User:Kierant/Preservation Society

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Most cities in Europe have different names in different languages. Some cities have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known different names for all major European cities. It also includes some smaller towns that are important because of their location or history.

This article also lists cities of Turkey, Cyprus, and republics of the former Soviet Union that are in Europe. This article does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real", or "correct" name of any city is or was. Cities are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by variants in other languages, in alphabetical order by name, and then by any historical variants and former names.

Foreign names that are the same as their English equivalents may be listed, to provide an answer to the question "What is that name in..."?.


A[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Aabenraa Åbenrå (Danish, Swedish)*, Apenrade (German)*, Abenra - Абенра (Macedonian)
Aachen Aachen (Bahasa Indonesia*, Danish*, Estonian*, Finnish*, Gaelic*, German*, Hungarian*, Interlingua*, Norwegian*, Romanian*, Slovak*, Slovenian*, Swedish*, Turkish*), Āhene (Latvian)*, Aix-la-Chapelle (French)*, Aken (Dutch)*, Akwizgran (Polish)*, Ακυίσγρανον (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Aoke (Limburgish)*, Aquae Grani or Aquisgranum (Latin)*, Aquisgrà (Catalan)*, Aquisgrán (Spanish)*, Aquisgrana (Italian *, Aquisgrana or Aquisgrão (Portuguese)*, Åxhe (Walloon)*, Cáchy (Czech)*, Óche (local Ripuarian)*, Oochen (Luxembourgish)*, Aachen - Άαχεν (Greek)*, Aachen - אאכן (Hebrew)*, Aakhen - Аахен (Russian*, Ukrainian*), Ahen - Ахен (Bulgarian*, Serbian*, Macedonian), Oche (Kashubian)*, Yachen - 亚琛 (Simplified Chinese); آخن (Arabic)*, آخن (Farsi) *, アーヘン (Japanese)*, აახენი (Georgian)*, 아헨 (Korean)*, อาเค่น (Thai)*, 阿亨 (Chinese)*
Aalst Aals (Limburgish)*, Aalst (Dutch)*, Alost (French)*, Alst - Алст (Macedonian), Αλόστη (Greek)
Aarhus Århus (Danish*, Finnish*, Swedish*), Aarhus (Dutch*, Hungarian*), Aoerhusi - 奥而胡斯(Simplified Chinese)*, Orhūsa (Latvian)*, Orhus - Орхус (Bulgarian*, Macedonian)
Abbeville Advile (Picard) , Abbekerke (Dutch)*, Abbatis Villa (Latin), Abbeville (French*, Romanian*), Abvil - Абвиль (Russian)*, Abvil - Абвил (Macedonian)
Aberdeen Aberdin - Абердин (Russian*, Macedonian*), Aberdonia or Devana or Aberdona or Verniconam or Aberdonum or Aberdonium or Abredonia or Devanha (Latin)*, Aiberdeen (Scots)*, Obar Dheathain (Gaelic)*, Obar Deathain (Irish)
Adjud Adjud (Romanian)*, Egyedhalma (Hungarian), Adžud - Аџуд (Macedonian)
Aiud Aiud (Romanian)*, Nagyenyed (Hungarian)*, Straßburg am Mieresch (German)*, Ajud - Ајуд (Macedonian)
Aix-en-Provence Aikso Provenca (Esperanto)*, Aix-en-Provence (French*, Romanian*, Finnish*), Aquae Sextiae (Latin)*, Ais (Provençal), Ais de Provença (Catalan*, Occitan*)
Aix-les-Bains Aix-les-Bains (French*, Finnish*), Aquae Gratianae (Latin)*
Ajaccio Ajaccio (Dutch*, French*, Finnish*), Aiacciu (Corsican)*, Aiaccio (former Italian)*, Ajačio - Ајачио or Ažaksio - Ажаксио (Macedonian) , Αιάκειο (Greek), Ayachcho - Аяччо (Russian)*, Ayakexiao - 阿雅克肖 (Simplified Chinese)*
Albacete Albacete (Spanish*, Bahasa Indonesia, Finnish), al-Basīt (Arabic)*, Albaset - Албасет (Macedonian), Albasete - Альбасете (Russian)*
Alba Iulia Alba Iulia (Romanian)*, Apulon (Dacian)*, Apulum (Latin)*, Bălgrad (former name)*, Gyulafehérvár (Hungarian)*, Karlsburg (German)*, Weißenburg (former German)*, Alba Julija - Алба Јулија (Macedonian)
Alexandroupolis Alessandropoli (Italian), Alexandroúpoli - Αλεξανδρούπολη (Greek)*, Alexandroúpolis - Αλεξανδρούπολις (Greek-Katharevousa), Alexandropolis (Latin)*, Dedeağaç (Turkish)*, Dedeagatch (former name)*, Dedeagh (former French)*, Aleksandrupolis - Александруполис (Macedonian, Russian), Aleksandrupolis - Александруполіс (Ukrainian) *, Aleksandropolis (Finnish)
Algeciras Algeciras (Spanish*, Finnish*), Algésiras (French)*, Algesires (Catalan)*, Al-Jazeera Al-Khudra (Arabic)*, Alhesiras - Алхесирас (Macedonian, Russian)
Alghero Alghero (Italian*, Finnish*), L'Alguer (Catalan*, Occitan*), S'Alighera* and Alighera*(Sardinian), Alguer (Spanish*, Gallego*) Algero - Алгеро (Macedonian)
Alicante Akra Leuke' - Ἄκρα Λευκή (Ancient Greek), Alacant (Catalan*, Valencian*), Alicante (Dutch*, Finnish*, French*, German*, Portuguese*, Romanian*, Spanish*), Alikante (Ladino)*, Alikantė (Lithuanian)*, Alikante (Latvian)*, Alakanto (Esperanto)*, al-Laqant - أليكانته (Arabic)*, Lucentum (Latin)*, Alikante - Аликанте (Macedonian)
Amiens Amiens (French) , Anmien (Picard)
Amścisłaŭ Amścisłaŭ - Амсьціслаў* or Mścisłaŭ - Мсьціслаў *(Belarusian), Mścisław (Polish)*, Mstislavl - Мстиславль (Russian)*, Mstislavlis (Lithuanian)
