpeedDate.com, Gaydar.

Sex worker, prostitution, call girl/boy:

Belle de Jour (writer) (Brooke Magnanti; 1975.11.05-): research scientist, blogger, and writer, whose identity was revealed in November 2009; while completing her doctoral studies, between 2003 and 2004, Magnanti supplemented her income by working as a London call girl; anonymous blog Belle de Jour: Diary of a London Call Girl. The Intimate Adventures of a London Call Girl: memoir which was adopted into Secret Diary of a Call Girl.
Institut für Sexualwissenschaft: was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. The Nazi book burnings in Berlin included the archives of the Institute.

Human relationship[edit]

Category:Interpersonal relationships
Category:Intimate relationships
Category:Seduction
Category:Seduction community
Template:Seduction Community & Seduction community: also known as the pick-up artist or PUA community, is a movement of men whose goal is sexual success with/access to women. Members of the community often call themselves pickup artists.
Pickup artist
The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists: non-fiction book written by investigative reporter Neil Strauss as a chronicle of his journey and encounters in the seduction community.
Wingman (social): role that a person may take when a friend needs support with approaching potential partners. A wingman is someone who is on the "inside" and is used to help someone with intimate relationships.
Relational aggression (covert aggression, covert bullying): type of aggression in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group rather than by means of actual or threatened physical violence. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys.

Gender; human gender: male (man), female (woman)[edit]

Warren Farrell (1943.06.26): American educator, activist and author of seven books on men's and women's issues. The Myth of Male Power: "cross-culturally, men's experience of powerlessness involved being socialized, even as boys, to become "the disposable sex" (in war, in work)"; "heterosexual men are conditioned to believe that they can obtain love and affection from women only by earning money"; "men constitute 93% of workplace deaths". Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say, and Father and Child Reunion: findings include some 26 ways in which children of divorce do better when three conditions prevail: equally-shared parenting (or joint custody); close parental proximity; and no bad-mouthing. Why Men Earn More: trade-offs include working more hours and for more years; taking technical or more-hazardous jobs; relocating overseas or traveling overnight; never-married women without children earn 13% more than their male counterparts; gender pay gap is largely about married men with children who earn more due to their assuming more workplace obligations; since men earn more, and women have more balanced lives, that men have more to learn from women than women do from men.

Communication: expressions, gestures[edit]

Template:Gestures: Bras d'honneur, Finger (gesture)
Chatham House Rule: nice agreement to have a free discussion.
e-communication: List of emoticons

Discrimination, harassment, torture, abuse[edit]

Category:Abuse
Category:Sexual abuse {q.v. #Genetics and war; #Criminal law}
Category:Hate crime
Category:Sex crimes
Category:Sexual abuse
Harassment of women:
Eve teasing: euphemism for the sexual harassment in India, Pakistan.
Groping: why Japan has this problem and the Western nations not? Communism/socialism/Karl Marx gave freedom to women + feminism? Density of people (but think about Amsterdam, New York, Ruhr...)
Hate crime (bias-motivated crimes, race hate; bias-motivated violence; hate crime law)
Murder of Sophie Lancaster (UK, 2007): victim, along with her boyfriend, Robert Maltby, was attacked by a number of males in their mid-teens while walking through Stubbylee Park in Bacup, Rossendale, in Lancashire; 2013.04 the Greater Manchester Police announced that they would officially begin to record offences committed against goths and other alternative groups, as hate crimes, as they do with offences aimed at someone's race, disability or sexual orientation
Rape: type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse, which is initiated by one or more persons against another person without that person's consent. The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority or against a person who is incapable of valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, or below the legal age of consent. According to the American Medical Association (1995), sexual violence, and rape in particular, is considered the most underreported violent crime. USA Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999): 91% of victims are female, 9% male; 99% of offenders are male. Rape by strangers is usually less common than rape by persons the victim knows, several studies argue that male-male and female-female prison rape are quite common and may be the least reported forms of rape. Definitions: Penetrative and non-penetrative, Consent, Marital rape (Bible: "The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does. And likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. Do not deprive one another (...)"; Islam's teaching: "Allah's Apostle said, 'If a husband calls his wife to his bed [i.e. to have sexual relations] and she refuses and causes him to sleep in anger, the angels will curse her till morning'"). Victim blaming, Honor killings, violence by and forced marriages to the rapist. False accusation
Sexual abuse of people with developmental disabilities
Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN): USA anti-sexual assault organization, the largest in USA.

Torture[edit]

White torture: type of psychological torture that includes extreme sensory deprivation and isolation. Iran, Turkey, UK (Northern Ireland), USA - the only countries which are transparent enough for these practices to leak out into the public. What about USSR, Stasi, WWII?

Population, density, activity (economic, political...)[edit]

USA and East Asian megalopolises
Megalopolis (city type)
Quebec City-Windsor Corridor: 18 mln
Northeast megalopolis: 50 mln
Taiheiyō Belt: 83 mln
Indo-Gangetic plain: ~ 1 bln
Blue Banana: 90 mln
World population chart, from 1800 to 2100 — showing both estimates and actual population counts.
World population: total number of living humans on Earth.
Population ageing: dependency ratio and generational accounting; increase in health care expenses (reduced gov. role in providing health care?); decrease in education expenses; pensions crisis.
Aging of Europe
Pensions crisis: reform ideas: a) Addressing the worker-retiree ratio, via raising the retirement age, employment policy and immigration policy; b) Reducing obligations via shifting from defined benefit to defined contribution pension types and reducing future payment amounts (by, for example, adjusting the formula that determines the level of benefits); and c) Increasing resources to fund pensions via increasing contribution rates and raising taxes.
Population% >65 in 2010.
Social Security (United States) (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI)): federal program.
Social Security debate in the United States
Map of Europe showing the percentage of the population over 65 in 2010 for each country. Based on data from the CIA World Factbook.
Aging of Japan: 21% over 65 (2005); 23.1% ≥65 & 11.4% ≥75 (2011.02; world's highest).
Elderly people in Japan: in USA expansion of the 65-and-over age group from 7% to 14% took 75 years; in UK and Germany this expansion took 45 years; in Japan only took 24.5 years passing 7% in late 1970 and 14% in early 1995. In the 1980s, there was a major trend toward the elderly maintaining separate households rather than co-residing with the families of adult children. The proportion living with children decreased from 77% in 1970 to 65% in 1985, although this rate was still much higher than in other industrialized countries. The number of elderly living in Japan's retirement or nursing homes also increased from around 75,000 in 1970 to more than 216,000 in 1987. People over 60 continue to work for varied reasons: to supplement inadequate pension incomes, to give meaning to their lives, or to keep in touch with society.

Living together[edit]

Gated community: form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. Some gated communities, usually called guard-gated communities, are staffed by private security guards and are often home to high-value properties, and/or are set up as retirement villages; some gated communities are secure enough to resemble fortresses and are intended as such. Gated communities are very rare in Europe and Japan, but popular in Americas, China, Saudo Arabia (oil industry), South Africa. Mexico has both the largest population of gated community dwellers in the world and the largest number of gated community dwellers as a percentage of national population.

Decision making, leadership[edit]

Design by committee (design and its resultant output when a group of entities comes together to produce something (often the design of technological systems or standards), particularly in the presence of poor leadership) vs. Systems architect (high-level designer of a system to be implemented)
Delphi technique: structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts

Employment[edit]

Category:Informal occupations
Ant tribe: neologism used to describe a group of low income college graduates who settle for a poverty-level existence in the cities of PRC. Those who belong to the ant tribe class hope that, in time, they will find the jobs for which they are trained in college. In Taiwan, Belarus, Peru, USA the largest share of unemployed were made up of people with college/university degrees.
Vagrancy (people) (vagrant, vagabond; la: vagari: 'wander'): "tramp", "hobo", "drifter"; person, often in poverty, who wanders from place to place without a home or regular employment or income.

Organization, authority[edit]

Government-owned corporation: between nationalisation and private corporations
Template:Workplace (Aspects of workplaces)
Works council (de:Betriebsrat): strongest in DE, other EU/Eu countries are modeling on DE model. One of the most commonly examined (and arguably most successful) implementations of these institutions is found in Germany. The model is basically as follows: general labour agreements are made at the national level by national unions (e.g. IG Metall) and national employer associations (e.g. Gesamtmetall), and local plants and firms then meet with works councils to adjust these national agreements to local circumstances. Works council members are elected by the company workforce for a four year term. They don't have to be union members; works councils can also be formed in companies where neither the employer nor the employees are organized.
Co-determination (de:Mitbestimmung, Codetermination in Germany): practice whereby the employees have a role in management of a company. In some countries, like the USA, the workers have virtually no role in management of companies, and in some, like Germany, their role is more important. de:Mitbestimmungsgesetz
Iron law of oligarchy: found in the book Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy (1911) by Robert Michels; claims that rule by an elite, or "oligarchy", is inevitable as an "iron law" within any organization as part of the "tactical and technical necessities" of organization; "Who says organization, says oligarchy"; "Bureaucracy happens. If bureaucracy happens, power rises. Power corrupts."
Peter Principle: belief that, in an organization where promotion is based on achievement, success, and merit, that organization's members will eventually be promoted beyond their level of ability.
Dilbert principle: 1990s theory by Dilbert cartoonist Scott Adams stating that companies tend to systematically promote their least-competent employees to management (generally middle management), in order to limit the amount of damage they are capable of doing.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory: framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. Describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis. The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed: individualism-collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; power distance (strength of social hierarchy) and masculinity-femininity (task orientation versus person-orientation). Independent research in Hong Kong led Hofstede to add a fifth dimension, long-term orientation, to cover aspects of values not discussed in the original paradigm. In 2010 Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint. A poor country that is short-term oriented usually has little to no economic development, while long-term oriented countries continue to develop to a point. As a country becomes richer, its culture becomes more individualistic. On average, predominantly Catholic countries show very high uncertainty avoidance, relatively high power distance, moderate masculinity and relatively low individualism, whereas predominantly atheist countries have low uncertainty avoidance, very high power distance, moderate masculinity, and very low individualism.

Corporations, companies[edit]

Category:Business
Category:Mergers and acquisitions
Category:Shareholders
Category:Corporations
Category:Mergers and acquisitions
Companies law (law of business associations) & Template:Companies law:
Types of business entity: for each country
Business (enterprise, firm): organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers.
Company: in USA company="corporation, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust, fund, or organized group of persons, whether incorporated or not, and (in an official capacity) any receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, or similar official, or liquidating agent, for any of the foregoing"
Corporation: a subset of companies
Megacorporation: sci-fi loved idea; real world examples:
Dutch East India Company (see Indonesia, going to Dutch empire; defunct; empire collapsed)
Disney (still running, industry: entertainment)
East India Company (the other company, going to British empire; defunct; empire collapsed)
United Fruit Company (see USA actions in South and Central America in 19th-20th century, going to "American (i.e. US of A) empire"; renamed, still existing, lost all its previous glory)
United Fruit Company: was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas) grown on Third World plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. Flourished in the early and mid-20th century and came to control vast territories and transportation networks in Central America, the Caribbean coast of Colombia, Ecuador, and the West Indies
Banana massacre: {1928/12/6}
Chiquita Brands International: successor of United Fruit Company. Leading distributor of bananas in USA.
Banana republic: were mainly in Central America where they grew bananas and other fruits.
comparison of these megacorps: they had the headquarters in the civilized world and in the underdeveloped world, they were ruled by laws in the civ-world, and by blood and war in the not-so-civ-world; they extracted resources from underdeveloped world to bring riches to the developed world. Usually literacy uprooted and national movements ousted these practices (11/12/03)...
Recapitalization: sort of a corporate reorganization involving substantial change in a company's capital structure. Leveraged Recapitalization (company issues bonds to raise money to buy back its own shares), Leveraged Buyout (substitute equity with debt), Nationalization.
Shareholder rights plan ("poison pill"): type of defensive tactic used by a corporation's board of directors against a takeover. Typically, such a plan gives shareholders the right to buy more shares at a discount if one shareholder buys a certain percentage or more of the company's shares. The plan could be triggered, for instance, if any one shareholder buys 20% of the company's shares, at which point every shareholder (except the one who possesses 20%) will have the right to buy a new issue of shares at a discount. If every other shareholder is able to buy more shares at a discount, such purchases would dilute the bidder's interest, and the cost of the bid would rise substantially. In the field of mergers and acquisitions, shareholder rights plans were devised in the early 1980s as a way to prevent takeover bidders from negotiating a price for sale of shares directly with shareholders, and instead forcing the bidder to negotiate with the board.
Manufacturing[edit]
Category:Manufacturing
Category:Industrial processes {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/All#Process management, workflow}
Category:Metallurgical processes
Category:Drug safety
Category:Adulteration
Category:Corporate scandals
Category:Product safety scandals

{q.v. #Planning, product development (product management), projects (project management)}

List of industrial processes: procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry.
Slag: glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Copper extraction techniques
Flash smelting: smelting process for sulfur-containing ores including chalcopyrite. The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore. It has also been adapted for nickel and lead production.
2008 Chinese heparin adulteration: contaminant was identified as an "over-sulphated" derivative of chondroitin sulfate, a closely related substance obtained from mammal or fish cartilage and often used as a treatment for arthritis. Since over-sulphated chondroitin is not a naturally occurring molecule, costs a fraction of true heparin starting material, and mimics the in-vitro properties of heparin, the counterfeit was almost certainly intentional as opposed to an accidental lapse in manufacturing. The raw heparin batches were found to have been cut from 2-60% with the counterfeit substance, and motivation for the adulteration was attributed to a combination of cost effectiveness and a shortage of suitable pigs in China.
Startup[edit]
Category:Entrepreneurship organizations
Category:Business incubators
Category:Business incubators of the United States
Stealth mode: company's temporary state of secretiveness, usually undertaken to avoid alerting competitors to a pending product launch or other business initiative. A stealth product is a product a company develops in secret, and a stealth company is a new company that avoids initial disclosure as to its existence, purpose, products, personnel, funding, brand name, or other important attributes. The term stealth innovation has been applied to individual projects and ideas that are developed in secret inside a company.
First-mover advantage: advantage gained by the initial ("first-moving") significant occupant of a market segment. First-movers can be rewarded with huge profit margins and a monopoly-like status. The three primary sources of first-mover advantages are technological leadership, preemption of scarce assets, and switching costs / buyer choice under uncertainty. First-mover disadvantages include “free-rider effects, resolution of technological or market uncertainty, shifts in technology or customer needs, and incumbent inertia.” Second-mover advantage occurs when a firm following the lead of the first-mover is actually able to capture greater market share, despite having entered late; Second-mover advantage can be summarized by the adage: "The second mouse gets the cheese."
Y Combinator (company) (2005.03-): USA startup fund. Fast Company has called YC "the world's most powerful start-up incubator". Fortune has called Y Combinator "a spawning ground for emerging tech giants". Y Combinator was started in 2005 by Paul Graham, Jessica Livingston, Trevor Blackwell and Robert Morris.

Subpopulations, minorities[edit]

Chinese American: why Chinese Americans (including Taiwanese Americans) are doing so well in the USA (even slightly above Japanese and Korean Americans)? Do only the best of the best come from PRC (Hong Kong & Macau), ROC, of Chinese descent from Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia to USA? Or is it a cultural (Chinese culture) thing?

Sociology[edit]

Face (sociological concept): idiomatically means dignity/prestige. "The concept of face is, of course, Chinese in origin", yet many languages have "face" terms that metaphorically mean "prestige; honor; reputation." English semantic field for "face" words meaning "prestige; honor" is smaller than the corresponding Chinese field, but historical dictionaries more accurately record its history. The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989) documents how the English community in China originated lose face and save face in the late 19th century, and how morphological variants like face-saver subsequently developed. "The fact that Chinese lexicalizes losing face (丟臉, 沒面子), but not gaining face is a potent reminder that losing face has far more serious implications for one's sense of self-esteem or decency than gaining face." Huang (1987:71).
Inglehart Values Map
Inglehart–Welzel cultural map of the world: scatter plot created by political scientists Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel based on the World Values Survey. It depicts closely linked cultural values that vary between societies in two predominant dimensions: traditional versus secular-rational values on the vertical y-axis and survival versus self-expression values on the horizontal x-axis.

Incarceration[edit]

List of countries by incarceration rate: at the top: USA, Rwanda (after genocide?), Georgia (crime?), Russia (all the politicals & co!), ..., Cuba (politicals?). The highest ever was in USSR in 1934-1953 at ~800/100,000 population (1.2-1.5 mln in GULAGs per 168 mln pop.).
Incarceration in the United States: mainly due to the length of the sentences and "war on drugs" the USA has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world (in 2009: 743/100,000 population). Ethnicity: black males are incarcerated about 2.5 times as frequently as hispanic males and hispanic males about 2 times over white males per 100,000 of the same gender and ethnicity pop. United States incarceration rate.
Race and crime in the United States
Supermax

Human development[edit]

Category:Human development
Category:Ageing
Category:Middle age
Midlife crisis: empirical research has failed to show that the midlife crisis is a universal experience, or even a real condition at all.
Quarter-life crisis

Human habitats, urban society, city/cities, urban planning[edit]

Category:Urban studies and planning terminology
Category:Human geography
Category:Human habitats
Category:Types of populated places
Category:Urban society
Category:Urban geography
Category:City
Category:Cities
Category:Urban geography
Category:Urban planning
Category:Sustainable urban planning
Smart city
Smart Nation: Singapore's national effort to co-create a future of better living for all through tech-enabled solutions.
Surveillance issues in smart cities

Culture[edit]

Category:Culture
Category:Cultural spheres of influence
Category:Demography
Category:Ethnicity
Political demography
Demographic threat (demographic bomb)
Barbarian: person who is perceived to be uncivilized. The word is often used either in a general reference to member of a nation or ethnos, typically a tribal society as seen by an urban civilization either viewed as inferior, or admired as a noble savage. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may also be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, warlike, insensitive person.
  • "Barbarian" in Greek historical contexts
  • "Barbarian" in international historical contexts:
    • Berber and North African cultures
    • Hindu culture
    • Chinese culture: Historically, the Chinese used various words for foreign ethnic groups. They include terms like 夷 Yi, which is often translated as "barbarians." Despite this conventional translation, there are also other ways of translating Yi into English. Some of the examples include "foreigners," "ordinary others," "wild tribes," "uncivilized tribes," and so forth.
    • Japanese culture
    • American cultures
Ethnogenesis: process in which a group of people acquire an ethnicity, that is, a group identity that identifies them as an ethnic group. This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.

Humanities[edit]

Category:Humanities
Category:Gender studies

Human sciences[edit]

Category:Human sciences
Category:Gender studies
Category:Gender equality
Category:Feminism

Gender[edit]

Gender inequality
Gender pay gap: difference between male and female earnings expressed as a percentage of male earnings, according to the OECD. EU: pay gap ranging from less than 10% in Italy, Slovenia, Malta, Romania, Belgium, Portugal and Poland to more than 20% in Slovakia, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Germany, United Kingdom and Greece and more than 25% in Estonia and Austria.
Global Gender Gap Report: ranks countries according to their gender gaps, and their scores can be interpreted as the percentage of the inequality between women and men that has been closed.

Feminism[edit]

Torches of Freedom: phrase used to encourage women’s smoking by exploiting women's aspirations for a better life during the women’s liberation movement in US. 1920s+

Men's movement[edit]

Category:Men's movement
Category:Men's rights
Men's movement
Men's rights movement (MRM): Issues: Adoption, Anti-dowry laws (India), Child custody (Fathers' rights movement), Divorce, Domestic violence, Education, False accusation of rape and Marital rape, Female privilege, Governmental structures, Health (men live shorter than women on average), Marriage strike (fewer males marrying), Military conscription, Parental abduction (India), Paternity fraud (called for compulsory paternity testing of all children), Prison (more males in jail than females), Reproductive rights (women decide abortion), Social security and insurance (women are given superior social security and tax benefits than men).

Arts, media[edit]

Arts, media (visual, audio, any other {human} perception)

Category:Arts
Category:Literature
Category:Comics
Category:Fiction
Category:Reading
Category:Visual arts
Category:Art genres
Category:Cartooning
Category:Animation
Category:Computer animation {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#3D, 2D, (4D ≡ space-time), emedia}
Category:Art media
Category:Digital art {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#3D, 2D, (4D ≡ space-time), emedia}
Category:Computer art
Category:Computer animation

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#3D, 2D, (4D ≡ space-time), emedia}

Incunabula: 15th c. books[edit]

Category:Incunabula
Incunabula Short Title Catalogue
Ilona Hubay: survey of existing copies of the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, Die bekannten Exemplare der zweiundvierzigzeiligen Bibel und ihre Besitzer (1985)
Gutenberg Bible: Hubay no.

Books, literature[edit]

Category:Literature
Category:Comics
Category:Comics by country
Category:Manga
Category:Asian comics
Category:Manga
Category:Comics publications
Category:Comics by format
Category:Webcomics
Category:Fiction
Category:Reading (process)
Piled Higher and Deeper (Piled Higher and Deeper - Life (or the lack thereof) in Academia; PhD Comics): B.S. = "bullshit"; "M.S." = "More of the Same" ("More Shit"); Ph.D. = "Piled Higher and Deeper". The Nameless Hero; Cecilia; Michael Slackenerny; Tajel...

sci-fi[edit]

sci-fi & Template:Science fiction
Clarke's three laws: "3. Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic."
Cyberpunk (the word coined in 1983 or a bit earlier; focuses on "high tech{leading/cutting/bleeding edge or state of the art} and low life") & Cyberpunk derivatives:
Blade Runner (1982)
Neuromancer (1984)
Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984)
Akira (film) (1988)
Snow Crash (1992)
The Lawnmower Man (film) (1992)
Ghost in the Shell (film) (1995)
The Diamond Age (1995): continuation of "Snow Crash" (Y.T.); failure of strong AI (only soft sub-par with human versions exist), nanotech, from the frachulates to phyles, comparing East (China, Celestial (Middle) Kingdom) and West (Neo-Victorians, Vickies)
Matrix (1999) & Animatrix (2003)
Science fantasy: Science fantasy vs. science fiction ⇒ high (bleeding edge)-tech = supernatural & fantasy, e.g. "teleportation by matter-transmitter-beam is science fiction, teleportation by incantation is fantasy"
Libertarian science fiction: Atlas Shrugged
Prometheus Award: award for libertarian science fiction novels given annually by the Libertarian Futurist Society, which also publishes a quarterly journal Prometheus
  • The Culture: fictional interstellar anarchic and utopian society. By the Scottish writer Iain M. Banks. The Culture series = science fiction novels and works of short fiction. Egalitarian society of beings and AIs (AIs from super-huge capabilities, to drones, the small AIs), i.e. AIs are equal to beings (made of flesh and many improvements). Sublimation as death into the other dimensions. Post-scarcity economics. Non-interference, but war and secret agencies exist.
Philip K. Dick
List of science fiction awards international: Hugo Award for Best Novel (Worldcon), Nebula Award for Best Novel, Philip K. Dick Award, 9 more
We (novel): "A repeated mantra in the novel is that there is no final revolution." (Yevgeny Zamyatin; 1921 written in ru, 1924 published in en) → Brave New World (Aldous Huxley; 1931, 1932) → Nineteen Eighty-Four (aka 1984; George Orwell; 1949)

English literature[edit]

Template:Samuel Johnson, author:
The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia
The Vanity of Human Wishes
Catch-22, war, WWII, satirical. Has deep logic: Catch-22 (logic)?
Shirley Jackson - The Lottery: "People at first were not so much concerned with what the story meant; what they wanted to know was where these lotteries were held, and whether they could go there and watch."
Maya Angelou: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969)

Latin literature[edit]

{q.v. #Italic languages, Romance languages}

Classical Latin: The ages of Latin - Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel (1870). Authors of the Golden Age (83 BC - 14 AD): Republican (Ciceronian Age) and Augustan; Authors of the Silver Age: Through the death of Trajan (117 AD) and Through the death of Marcus Aurelius (180 AD)
Satires of Juvenal
Latin phrases[edit]
Pons asinorum
q.v. (quod videre): "which to see"; used as an imperative. Used after a term or phrase that should be looked up elsewhere in the current document or book. For more than one term or phrase, the plural is quae videre (qq.v.). Similar: v.s. (vide supra) means "see above"; v.i. (vide infra) means "see below".
cf. (confer): literally meaning "bring together", is used to refer to other material or ideas which may provide similar or different information or arguments. It is mainly used in scholarly contexts, such as in academic (mainly humanities, physics, chemistry, and biology) or legal texts. It is translated, and can be read aloud, as "compare".
sic: added immediately after a quoted word or phrase (or a longer piece of text), indicates that the quoted words have been transcribed exactly as spelled or presented in the original source, complete with any erroneous spelling or other presentation. The usual purpose is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in the transcribed material do not arise from transcription errors, and the errors have been repeated intentionally, i.e. that they are reproduced exactly as set down by the original writer or printer. Sic is generally placed inside square brackets, or in parentheses (round brackets), and traditionally in italic, as is customary when printing a foreign word.

Literary theory[edit]

Category:Literary theory
Category:Literary terms
Category:Figures of speech
Category:Clichés
Cliché: expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel.

Library, archive[edit]

Category:Libraries
Category:Libraries by type
Category:National libraries
Category:Research libraries
Category:Deposit libraries
Category:Library law
Category:Deposit libraries
Category:Library science
Category:Library cataloging and classification

{q.v.:

}

Virtual library, searchable, even viewable. BUT only out-of-copyright works (i.e. 100+ years after the authors death). The legal implications & economics (e.g. monopoly...):

Google Book Search
Google Books Library Project: the participating libraries
Google Book Search Settlement Agreement: do the USA organisations, like AG, have the right to discuss about the copyright of the books written in the last 100 years by (passport of) DE, ES, FR, Japanese, Chinese, etc. authors?
Book Rights Registry: the outcome of the settlement, a legal "watchdog & distributor"?
Open Content Alliance: opt-in (after asking and receiving permission from the copyright holder); opposite in philosophy to Google Books {obviously, having much fewer books than Google Books}
Open Book Alliance
Ibiblio: "collection of collections"; hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source software, including software, music, literature, art, history, science, politics, and cultural studies.
Internet Archive: "universal access to all knowledge"
Open Library: all media is in public domain; all used software is under GPL3

Digitization of books:

CAPTCHAreCAPTCHA (uses CAPTCHA to help digitize the text of books while protecting websites from bots attempting to access restricted areas)

Library cataloging and classification[edit]

Category:Library cataloging and classification
Authority control: process that organizes library catalog and bibliographic information by using a single, distinct name for each topic; one-of-a-kind headings are applied consistently throughout the catalog, and work with other organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each heading is described briefly in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers; authority comes from authors. Very similar to the unique Wikipedia URL for any article, topic or category.

National:

Integrated Authority File (de:Gemeinsame Normdatei (GND)): eine Normdatei für Personen, Körperschaften, Kongresse, Geografika, Sachschlagwörter und Werktitel, die vor allem zur Erschließung von Literatur in Bibliotheken dient, zunehmend aber auch von Archiven, Museen, Projekten und in Web-Anwendungen genutzt wird. Sie wird von der DNB, allen deutschsprachigen Bibliotheksverbünden, der Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) und zahlreichen weiteren Institutionen kooperativ geführt.
Name Authority File (de:Personennamendatei (PND)): eine Normdatei von Personen, die vor allem zur Erschließung von Literatur in Bibliotheken diente. Die DNB sowie alle deutschen und österreichischen Bibliotheksverbünde führten sie bis 2012 kooperativ. Ende 2012.04 ist die PND in der GND aufgegangen.

International:

Wikipedia:Authority control: template links Wikipedia articles (and user pages) to the corresponding entries in catalogs of national libraries and other authority files all over the world; can display identifiers from the following authority files: GND (German National Library), LCCN (Library of Congress), SELIBR (National Library of Sweden), VIAF and ORCID.
Online Computer Library Center (OCLC; 1967-): "a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world’s information and reducing information costs"
Dublin Core: set of 15 metadata elements to provide a small and fundamental group of text elements through which most resources can be described and catalogued. ISO Standard 15836.
WorldCat: union catalog (combined catalog from many libraries) which itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories which participate in the OCLC global cooperative. It is built and maintained collectively by the participating libraries.
Virtual International Authority File (VIAF): joint project of several national libraries and operated by OCLC; project was initiated by the German National Library and the U.S. Library of Congress.
National Union Catalog: printed catalog of books catalogued by the Library of Congress and other American and Canadian libraries, issued serially beginning in the 1950s for printed works before 1956. It contains photocopies of printed catalog cards from major American and Canadian libraries, arranged alphabetically by author's last name, or by title for books that have no author, such as the Bible. 754 600-page volumes make 3 ton in weight.
International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI): method for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, TV programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 numerical digits divided into four blocks. Developed under the auspices of ISO as Draft International Standard 27729, the valid standard was published 2012.03.15. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI will provide a tool for disambiguating names that might otherwise be confused, and will link the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries. ORCID identifiers are reserved block of ISNI identifiers, for scholarly researchers; the two organisations coordinate their efforts.
ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID): nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature can be hard to electronically recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems; "author DOI"; open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for author identification in science and related academic publishing.
ResearcherID: identifying system for scientific authors; introduced in January 2008 by Thomson Reuters.

Germany's libraries[edit]

List of libraries in Germany
de:Aula der Georg-August-Universität
de:Studentenkarzer (Göttingen)
Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities (de:Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen): second oldest of the seven academies of sciences in Germany.
AnimalBase (de:AnimalBase) {public domain}: brought to life in 2004 and is maintained by the University of Göttingen; special focus on literature and names published prior to 1800.
Collection of German Prints (de:Sammlung Deutscher Drucke (SDD)): ein Zusammenschluss sechs deutscher Bibliotheken in einer Arbeitsgemeinschaft mit dem Ziel, eine möglichst vollständige Sammlung der gedruckten Werke des deutschen Sprach- und Kulturraums vom Beginn des Buchdrucks bis heute aufzubauen, zu erschließen, sie der Öffentlichkeit zur Verfügung zu stellen und für künftige Generationen zu bewahren.
de:Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (München; Sammelauftrag: 1450-1600)
de:Herzog August Bibliothek (HAB; Wolfenbüttel; Sammelauftrag: 1601-1700)
Göttingen State and University Library (de:Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen (SUB); Sammelauftrag: 1701-1800): library for Göttingen University as well as the central library for the German State of Lower Saxony (with its central catalogue), and the library for the Göttingen Academy of Sciences
Center for Retrospective Digitization (de:Göttinger Digitalisierungszentrum): one of the largest libraries in Germany, the Göttingen SUB houses some 4½ million volumes as well as 13,000 holographs and other manuscripts and 350 Nachlässe
de:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg (Frankfurt am Main; Sammelauftrag: 1801-1870): Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität ist mit neun Millionen Medieneinheiten die größte Universitätsbibliothek in Deutschland.
de:Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Königlich Preußische Staatsbibliothek oder Königliche Bibliothek; Sammelauftrag: 1871-1912): eine Einrichtung der Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz, einer durch Bundesgesetz errichteten rechtsfähigen Stiftung des öffentlichen Rechts mit Sitz in Berlin
German National Library (de:Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (DNB); ehemals Die Deutsche Bibliothek (DDB); Sammelauftrag: 1913-): Standorten Leipzig (ehemals Deutsche Bücherei, seit 2010 auch Deutsches Musikarchiv) und Frankfurt am Main (ehemals Deutsche Bibliothek); die zentrale Archivbibliothek für alle Medienwerke in deutscher Sprache aus dem In- und Ausland und das nationalbibliografische Zentrum Deutschlands; die größte deutsche Universalbibliothek. „Jüdische Periodika in NS-Deutschland“ und „Exilpresse digital“ 1997-2006 digitalisierte; diese Sammlungen aus dem Zeitraum 1933 bis 1945 bestehen aus circa 30.000 bzw. 100.000 Seiten; im 2012.06 wurde die Webseite wegen urheberrechtlichen Bedenken vom Netz genommen.
de:Deutsches Musikarchiv (Leipzig): der zentrale Sammlungsort für veröffentlichte Noten­ausgaben und Musiktonträger in Deutschland. Seit 2000.07 ist das Deutsche Musikarchiv der Sammlungsort der GEMA-Noten. Musikverleger reichen seitdem ihr Druckexemplar im Zuge der Werkanmeldung ausschließlich beim Deutschen Musikarchiv, nicht mehr aber bei der GEMA ein. Die bis zum Jahr 2000 gesammelten GEMA-Noten (210.000 Stück) werden jetzt im Deutschen Musikarchiv aufbewahrt.
German National Library of Science and Technology
German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Medicine

Music, sound[edit]

Template:Music topics
Musicology: Music history or historical musicology, ethnomusicology (formerly comparative musicology), popular music studies (aka popular musicology), music theory (analysis and composition), music psychology and cognition and therapy, authentic performance (performance practice and research)
Music and mathematics: sound is part of physics, physics is written in math notation → music is written in maths (and through extension - physics, e.g. frequency (Hz), amplitude (Pa RMS [root mean square], sound pressure: "zero" reference sound pressure in air is 20 µPa RMS → dB), oscillations (change) in atmospheric pressure), force (N), spectrogram (frequency vs amplitude))
Definition of music: philosophy of art, lexicography, composing, music criticism, musicians, semiotics or semiology, linguistics, sociology, and neurology
Psychoacoustics: scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music). Peak sensitivity of human ears is in the range of 1000-Hz to 4000+Hz. Psychoacoustic model provides for high quality lossy signal compression by describing which parts of a given digital audio signal can be removed (or aggressively compressed) safely — that is, without significant losses in the (consciously) perceived quality of the sound. Equal-loudness contour
Dynamic range compression (DRC, compression): reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds by narrowing or "compressing" an audio signal's dynamic range (i.e. silent parts appear louder and the louder parts appear more silent - the loudness of the whole music piece is varying very little after compression). TV commercials, loudness war (and loss of music quality)
Limiting: non-linear clipping, in which a signal is passed through normally but "sheared off" when it would normally exceed a certain threshold.
ReplayGain (Replay Gain): proposed standard, to measure the perceived loudness of audio in computer audio formats
Auto-Tune: audio processor created by Antares Audio Technologies, which uses a proprietary device to measure and alter pitch in vocal and instrumental music recording and performances through use of a phase vocoder; originally intended to disguise or correct off-key inaccuracies, allowing vocal tracks to be perfectly tuned despite originally being slightly off-key.
AAC>MP3
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)
MP3 (MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III)

Musical instruments[edit]

String instrument (chordophones):
Fingerboard (fretboard; Italian: manico or tasto)
Fret: raised element on the neck of a stringed instrument.