Amsterdam 阿姆斯特丹 (Chinese)*, Amstardam (Irish), Amstardām - أمستردام (Arabic)*, Amsterdam (Bahasa Indonesia*, Croatian*, Dutch*, Estonian*, Finnish*, French*, Italian*, Polish*, Romanian*, Catalan*, Swedish*, Turkish*, Limburgish*), Amsterdam - Амстердам (Bulgarian*, Macedonian, Russian*, Serbian*, Ukrainian*), Amstyerdam - Амстэрдам (Belarussian)*, Ámsterdam (Spanish)*, Amsterdama (Latvian)*, Amsterdamas (Lithuanian)*, Amsterdão (Portuguese)*, Amsterodam (Czech)*, Amszterdam (Hungarian)*, Aemstelredamme or Amstelredam (former Dutch), Amstelodamum (Latin)*, Mokum or Mokum Aleph or Groot-Mokum (Yiddish)*, Amstelodamon - Αμστελόδαμον (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Amsterntam - Άμστερνταμ (Greek)*, Amseutereudam - 암스테르담 (Korean)*, Amsterdam - אמסטרדם (Hebrew)*
Ancona Ancône (French)*, Ankona (Polish)*, Jakin (older Croatian)*, Αγκώνα (Greek)
Anklam Anklam (German)*, Anclam (former German spelling)*, Nakło nad Pianą (Polish)*, Tanglim (old Slavic)*, Anklam - Анклам (Macedonian)
Antioch Antakya or Hatay (Turkish)*, Antioche (French)*, Antiochia (Hungarian*, Latin, Slovak), Antiochia or Antiochia am Orontes (German)*, Antiochia or Antiochia di Siria (Italian)*, Antiochia or Antiochia Syryjska (Polish)*, Antiochia or Antiochia vid Orontes (Swedish)*, Antióchia - Αντιόχεια (Greek), Antióchia i epí Dáfni - Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη / Antióchia i epí Oróntu - Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου / Antióchia i Megáli - Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη (extended names in Greek), Antiochie (Czech)*, Antiochië (Dutch)*, Antioch-on-the-Orontes (extended name in English), Antiohia (Romanian), Antiokia (Bahasa Indonesia, Danish*, Finnish*), Antioquía (Spanish)*, Antióquia (Portuguese)*, Antiohija (Croatian, Bosnian), Antiohija - Антиохија (Macedonian, Serbian*, Montenegrin)
Antwerp Amberes (Spanish), Amvérsa - Αμβέρσα (Greek), Antuérpia (Portuguese), Antverpen (Estonian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian), Antverpenas (Lithuanian), Antverpene (Latvian), Antverpy (Czech, Slovak), Antwīrb (Arabic), Antwerpen (Dutch, Finnish, German, Swedish), Antwerpia (Polish), Anvers (French, Catalan, Romanian), Anversa (Italian), Anviesse (Walloon), Antverpeno (Esperanto), Antwerpe (neighbouring dialect, Limburgish), Antverpen - Антверпен (Macedonian), Antverpen - אנטוורפן (Hebrew)
Aquileia Akwilea / Akwileja (Polish), Aquileia (Italian, Portuguese, Romanian), Aquilée (French), Aquilee (Friulian), Aquileja (German), Oglej (Slovene), Akvileja - Аквилеја (Macedonian) Akvilia (Finnish)
Arkhangelsk Arcángel (Spanish),Archandělsk (Czech), Archangelsk (German, Dutch), Archangelskas (Lithuanian), Arhangeļska (Latvian), Archangielsk (Polish), Arhanđel (Serbian), Arhanghelsk (Romanian), Arkangeli (Finnish), Arkhangel'sk (Russian) Sint-Michiel (Dutch, antiquated), Arhangelsk - Архангелск (Macedonian, Turkish), Αρχάγγελος (Greek), Archangelsk - ארחנגלסק (Hebrew)
Arlon Arlon (French, Finnish), Aarlen (Dutch), Arel (German), Arel (Luxembourgish), Arlon - Арлон (Macedonian)
Arnhem Arnheim (German), Arnhem (Dutch, Polish), Arnhim (Frisian), Ernem (local dialect), Ārnhema (Latvian), Arnhem - Арнхем (Macedonian)
Arras Arasu - アラス (Japanese), Arazzo (medieval Italian), Arras (French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish), Aro (Picard) , Atrecht (Dutch), Aras - Арас (Macedonian)
Aschaffenburg Aschaffenburg (German), Aschaffenburgo (Spanish), Ašafenburg - Ашафенбург (Macedonian)
Assisi 亞西西 (Chinese), Ascesi (medieval Italian), Asís (Spanish), Asisi (Romanian),Assis (Portuguese), Assise (French), Assisi (Dutch, German, Italian), Asyż (Polish), Asisi - Асиси (Macedonian) , Ασσίζη (Greek),
Ath Ât (Picard) , Ath (French), Ate (Walloon) , Aat (Dutch)
Athens Afina (Azeri), Афины/Afíny (Russian), Афіни/Afiny (Ukrainian), An Aithin (Irish), Ateena (Estonian, Finnish), Aten (Norwegian, Swedish) Aten - אַטען (Yiddish), Atena (Bahasa Indonesia, Croatian, Romanian), Atėnai (Lithuanian), Atenas (Portuguese, Spanish), Atēnas (Latvian), Atene (Italian, Slovene), Atene - アテネ (Japanese), Atenes (Catalan), Cetines (Old catalan), Աթենք / Atenk (Armenian), Atény (Czech, Slovak), Ateny (Polish), Athen (Danish, German, Norwegian, Swedish, Welsh), Athén (Hungarian), Aþena (Icelandic), Athenae (Latin), Athene (Dutch, Limburgish), Athènes (French), Athény (alternative Czech), Athína - Αθήνα (Greek), Atīnā (Arabic), Atina - Атина (Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian, Turkish), Atene - 아테네 (Korean), Atuna - אתונה (hebrew), Yadian - 雅典 (Simplified Chinese)
Augsburg Augsbourg (French), Augsburg (German, Finnish, Polish, Catalan, Romanian, Turkish), Augsburga (Latvian), Augsburgo (Spanish, Portuguese), Augšpurk / Aušpurk (Czech), Augusta (Italian), Augusta Vindelicorum (Latin), Oogsborg (Low Saxon), Avgústa - Αυγούστα (Greek), Augsburg - Аугсбург (Macedonian), Augsburg - אוגסבורג (Hebrew)