Photography, movies (SW, inet)[edit]

Template:Filmmaking: how to make a movie - from beginning to the end (pre-/ / post-production), low/high budget, indie/Hollywood (Bollywood)
Flickr
Trailer music: background music used for film previews, which is not always from the film's soundtrack.

Big-money blockbusters:

Hollywood accounting: opaque accounting methods used by the film, video and television industry to budget and record profits for film projects.

Visual arts[edit]

History of graphic design: a great article full of figures/pictures, but, regrettably, the media of the last ~100+ years are removed due to copyright.
Prada Marfa: art for money, money for art; vandalism story
Google Art Project
Color[edit]

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Work#Vision and brain}

Template:Color space: the science of color
CIE:
CIE 1931 color space (CIE 1931 RGB and CIE 1931 XYZ color spaces): the first mathematically defined color spaces. CIE XYZ color space was derived from a series of experiments done in the late 1920s by William David Wright and John Guild, results were combined into the specification of the CIE RGB color space, from which the CIE XYZ color space was derived.
RGB:
YUV:
Other:
HSL and HSV: are the two most common cylindrical-coordinate representations of points in an RGB color model, which rearrange the geometry of RGB in an attempt to be more intuitive and perceptually relevant than the cartesian (cube) representation; 1970s; both are also criticized for not adequately separating color-making attributes, or for their lack of perceptual uniformity.
International Commission on Illumination (CIE; fr: Commission internationale de l'éclairage; 1913-; HQ=Vienna, AT): international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces; successor to Commission Internationale de Photométrie
Absolute color space: calorimetrically defined; ICC profile. Absolute color spaces: all in the "Template:Color space"?
International Color Consortium (ICC): backed by industry (e.g. Apple, Adobe, Microsoft, Kodak, HP, Sony). ICC profile - most commonly used color profile system.
IT8: set of ANSI standards for color communications and control specifications. Backed by USA gov.
Color calibration: measure and/or adjust the color response of a device (input or output) to establish a known relationship to a standard color space. Color calibration is a requirement for all devices taking an active part of a color managed workflow (e.g. printing shop). Needs colorimeter and software. Are LCDs, CCDs (cameras), and printers calibrated by the producer? If so, to which error?
Color management & Linux color management: the only OS for which all the color management tools are open source. r
Planckian locus (black body locus): path or locus that the color of an incandescent black body would take in a particular chromaticity space as the blackbody temperature changes. It goes from deep red at low temperatures through orange, yellowish white, white, and finally bluish white at very high temperatures.


Template:Photography
Color filter array (CFA), color filter mosaic (CFM): mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor (e.g. CCD) to capture color information.
Image sensor: CCD (charge-coupled device), CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor)
Foveon X3 sensor: 3 vertically stacked photodiodes (having R/G/B spectral sensitivity curves), organized in a two-dimensional grid.

Distribution, digital distribution, broadcasting[edit]

Category:Streaming
Category:Streaming media systems
Category:Content delivery network
Category:Peercasting
Category:Internet broadcasting
Category:Distributed data storage

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Information storage and distribution}

Digital distribution (content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD))
Content delivery network (CDN; content distribution network)
Template:Ebooks:
Free: Baen Free Library, Google Play::Google Books, Project Gutenberg, Wikibooks, Wikisource
Paid: Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, Google Books
Music: Google Play, Spotify
Video: Google Play, Youku (in PRC) & Youtube (the rest of the world)
Video streaming: Ustream, (Justin.tv→)Twitch.tv
Games and other software:
Windows: Origin, Steam, Games for Windows – Live, Uplay
OS X: Mac App Store, Origin, Steam
Linux: Steam
Video game consoles
Mobile: App Store (iOS), Google Play (Android)
Video on demand:
Blip (website): 2013.11.07 Blip began removing the content of producers that were not generating enough revenue, replacing their content with the following message, "After many years of being an open platform, Blip is now taking its mission to bring the best original web series to our audience more seriously. To accomplish this, it is essential that we fully support producers who are dedicated to their craft and are committed to making their shows successful. This renewed focus means that we have had to make some tough decisions about how and where we direct Blip’s resources. Over the past few months, we have been reviewing the Blip content library and identifying accounts that don’t meet our Terms of Service. These accounts were removed on November 7, 2013. If you have encountered a Blip page or player with the message "Sorry, this show has been removed from Blip", it means the show you are looking for has been removed."
Vimeo
YouTube

Music:

List of online music databases: online music databases & on-demand streaming music services (includes all internet radios). Comparison of online music stores (Amazon MP3, Android Market, iTunes Store, Spotify)
Discogs (short for discographies): electronic music releases and releases on vinyl media
Internet radio: legal details: SoundExchange is non-profit performance rights organization that collects royalties on the behalf of sound recording copyright owners (SRCOs — record labels, generally) and featured artists for non-interactive digital transmissions, including satellite and Internet radio. Internet Radio Equality Act: proposed legislation (have been abandoned in committee, as of July 19, 2008).
Open Music Model (2002 paper “Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models”): Open file sharing, Open file formats, Open membership, Open payment (similar to microtransactions), Open competition. Proposed price: 5$/(month * person). Achievements: iTunes Store removed DRM in 2008, Amazon.com offers DRM-free music since 2007.
Spotify: Swedish DRM-based music streaming service offering streaming of selected music from a range of major and independent record labels, including Sony, EMI, Warner Music Group, and Universal. Free accounts supported by visual and radio-style advertising or for paid subscriptions without ads and with a range of extra features such as higher bitrate streams and offline access to music. Despotify & Spot: FOSS client by "group of Swedish computer science researchers and security professionals who "believe strongly in the right to tinker with technology"".
Soundcloud: allows collaboration, promotion and distribution of audio recordings
Recommender system:
Pandora Radio: uses the properties of a song or artist (a subset of the 400 attributes provided by the Music Genome Project) in order to seed a "station" that plays music with similar properties. User feedback is used to refine the station's results, deemphasizing certain attributes when a user "dislikes" a particular song and emphasizing other attributes when a user "loves" a song. This is an example of a content-based approach.
Last.fm: creates a "station" of recommended songs by observing what bands and individual tracks that the user has listened to on a regular basis and comparing those against the listening behavior of other users. Last.fm will play tracks that do not appear in the user's library, but are often played by other users with similar interests. As this approach leverages the behavior of users, it is an example of a collaborative filtering technique.

Template:Presentation software:

Free SW
Freeware
Retail SW
Web applications: {Alexa} Scribd (2007: 275; 2013.09: 293), Slideshare (2006: 207; 2013.09: 124), docstoc (2013.09: 1150), Google Docs
SlideShare
Scribd: document-sharing website that allows users to post documents of various formats, and embed them into a web page using its iPaper format
Docstoc: electronic document repository and online store, aimed at providing professional, financial and legal documents for the business community; users can upload, share and sell their own documents, or purchase professional documents written in-house by professionals and lawyers.
IPTV:
Pay-per-view: television audience can purchase events to view via private telecast. Not to be confused with VOD.
Video on demand (VOD) or Audio and Video On Demand (AVOD). Best providers:
Netflix: not in Europe. The best.
de:Maxdome: only in DE. No flat rate, must pay per each movie; must use some MaxDome TV or whatever HW. Much worse than Netflix, but Netflix is not in DE [14/03/02].
Category:Internet television channels
Category:YouTube channels
Category:YouTube EDU channels
YouTube
C. G. P. Grey: American–Irish YouTube content creator, known for creating the edutainment channel CGP Grey; channel features short explanatory videos on varying subjects, including politics, geography, economics, and British culture.
Humans Need Not Apply (2014.08.13): short Internet documentary film, directed, produced, written, and edited by C. G. P. Grey. The film focuses on the future of the integration of automation into economics, as well as the worldwide workforce.

Multiplayer gaming service[edit]

Category:Multiplayer gaming services
Nintendo Network
PlayStation Network (PSN)
Xbox Live (Xbox LIVE)
Origin (content delivery) (2011.06.03-): by Electronic Arts; account bans, accusations of spying (esp. in DE).
Steam (software) (2003.09.12-): by Valve; platforms: Windows, Mac OS X, Linux (upcoming, 2012 summer), PS3, iOS, Android.
Battle.net

Publishing[edit]

{q.v.: User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Desktop Publishing}

Template:Book Publishing Process (called "the editing process" by Eric Flint, "the central "transmission belt" between authors and readers"):
Editing: process of selecting and preparing (any) media used to convey information through the processes of correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate, and complete work
Publisher's reader (first reader; or film reader for films): person paid by a publisher or book club to read manuscripts from the slush pile
Slush pile: set of unsolicited query letters or manuscripts sent either directly to the publisher or literary agent by authors, or to the publisher by an agent not known to the publisher. authonomy @HarperCollins.
Copy (written): written material, in contrast to photographs or other elements of layout. In advertising: output of copywriters; In publishing: the text in books, magazines, and newspapers; In books, it means the text as written by the author, which the copy editor then prepares for typesetting and printing; In newspapers and magazines: "body copy", "display copy".
Copywriting: use of words and ideas to promote a person, business, opinion or idea. Term copywriter is generally limited to promotional situations, regardless of the medium. To write an ad (advertisement) copy.

Publishers:

old-school (dead trees): Template:Bookstore chains: Barnes & Noble is trying to go to new-school with Nook. Let's see if B&N can compete with Amazon's Kindle (11/12/01).
Future of newspapers: "Simply put," wrote Buffalo News owner Warren Buffett, "if cable and satellite broadcasting, as well as the internet, had come along first, newspapers as we know them probably would never have existed." New media vs. dead-tree media to bring information to the masses.
new-school (e-publication): Amazon (combined with dead-tree delivery)
Ebook: market shares:
Quantity market shares of e-book sales in US by Goldman Sachs at 2010
[26]
Sellers Percent
Amazon
  
58.0%
Barnes & Noble
  
27.0%
Apple
  
9.0%
Others
  
6.0%
Barnes & noble's internal fight between company's leadership and Ron Burkle (Yucaipa Cos.: "2009: Yucaipa doubles its stake in Barnes and Noble to 16.8% during e-reader War with Amazon.")
Pottermore: alternative to Amazon, B&N, Sony & Apple iBooks: when author has all the rights and J.K. Rowling decided to make the ebooks available on her own terms and then struck agreements with Amazon, B&N and Sony, while Apple failed to agree. It is a website and an additional experience beyond the books (games? Additional content?). Is this the future of the published book brands when the author knows that the word-of-mouth is the best ad?
eBooks[edit]

History of ebooks; economic practice of "selling books": from free to DRM:

Jim Baen: he and Simon & Schuster created one of the first, if not the first, writer-to-fan discussion forums "Baen's Bar" capable of using a mix of technologies to support the overall promotion and interest in reading books for education and entertainment. Jim Baen disliked Adobe pdf format for reading purposes. Baen was a publisher and editor.
Baen Books: American publishing company established in 1983 by long time science fiction publisher and editor Jim Baen; science fiction and fantasy publishing house that emphasizes space opera, hard science fiction, military science fiction, and fantasy. Since 1999, Baen emphasized epublishing and Internet-focused promotions. DRM free ebooks. Electronic versions by Baen are produced in five common formats from webwrights (HTML, Palm Pilot/Mobipocket/Kindle format, Rocketbook, EPUB/Stanza, Sony LRF, RTF and MS Reader versions), all unencrypted. When you purchase a title from Baen, you can read it online, download in any format you want as often as you want.
Baen's Bar: first a BBS, since early 2000s chat client
Webscriptions: web services company that has sold e-books without DRM since 1999.
Baen Free Library (founded in autumn 1999 by science fiction writer Eric Flint and publisher Jim Baen): represents an interesting experiment in the field of intellectual property and copyright. It appears that sales of both the books made available free and other books by the same author, even from a different publisher, increase when the electronic version is made available free of charge.
Template:Ebooks (Electronic books):
Comparison of e-book readers: table is missing: UTF-8 (Unicode) support. New eBooks should have e-ink + LCD + touch screen and switch between reading and browsing modes (LCD turn on/off, e-ink: disappear, appear)
Amazon Kindle: Business model: Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP): authors and publishers independently publish their books directly to Kindle and Kindle Apps worldwide. The published ebooks are different from physical books because Amazon sells a license to the ebooks rather than the copy, just like software licenses of Apple or Microsoft → again a legal battle to determine if ebooks are different from physical books, if one can resell them, if patent-like law or physical-commodity law applies in this case (in software licenses and patents the legal battles are ongoing). DRM of Amazon on licensed copies of ebooks on Kindle.
Comparison of e-book formats:
.azw: Kindle e-ink; based on Mobipocket standard; being replaced by KF8 which is used on Kindle Fire; KF8 is the current contender to EPUB v.3
.chm: Microsoft Compiled HTML Help
.djvu
.epub: EPUB, free and open ebook standard; supported by all ereaders except Kindle (11/11/28). Versions: 3.0 (current, 11/11/28), 2.0.1. Software reading systems: Duokan (Kindle e-ink),... ; Editing systems: Adobe InDesign, calibre, Sigil,...
.htm & .html
.prc & .mobi: Mobipocket standard. Mobipocket SA was bought by Amazon.com in 2005.
.pdf: supported by all newest ereaders
.txt: supported by all ereaders except Nook, Nook Touch (11/11/28)
Software:
reading:
Calibre (software) (GNU GPL v3, cross-platform (programmed in Python and C (Qt))): organizes, saves and manages e-books
Lexcycle Stanza (proprietary; owned by Amazon)
editing: Sigil (application) (GNU GPLv3, cross-platform)
Sources for books:
public domain books:
Project Gutenberg: Project Gutenberg Australia, Project Gutenberg Canada
Michael S. Hart: best known as the inventor of the electronic book (or ebook) and the founder of Project Gutenberg. Most of the early postings were typed in by Hart himself.
Wikisource
Google Books: {q.v.}
Internet Archive: {q.v.}
Feedbooks

TV[edit]

BBC World News (vs. CNN International): slight British (ex-Imperial?) bias vs. huge American bias?

Media, Mass media[edit]

Category:Mass media
Category:Mass media by type
Category:Advertising
Category:Advertising organizations
Category:Media industry
Category:Mass media rivalries
Category:Anime industry
Category:Comics industry
Category:Media franchises
Category:Music industry
Category:Video game industry
Category:Publishing
Category:Printing
Category:Typography
Category:Typesetting
Category:News media
Concentration of media ownership (media consolidation, media convergence): progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media. Large media conglomerates include Viacom, CBS Corporation, Time Warner, News Corp, Bertelsmann AG, Sony, Comcast, Vivendi, Televisa, The Walt Disney Company, Hearst Corporation, Organizações Globo and Lagardère Group. In nations described as authoritarian by most international think-tanks and NGOs like Human Rights Watch (North Korea, China, Iran, Cuba, Russia), media ownership is generally something very close to the complete state control over information in direct or indirect ways.
Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB): advertising business organization that develops industry standards, conducts research, and provides legal support for the online advertising industry; represents a large number of the most prominent media outlets globally, but mostly in USA and in Europe
Ad serving: technology and service that places advertisements on web sites
New media art & New media (a possible definition)
Vice Media, Inc.: American youth media company and digital content creation studio operating in 36 countries. It was started in 1994 by Shane Smith, Gavin McInnes and Suroosh Alvi as a punk magazine titled Voice of Montreal. In 2006, co-founder Gavin McInnes left Vice Media due to creative differences with the company, and co-founded an advertising agency, where he has since been terminated for expressing a pattern of promoting the freedom of speech.
Vice (magazine): Gavin McInnes, VBS.tv. McInnes left the publication in 2008, citing "creative differences" as the primary issue.
Ad exchange
Real-time bidding (RTB): means by which advertising inventory is bought and sold on a per-impression basis, via programmatic instantaneous auction, similar to financial markets. With real-time bidding, advertising buyers bid on an impression and, if the bid is won, the buyer’s ad is instantly displayed on the publisher’s site.