Avignon Avenio (Latin), Avignon (French, Finnish, Romanian), Avignone (Italian), Avinhão (Portuguese), Avinhon (Occitan, Provençal), Avinjon - Авињон (Serbian, Macedonian), Aviñón (Spanish), Aviņona (Latvian), Awinion (Polish), Avinyó (Catalan)

B[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Bacău Bacău (Romanian), Bakó (Hungarian)
Baia Mare Baia Mare (Romanian), Frauenbach (German), Nagybánya (Hungarian), Neustadt (rarer German), Baja Mare - Баја Маре (Macedonian)
Bakhchisaray Bağçasaray (Crimean Tatar), Bakhchisaray - Бахчисарай (Russian), Bakhchysarai - Бахчисарай (Ukrainian), Bahçesaray (Turkish), Bakczysaraj (Polish), Bahcisarai (Romanian), Bahčisaraj - Бахчисарај (Macedonian)
Baku Bacu (Portuguese), Bakı (Azeri), Bakoe (Dutch), Bakou (French), Baku - Баку (Bahasa Indonesia, Finnish, Polish, Macedonian, Serbian, Romanian, Latvian), Bākū (Arabic), Bakü (Turkish), Baku - בקו (Hebrew)
Bar (Montenegro) Tivar (Albanian), Antivari (Italian), Bar - Бар (Croatian, Finnish, Romanian, Serbian, Macedonian); Dioclea or Doclea (Latin; ancient city nearby), Duklja (Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian; same ancient city and mediæval state)
Barcelona Barcellona (Italian), Barcelona (Dutch, Catalan, Finnish, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish), Barcelone (French), Barcino (Latin), Barna (Spanish abbreviation), Baršalūna (Arabic), Barselona (Lithuanian*, Latvia, Turkish), Barselona - Барселона (Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Ukrainian), Բարսելոնա / Barselona (Armenian), Varkelóni - Βαρκελώνη (Greek), Bårçulone (Walloon), Barcelone (Friulian), Bartzelona - ברצלונה (Hebrew)
Basel Bâle (French), Basilea (Catalan, Italian, Romansh, Spanish), Basileia (Portuguese), Basilej (Czech), Basle (variant in English), Bazel (Dutch, Turkish), Bazel - Базел (Serbian, Macedonian), Բազել / Bazel (Armenian), Bázel (Hungarian), Bazel' (Russian, Ukrainian), Bazelis (Lithuanian), Bāzele (Latvian), Bāzil (Arabic), Bazilej (Slovak), Bazylea (Polish), Vasileía - Βασιλεία (Greek), Basel (Finnish, Romanian, Swedish), Bazel - בזל (Hebrew)
Bastia Bastia (Dutch, French, German), Bastìa (Corsican, Finnish, Italian), Bastija - Бастија (Macedonian)
Bastogne Bastogne (French, Finnish, Romanian), Bastenaken (Dutch), Bastnach (German), Baaschtnech or Baastnech (Luxembourgish), Bastonj - Бастоњ (Macedonian)
Bath Aquae Sulis (Latin), Baðum / Baðan / Baðon (Anglo-Saxon), Caerfaddon (Welsh)
Bautzen Budyšin (Upper Sorbian), Budyšín (Czech, Slovak), Budyšyn (Lower Sorbian), Budziszyn (Polish), Baucen - Бауцен (Macedonian)
Beauvais Beauvais (French) , Bieuvais (Picard)
Będzin Będzin (Polish), Bendin - Бендин (Russian), Bendin - בענדין (Yiddish), Bendzin (German)
Bela Crkva Bela Crkva - Бела Црква (Serbian, Macedonian), Biała Cerkiew (Polish), Bílá Cerevek (Czech), Biserica Alba (Romanian), Fehértemplom (Hungarian)
Belfast Béal Feirste (Irish), Belfastas (Lituanian), Belfāsta (Latvian), Belffast (Welsh), Belfastium (Latin), Belfast - Белфаст(French, Finnish, Romanian, Macedonian, Spanish, Turkish), Belfast - בלפסט (Hebrew), Bilfawst (Ulster Scots)
Belfort Beffert (German), Befert (old German), Belfort - (Dutch, French), Belfort - Белфорт (Macedonian)
Belgrade Béalgrád (Irish), Bělehrad (Czech), Belehrad (Slovak), Belgrad - Белград(Macedonian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Finnish, German, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Swedish, Turkish), Բելգրադ or Belgrad (Armenian), Belgrád (Hungarian), Belgrada (Latvian), Belgradas (Lithuanian), Belgrade (French), Belgråde (Walloon), Belgrado (Dutch, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Beograd (Croatian, Danish, Slovene), Beograd - Београд (Serbian), Bilġrād (Arabic), Bjelhrad (Ukrainian), Nándorfehérvár (former Hungarian), Singidunum (Latin), Veligrádi - Βελιγράδι (Greek), Griechisch-Weißenburg (old German, rare), Belgrad - בלגרד (Hebrew)
Bellinzona Bellinzona (Dutch, German, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Swedish), Bellinzone (French), Belincona - Белинцона (Macedonian), Bellenz (old Swiss German name)
Berat Berat / Berati (Albanian), Albánský Bělehrad (Czech), Berat - Берат (Macedonian) , Μπεράτι (Greek)
Berdychiv Berdychiv - Бердичів (Ukrainian), Berdichev - Бердичев (Russian), Barditshev - באַרדיטשעװ (Yiddish), Berdyczów (Polish), Berdicev (Romanian),
Bergen (Norway) Bergen (Dutch, German, Finnish, Macedonian, Norwegian, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Bergenas (Lithuanian), Bergena (Latvian), Björgvin (Icelandic), Bjørgvin (former old norse name)
Berlin Barlīn (Arabic), Barliń (Lower Sorbian), Beirlín (Irish), Berlien (Limburgish), Berliin (Estonian), Berliini (Finnish), Berlijn (Dutch), Berlim (Portuguese), Berlín (Catalan, Czech, Icelandic, Slovak, Spanish), Berlin (Russian, Croatian, Danish, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Macedonian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish, French, Walloon), Բեռլին or Berlin (Armenian), Berlin - בערלין (Yiddish), Berlīne (Latvian), Berlino (Italian, Esperanto), Berlyn (Afrikaans, Frisian), Berlynas (Lithuanian), Berurin - ベルリン (Japanese), Verolíno - Βερολίνο (Greek), Bereullin - 베를린 (Korean), Berlin - ברלין (Hebrew)
Berne Bern (Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Russian, Macedonian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish, Ukrainian), Բեռն or Bern (Armenian), Berna (Catalan, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Spanish), Bernas (Lithuanian), Berne (French, Latvian), Berno (Polish), Vérni - Βέρνη (Greek), Bern - ברן (Hebrew)
Besançon Besançon (Dutch, French, Finnish, Romanian, Turkish), Bisanz (old German), Vesontio (Latin), Bezanson - Безансон (Macedonian)
Białowieża Biełavieža - Белавежа (Belarusian), Bělověž (Czech), Białowieża (Polish), Beloveža (Latvian)
Białystok Białystok (Polish), Biełastok - Беласток (Belarusian), Balstogė (Lithuanian), Belostoka (Latvian), Belostok - Белосток (Russian), Bjalistoko (Esperanto), Byalistok - ביאַליסטאָק (Yiddish), Bjalistok - Бјалисток (Macedonian)
Biel/Bienne Belenus (Latin), Biel (German, Finnish), Bienne (French), Bil - Бил (Macedonian)
Biella Biella (Italian), Bugella (Latin)
Bilbao Bilbao (Catalan, Dutch, Spanish, Finnish, Romanian, Turkish), Bilbao - Билбао (Macedonian, Latvian), Bilbau (Portuguese), Bilbo (Basque),
Bilohirsk Qarasuvbazar (Crimean Tatar), Bilohirsk (English, German), Belogorsk - Белогорск (Russian), Karasubazar (Turkish), Bilohirs'k - Білогірськ (Ukrainian), Karasubazar - Карасубазар (former Russian, former Ukrainian)
Bil'shivtsi Bil'shivtsi - Більшівці (Ukrainian), Bol'shovtsy - Болшовцы (Russian), Bolszowce (Polish), Bolshvets - באָלשװעץ (Yiddish), Bilişăuţi (Romanian)
Birmingham Бирмингем (Russian, Serbian, Macedonian), Birmingemas (Lithuanian), Birmingema (Latvian), Berminghem - ברמינגהם (Hebrew)
Bischofswerda Bischofswerda (German), Biskupice (Polish), Bišofsverda - Бишофсверда (Macedonian)
Bistriţa Beszterce (Hungarian), Bistrica - Бистрица (Serbian, Macedonian), Bistriţa (Romanian), Bistritz (German), Bystrzyca (Polish)
Bitola Битоля (Bulgarian), Manastır (Turkish), Monastir (Albanian, Ladino, other languages),Μοναστήρι - Monastiri (Greek),Bitolj/Битољ (Serbian)
Bologna Bologna (Dutch, German, Italian, Finnish, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Bologne (French), Boloňa (Czech), Bolonha (Portuguese), Bolonia (Polish, Spanish), Bolonija (Lithuanian), Boloņa (Latvian), Bolonja - Болоња (Serbian, Macedonian), Bolonya (Catalan, Turkish) , Βολωνία (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Bouillon Bouillon (Dutch, French, German, Romanian), Bouyon (Walloon), Bujon - Бујон (Macedonian)
Boulogne-sur-Mer Boulogne (French, Finnish), Boulonne-su-Mér (Picard) , Bonen aan zee (Dutch, older),Bononia (medieval Latin), Gesoriacum (Roman Latin)
Bozen-Bolzano Bolzano (Italian, Romanian,English), Bozen (Afrikaans, Dutch, German), Bulsan or Balsan (Ladin), Bolğan or Bolzan (Friulian), Bulsaun (Romansh), Bocen (Slovene, Serbian, Croatian), Боцен (Serbian Cyrillic), Pons Drusi or Bauzanum (Latin), Boltsano - בולצאנו (Hebrew), Mpoltsano - Μπολτζάνο (Greek), Bocenas (Lithuanian), Bolcāno (Latvian), Bol'tsano - Больцано (Russian), Bal'tsana - Бaльцанa (Belorussian), Bolcano - Болцано (Macedonian)
Bordeaux 波爾多 (Chinese), Bordeaux (Dutch, French, Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish), Bordèu (Gascon, Occitan, Provençal), Bordéus (Portuguese), Burdeus (Catalan), Bordo (Lithuanian, Latvian, Macedonian, Serbian), Bordó (Hungarian), Bordö (Turkish) Bordozo (Esperanto), Burdeos (Spanish), Bordele (Basque), Burdigala (Latin) , Βορδίγαλα (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Boreudo - 보르도 (Korean), Bordo - בורדו (Hebrew)
Bonifacio Bonifacio (French, Italian, Finnish), Bunifaziu (Corsican), Bonifakjo - Бонифаќо (Macedonian)
Bonn 波恩(Chinese) , Bon (Serbian, Macedonian, Turkish), Bona (Lithuanian, Portuguese), Bonn (Dutch, German), Bonna (Latvian), Bonna or Castrum Bonnense (Latin), Vónni - Βόννη (Greek), Bon - בון (Hebrew)
Botoşani Botoşani (Romanian), Botosány (Hungarian), Botoszany (Polish), Botošani - Ботошани (Macedonian)
Braniewo Braniewo (Polish), Braunsberg (German), Brus (Old Prussian), Branievo - Браниево (Macedonian)
Braşov Braşov (Romanian), Brašov - Брашов (Serbian, Macedonian), Brašovas (Lithuanian), Brassó (Hungarian), Braszów (Polish), Corona (Latin), Kronstadt (German), Stephanoúpoli - Στεφανούπολη (Greek)