News media, journalism[edit]

Category:News media
Category:Journalism
Category:Investigative journalism
Category:Journalism sourcing
Category:News websites {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Internet forums}


SecureDrop: open-source software platform for secure communication between journalists and sources. It was originally designed and developed by Aaron Swartz and Kevin Poulsen under the name DeadDrop.
The Intercept: online publication launched in February 2014 by First Look Media, the news organization created and funded by eBay founder Pierre Omidyar.

English media[edit]

Slashdot, aka /.: technology-related news website owned by Geeknet, Inc; "News for Nerds. Stuff that Matters", features user-submitted and ‑evaluated current affairs news stories about science- and technology-related topics
Reason (magazine): libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation
Template:Advance Publications
Vanity Fair (magazine)
The Economist: weekly news and international affairs publication. Editorial stance: based on free trade and globalisation, but also the expansion of government health and education spending, as well as other, more limited, forms of governmental intervention. Economist Group, The Economist editorial stance, Template:The Economist Group
The New York Times: daily newspaper founded, and continuously published in New York City, since 1851. Template:NY Times
Guardian.co.uk: The Guardian (British national daily newspaper) & The Observer
Slate (magazine): current affairs and culture magazine created in 1996
Time (magazine): news magazine
Harvard Business Review: general management magazine published since 1922 by Harvard Business School Publishing, owned by the Harvard Business School.
Technology Review: by MIT; TR35 (list of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35).
Business Insider: USA business and technology news website launched in 2009.02 and based in New York City. Founded by DoubleClick Founder and former C.E.O. Kevin P. Ryan; provides and analyzes business news and acts as an aggregator of top news stories from around the web; its original works are sometimes cited by other, larger, publications such as The New York Times and domestic news outlets like National Public Radio.
Henry Blodget: 1998.10 he predicted that Amazon.com's stock price would hit a pre-split price of $400 (which it did a month later, gaining 128%); this call received significant media attention, and, two months later, he accepted a position at Merrill Lynch. Agreed to a permanent ban from the securities industry and paid a $2 million fine plus a $2 million disgorgement in 2003. Co-founder of The Business Insider.
Al Jazeera: Qatari broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network and headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al Jazeera English
Al Jazeera America
ProPublica: non-profit corporation based in New York City. It describes itself as an independent non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. In 2010 it became the first online news source to win a Pulitzer Prize, for a piece written by one of its journalists and published in The New York Times Magazine as well as on ProPublica.org. ProPublica's investigations are conducted by its staff of full-time investigative reporters and the resulting stories are given away to news 'partners' for publication or broadcast.
Center for Public Integrity: nonprofit organization dedicated to producing original, responsible investigative journalism on issues of public concern.
London Review of Books: fortnightly British magazine of literary and intellectual essays
The New York Review of Books: fortnightly magazine with articles on literature, culture and current affairs. "takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity". Esquire called it "the premier literary-intellectual magazine in the English language." In 1970 writer Tom Wolfe described it as "the chief theoretical organ of Radical Chic".
Radical chic: Terrorist chic.

About LT and Baltics in en:

Lituanus: English language quarterly journal dedicated to Lithuanian and Baltic languages, linguistics, political science, arts, history, literature, and related topics.

Germany's media[edit]

de:Landesrundfunkanstalt: neun Rundfunkveranstalter des öffentlichen Rechts, die für ein oder für mehrere deutsche Länder Hörfunk und Fernsehen veranstalten: BR, HR, MDR, NDR, Radio Bremen, RBB, SR, SWR und WDR.
de:Deutsche Welle
de:DW-TV: der offizielle staatliche deutsche Auslandsfernsehsender der Deutschen Welle.
de:Deutschlandradio (DRadio, DLR): produziert die drei bundesweiten Hörfunkprogramme Deutschlandfunk und DRadio Wissen (im Funkhaus Köln) sowie Deutschlandradio Kultur (im Funkhaus Berlin). Das Deutschlandradio hat einen Jahresetat von 180 Millionen Euro (2006); es bezeichnet sich selbst als der nationale Hörfunk.

East Asian media[edit]

Anime News Network (ANN): anime industry news website that reports on the status of anime, manga, video games, Japanese popular music and other otaku-related culture within North America, Australia and Japan.
Protoculture Addicts (1987/1988-2008.07/08): was a Canadian-based North American anime and manga magazine.

Design[edit]

Template:Design
Dieter Rams: Rams' ten principles to "good design": Good design is: innovative; makes a product useful; is aesthetic; makes the product understandable; is unobtrusive; is honest; is long-lasting; is thorough down to the last detail; is environment friendly; is as little design as possible ("Less is more" & "Less, but better")

History and art[edit]

Wars and art (and historical artifacts):

Looting & Looted art:
Archaeological looting in Iraq
Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550 and 1568): book by Giorgio Vasari in Italian language. Main source about Renaissance art in Italy: schools of Florence and Rome.

Art vs society[edit]

Ethics (philosophy) of mainstream are "mistreated" by minorities and the art of minorities. E.g. obscenity: what's indecent/obscene in art vs. everyday life? We live in the freest expression time due to the Internet, but Internet like art is threatened due to these same reasons by copyright, trademark, patent, obscenity (porn...):

Comics:
Comic Book Legal Defense Fund (1986 USA): protect the First Amendment rights of comics creators, publishers, and retailers covering legal expenses.
Comic Legends Legal Defense Fund (1987 Canada): protect the free speech rights of comics creators, publishers, retailers, and readers, by helping to cover legal expenses in the defense of cases where its directors feel those issues are at stake.

Plot[edit]

MacGuffin (macguffin): plot device in the form of some goal, desired object, or other motivator that the protagonist (and sometimes the antagonist) is willing to do and sacrifice almost anything to pursue, often with little or no narrative explanation as to why it is considered so desirable; "a plot element that catches the viewers' attention or drives the plot of a work of fiction". Common examples are money, victory, glory, survival, a source of power, a potential threat, a mysterious but highly desired item or object, or simply something that is entirely unexplained.

Media and consumers[edit]

Blurb: short summary accompanying a creative work (book, PC game, piece of art in a museum: drawing, ...).

Religion[edit]

Religion vs. areligion:

  • User:Wetman#Concerning Atheism: Many Christianists are disbelieving when they first hear that virtually every European or Near Eastern basilica or cathedral founded before 600 CE occupies the consecrated site of a pagan temple of one kind or another. Church crypts from Rome to Monte Gargano to Toulouse are mithraea, swept scrupulously clean of all identifiable details, but still recognizable by their characteristic layouts.

Earliest religions (known through surviving texts; historicity):

List of founders of religious traditions:
  • Ancient (before AD 500)
Relationship between religion and science
Theistic evolution (theistic evolutionism, evolutionary creationism): view that 'religious teachings about God are compatible with modern scientific understanding about biological evolution.
Acceptance of evolution by religious groups: "In one form or another, Theistic Evolutionism is the view of creation taught at the majority of mainline Protestant seminaries, and it is the official position of the Catholic church" (Eugenie Scott). 2007 poll showed that acceptance among American Buddhists, Hindus and Jews was higher than among any Christian groups.

Atheism[edit]

Template:Irreligion
Template:Irreligion sidebar
Implicit and explicit atheism: subsets of atheism coined by George H. Smith (1979, p. 13-18). Implicit atheism is defined by Smith as "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it". Explicit atheism is defined as "the absence of theistic belief due to a conscious rejection of it".
Negative and positive atheism: Positive atheism (strong atheism, hard atheism) is the form of atheism that asserts that no deities exist. Negative atheism (weak atheism, soft atheism) is any other type of atheism, wherein a person does not believe in the existence of any deities, but does not explicitly assert there to be none.
Apatheism: " The eighteenth century French philosopher Denis Diderot, when accused of being an atheist, replied that he simply did not care whether God existed or not. In response to Voltaire, he wrote: “It is very important not to mistake hemlock for parsley; but not at all so to believe or not in God.” "
New Atheism: social and political movement in favour of atheism and secularism promoted by a collection of modern atheist writers who have advocated the view that "religion should not simply be tolerated but should be countered, criticized, and exposed by rational argument wherever its influence arises."

Abrahamic religions[edit]

Abrahamic religions (Semitic religions): monotheistic faiths of West Asian origin, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him
Supersessionism (fulfillment theology, replacement theology): terms used in biblical interpretation for the belief that the Christian Church supersedes or replaces the children of Israel in God's plan, and that the New Covenant nullifies the biblical promises made to the children of Israel, including the Abrahamic Covenant, the Land Covenant, and the Davidic Covenant. More recently, supersessionism and replacement theology are also applied to the parallel case of Islam and its attitude towards Christianity and Judaism.

Christianity, Judaism[edit]

Bible: sources, criticism, historicity[edit]

Sources, source criticism, historicity of the sources; interpretation by the scientists (frequently theologian-scientists) of the sources and their historicity:

Dating the Bible. The New Testament: "Earliest preserved fragment" for each text (New Testament books).
Biblical manuscript: any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible.
Cataloging:
  • von Soden
  • Gregory–Aland: Gregory assigned the papyri a prefix of P, often written in blackletter script (n), with a superscript numeral.
Great uncial codices (four great uncials): the only remaining uncial codices that contain (or originally contained) the entire text of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament).
Codex Vaticanus (c. 325–350; Uncial 03, B): Codex is named after its place of conservation in the Vatican Library, where it has been kept since at least the 15th century; written on 759 leaves of vellum in uncial letters; uses the most ancient system of text's division in the Gospels; has a more archaic style of writing than the other manuscripts.
Codex Sinaiticus (c. 330–360; Uncial 01, א): codex is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript in uncial letters on parchment. Along with Codex Vaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus is considered one of the most valuable manuscripts for establishing the original text (textual criticism) of the Greek New Testament, as well as the Septuagint. The only uncial manuscript with the complete text of the New Testament, and the only ancient manuscript of the New Testament written in four columns per page which has survived to the present day. For the Gospels, Sinaiticus is generally considered among scholars as the second most reliable witness of the text (after Vaticanus); in the Acts of the Apostles, its text is equal to that of Vaticanus; in the Epistles, Sinaiticus is the most reliable witness of the text. In the Book of Revelation, however, its text is corrupted and is considered of poor quality, and inferior to the texts of Codex Alexandrinus, Papyrus 47, and even some minuscule manuscripts in this place.
Codex Alexandrinus (400-440; Uncial 02, A): containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It derives its name from Alexandria where it resided for a number of years before it was brought by the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch Cyril Lucaris from Alexandria to Constantinople. Then it was given to Charles I of England in the 17th century. Until the later purchase of the Codex Sinaiticus, it was the best manuscript of the Greek Bible deposited in Britain.
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (c. 450; Uncial 04, C): manuscript has not survived in a complete condition, although is believed that the original codex contained the whole Bible. Manuscript received its name as a codex in which Greek translations of Ephraem the Syrian's treatises were written over ("rescriptus") a former text that had been washed off its vellum pages, thus forming a palimpsest. The lower text of the palimpsest was deciphered by biblical scholar and palaeographer Tischendorf in 1840–1843, and was edited by him in 1843–1845. Even with modern aids like ultra-violet photography, not all the text is securely legible.
Differences between codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus
Fifty Bibles of Constantine
Template:English Bible translation navbox:
New International Version (NIV): OT in 1978, NT in 1973. One of the most popular modern translations in history.
Old Testament (Tanakh)[edit]
The inter-relationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament (some identified by their siglum). LXX - the original septuagint (Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the 3rd and 2nd Centuries BC in Alexandria). MT - Masoretic Text
Documentary hypothesis: proposes that the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) was derived from originally independent, parallel and complete narratives, which were subsequently combined into the current form by a series of redactors (editors). The number of these narratives is usually set at four, but the precise number is not an essential part of the hypothesis. Sources: Jahwist (J), Elohist (E), Deuteronomist (D), Priestly (P).
Dead Sea Scrolls: text dating 150 BCE - 70 CE; some are "the earliest known surviving copies of Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents and preserve evidence of great diversity in late Second Temple Judaism". Found 1947-1956. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek on parchment and some on papyrus.
Carbon dating the Dead Sea Scrolls: 14C, 2σ (95% confidence); a few docs are around 3rd c. BCE.
=Torah=[edit]
Niddah: woman's vaginal bleeding (menstruation) must be cleaned by washing (Mikveh). Ultra-orthodox
New Testament[edit]

New Testament:

  • Gospels
  • Acts (or Luke-Acts as a single source/document)
  • Epistles
  • Apocalypse (Revelation)
Relationships between the three synoptic gospels.

Gospel creation/writing theories:

Synoptic Gospels (gr synoptic: syn "together", optic "seen"): gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct. This strong parallelism among the three gospels in content, arrangement, and specific language is widely attributed to literary interdependence. The synoptic problem: question of the specific literary relationship among the three synoptic gospels–that is, the question as to the source upon which gospel depended when it was written.
Markan priority
Two-source hypothesis: most widely accepted theory.
Q document
Gospel of Mark
Mark 16: final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament. Begins with the discovery of the empty tomb by Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome; verse 8 ends with the women fleeing from the empty tomb, and saying "nothing to anyone, because they were afraid". Scholars (following Bruce Metzger) take 16:8 as the original ending and believe the longer ending (16:9-20) was written later by someone else as a summary of Jesus' resurrection appearances and several miracles performed by Christians. In this 12-verse passage, the author refers to Jesus' appearances to Mary Magdalene, two disciples, and then the Eleven (the Twelve Apostles minus Judas); text concludes with the Great Commission, declaring that believers that have been baptized will be saved while nonbelievers will be condemned, and pictures Jesus taken to Heaven and sitting at the Right Hand of God. Because of patristic evidence from the late 2nd century for the existence of copies of Mark with the "Longer Ending," it is contended by a majority of scholars that the "Longer Ending" must have been written and attached no later than the early 2nd century. The vast majority of modern scholars remain convinced that neither of the two endings ("short" or "longer") is Marcan.
Gospel of John: it is notable that, in the gospel, the community appears to define itself primarily in contrast to Judaism, rather than as part of a wider Christian community. John presents a "higher" Christology than the synoptic gospels, meaning that it describes Jesus as the incarnation of the divine Logos through whom all things were made, as the object of veneration. Only in John does Jesus talk at length about himself and his divine role, often sharing such information with the disciples only. Against the synoptics, John focuses largely on different miracles (including the resurrection of Lazarus), given as signs meant to engender faith. Synoptic elements such as parables and exorcisms are not found in John.
Authorship of the Johannine works: historical criticism, representing most liberal Christian and secular scholars, rejects the view that John the Apostle authored any of these works. There may have been a single author for the gospel and the three epistles; some scholars conclude the author of the epistles was different from that of the gospel, although all four works probably originated from the same community. Gospel and epistles traditionally and plausibly came from Ephesus, c. 90-110, although some scholars argue for an origin in Syria. In the case of Revelation, many modern scholars agree that it was written by a separate author, John of Patmos, c. 95 with some parts possibly dating to Nero's reign in the early 60s.
John 21: contains an account of the post-Resurrection appearance in Galilee, which the text describes as the third time Jesus had appeared to his disciples. Some New Testament historians assert that it was not part of the original text of the Gospel of John.
Jesus and the woman taken in adultery (Pericope Adulterae; John 7:53-8:11): certain critics argue that it was "certainly not part of the original text of St John's Gospel".
Luke–Acts: name usually given by Biblical scholars to the composite work of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament.
Authorship of Luke–Acts: tradition holds that the text was written by Luke the companion of Paul (Colossians 4:14) and this traditional view of Lukan authorship is “widely held as the view which most satisfactorily explains all the data.” Critical views - Anonymous non-eyewitness: the view that both works were written by an anonymous writer who was not an eyewitness of any of the events he described, and who had no eyewitness sources OR Redaction authorship: the view that Acts in particular was written (either by an anonymous writer or the traditional Luke), using existing written sources such as a travelogue by an eyewitness.
Acts of the Apostles (date to 2nd half of 1st c.): two earliest versions of manuscripts are the Western text-type (as represented by the Codex Bezae) and the Alexandrian text-type (as represented by the Codex Sinaiticus); Western manuscripts contain about 10% more content than Alexandrian version. The third class of manuscripts (Byzantine text-type) developed after the Western and Alexandrian types; the extant Byzantine manuscripts date from 5th c. or later; "today" Byzantine text-type is the subject of renewed interest as the possible original form of the text from which the Western and Alexandrian. The content of the Acts - two distinct parts: first (chs. 1-12) deals with the church in Jerusalem, Peter as the central figure, the Seven Men, relates the story of Paul and the great transition of the Gospel from Judaism to the Greek world (Harnack); second part pursues the history of the apostle Paul and the statements in the Acts can be compared with the Epistles - there are two remarkable exceptions: the account given by Paul of his visits to Jerusalem in Galatians as compared with Acts; and the character and mission of the apostle Paul, as they appear in his letters and in Acts.
List of New Testament papyri: are considered the earliest witnesses to the original text of the New Testament.
Categories of New Testament manuscripts: in Greek are categorized into five groups; categories are based on how each manuscript relates to the various text-types. Distribution of Greek manuscripts by century and category.
Alexandrian text-type (Neutral, Egyptian): form of the Greek New Testament that predominates in the earliest surviving documents, as well as the text-type used in Egyptian Coptic manuscripts.
Byzantine text-type (Majority Text, Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, or Syrian Text; abbr. Byz): Koine Greek New Testament manuscripts; found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts
Western text-type: Koine Greek New Testament manuscripts
Novum Testamentum Graece: Latin name of an original Greek-language version of the New Testament. The first printed edition was the Complutensian Polyglot Bible by Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, printed in 1514, but not published until 1520. The first published edition of the Greek New Testament was produced by Erasmus in 1516. Today the designation Novum Testamentum Graece normally refers to the Nestle-Aland editions, named after the scholars who led the critical editing work. Accuracy of the New Testament: total number of verses=7947, variant-free verses=4999, 4999/7947=62.9% agreement. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland concluded, "Thus in nearly two-thirds of the New Testament text, the seven editions of the Greek New Testament which we have reviewed are in complete accord, with no differences other than in orthographical details (e.g., the spelling of names, etc.). Verses in which any one of the seven editions differs by a single word are not counted. This result is quite amazing, demonstrating a far greater agreement among the Greek texts of the New Testament during the past century than textual scholars would have suspected […]. In the Gospels, Acts, and Revelation the agreement is less, while in the letters it is much greater".
Epistle: writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curriculum. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Pauline epistles and General epistles (Catholic Epistles: most part their intended audience seems to be Christians in general rather than individual persons or congregations as is the case with the Pauline epistles)
Epistle to the Romans:
The fragment in Romans 13:1–7 dealing with obedience to earthly powers is considered by some, for example James Kallas, to be a gloss incorporated later.
Jewish–Christian gospels: gospels of a Jewish Christian character quoted by Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerome and probably Didymus the Blind. Most modern scholars have concluded that there was one gospel in Aramaic/Hebrew and at least two in Greek. None of these gospels survives today, but attempts have been made to reconstruct them from references in the Church Fathers.
  1. Gospel of the Ebionites
  2. Gospel of the Hebrews: syncretic Jewish–Christian gospel, the text of which is lost; only fragments of it survive as brief quotations by the early Church Fathers.
  3. Gospel of the Nazarenes
Bibles:
The Books of the Bible (TNIV 2007, NIV 2012): first presentation of an unabridged committee translation of the Bible to remove chapter and verse numbers entirely and instead present the biblical books according to their natural literary structures.
Biblical manuscripts[edit]
Category:Biblical manuscripts
Category:Illuminated biblical manuscripts
Category:Vulgate manuscripts
Category:Old Latin New Testament manuscripts
Codex Gigas: largest extant medieval manuscript in the world; thought to have been created in the early 13th century in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice in Bohemia.
New Testament apocrypha[edit]
New Testament apocrypha: number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives. These writings often have links with the books generally regarded as "canonical" but Christian denominations disagree on which writings should be regarded as "canonical" and which are "apocryphal".
Acts of Thomas: portraying Christ as the "Heavenly Redeemer", independent of and beyond creation, who can free souls from the darkness of the world. References to the work by Epiphanius of Salamis show that it was in circulation in the 4th c..
Jesus[edit]
Template:Jesus
Jesus and history:
Quest for the historical Jesus
Historicity of Jesus: Amy-Jill Levine: "Most scholars agree that Jesus was baptized by John, debated with fellow Jews on how best to live according to God's will, engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, gathered male and female followers in Galilee, went to Jerusalem, and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate."
Historical Jesus: scholarly reconstructions of the life of Jesus of Nazareth, based on historical methods including critical analysis of gospel texts as the primary source for his biography, along with consideration of the historical and cultural context in which he lived.
Historical background of the New Testament: Canonical Gospels and life of Jesus must be viewed as firmly placed within his historical and cultural context, rather than purely in terms of Christian orthodoxy (most scholars believe);
Historical reliability of the Gospels
Chronology of Jesus
Christ myth theory (Jesus myth theory or Jesus mythicism): The strongest version of the myth theories contends that there was no real historical figure Jesus and that he was invented by early Christians. Another variant holds that there was a person called Jesus, but much of the teachings and miracles attributed to him were either invented or symbolic references. Yet another version suggests that the Jesus portrayed in the New Testament is a composite character constructed from multiple people over a period of time. Only a distinct minority of scholars adhere to the myth. Main arguments: 1) New Testament accounts have no historical value; 2) an argument from silence regarding the scarcity of references to Jesus in contemporary non-Christian sources; 3) Christianity had relied on syncretism from the very beginning and combined various myths to build the gospel accounts. All the accounts of Jesus come from decades later; the gospels themselves all come from later times, though they may contain earlier sources or oral traditions. The earliest writings that survive are the letters of Paul of Tarsus, thought to have been written 20–30 years after the dates given for Jesus' death. Paul was not a companion of Jesus, White writes, nor does he ever claim to have seen Jesus before his death.
Jesus Christ in comparative mythology: examination of the narratives of the life of Jesus in the Christian gospels, traditions and theology, as it relates to Christian mythology and other religions; various authors have drawn a number of parallels between the Christian views of Jesus and other religious or mythical domains. These include Greco-Roman mysteries, ancient Egyptian myths and more general analogies involving cross-cultural patterns of dying and rising gods in the context of Christ myth theory
George Albert Wells (1926.05.22-; G. A. Wells): Emeritus Professor of German at Birkbeck, University of London; best known as an advocate of the thesis that Jesus is essentially a mythical rather than a historical figure, a theory that was pioneered by German biblical scholars such as theologian/historian Bruno Bauer and philosopher Arthur Drews.
Did Jesus Exist? (1975) book by G. A. Wells. Wells argues there was no historical evidence of Jesus existing. Wells has since modified his position (The Jesus Myth, 1999), saying that Paul's Jesus and the Jesus that appeared in the hypothetical Q Gospel were two different people and that the Gospel Jesus, although flesh and blood, is in essence a composite character.
Circumcision of Jesus
Language of Jesus: generally agreed that Jesus and his disciples primarily spoke Aramaic, the common language of Palestine in the first century AD, most likely a Galilean dialect distinguishable from that of Jerusalem; towns of Nazareth and Capernaum in Galilee, where Jesus spent most of his time, were primarily Aramaic-speaking communities.

Historical Jesus:

Mara Bar-Serapion on Jesus (after 73 AD, before 3rd c.): letter by Stoic philosopher (Mara Bar-Serapion) from the Roman province of Syria to his son (also Serapion) mentions Socrates, Pythagoras and "king of the Jews" as three wise men who were killed by their people; "What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise king?"
Jesuism
Paul[edit]
Paul the Apostle (c. 5 - c. 67): sources: Acts & Epistles; Historians: Jews, Romans, Greeks
In 2009.06, Pope Benedict announced excavation results concerning the tomb of Paul at the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. The sarcophagus was not opened but was examined by means of a probe, which revealed pieces of incense, purple and blue linen, and small bone fragments. The bone was radiocarbon dated to the 1st or 2nd century. According to the Vatican, these findings are consistent with the traditional claim that the tomb is Paul's. The sarcophagus was inscribed in Latin saying, "Paul apostle martyr."
Pauline Christianity: Christianity associated with the beliefs and doctrines espoused by Paul the Apostle through his writings
Paul the Apostle and Judaism
History of Christianity, spreading[edit]
Category:History of Christianity by period
Category:Ancient Christianity (30 - 476 AD)
Category:Early Christianity (<325 AD)
Category:Late ancient Christianity (~313 - ~476 AD)
Category:Christianity of the Middle Ages
Category:Early Modern history of Christianity
Category:Late Modern history of Christianity
History of late ancient Christianity
State church of the Roman Empire
First seven Ecumenical Councils: represented an attempt to reach an orthodox consensus and to establish a unified Christendom as the state church of the Roman Empire. The East–West Schism, formally dated to 1054, was still almost three centuries off from the last of these councils, but already by 787 the major western sees, although still in communion with the state church of the Byzantine Empire, were all outside the empire, and the Pope was to crown Charlemagne as emperor 13 years later.
First Council of Nicaea: main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.
Second Council of Nicaea: seventh of the first seven ecumenical councils by both West and East. Orthodox, Catholics, and Old Catholics unanimously recognize it; to restore the use and veneration of icons (or, holy images), which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Leo III (717–741).
Western Schism (1378-1418):
Council of Constance (1414–1418): ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. The council ended the Western Schism, by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining papal claimants and electing Pope Martin V. The Council also condemned Jan Hus as a heretic and facilitated his execution by the civil authority. It also ruled on issues of national sovereignty, the rights of pagans, and just war in response to a conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Order of the Teutonic Knights. The Council is important for its relationship to ecclesial Conciliarism and Papal supremacy.
Early Christianity[edit]
Category:Early Christianity
Category:Church Fathers
Split of early Christianity and Judaism: took place during the first centuries of the Common Era. Rejection and crucifixion of Jesus (c. 33), the Council of Jerusalem (c. 50), the destruction of the Second Temple and institution of the Jewish tax in 70, the postulated Council of Jamnia c. 90, and the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–135. Recently, some scholars have argued that there were many competing Jewish sects in the Holy Land during the Second Temple period, and that those that became Rabbinic Judaism and Proto-orthodox Christianity were but two of these. Some of these scholars have proposed a model which envisions a twin birth of Proto-orthodox Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism rather than a separation of the former from the latter.
Circumcision controversy in early Christianity: Early Christian Council of Jerusalem did not include religious male circumcision as a requirement for new gentile converts
John the Apostle (~AD 6 - 100): Church Fathers generally identify him as the author of five books in the New Testament: the Gospel of John, three Epistles of John, and the Book of Revelation. Some modern higher critical scholars have raised the possibility that John the Apostle, John the Evangelist, and John of Patmos were three separate individuals.
Celsus (~ 2nd c.): Greek philosopher and opponent of Early Christianity.
The True Word: Celsus’ main argument against Christianity, and why he attacked it with such vigor, was that he considered it a divisive and destructive force that would harm both the Roman Empire and society.
Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima (Library of Caesarea): was the library of the Christians of Caesarea Maritima in Palestine in ancient times. “large library [30,000 vols in A.D. 630 {O’Connor 1980:161}] survived at Caesarea until destroyed by the Arabs in the 7th cent.”
List of early Christian writers: Various Early Christian writers wrote gospels and other books, some of which were canonized as the New Testament canon developed. The Apostolic Fathers were prominent writers who are traditionally understood to have met and learned from Jesus' personal disciples. The Church Fathers are later writers with no direct connection to the disciples (other than the claim to Apostolic Succession). Apologists defended Christianity against its critics, especially Greek and Roman philosophers.
Patristics: period is generally considered to run from the end of New Testament times or end of the Apostolic Age (c. AD 100) to either AD 451 (the date of the Council of Chalcedon), or to the 8th century Second Council of Nicaea.
Missionaries[edit]
Alopen (阿罗本 / Āluóběn; ~600 in Syria - ~600): first recorded Christian missionary to have reached China, during the Tang Dynasty. Missionary from the Church of the East (also known as the Nestorian Church), and probably a Syriac-speaker from Persia. After Alopen's time, the Church of the East was prominent in China for the remainder of the Tang Dynasty's power. Different emperors treated it differently, with some showing it the tolerance it received in the early decades, and some openly persecuting it. Nestorianism disappeared with the fall of the Tang Dynasty in the early 10th century.
Jesus Sutras (dating: 635 - 1000)
Nestorian Stele (erected 781): documents 150 years of early Christianity in China. It is a 279 cm tall limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. It reveals that the initial Nestorian Christian church had met recognition by the Tang Emperor Taizong, due to efforts of the Christian missionary Alopen in 635. Buried in 845, probably during religious suppression, the stele was not rediscovered until 1625.
Church of the East in China: two periods: 1st: 7th - 10th c.; 2nd: 13th - 14th c.
John of Montecorvino (1246-1328): founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking, and Latin Patriarch of the Orient. Just about the time of Marco Polo being in Yuan China.
Catholic Church[edit]
Sex, gender and the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church and evolution: 1859-1950: no authoritative pronouncement on the subject; 1950: Humani generis Pope Pius XII confirmed that there is no intrinsic conflict between Christianity and the theory of evolution, provided that Christians believe that the individual soul is a direct creation by God and not the product of purely material forces. Humans are regarded as a special creation, and that the existence of God is required to explain both monogenism and the spiritual component of human origins; process of evolution is a planned and purpose-driven natural process, guided by God. {The Church does not argue with scientists on matters such as the age of the earth and the authenticity of the fossil record, seeing such matters as outside its area of expertise.}
Vatileaks scandal
Pope Francis (1936.12.17-): while affirming present Catholic doctrine, has stated that Catholics have concentrated excessively on condemning abortion, contraception, and homosexual acts, while neglecting the greater need for tenderness, mercy and compassion; maintains that he is a "Son of the Church" regarding loyalty to Church doctrine, and has spoken against abortion as "horrific", insisted that women be valued, not clericized; against adoption by same-sex couples, maintained that divorced and re-married Catholics may not receive Holy Communion; Christian obligation to assist the poor and the needy in an optimistic tone, as well as promoting peace negotiations and interfaith dialogue.
Cardinals created by Francis: "cardinalship does not imply promotion; it is neither an honour nor a decoration<...>"
Pietro Parolin: Vietnam talks (Catholic Church in Vietnam = ~6 mln ppl)
Institute for the Works of Religion (Vatican Bank; Istituto per le Opere di Religione – IOR): privately held institute located in Vatican City and run by a Board of Superintendence which reports to a Cardinals' Commission and the Pope; because its assets are not the property of the Holy See, it is outside the jurisdiction of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. On 24 June 2013, Pope Francis created a special investigative Pontifical Commission to study IOR reform. In 2014, he fired four of the five cardinals in attempt to fix corruption within the institute.
Lapsed Catholic: Examples in literature and entertainment: "He was of the faith chiefly in the sense that the church he currently did not attend was Catholic" (Kingsley Amis, One Fat Englishman (1963), chapter 8); "I've usually found every Catholic family has one lapsed member, and it's often the nicest." (Evelyn Waugh, Brideshead Revisited).
Judaism[edit]
Category:Judaism
Category:Jewish texts
Category:Rabbinic Judaism
Category:Rabbinic literature
Category:Talmud
Talmud: central text of Rabbinic Judaism. The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud, or Palestinian Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi). The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה, c. 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah, and the Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature.
Mishnah: the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic literature.