Bratislava Bratislava - Братислава (Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian), Bratislava (Czech, Catalan, Croatian, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Բրատիսլավա or Bratislava (Armenian), Braťislava or Požoma (Romani), Bratyslava - Братислава (Ukrainian), Bratysława (Polish), Pozsony (Hungarian), Požun (older Croatian) , Presbourg (French till 1919), Pressburg (obsolete German), Prešpurk (Czech till 1919), Πρεσβούργο (Greek till 1919) , Prešporok (Slovak till 1919)
[Note: The name was officially changed from Pressburg / Prešporok / Pozsony to Bratislava in 1919; for a list of older names see Bratislava, Bratislava - ברטיסלבה (Hebrew)
Bratslav Bracław (Polish), Bracłaŭ - Брацлаў (Belarusian), Breslov - ברעסלאָבֿ (Yiddish), Braclav - Брацлав (Macedonian)
Břeclav Břeclav (Czech), Lundenburg (German), Brzecław (Polish), Bšeclav - Бшецлав (Macedonian)
Bremen Bréma (Hungarian), Brema (Italian, Polish, Spanish), Brême (French), Bremen (Afrikaans, Croatian, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Frisian, German, Low Saxon, Portuguese, Norwegian, Romanian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Brėmenas (Lithuanian), Brēmene (Latvian), Brémy (Czech, Slovak), Brimarborg (Icelandic), Vrémi - Βρέμη (Greek)
Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (Dutch, German, Low Saxon, Romanian), Brémský Přístav (Czech), Bremerhafen - Бремерхафен (Macedonian)
Brest (Belarus) Bieraście - Берасьце (traditional Belarusian name), Brasta (Lithuanian), Bresta(Latvian), Brest (Romanian), Brest-Litovsk (former English, former Romanian, former Russian), Brześć Litewski (Polish), Brześć nad Bugiem (Polish 1918-1939); Lietuvos Brasta (former Lithuanian); Brisk - בריסק (Yiddish), Brest-Litovsk - Брест-Литовск (Macedonian), Brest - ברסט (Hebrew)
Bristol 布里斯托尔 (Chinese), Briostó (Irish), Caerodor (Welsh (obsolete)), Bristol (Dutch), Bryste (Welsh), Bristol - Бристол (Macedonian), Bristole (Latvian), Bryste (Welsh)
Brno Berno Morawskie (Polish), Brna (Romany), Brno (Czech, Dutch, Finnish, Latvian, Romanian, Serbian, Macedonian), Brnos (Romany), Brünn (German, Hungarian), Bruna (Italian)
Brody Brody (Polish, Russian, Ukrainian; spelled Броды in Russian and Броди in Ukrainian), Brod (Romanian), Brod - בראָד (Yiddish), Brodi - Броди (Macedonian)
Bruges Briž (Serbian), Бриж (Macedonian), Bruges (French, Portuguese, Romanian, Luxembourgish), Brugge (Afrikaans, Bahasa Indonesia, Dutch), Brügge (Finnish, German), Bruggia (old Italian), Bruggy (Slovak), Brugia (Polish), Brugy (Czech), Bruixes (Catalan), Brujas (Spanish, Mediæval Portuguese), Bruj (Turkish), وبروج (Arabic), Briugė (Lithuanian), Brige (Latvian), Brögke (Limburgish), Brygge (Swedish) , Βρύγη (Greek), Bruzh - ברוז (Hebrew)
Brunswick Braunschweig (German, Slovene, variant in English), Braunšveiga (Latvian), Braunšvajg - Брауншвајг (Serbian, Macedonian), Brunšvik (Czech), Brunsvique (Portuguese), Brunswick (French, Italian, Romanian, Spanish), Brunswiek (Low Saxon), Brunswijk (Dutch), Brunszwik (Polish)
Bruntál Bruntal (Polish), Bruntál (Czech), Freudenthal (German)
Brussels 布魯塞爾 (Chinese), An Bhruiséil (Irish), Bréissel (Luxembourgish), Brisel (Serbian), Брисел (Macedonian), Brisele (Latvian), Brisl - בריסל (Yiddish), Briuselis (Lithuanian), Bruksel (Armenian), Brüksel (Turkish), Bruksela (Polish), Brūksil (Arabic), Brusel (Czech, Slovak), Bruselj (Slovene), Brusela (Basque), Bruselas (Spanish), Brussel·les (Catalan), Brussel (Afrikaans, Bahasa Indonesia, Dutch, Norwegian), Brüssel (Estonian, German), Brusselle (former Italian), Brüsszel (Hungarian), Bruxelas (Portuguese), Bruxelles (Danish, French, Italian, Romanian), Bryssel (Danish, Finnish, Swedish), Bryuksel (Bulgarian), Bryussel (Russian, Ukrainian), Vryxélles - Βρυξέλλες (Greek), Brussele (Walloon), Brössel (Limburgish), Brwsel (Welsh), Brisel - בריסל (Hebrew)
Brzesko Brzesko (Polish), Brigl - בריגל (Yiddish)
Buchach Buchach - Бучач (Ukrainian), Buczacz (Polish, Romanian), Betshotsh - בעטשאָטש (Yiddish), Bučač - Бучач (Macedonian)
Bucharest Boekarest (Afrikaans, Dutch), Búcairist (Irish), Bucarest (Catalan, French, Italian, Spanish), Bucareste (Portuguese), Bucureşti (Romanian), Bukarest (Danish, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Swedish), Bukareštas (Lithuanian), Bukareste (Latvian), Bukareszt (Polish), Bukharest (Russian, Ukrainian), Բուխարեստ / Bukharest (Armenian), Bükreş (Turkish), Bukurešt (Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian), Bukarešta (Slovene), Bukureshta (Romany), Bukurešť (Czech, Slovak), Būqārist (Arabic), Voukourésti - Βουκουρέστι (Greek), Boekares (Limburgish), Bwcarest (Welsh), Bukarest - בוקרסט (Hebrew)
Buda (now part of Budapest) Buda (Finnish, Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Lithuanian, Latvian), Budín (Czech), Budin (Turkish), Ofen (German), Budim - Будим (Macedonian)
Budapest Boedapest (Afrikaans, Dutch), Būdābist (Arabic), Búdaipeist (Irish), Budapest (Catalan, Finnish, Italian, German, Hungarian, Spanish, Swedish), Բուդապեշտ / Budapesht (Armenian), Budapešt (Russian, Ukrainian), Budapešť (Czech, Slovak), Budapešta (Latvian, Bulgarian), Budapesta (Romanian), Budapeštas (Lithuanian), Budapeste (Portuguese), Budapeşte (Turkish), Budapeszt (Polish), Budimpešta (Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene, Serbian), Voudapésti - Βουδαπέστη (Greek), Ofenpest (former German), Boedapes (Limburgish), Bwdapest (Welsh), Peshta (Romany), Budapesht - בודפשט (Hebrew), Etzelburg (old German), Ezzelburgo (old Italian)
Buje Buie d'Istria (Italian), Buje (Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian)
Burg Stargard Burg Stargard (German), Stargard Meklemburski (Polish)
Bursa Brousse (former French), Bursa (Dutch, Romanian, Turkish, Macedonian), Prusa (Latin), Proúsa - Προύσα (Greek), Bursa - בורסה (Hebrew)
Butrint Butrint / Butrinti (Albanian), Butrinto (Italian), Butrinto - Бутринто (Macedonian)
Buzet Buzet (Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian), Pinguente (Italian)
Bydgoszcz Bidgošča (Lithuanian), Bidgošć - Бидгошч (Serbian, Macedonian), Bromberg (German), Bydgostia (Latin), Bydgoszcz (Polish)
Bytom Beuthen (German), Bytom (Polish), Bitom - Битом (Macedonian)
Bytów Betowo (Kashubian/Pomeranian), Bütow (German), Bytów (Polish), Bitov - Битов (Macedonian)

C[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Cádiz Cadice (Italian), Cádis (Portuguese), Cadis (Catalan) Cadix (French), Cádiz (Spanish), Cadiz (German, Romanian), Gades (Latin), Γάδειρα - Gadeira (Ancient Greek), Gadir (Phoenician), Kadyks (Polish), Kadiz (Serbian), al-Qādis (Arabic)
Cagliari Cagliari (Dutch, Italian, Finnish, Romanian), Càller (Spanish, Catalan), Caralis (Latin), Casteddu (Sardinian), Kaljari (Serbian)
Calahorra (Spain) Calagurris (Latin)
Calais (France) Kales (Dutch alternate), Kalē (Latvian), Caleus (Picard)
Cambrai Camaracum (Latin), Kamerijk (Dutch), Kameriek (Limburgish) , Kimbré (Picard)
Cambridge (England) Caergrawnt (Welsh), Cantabrigia (Latin), Cantabrígia (Portuguese), Kembridž (Serbian), Kembridžas (Lithuanian), Kembridža (Latvian), Kembriĝo (Esperanto), Kemburijji - ケンブリッジ (Japanese), 劍橋 ('Jiān qiáo, formerly 康橋 Kāng qiáo - jian/kang are approximations of the sound Cam, qiao means bridge) (Chinese)Keymrige - קיימבריג (Hebrew)
Câmpulung Moldovenesc Câmpulung Moldovenesc (Romanian), Moldvahosszúmező (Hungarian)
Canterbury 坎特貝雷 (Chinese), Caer-Cant (Saxon), Caergaint (Welsh), Cantorbéry (French), Cantuaria (medieval Latin), Cantuária (Portuguese), Durovernum Cantiacorum (Roman Latin), Kantaraborg (Icelandic), Kenterberija (Latvian), Kantelberg (Dutch)
Carcassonne Carcassona (Catalan, Italian, Occitan), Carcasona (Spanish), Carcassonne (French, Finnish), (Julia) Carcaso (Latin)
Cardiff Caerdydd (Welsh, Irish), Kardif (Serbian), Kārdifa (Latvian), Ovicubium (Vulgar Latin)
Carlisle Caerliwelydd (Welsh)
Carlsbad Karlovi Vari (Bulgarian, Croatian, Romanian, Serbian), Karlovy Vary (Czech, Turkish), Karlsbad (Dutch, German, Swedish), Karlsbāde (Latvian),Karlowe Wary (Polish)
Cartagena Cartagena (Catalan, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese), Cartagina (Romanian), Carthagène (French), Carthago Nova (Latin), Kartagina (Polish, Serbian), al-Qartājanna (Arabic) , Καρθαγένη (Greek)
Castelsardo Castelsardo (Italian), Casteddu (Sardinian, Corsican), Castelgenovese (former Italian), Castillo Aragones (former Spanish), Castel Aragones (former Catalan)
Celje Celeia (Latin), Celje (Slovene, Serbian), Celle/Cilli (German), Cille (Hungarian), Cilli (older English (1911 EB), older German), Kelea (Celtic)
České Budějovice Budweis (German, former English and Dutch), Czeskie Budziejowice (Polish), České Budějovice (Czech, Slovak)
Český Těšín Český Těšín (Czech), Czeski Cieszyn (Polish)
Cetinje Cettigne (Italian), Cetinje (Serbian) , Κετίγνη (Greek)
Chalkida (Greece) Chalcis (French, Latin), Chalkis (German)
Chania La Canée (French), Khaniá - Χανιά (Greek), La Canea (Catalan, Italian, Spanish), Hania (Finnish, Romanian)
Charleroi Charleroi (Dutch, French, Finnish, Romanian), Châlerwè / Tchålerwè (Walloon), Carleroé (Picard) , Šarlruā (Latvian), Sharlerwa - שרלרוה (Hebrew)
Cheb Cheb (Czech), Eger (German)
Chełmno Chełmno (Polish), Culm (variant in German), Kulm (German)
Chemnitz Chemnitz (German, Finnish, Romanian), Kamienica Saska (Polish, traditional, not used anymore), Kamjenica (Sorbian), Saská Kamenice (Czech); Karl-Marx-Stadt (German 1953-1990)
Chernigov Chernigov - Чернигов (Russian, common transliteration), Chernihiv - Чернігів (Ukrainian, official transliteration)