Islam[edit]

Sunni (Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki, Shafi'i), Shia (Ismaili, Jafari, Zaidi), Ibadi
Muhammad (Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim; c. 570-c. 632.06.08): orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib; being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40, that he received his first revelation from God. Early followers; first hijra (migration to Abyssinia); to Medina with followers in 622 (Hijra); in 630 his followers took control of Mecca in the Conquest of Mecca; he destroyed idols and pagan temples. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from The Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died; by the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and he had united Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
Muhammad's wives: 11-13 wives; Aisha was 6 when married Muhammad. Only a few kids.
Prophets in Islam: Adem (Adam) [25 mentions in Quran], Idris (Enoch {identification with Biblical prophet uncertain}) [2], Nuh (Noah) [43], Hud (Eber {uncertain}) [7], Saleh [26], Ibrahim (Abraham) [73], Lut (Lot) [27], Ismail (Ishmael) [12], Ishaq (Isaac) [17], Yaqub (Jacob) [16], Yousuf (Joseph) [27], Ayub (Job) [4], Shoaib (Jethro {uncertain}) [11], Musa (Moses) [136], Harun (Aaron) [20], Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel {uncertain}) (Possessor of a Fold) [2], Dawud (David) [16], Sulayman (Solomon) [17], Ilyas (Elijah / Elias) [2], Al-Yasa (Elisha) [2], Yunus (Jonah / Jonas) [4], Zechariah (Zecharia / Zecharias) [7], Yahya (John the Baptist) [5], Isa (Jesus) [25], Muhammad (Praiseworthy) [4 (as Muhammad) + 1 (as Ahmad) = 5]. Other prophets: Marīam (Mary)
Islamic revival (الصحوة الإسلامية‎ aṣ-Ṣaḥwah l-ʾIslāmiyyah, "Islamic awakening"): revival of the Islamic religion throughout the Islamic world, that began roughly sometime in 1970s and is manifested in greater religious piety and in a growing adoption of Islamic culture, dress, terminology, separation of the sexes, speech and media censorship, and values by Muslims. From Western perspective two most important events for this are: Arab oil embargo and subsequent quadrupling of the price of oil in the mid 1970s, and the 1979 Iranian Revolution that established an Islamic republic in Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini. Oil money allowed to fund Islamic books, scholarships, fellowships, and mosques around the world; Iran's Islamic revolution undermined the assumption that Westernization strengthened Muslim countries and was the irreversible trend.
The Satanic Verses controversy (Rushdie Affair): heated and sometimes violent reaction of some Muslims to the publication of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses, which was first published in the United Kingdom in 1988. In 1989 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran issued a fatwā ordering Muslims to kill Rushdie. Numerous killings, attempted killings, and bombings resulted from Muslim anger over the novel.
A Common Word Between Us and You (2007.10.13): open letter from leaders of the Muslim faith to leaders of the Christian faith. It calls for peace between Muslims and Christians and tries to work for common ground and understanding among both faiths.
Islam in Europe: Muslim European countries: Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Albania; ~50%: Bosnia and Herzegovina; 20%-40%: Cyprus (divided), Macedonia; 10%-20%: Georgia, Montenegro, Russia; <1%: new EU members from the former Soviet bloc (except Bulgaria (5%-10%)) [13/06/23].
Islamism
Quran (Qur'an, Koran)[edit]
Category:Quranic manuscripts
Sana'a manuscript: one of the oldest Quranic manuscripts in existence. Found, along with many other Quranic and non-Quranic fragments, in Yemen in 1972 during restoration of the Great Mosque of Sana'a. Written on parchment, and comprises two layers of text.
History of the Quran: compilation of the written Quran (as opposed to the recited Quran) spanned several decades and forms an important part of early Islamic history. Muslim and non-Muslim scholars alike disagree on whether Muhammad compiled the Quran during his lifetime or if this task began with the first caliph Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (632-634). Once the Quran was compiled, due to the unanimity of the sources, Muslims agree that the Quran we see today was canonized by Uthman ibn Affan (653-656). Upon the canonization of the Quran, Uthman ordered the burning of all personal copies of the Quran. Nevertheless, even according to secular scholars what was done to the Quran in the process seems to have been extremely conservative and the content was formed in a mechanical fashion as to avoid redactional bias. ʿAbd Allāh ibn Masʿūd’s codex; Ubayy ibn Kaʿb’s codex. Other secular scholars, such as John Wansbrough, Michael Cook, and Patricia Crone, are less willing to attribute the entire Quran to Muhammad (or Uthman), arguing that there "is no hard evidence for the existence of the Quran in any form before the last decade of the 7th century...[and that]...the tradition which places this rather opaque revelation in its historical context is not attested before the middle of the eighth".
The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran (2007; Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (2000)): book by Christoph Luxenberg. The book argues that the Qur'an at its inception was drawn from Christian Syro-Aramaic texts, in order to evangelize the Arabs in the early 8th century.
Christoph Luxenberg: pseudonym of the author of The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Qur'an. The real identity of the person behind the pseudonym remains unknown. The most widely circulated version claims that he is a German scholar of Semitic languages. Hans Jansen, professor at Leyden University, has conjectured that Luxenberg is a Lebanese Christian, whereas François de Blois, writing in the Journal of Quranic Studies, has questioned Luxenberg's knowledge of Arabic.
Biblical and Quranic narratives: the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to more than fifty people and events also found in the Bible. Anything in the Bible that agrees with the Quran is accepted by Muslims, and anything in the Bible that disagrees with the Quran is not accepted by Muslims. Many stories in the Bible are not mentioned at all in the Quran; with regard to such passages, Muslims are instructed to maintain neutral positions, but to read them and pass them on if they wish to do so. From a modern scholarly perspective, similarities between Biblical and Quranic accounts of the same person or event are evidence for the influence of pre-existing traditions on the composition of the Quran. Muslims believe that the Biblical tradition was corrupted over time, whereas the Quranic tradition was uncorrupted.
List of people in both the Bible and the Quran

Translations of Quran:

The Koran Interpreted (1955; by Arthur John Arberry): title acknowledges the orthodox Islamic view that the Quran cannot be translated, merely interpreted.

Creationism[edit]

talk.origins (Talk.Origins, t.o.): moderated Usenet discussion forum concerning the origins of life, and evolution. It remains a major venue for debate in the creation-evolution controversy, and its official purpose is to draw such debates out of the science newsgroups, such as sci.bio.evolution. TalkOrigins Archive: presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists
Creationist cosmologies
  1. appearance of age (light created in transit)
  2. c decay: The concept of c-decay was first proposed by Barry Setterfield in 1981 in an article for the Australian creationist magazine, Ex Nihilo, as an alternative to physical cosmology. Setterfield's proposal was that the speed of light (c), was infinite in the past, but has slowed substantially over time. Setterfield argues that this resolves the so-called "starlight problem", since light may have traveled fast enough in the past to reach Earth in thousands of years, despite being billions of light years away.
  3. white hole cosmology

East Asian religions[edit]

Budai (布袋 (Bùdài); Hotei in JA): Chinese folkloric deity; means "Cloth Sack"; Budai is usually identified with (or as an incarnation of) Maitreya Buddha, so much so that the Budai image is one of the main forms in which Maitreya Buddha is depicted in East Asia; Laughing Buddha (笑佛 (xiào-fó)); fat bald man wearing a robe. Many people confuse Budai with Gautama Buddha.

Indian religions[edit]

Indian religions: religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism

Hinduism[edit]

Karma yoga stub
Swami Vivekananda: R, influenced Tesla a lot

Buddhism[edit]

History of Buddhism: spans the 6th c. BC to the present, starting with the birth of Buddha Siddhartha Gautama in Lumbini, Nepal. Spread from the northeastern region of the Indian subcontinent through Central, East, and Southeast Asia.

Sikhism[edit]

Harmandir Sahib
Sikh Reference Library: destroyed

New religious movements[edit]

List of people who have claimed to be Jesus
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835 02 13 – 1908 05 26): claimed to be the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah (Second Coming of Christ), and the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims in the end days.
Sun Myung Moon: South Korean (born in North Korea; was in jail there); Unification Church; Blessing ceremony of the Unification Church

Other[edit]

Principia Discordia

Mythology[edit]

vs. Religion

Category:Traditional stories
Category:Mythology
Category:Creation myths
Category:Creator deities
Category:Deities by association
Category:Creator deities
Religion and mythology: differ in but have overlapping aspect. Both terms refer to systems of concepts that are of high importance to a certain community, making statements concerning the supernatural or sacred. Generally, mythology is considered one component or aspect of religion. Religion is the broader term: besides mythological aspects, it includes aspects of ritual, morality, theology, and mystical experience. A given mythology is almost always associated with a certain religion such as Greek mythology with Ancient Greek religion. Disconnected from its religious system, a myth may lose its immediate relevance to the community and evolve—away from sacred importance—into a legend or folktale.
Demiurge: artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of the physical universe. The term was subsequently adopted by the Gnostics. Although a fashioner, the demiurge is not necessarily the same as the creator figure in the familiar monotheistic sense, because both the demiurge itself plus the material from which the demiurge fashions the universe are considered either uncreated and eternal, or the product of some other being, depending on the system.
Mephistopheles: demon featured in German folklore; originally appeared in literature as the demon in the Faust legend.

Games, Sports, Play, Competition[edit]

Category:Recreation, Category:Leisure, Category:Entertainment
Category:Gaming
Category:Gambling
Category:Games
Category:Game theory {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/Mathematics#Game, investment, gambling theory}
Category:Games
Category:Ball games
Category:Card games
Category:Games of chance
Category:Gambling games
Category:Multiplayer games
Category:Multiplayer video games
Category:Tabletop games
Category:Games of mental skill
Category:Games of physical skill
Category:Sports
Category:Gambling
Category:Gambling games
Category:Sports
Category:Sports by type
Category:Precision sports

Many games or sports are under several categories which are under "Games" or "Sports" categories:

Category:Cue sports
Game: structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports or games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games). Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both.

Play[edit]

Category:Play
Play (activity): range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment; most commonly associated with children and their juvenile-level activities, but play can also be a useful adult activity, and occurs among other higher-functioning animals as well. Play is often interpreted as frivolous; yet the player can be intently focused on their objective, particularly when play is structured and goal-oriented, as in a game. Accordingly, play can range from relaxed, free-spirited and spontaneous through frivolous to planned or even compulsive.
Learning through play
Tickling: act of touching a part of the body so as to cause involuntary twitching movements and/or laughter. Tickling as physical abuse: An article in the British Medical Journal describes a European method of tickle torture in which a goat was compelled to lick the victim's feet after they had been dipped in salt water; In his book Sibling Abuse, Vernon Wiehe published his research findings regarding 150 adults who were abused by their siblings during childhood; Several reported tickling as a type of physical abuse they experienced, and based on these reports it was revealed that abusive tickling is capable of provoking extreme physiological reactions in the victim, such as vomiting, fainting or brief loss of consciousness, incontinence and unconsciousness.

Sports, physical sports[edit]

Chess, checkers, board games, eSports etc. are excluded from this category.

Swimming:

Swimsuits: Bodyskin: LZR Racer allowed in 2008 Summer Olympics for the 23 out of 25 world records broken. In 2010.01 these bodyskin swimsuits were banned by FINA.
Masters athletics (masters are sometimes known as veterans): class of the sport of athletics for veteran athletes in the events of track and field, road running and cross country running; competitions feature five-year age groups beginning at age 35.
John Whittemore (1899.11.20-2005.04.13) "world's oldest athlete"; quote: "If I don't drop it on my foot, I set a world record".
Freediving (free diving): form of underwater diving that relies on divers' ability to hold their breath until resurfacing rather than on the use of a breathing apparatus such as scuba gear. The term 'freediving' is often associated with competitive breath-hold diving or competitive apnea. However, while some regard freediving as a specific group of underwater activities, for others it is merely a synonym for breath-hold diving. The activity that attracts the most public attention is the extreme sport of competitive apnea in which competitors attempt to attain great depths, times, or distances on a single breath.

Martial arts[edit]

Category:Combat
Category:Combat sports
Category:Martial arts
Category:Martial arts by type
Category:Hybrid martial arts
Category:Mixed martial arts
Knockout
Rabbit punch: blow to the neck or to the base of the skull. It is considered especially dangerous because it can damage the cervical vertebrae and subsequently the spinal cord, which may lead to serious and irreparable spinal cord injury. A rabbit punch can also detach the victim's brain from the brain stem, which can kill instantly.
Hybrid martial arts (hybrid fighting systems): martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts (eclecticism). While numerous martial arts borrow or adapt from other arts and to some extent could be considered hybrids, a hybrid martial art emphasizes its disparate origins.
Mixed martial arts (MMA): full-contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, from a variety of other combat sports and martial arts.
Pankration (Greek : Παγκράτιο): was a sporting event introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and founded as a blend of boxing and wrestling but with scarcely any rules. The only things not acceptable were biting and gouging of the opponent's eyes. In extreme cases a pankration competition could even result in the death of one of the opponents, which was considered a win. However, pankration was more than just an event in the athletic competitions of the ancient Greek world; it was also part of the arsenal of Greek soldiers – including the famous Spartan hoplites and Alexander the Great's Macedonian phalanx. At the time of the revival of the Olympic Games (1896), pankration was not reinstated as an Olympic event.
Dioxippus: was an ancient Greek pankratiast, renowned for his Olympic victories in the sport of pankration. His fame and skill were such that he was crowned Olympic champion by default in 336 BC when no other pankratiast dared meet him on the field. This kind of victory was called "akoniti" (literally: without getting dusted) and remains the only one ever recorded in the Olympics in this discipline.
Arrhichion of Phigalia (died 564 BC): was a champion pankratiast in the ancient Olympic Games. He died while successfully defending his championship in the pankration at the 54th Olympiad (564 BC).
Hand-to-hand combat
Krav maga: noncompetitive eclectic self-defense system developed in Israel that involves striking techniques, wrestling and grappling. Relative to other systems, Krav Maga is known for its focus on real-world situations, efficient and versatile counter-attacks, and ease of learning. Developed by Imi Lichtenfeld in Bratislava in the mid-to late-1930s for the Jews to defend on the streets.
Systema: Russian martial art; hand to hand combat, grappling, knife fighting and fire arms training as well. Training involves drills and sparring without set kata. It focuses mainly on controlling the six body levers (elbows, neck, knees, waist, ankles, and shoulders) through pressure point application, striking and weapon applications.
Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC): UFC 12 saw the introduction of weight classes and the banning of fish-hooking. For UFC 14 gloves became mandatory, while kicks to the head of a downed opponent were banned. UFC 15 saw limitations on hair pulling, and the banning of strikes to the back of the neck and head, headbutting, small-joint manipulations, and groin strikes. With five-minute rounds introduced at UFC 21, the UFC gradually re-branded itself as a sport rather than a spectacle. In fact, the UFC had already broken the pay-per-view industry's all-time records for a single year of business, generating over $222,766,000 in revenue in 2006, surpassing both WWE and boxing.
Boxing: Professional boxing is forbidden in Iceland, Iran and North Korea. It was banned in Sweden until 2007 when the ban was lifted but strict restrictions, including four three-minute rounds for fights, were imposed. It was banned in Albania from 1965 till the fall of Communism in 1991; it is now legal there. Norway legalized professional boxing in December 2014.

Death:

Manuel Velazquez: "Death Under the Spotlight: The Manuel Velazquez Boxing Fatality Collection," which documents "Western" boxing deaths since 1741.
Fatalities in mixed martial arts contests

Football[edit]

Brazil v Germany (2014 FIFA World Cup): 2014.07.08 at the Estádio Mineirão in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was the first semi-final match of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The game ended in a shocking loss for Brazil; Germany led 5–0 at half time with 4 goals scored in a span of just 6 minutes (between the 23rd and 29th minute). Germany subsequently brought the score up to 7–0 in the second half before Brazil scored a goal at the last minute, ending the match 7–1.

Athletes, sportspeople[edit]

Sportsman/sportswoman:

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (born Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor, Jr.; 1947.04.16) professional USA basketball player.

Doping[edit]

Cycling - the most doped sport (?):

Festina affair: events that surrounded several doping scandals, doping investigations and confessions by riders to doping that occurred during and after the 1998 Tour de France. How come this event did NOT clean up the doping in cycling?
Christophe Bassons: spoke out about doping; in 1999 Tour de France fellow cyclists neglected him, L.A. even "warned" him. Bassons retired in 1999.
Lance Armstrong (Lance Edward Armstrong; né Gunderson; L.A.): in Oprah Winfrey interview aired 2013.01.17 L.A. admitted that he doped for all 7 Tour de France winnings and that without doping one could not have achieved that.
L.A. Confidentiel (2004, French): book by sports journalist Pierre Ballester and The Sunday Times sports correspondent David Walsh; book contains circumstantial evidence of cyclist Lance Armstrong having used performance enhancing drugs. L.A. sued them all and got quite some "defamation" money. Will money be going back?

Outdoors[edit]

Outdoors (+Virtual,+electronics (HW,SW))

What's the relationship between ARG, metapuzzles/puzzlehunts/puzzles, The Game, Location-based game (Encounter, Orienteering/Geocaching/Letterboxing)?

Location-based game (location-enabled game): game play somehow evolves and progresses via a player's location. Thus, location-based games almost always support some kind of localization technology, for example by using satellite positioning like GPS. "Urban gaming" or "Street Games" are typically multi-player location-based games played out on city streets and built up urban environments.
Template:Orienteering: used map and compass before GPS and still uses compass.
Template:Geocaching: Geocaching is an outdoor sporting activity in which the participants use GPS receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", anywhere in the world.: Travel Bug (a tag that moves from cache to cache)
Letterboxing: Letterboxers hide small, weatherproof boxes in publicly-accessible places (like parks) and distribute clues to finding the box in printed catalogs, on one of several web sites, or by word of mouth. Stamps are in the letterboxes and carried by letterboxers, so that a stamp is left by a letterboxer in the letterbox "logbook" and a stamp is left in the letterboxer's own "logbook".
Template:Mixed reality (Virtual reality · Augmented reality · Mixed reality): like gargoyles in Snow Crash
Alternate reality game (ARG): interactive narrative that uses the real world as a platform, often involving multiple media and game elements, to tell a story that may be affected by participants' ideas or actions. The form is defined by intense player involvement with a story that takes place in real-time and evolves according to participants' responses, and characters that are actively controlled by the game's designers.
Metapuzzle: puzzle that unites several puzzles that feed into it.
Puzzlehunt: puzzle game where teams compete to solve a series of puzzles at a particular site, in multiple sites and/or via the internet. Groups of puzzles in a puzzle hunt are often connected by a metapuzzle, leading to answers which combine into a final set of solutions. ru:Шаблон:Ночные поисковые игры (RU equivalent; Template):
ru:Схватка (игра): первый проект в формате ночных поисковых игр
Dozor: RU codebreaking/geolocation game played at night
The Game (treasure hunt): since 1973; non-stop 24–48 hour treasure hunt, puzzlehunt or road rally that has run in the San Francisco Bay and Seattle areas
Encounter (game): international network of active urban games
Live-action game: participants act out their characters' actions (e.g. Humans vs. Zombies)

Game design[edit]

What's the relationship between gameplay and game mechanics?