Chernivtsi Cernăuţi (Romanian), Cernovicy (German, alternate transliteration from the Ukrainian Cyrillic), Cernowitz (Yiddish, alternate form), Čérnivci (Ukrainian, 2nd most common Roman transliteration), Černivcy (Ukrainian, alternate transliteration), Černovce (Russian, alternate transliteration), Černovcy (Russian, alternate transliteration), Černovice (Czech/Slovak), Chernivci (Ukrainian, alternate transliteration), Chernivcy (Ukrainian, alternate transliteration), Chernivtcy (Ukrainian, alternate transliteration), Chernivtsi - Чернівці (Ukrainian, commonest English transliteration), Chernovcy (Russian, alternate transliteration), Chernovicy (Yiddish, alternate Roman transliteration of the Russian Cyrillic form), Chernovits (Yiddish, alternate transliteration), Chernovitse (Yiddish, rare transliteration into Roman script of the Ukrainian Cyrillic transliteration), Chernovitsy - Черновицы (Russian before 1944; Yiddish, rare alternate transliteration), Chernovitz (Yiddish, alternate form), Chernovtsy - Черновцы (Russian), Chernowitz (Yiddish, alternate transliteration), Csernivci (Hungarian, alternate transliteration from the current Ukrainian Cyrillic name), Csernovic (Hungarian), Csernyivci (Hungarian, transliteration from the current Ukrainian Cyrillic name), Czernovicensia (Latin, ecclesiastical), Czerniowce (Polish), Czernovitz (Yiddish, alternate transliteration), Czernowitz (German), Tchernowcy (Yiddish, transliteration from the Russian Cyrillic form), Tjernivtsi (Norwegian, Swedish, transliterated from the Ukrainian Cyrillic original), Tscherniwzi (German, transliteration from the Ukrainian Cyrillic, from German version of 'Yurij Fedkovytsch Czernowitzer Nationaler Universität', i.e. 'Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University' website, 2005), Tschernovits (Yiddish, alternate trasliteration), Tschernowitz (German), Tshernevits (Yiddish, alternate transliteration), Tshernovits - טשערנאָוויץ (Yiddish, current standard transliteration)
Chernobyl Chernobyl - Чернобыль (Russian, common transliteration), Chornobyl - Чорнобиль (Ukrainian, official transliteration)
Chernyakhovsk Chernyakhovsk (Russian), Insterburg (German), Įsrutis (Lithuanian), Wystruć (Polish), Cernihovsk (Romanian)
Chester Caerllion-ar-Dyfrdwy usually abbreviated to Caer (Welsh), Castra Devana or Deva (Latin)
Chişinău Chishinau (French alternate), Chisinau (Catalan, Dutch, Finnish, Portuguese), Chişinău (Romanian), Keshenev - קעשענעװ (Yiddish), Kichinev (French), Kischinew (German), Kishinev (former English), Kishinjov - Кишинёв (Russian), Kīšīnāw (Arabic), Kišineu (Bulgarian), Kišiněv (Czech), Kišiņeva (Latvian), Kišiniovas (Lithuanian), Kišinjev (Serbian, Finnish alternate), Kišiňov (Slovak), Kisinyov (older Hungarian), Kisjenő (Hungarian), Kiszyniów (Polish), Kyšyniv (Ukrainian), Kişinev (Turkish) , Κισνόβιο (Greek), Kishinev - קישינב (Hebrew)
Chorzów Chorzów (Polish), Królewska Huta (Polish, until 1934), Králova Huť (Czech), Königshütte (German)
Chur Coire (French), Coira (Italian), Cuira (Romansh), Curi (Latin)
Cieszyn Cieszyn (Polish), Teschen (Dutch, German), Těšín (Czech), Tešín (Slovak)
Clermont-Ferrand Augustonemetum (Latin), Clarmont (Occitan, Provençal), Clermonte (Spanish)
Cleves Cléveris (Spanish), Clèves (French), Clivia (Latin), Kleef (Dutch), Kleve (German)
Cluj Claudiopolis (Ecclesiastical Latin), Napoca (Classical Latin), Cluj (French, Romanian, informal), Cluj-Napoca (Dutch, Romanian, formal), Klausenburg (German), Kluž (Czech, Slovak), Kluż (Polish), Kolozsvár (Hungarian)
Cobh Queenstown, Cove (former English names), An Cóbh {Irish)
Coblenz Coblença (Portuguese), Coblence (French), Coblenza (Italian, Spanish), Confluentes (Latin), Koblencja (Polish), Koblenz (Dutch, German, Romanian, Slovene), Kueblenz (Luxembourgish)
Coburg Cobourg (French), Coburg (Dutch, German), Coburgo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish) , Κοβούργον (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Coimbra Coimbra (Catalan, Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish), Coimbre (French), Conimbriga (Latin), Qulumriya (Arabic)
Colchester Camulodunum (Latin), Camulodunon (British)
Cologne 科隆 (Chinese) , Cöln (German variant), Cologne (French), Colonia (Italian, Spanish), Colónia (Portuguese), Colònia (Catalan), Colonia Agrippina (Latin), Keln - Келн (Serbian), Keln - קעלן (Yiddish), Kelnas (Lithianian), Keulen (Dutch), Kjol'n (Russian, Ukrainian), Kolín nad Rýnem (Czech), Kolín nad Rýnom (Slovak), Kölle (Kölsch [local dialect], Limburgish), Köln (Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Kolonía - Κολωνία (Greek), Kolonia (Polish), Ķelne (Latvian), Keln - קלן (Hebrew), Køln (Danish)
Comăneşti Comăneşti (Romanian), Kománfalva (Hungarian)
Como Côme (French), Comum - Novum Comum (Latin)
Constanţa Constanţa (Romanian, Finnish), Köstence (Turkish), Konstanca (Hungarian, Polish) Constança (Brazilian Portuguese)