Gameplay: a very broad, somewhat abstract concept in game design; specific way in which players interact with a game, and in particular with video games. Gameplay is the pattern defined through the game rules, connection between player and the game, challenges and overcoming them, plot and player's connection with it. Video game gameplay is distinct from graphics, and audio elements. Playability: unplayable, static, non-playable character (NPC); satisfaction, learning, efficiency, immersion, motivation, emotion, socialization.
Game mechanics: constructs of rules intended to produce an enjoyable game or gameplay. Game mechanics is more of an engineering concept while gameplay is more of a design concept. Turns (time in games); action points; (playing) cards: randomizers, game resource; auction or bidding; capture/eliminate; catch-up (in the game); dice: randomizers; movement; resource management; risk and reward; role-playing; tile-laying; game modes (e.g. single vs multi player; capture the flag vs deathmatch). Victory condition mechanics: many.
Turns, rounds and time-keeping systems in games: real-time vs. turn-based:
real-time: game time in video games is in fact subdivided into discrete units due to the sequential nature of computing, these intervals or units are typically so small as to be imperceptible to the player.
turn-based: simultaneously-executed games (phase-based, "We-Go"), player-alternated games ("I-Go-You-Go" ("IGOUGO")). IGOUGO order under which players start within a turn: ranked (same player being the first every time), round-robin (first player is selected), random.
sub types: timed turns (chess), time compression (flight simulators: to shorten the subjective duration of relatively uneventful periods of gameplay); ticks and rounds; active time battle (Final Fantasy); pausable real-time (pause the game and issue orders such that once a game is un-paused, orders are automatically put into effect; SimCity, Homeworld)
Game balance: gimp, nerf (opposite: buff), overpowered (OP)
Kingmaker scenario: in a game of three or more players, is an endgame situation where a player unable to win has the capacity to determine which player among others is the winner

Board, card games[edit]

Category:Card games
Category:Card games by mechanism or objective
Category:Comparing card games
Category:Poker
Spiel (Internationale Spieltage SPIEL, often called Essen)
Spiel des Jahres: prestigious award for board and card games
Deutscher Spiele Preis (DSP): collects votes from the industry's stores, magazines, professionals and game clubs; contrast to Spiel des Jahres, DSP is awarded for "gamers' games" with particularly good or innovative gameplay
BoardGameGeek: card/board/tabletop gaming website
BrettspielWelt: large, popular, and entirely free German online gaming site
International Mind Sports Association: association of the world governing bodies for contract bridge, chess, draughts (checkers), and go, namely the World Bridge Federation (WBF), World Chess Federation (FIDE), World Draughts Federation (FMJD), and International Go Federation (IGF). Poker and xiangqi (Chinese chess) are affiliated sports; as of summer 2011, the International Federation of Poker (IFP) and World Xiangqi Federation (WXF) have observer status in the association. Xiangqi competition was included in the first Games and duplicate poker under the auspices of the IFP will be included in the second.
World Mind Sports Games: quadrennial multi-sport event created by the International Mind Sports Association (IMSA) as a "stepping stone on the path of introducing a third kind of Olympic Games (after the Summer and the Winter Olympics)". The Games are considered to be very prestigious and are the equivalent of the Olympics for Bridge, Chess, Go, and Draughts.

Board games:

Settlers of Catan
Cities and Knights of Catan
Catan: Traders & Barbarians
Agricola (board game)

Card games:

Twilight Struggle
International Federation of Poker
Viktor Blom (1990.09.26-) is a Swedish high-stakes online poker player, best known by the online poker name Isildur1.

Digitized board/card games (computer games)[edit]

PokerTH (MS, Mac OS X, Linux, Android, Maemo): open source Texas hold 'em simulator; allows for up to ten human players; online.
Internet Diplomacy: any of a number of online implementations of Diplomacy, a board game in which seven players, each controlling one of the major European powers of the early 20th century, fight for control over Europe.

Board game tournaments, competitions[edit]

International prize list of Diplomacy

Computer and video games[edit]

{q.v.

}

Category:Multiplayer video games

Gaming as an entertainment or an art form? Aesthetics in real-life games: e.g. Olympics, chess? Beauty in maths, games (chess; math-based), art? Why mathematicians play instruments, draw, make visual arts? Is there a region in the brain responsible for gaming, maths & artistic expression in the same place? Programming: art or science? ...

Gamergate controversy

Databases (besides Wikipedia & co):

MobyGames: catalogs computer and video games, both past and present; huge game database (screenshots, credits)

Template:Video game genre:

Serious game
Art Game: work of interactive new media digital software art as well as a member of the "art game" subgenre of the serious video game. The term "art game" was first used academically in 2002 and it has come to be understood as describing a video game designed to emphasize art or whose structure is intended to produce some kind of reaction in its audience.
Video games as an art form: controversial topic within the entertainment industry. Though video games have been afforded legal protection as creative works by the Supreme Court of the United States, the philosophical proposition that video games are works of art remains in question, even when considering the contribution of expressive elements such as graphics, storytelling and music. Roger Ebert: "games are not art"; games are for entertainment, art is to "make ourselves more cultured, civilized and empathetic". Blending between game and art, e.g. Second Life. Two-way art (aka "interactive art") vs. PC/video games. Money making in games, non-money in art. "Games are a waste of time".
Non-game
Real-time strategy: micro- vs. macro- management; tactics vs. strategy; turn-based vs. real-time; real-time strategy games on the consoles - only Halo Wars on Xbox 360; graphics: Total Annihilation, Homeworld (3D space) & Warzone 2100 (3D on "2D" surface)
Template:Real-time strategy gameplay: actions per minute, build order, fog of war, metagaming, technology tree, rush (Swarming, Cheese, Mobbing, Goblin Tactics or Zerging), turtling
Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA; action real-time strategy (ARTS)) {q.v. #MOBAs}
Real-time tactics: Total War, Nexus: The Jupiter Incident, Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War II, Sid Meier's Gettysburg!

Template:The Sims

The Sims (series): the game series which brought the female gender to computer games en masse. Are females about social interactions much more than males, while males are into competition much more than females?
Singleplayer: The Sims, 2, 3, 4; The Sims FreePlay, The Sims Social
Multiplayer: The Sims Online
Social network game:
Zynga: FarmVille (on Facebook)...
Playfish: now at EA; The Sims Social (on Facebook; spiritual successor of The Sims Online): the ultimate in the "The Sims" universe. cf. FarmVille/Mafia Wars to The Sims Social.
RPG, MUD, MMORPG: Player versus player (PvP), Player versus environment (PvE) ; Realm versus Realm
Progress Quest: parody of RPGs, ARPGs, MUDs and MMORPGs. 1) slay monsters; 2) returning to town to sell plunder looted from the monsters' corpses; and 3) using the resultant lucre to upgrade one's equipment, so as to more effectively facilitate the efficient slaughter of further monsters.
Theorycraft (from "StarCraft" & "game theory"): reverse engineering the game mechanics; "theorycraft breaks the barrier between game players and developers, since players try to discover the mechanics that usually are accessible only to developers."
Let's Play (video gaming): series of screenshots or a recorded video documenting a playthrough of a video game, usually including commentary by the gamer.


Template:Video Game Trade Shows
Video game industry
Template:Blizzard Entertainment & Blizzard Entertainment: Starcraft, Warcraft (and WOW), Diablo (Blizz acquired Condor which contained at its heart: Max Schaefer, Erich Schaefer, and David Brevik; Condor renamed as Blizzard North to finish Diablo); Battle.net 2.0. Privacy controversy and Real ID; Warden Client.
Warden (software) (Warden Client)
Overwatch (video game) (release: 2016.05.24): multiplayer first-person shooter
Template:Valve games & Template:Valve technology & Valve Corporation: (Valve Software; Valve; VALVE): USA video game development and digital distribution company; founded in 1966 by former Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. Valve became famous for its critically acclaimed Half-Life (released in November 1998) and Portal series (released in October 2007).
Experience point: unit of measurement used in many role-playing games (RPGs) and role-playing video games to quantify a player character's progression through the game. Power-Leveling
Grinding (video gaming): term used in video gaming to describe the process of engaging in repetitive tasks during video games.
Min-maxing: practice of playing RPG, wargame or video game with the intent of creating the "best" character by means of minimizing undesired or unimportant traits and maximizing desired ones.
Twinking: type of behavior in RPGs.
Powergaming: style of interacting with games or game-like systems with the aim of maximising progress towards a specific goal, to the exclusion of other considerations such as (in video games, boardgames, and roleplaying games) storytelling, atmosphere and camaraderie.
Gold farming: playing MMOG to acquire in-game currency that other players purchase in exchange for real-world money.
Video game bot: type of weak AI expert system software which for each instance of the program controls a player in deathmatch, team deathmatch and/or cooperative human player, most prominently in FPSs.
PCGamingWiki (2012.02.9-): collaboratively edited, free Internet encyclopedia focused on collecting game behavior data (such as save locations and startup parameters) to optimizing gameplay and fixing issues found in PC video games. Intended fixes and optimizations range from simple cutscene removals to modifications that allow for wide-screen resolutions and more. The wiki runs on MediaWiki software and was created by Andrew Tsai.

Strategy video games[edit]

Category:Strategy video games
Category:Real-time strategy video games
Category:Multiplayer online battle arena games (MOBA)
Chronology of real-time strategy video games

History:

The Ancient Art of War (1984, USA): generally recognized as one of the first real-time strategy or real-time tactics games.
Modem Wars (1988, USA): real-time tactics. Features such as fog of war, varied unit types, terrain, and formations, all now standards in the genre, were implemented despite the daunting technical limitations of late 1980s computers.
Herzog Zwei (1989, Japan): early real-time strategy game, predating the genre-popularizing Dune II.
MOBAs[edit]
Defense of the Ancients (DotA; 2003; almost esport)
League of Legends (LoL; 2009.10.27; esport)
Dota 2 (beta: since 2011.07; released: 2013.07.09; esport; by Valve Corporation; platforms: Windows (Linux and OS X TBA)): stand-alone sequel to the Defense of the Ancients mod (of Warcraft III). Notoriously long development cycle: Valve's investment in Dota was sparked from the collective interest of several veteran employees, including Team Fortress designer Robin Walker, programmer Adrian Finol and project manager Erik Johnson, all of whom had attempted to partake in team play at a competitive level; they began corresponding with DotA's developer, IceFrog; invitation from Erik Johnson, offering IceFrog a tour of the company's facilities and as a result, hired him to develop a sequel; first public notification regarding the development of Dota 2 was a blog post made by IceFrog on 2009.10.05, stating that he would be leading a team at Valve; Dota 2 debut at Gamescom 2011 (Cologne). 2013.05: 330k concurrent players; 2014.06.21: ~800k concurrent players; 2015.02.15: ~ 1 mln. Professional competition.
Heroes of Newerth (2010.05.12)
Heroes of the Storm (HoN; Technical Alpha: 2014.03.13; beta: 2015.01.13) {Windows, OS X}
Smite (video game) (Windows: 2014.03.25)
Dawngate: MOBA video game developed by Waystone Games and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows. Testing period began on 2013.05.24, and the community beta was released on 2014.04.09. The open beta was released on 2014.05.19; on 2014.11.04, it was announced that because the beta was not shaping up as they had hoped, all development would stop and the game would be fully shut down in 90 days.

Role-playing video games (RPGs)[edit]

Category:Role-playing video games
Category:Action role-playing video games
Category:Multiplayer online battle arena games

Addiction[edit]

Gaming is addictive. One can make money from games as from selling guns or drugs on the street:

Neopets (1999.11.15-): mostly female users; Nielsen/NetRatings of Neopets was the highest in 2001.

eSports[edit]

Electronic sports (e-sports, eSports, competitive gaming, professional gaming, cybersports, v-sports): real-time strategy (RTS) [notable: StarCraft: Brood War & StarCraft II; Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne], Multiplayer online battle arena [Defense of the Ancients & Dota 2; League of Legends], fighting [Street Fighter series], first-person shooter (FPS) [Counter Strike (mainly 1.6, but also Source & Condition Zero), Quake (series), Halo (series), Painkiller, Unreal (series)], massively-multiplayer online (MMOG) [WoW], sports games [FIFA, TrackMania Nations]. Total earnings for each game by game group
BarCraft: portmanteau for watching StarCraft at bars; started in 2011.spring in USA with NASL. Spread to Street Fighter's "Barfights" and Dota 2's "Pubstomps".
Template:E-SportsLeagues (Electronic sports competitions) & Electronic sports#Professional Leagues:
World Cyber Games (WCG): RTS: SC:BW (2000-2010) & SC2 (2011-), Age of Empires (2000-2002) & Age of Mythology (2003), WIII (2003) & WIII:TFT (2004-2012?), LoL (2010-2011), DotA (2012?) & Dota 2 (2012-?); FPS: CS (5v5, 2001-), Unreal Tournament (1v1, 2000-2002) & Unreal Tournament 2003 (2003) & 2004 (2004)
Electronic Sports World Cup (ESWC): RTS: SC:BW (2009) & SC2 (2011-), WIII (2003) & WIII:TFT (2004-2010), DotA (2008, 2010) & Dota 2 (2011-), LoL (2012-); FPS: CS (5v5, 2003-2011) & :Source (2011) :GO (2012-), Quake 3 (2003-2005, 2008) & 4 (2006-2007) & Live (2010), Unreal Tournament 2003 (2003) & 2004 (2004-2005)
ESL Intel Extreme Masters: organizer of ESL Major Series & ESL Pro Series. RTS: WIII (2007-2008), SC2 (2011-), LoL (2011-), DotA (2011, Shanghai). FPS: CS (2007-2012-?), Quake Live (2010-2011), WoW (2009-2010)
Major League Gaming (MLG): 1v1 SC2 from 2010. No SC:BW previously.
DreamHack: many events
Governing bodies:
Korean e-Sports Association (KeSPA): manages 25 eSports, including LoL, SCII:HotS, CS.
International e-Sports Federation (IeSF; 2008.08.11-): founding countries: BE, DK, DE, NL, RO, KR, ES, CH.
The International (video gaming) (2011-): TI1: 1. Na`Vi, 2. EHOME, 3. Scythe Gaming; TI2: 1. iG, 2. Na`Vi, 3. LGD-Gaming; TI3: 1. Alliance, 2. Na`Vi, 3. Orange
de:Riot League of Legends World Championship: alljährlich stattfindendes E-Sport-Turnier, das von Riot Games veranstaltet wird. Season 1 (2011): 1. Fnatic, 2. against All authority, 3. Team SoloMid; Season 2 (2012): 1. Taipei Assassins, 2. Azubu Frost, 3./4. Moscow Five & Counter Logic Gaming EU
Category:Electronic sports teams
Western eSport teams:
Team Liquid: SC2; Dota 2
Evil Geniuses: Dota 2 & SC2
SK Gaming: CS; SC2 (MC); LoL; shortly lived Dota (with Loda) / Dota 2 team
Natus Vincere: mainly CS {IEM 4 - 1st, ESWC'10 - 1st, WCG'10 - 1st, IEM 5 - 1st} & Dota 2 {The International: TI1: 1st, TI2: 2nd, TI3: 2nd}; also LoL {2012.02-}, SC2 {2011.04-12}
Mousesports (mouz): Dota 2, SC2, LoL
Team Dignitas: SC2, LoL
Fnatic: Dota 2, SC2, LoL
Korean teams (see Korean Wikipedia): FXOpen, Incredible Miracle, MvP (Most Valuable Player), New Star Hoseo, oGs (Old Generations; 2010.05.01-2012.05.15), SlayerS, TSL (Team SCV Life), ZeNEX, STARTALE, Prime
Chinese teams: Dota 2: Invictus Gaming (iG); EHOME; LGD Gaming, LGD International; DK; TongFu
Commentators:
Husky (commentator)
Sean Plott (Day[9])
Dan Stemkoski (Dan "Artosis" Stemkoski)
Nick Plott (Nick "Tasteless" Plott)
WarCraft (RTS)[edit]
Template:Warcraft universe
Warcraft III World Championships
Warcraft III professional competition
StarCraft (RTS)[edit]
Wikipedia:WikiProject Video games/StarCraft
Races of StarCraft
Characters of StarCraft: The story of the StarCraft series revolves around interstellar affairs in a distant sector of the galaxy, where three species are vying for supremacy: the Terrans, a highly factionalised future version of humanity, the Protoss, a theocratic race of vast psionic ability; and the Zerg, an insectoid species commanded by a hive mind persona. The latter two of these species were genetically engineered by the Xel'Naga, a fourth species believed extinct. The series was begun with Blizzard Entertainment's 1998 video game StarCraft, and has been expanded with sequels Insurrection, Retribution, Brood War, Ghost, Wings of Liberty, Heart of the Swarm, and Legacy of the Void. Terrans: Raynor's Raiders; Terran Dominion; United Earth Directorate (UED); Umojan Protectorate. Protosses: Khalai; Nerazim; Tal'Darim; Purifiers. Zergs: Overmind's Zerg Swarm; Feral and Renegade Broods; Queen of Blade's Zerg Swarm (Kerrigan); Xel'Naga characters.
Template:StarCraft series:
Team Liquid: SC:BW, SC2, Dota 2 info and team, Wiki (Liquipedia), and statistics (Player Database, TLPD). Team Liquid Starleague (TSL) for SC:BW and SC2.
Template:StarCraft Pro-Gaming (Professional competition with StarCraft: Brood War (SC:BW))
Starleague (Ongamenet) (OSL)
MBCgame Starleague (MSL; 2002-2012.02.01): 2000-2012: SC:BW; 2012- : SCII
StarCraft II (SC2) pro-gaming:
GOMTV Global Starcraft II League (GSL): 1v1
GOMTV Global Starcraft II Team League (GSTL): teams
North American Star League (NASL): 1v1
Battle.net World Championship Series:
2012 StarCraft II World Championship Series
Legends:
StarCraft: Brood War professional competition:
Guillaume Patry (Grrrr...; 1982.06.19-): French-Canadian former pro of SC:BW (the only non-Korean Starleague (OSL) winner); learned Korean language; played poker.
Lee Jae-dong (Jaedong): South Korean professional StarCraft: Brood War and StarCraft 2 player; earned over $500,000 in tournament prize money alone through his career - the most of any professional gamer

Virtual worlds, MMORPGs, online life[edit]

Category:Virtual communities {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Social web, social networking, instant messengers, virtual communities}
Category:Virtual reality communities
Category:Massively multiplayer online games
Category:Massively multiplayer online role-playing games
Category:MMORPGs by topic
Category:Fantasy MMORPGs
Category:Second Life

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/EECS#Virtual reality, mixed reality}

Entropia Universe: MMORPG by Swedish software company MindArk, based in Gothenburg. Uses a micropayment business model, in which players may buy in-game currency (PED - Project Entropia Dollars) with real money that can be redeemed back into U.S. dollar at a fixed exchange rate of 10:1. Some virtual tycoons managed to make money in Entropia Universe by developing the content and selling the use of it ("taxing" the players for the use). Has virtual planets, virtual banks.
OpenSimulator: server platform for hosting virtual worlds. Compatible with Second Life client.
IBM Virtual Universe Community: supports both Second Life and OpenSimulator based grids.
Virtual world (massively multiplayer online world (MMOW)): computer-based simulated environment. The term has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others. These avatars can be textual, two or three-dimensional graphical representations, or live video avatars with auditory and touch sensations. In general, virtual worlds allow for multiple users.
Template:Second Life
Second Life (2003.06.23-): online virtual world, developed by Linden Lab (a company based in San Francisco). 1 mln regular users in 2014. In many ways, Second Life is similar to MMORPGs; however, Linden Lab is emphatic that their creation is not a game: "There is no manufactured conflict, no set objective". Intended for people aged 16 and over. Built into the software is a three-dimensional modeling tool based on simple geometric shapes that allows residents to build virtual objects. There is also a procedural scripting language, Linden Scripting Language, which can be used to add interactivity to objects. Sculpted prims (sculpties), mesh, textures for clothing or other objects, animations, and gestures can be created using external software and imported. Fraud and intellectual property protection.
Linden Lab (1999-; San Francisco, CA, USA)
Linden Scripting Language
The 1920s Berlin Project: historically accurate online interactive model of 1929 Berlin created within the virtual world of Second Life.
CopyBot
Active Worlds (1995.06.28-): online virtual world, developed by ActiveWorlds Inc., a company based in Newburyport, MA.
Google Lively: failed product. Lived only 2 months

cheating:

Cheating in online games

Competitions[edit]

Competition systems (matchmaking):

Single-elimination tournament (knockout, cup, sudden death tournament)
Round-robin tournament: "in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn"; group stages are organized as round-robins
Double-elimination tournament: a participant ceases to be eligible to win the tournament's championship upon having lost two games or matches
Swiss-system tournament: Tie-breaking in Swiss-system tournaments

Science and mathematics competitions (Olympiads)[edit]

Mathematical Kangaroo (International Mathematical Kangaroo): international mathematical competition with more than 50 countries that take an active part in it. There are twelve levels of participation: from grade 1 to grade 12. The competition is held annually on the third Thursday of March. According to the organizers, the key competence tested by the Kangaroo is logical combination, not just pure knowledge of formulas. Because of the rising popularity of the Mathematical Kangaroo in many participating countries, it is currently the most participated scholar math competition: over 5,000,000 students from 47 countries took part in 2009.
International Science Olympiad: a group of worldwide annual competitions in various areas of science. The competitions are designed for the 4-6 best high school students from each participating country selected through internal National Science Olympiads, with the exception of the IOL, which allows two teams per country, the IOI, which allows two teams from the hosting country, and the IJSO, which is designed for junior secondary students. Early editions of the Olympiads were limited to the Eastern Bloc, but later they gradually spread to other countries. 12 are:
International Mathematical Olympiad: annual six-problem, 42-point mathematical olympiad for pre-collegiate students and is the oldest of the International Science Olympiads. The first IMO was held in Romania in 1959. It has since been held annually, except in 1980. About 100 countries send teams of up to six students, plus one team leader, one deputy leader, and observers.
International Physics Olympiad: annual physics competition for high school students. The first IPhO was held in Warsaw, Poland in 1967.
Asian Physics Olympiad: annual physics competition for high school students from Asia and Oceania regions. It is one of the International Science Olympiads and is also the only regional competition in physics to date.
International Chemistry Olympiad: first IChO was held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1968.
International Olympiad in Informatics: annual competitive programming competition for secondary school students. It is the second largest olympiad, after International Mathematical Olympiad, in terms of number of participating countries (IOI 2014 saw participation of 84 countries). The first IOI was held in 1989 in Pravetz, Bulgaria.
International Biology Olympiad
International Philosophy Olympiad
International Astronomy Olympiad

History, human cultures, persons, nations, societies[edit]

History, culture, nations, societies

Military and War[edit]

Force multiplication: attribute or a combination of attributes which make a given force more effective than that same force would be without it. Common force multipliers: morale, technology, geographical features, weather, recruitment through diplomacy, training and experience, fearsome reputation, deception, military strategy, military tactics (e.g. force concentration)
Armored spearhead: formation of armored fighting vehicles, mostly tanks, that form the front of an offensive thrust during a battle. The idea is to concentrate as much firepower into a small front as possible, so any defenders in front of them will be overwhelmed.
List of aircraft carriers by country: in service: USA (10), Italy (2 (WHY more than FR?)), FR (1), RU (1), India (1), ES (1 (!)), Brazil (1 (!!)), PRC (1), Thailand (1 (!!!)). Under construction: USA (3), India (3 (!!!)), UK (2 (a shadow of British Empire!)).
List of aircraft carriers of Russia and the Soviet Union: though listed as aircraft carriers, none of these ships were or are true aircraft carriers.

Tactics[edit]

Category:Cold War tactics
Stay-behind: country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory, for use in the event that an enemy occupies that territory. Many hidden weapons caches were found, in Italy, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and other countries, at the disposition of these "secret armies". In some cases, stay-behind operations have deviated from their stated purpose, and have become active against elements in their own countries which they deem to be subversive — rather than fighting an outright invasion, they claimed to be fighting a quieter subversion of their country.

Genetics and war[edit]

War rapes: rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war, or during military occupation. It is distinguished from sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in military service. Almost every war, rebellion, occupation or any other event where a huge group of men/army wielding guns entered "new territory" resulted in war rapes, usually against the local women (?).

Globalization[edit]

Wikipedia:WikiProject Globalization/Category tree
Category:Global business organization
Category:Globalization
Category:International business
Category:Special Economic Zones
Category:International economics
Category:International factor movements
Category:Foreign direct investment: Category:Special Economic Zones
World Economic Forum (1971-): Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas"; best known for its annual winter meeting in Davos.
World Social Forum (2001-): annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization.
Occupy Wall Street (2011.09.17): inspired by anti-austerity protests in Spain coming from the 15-M movement. The main issues raised by Occupy Wall Street were social and economic inequality, greed, corruption and the perceived undue influence of corporations on government—particularly from the financial services sector.
Alter-globalization (alternative globalization): name of a social movement whose proponents support global cooperation and interaction, but oppose what they describe as the negative effects of economic globalization, feeling that it often works to the detriment of, or does not adequately promote, human values such as environmental and climate protection, economic justice, labor protection, protection of indigenous cultures, peace and civil liberties.

Free trade[edit]

Category:Economic development
Category:Special economic zones

{q.v. #Economics, resources, scarcity, wars}

Special economic zone (SEZ): geographical region that is designed to export goods and provide employment; exempt from federal laws regarding taxes, quotas, FDI-bans, labour laws and other restrictive laws in order to make the goods manufactured in the SEZ at a globally competitive price.
Free trade zone (FTZ; export processing zone (EPZ); foreign-trade zone; formerly: free port): area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing customs duties.
Free economic zone (sometimes: free port): designated areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all in order to encourage economic activity.
List of free ports: port, port area or other area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location; special customs area or small customs territory with generally less strict customs regulations (or no customs duties and/or controls for transshipment); many international airports have free ports. LT: Port of Klaipėda.
Klaipėda Free Economic Zone (Klaipėda FEZ; lt: Klaipėdos laisvoji ekonominė zona; 1996-): offers tax incentives to qualified investors that invest at least 1 mln €. 2008: due to overcrowding the zone was expanded from 205 hectares to 412 hectares of developed land. Investors: Lazard, Al Ibrahim family of Saudi Arabia
Kaunas Free Economic Zone (1996.10.22-; next to A6 and A1): 534 hectare industrial development area which offers favorable and smaller taxes for the investors that invest at least 1 mln €.
List of bilateral free trade agreements: major economic powers with many FTAs: ASEAN, PRC, EU+EFTA, India, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand + Australia, USA.
Template:Free Trade Associations of the People's Republic of China:
ASEAN–China Free Trade Area: 2010.1.1; 3rd largest FTA by nominal GDP. Tariff of 0% on 90% of imported goods (7,881 product categories).
other: New Zealand, Peru, Pakistan, Hong Kong SAR & Macau SAR CEPA, Taiwan ECFA.

Free trade between European Union (EU) and other blocks[edit]

{q.v. #European Union (EU)}

European Union Association Agreement: main huge economies: Balkan countries; Israel; Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia; Mexico; EFTA & EEA (Norway, Switzerland (not EEA member), Iceland, Liechtenstein); South Africa; Turkey
European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement: provisional application 2011.07.01; pending [12/02/08].

Possibility of future free trades[edit]

Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC): body set up between USA and EU to direct economic co-operation between the two economies.
Transatlantic Free Trade Area: between EU and USA

Important personalities, biographies[edit]

People, humans

Common people[edit]

Subjects of iconic photographs[edit]

Category:Subjects of iconic photographs
August Landmesser (1910.05.24; KIA 1944.10.17; confirmed in 1949): worker at the Blohm + Voss shipyard in Hamburg, Germany, best known for his appearance in a photograph refusing to perform the Nazi salute at the launch of the naval training vessel Horst Wessel on 1936.06.13.

Polymaths (esp. the ancient ones)[edit]

Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero; 106 BC.01.3 - 43 BC.12.07): Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist; came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. His influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose in not only Latin but European languages up to the 19th century was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture. Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. Following Julius Caesar's death Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches; Cicero was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently killed in 43 BC.
Niccolò Machiavelli (Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli; 1469.05.03–1527.06.21): Florentian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer during the Renaissance; was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs; was a founder of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics; wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry; wrote his masterpiece, The Prince, after the Medici had recovered power and he no longer held a position of responsibility in Florence. Medici subjected him to torture "with the rope", but he denied involvement and was released after three weeks in 1513.
The Prince (1532; have been distributed in 1513)
Herbert A. Simon (1916.06.15–2001.02.09): Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations" (1978), USA political scientist, economist, sociologist, psychologist, and computer scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science, computer science, public administration, economics, management, philosophy of science, sociology, and political science, unified by studies of decision-making.

Explorers[edit]

Christopher Columbus (1450.10.31÷1451.10.30-1506.05.20)
Vasco da Gama (c. 1460s-1524.12.23)
Pedro Álvares Cabral (c. 1467/1468-c. 1520)
James Cook (1728.11.07-1779.02.14)
Alexander von Humboldt (1769.09.14-1859.05.06)
David Livingstone (1813.03.19-1873.05.01)
Charles Lindbergh (1902.02.04–1974.08.26): USA aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist. As a 25-year-old U.S. Air Mail pilot, Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo nonstop flight on May 20–21, 1927, made from the Roosevelt Field in Garden City on New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 statute miles (5,800 km), in the single-seat, single-engine purpose-built Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis. As a result of this flight, Lindbergh was the first person in history to be in New York one day and Paris the next. "America First" involvement; Thoughts on race and racism.

Activists, bloggers[edit]

Category:Bloggers
Phil Radford (1976.02.02-): leader of Greenpeace USA since 2009.
Laura Poitras (1962.01.16-): USA documentary film director and producer; 2012 MacArthur Fellow; one of the initial supporters of the Freedom of the Press Foundation. According to Glenn Greenwald, Poitras and Greenwald are the only two people with full archives of the global surveillance disclosure initiated by the former NSA contractor, Edward Snowden.
PZ Myers (1957.03.09-): USA scientist and associate professor of biology at the University of Minnesota Morris. Atheist; widely regarded as a confrontationalist; outspoken critic of intelligent design and the creationist movement. Received American Humanist Association's Humanist of the Year award in 2009 and International Humanist Award in 2011. Eucharist controversy.
Pharyngula (blog): blog founded by PZ Myers and written by Myers and formerly Chris Clarke, hosted on ScienceBlogs (2005-2011, in full, and 2011-present, in part) and FreeThoughtBlogs (2011–present). In 2006, the science journal Nature listed it as the top-ranked blog written by a scientist. "The virtues are critical thinking, flexibility, openness, verification, and evidence. The sins are dogma, faith, tradition, revelation, superstition, and the supernatural." Myers is strongly feminist and has written about discrimination against women in the skeptical movement.
Rebecca Watson (1980.10.18-): USA blogger & podcast host; atheist & feminist.
Maria Popova (1984-): Bulgarian writer, blogger, and critic living in Brooklyn, New York. She is known for her blog BrainPickings.org, which features her writing on culture, books, and eclectic subjects off and on the Internet.

Science and art people[edit]

Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace; born: Augusta Ada Byron; 1815.12.10-1852.11.27): referred to herself as a "poetical scientist" and "an Analyst (& Metaphysician)"; English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine; her notes on the engine include what is recognized as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine → she is often considered the world's first computer programmer.

Media founders, publishers[edit]

Category:Media executives
Category:Magazine publishers (people)
Category:Media founders
Category:Magazine founders
Category:Magazine company founders
Chris Anderson (entrepreneur) (1957-): curator of TED; formerly: editor of early computer magazines (Personal Computer Games, then on Zzap!64); launched Future Publishing, Business 2.0

Artists[edit]

Hokusai (1760.10.31 (exact date questionable) – 1849.05.10): Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
Hokusai Manga
Naji al-Ali (1938-1987.08.29): Palestinian cartoonist, noted for the political criticism of the Arab regimes and Israel in his works; creator of the character Handala, pictured in his cartoons as a young witness of the satirized policy or event depicted. Was shot outside the London office of Kuwaiti newspaper Al Qabas on 1987.07.22 - fallout between Mossad and Margaret Thatcher due to Mossad employing double agents inside the PLO and not notifying UK of the assassination attempt on al-Ali.
Gottfried Helnwein (1948.10.08-): AT fine artist, painter, photographer, installation and performance artist. Epiphany I – Adoration of the Magi; Marilyn Manson
H. R. Giger (1940.02.05-): CH surrealist painter, sculptor, and set designer; was part of the special effects team that won an Academy Award for Best Achievement for Visual Effects for t