Copenhagen 哥本哈根 (Chinese), Cóbanhávan (Irish), Copenaghen (Italian), Copenhaga (Portuguese, Romanian), Copenhague (Brazilian Portuguese, Catalan, French, Spanish), Hafnia (Latin), Kaupmannahöfn (Icelandic), Kobenhaven (Slovene), København (Danish, Norwegian), Kūbinhāġin (Arabic), Kodaň (Czech, Slovak), Kööpenhamina (Finnish), Kopengagen (Russian), Kopenhaagen (Estonian), Kopenhag (Turkish), Kopenhaga (Lithuanian, Polish), Kopenhagen - Копенхаген (Bulgarian, Serbian), Kopenhagen (Croatian, Dutch, German), Kopenhāgena (Latvian), Kopenhago (Esperanto), Köpenhamn (Swedish), Kopenkháyi - Κοπεγχάγη (Greek), Koppenhága (Hungarian), Kopenhagen - קופנהגן (Hebrew)
Córdoba Córdoba (Spanish, Finnish), Cordoba (Dutch, German, Romanian), Corduba (Latin), Cordoue (French), Còrdova (Catalan), Cordova (Italian, former Romanian), Córdova (Portuguese), Kordoba (Polish, Slovene), Kordova (Latvian), Qurtubah (Arabic) , Κορδούη - Κόρδοβα (Greek - καθαρεύουσα - δημοτική), Kordoba - קורדובה (Hebrew)
Corfu Corcira / Corfu (Portuguese, Romanian), Corcyra (Latin), Corcyre (French alternate under Napoleonic rule), Corfou (French), Corfù (Italian), Corfú (Catalan, Spanish), Kérkira - Κέρκυρα (Greek), Korfoe / Corfu (Dutch), Korfu (Finnish, German, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak, Swedish, Turkish), Krf (Croatian, Slovene), Krf - Крф (Macedonian, Serbian)
Corinth Corint (Catalan, Romanian), Corinthe (French), Corinthus (Latin), Corinto (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Korint (Croatian, Czech, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish), Kórinta (Icelandic), Korinta (Latvian), Korintas (Lithuanian), Korinth (Danish, German, Swedish), Korinthe (Dutch), Kórinthos - Κόρινθος (Greek), Korintti (Finnish), Korynt (Polish)
Cork Corc (Welsh), Corcaigh (Irish), Cork (Danish, Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish), Korka (Latvian)
Corte Corte (Dutch, German, French, Italian), Corti (Corsican)
Corunna La Corogne (French), A Coruña (Galician), La Coruña (Dutch, Spanish, Finnish), La Coruna (Romanian), Corunha (Portuguese), La Corunya (Catalan, Serbian), Lakoruņa (Latvian)
Cottbus Chociebuż (Polish), Chóśebuz (Sorbian), Chotěbuz (Czech), Kottbus (archaic German)
Crécy Crécy-en-Ponthieu (French), Carcy-in-Pontiu (Picard) , Kresčak (Czech)

D[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Daugavpils Daugavpils (Estonian, Finnish, Latvian, Romanian), Daugpiļs (Latgalian) Dźvinsk - Дзьвінск (Belarusian), Daugpilis (Lithuanian), Denenburg - דענענבורג (Yiddish), Dünaburg (former Estonian, German), Борисоглебск / Borisoglebsk, Двинcк / Dvinsk (former Russian), Даугавпилс / Daugavpils (Russian), Dyneburg (Polish), Dźwińsk (former Polish variant), Dvinsk - דוינסק (Hebrew) Väinänlinna (Finnish alternate)
Dãrmãneşti Dãrmãneşti (Romanian), Dormánfalva (Hungarian)
Debrecen Debrecen (Hungarian, Finnish), Debrecín (Czech), Debrecin (Bosnian, Croatian), Debrecin - Дeбрецин (Serbian, Montenegrin), Debreţin (Romanian), Debreczin (German), Debreczyn (Polish)
Den Bosch Bois-le-Duc (French), Bolduque (Spanish), Boscoducale (former Italian), Den Bos (Frisian), Den Bosch / 's-Hertogenbosch (Dutch), Oeteldonk (colloquial Dutch, during Carnaval) Herzogenbusch (German), De Bos(j) (Limburgish)
Den Helder Den Helder (Dutch, German), Le Helder (French)
Dijon Digione (Italian), Dijon (French, Finnish, Romanian), Diviodunum (Latin), Dižona (Latvian), Dijon - דיז'ון (Hebrew)
Dniprodzerzhynsk formerly Kamenskoye (English), Kamenskoe (German), Dniprodzerzhyns'k (Дніпродзержинськ - Ukrainian)
Domažlice Domažlice (Czech), Taus (German)
Donetsk Doneţk (Romanian), Donetsk (Russian, Finnish), Donetskas (Lithuanian), Doņecka (Latvian), Donezk (German), Donieck (Polish), Donjeck (Serbian); Stalino (former name), Yuzovka (former name)
Dover Douvres (French), Doveris (Lithuanian), Duvra (Latvian), Dover (Finnish, Romanian), Dover - דובר (Hebrew)
Drachhausen Drachhausen (German), Hochoza (Lower Sorbian)
Dresden 德累斯顿 (Chinese), Dresden (Dutch, Finnish, Portuguese, German, Swedish, Turkish), Drážďany (Czech, Slovak), Dresda (Italian, variant in Portuguese, Romanian), Dresde (French, Spanish), Drésdi - Δρέσδη (Greek), Drezda (Hungarian), Drezden (Serbian), Drezdenas (Lithuanian), Drezdene (Latvian), Drezno (Polish), Drježdźany (Lower Sorbian), Drezden - דרזדן (Hebrew)
Drobeta-Turnu Severin Drobeta-Turnu Severin (official Romanian), Turnu Severin (former Romanian), Szörényvár (Hungarian)
Drohiczyn Drohiczyn (Polish), Darahičyn - Дарагічын (Belarusian), Drohičinas (Lithuanian)
Drohobycz Drobitsh - דראָביטש (Yiddish), Drogobych (Russian), Дрогобич/Drohobych (Ukrainian), Drohobycz (German, Polish)
Dublin 都柏林 (Chinese), Baile Átha Cliath (Irish), Áth Cliath (Irish short form), Dubh Linn (archaic Irish variant), Dablin (Arabic, Serbian, Turkish), Dhuvlíno - Δουβλίνο (Greek), Dublim (Portuguese), Dublin (Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Romanian, Swedish), Dublín (Catalan, Finnish, Spanish), Dublina (Latvian), Dublinas (Lithuanian), Dublino (Italian), Dulenn (Breton), Dulyn (Welsh), Dyflinn (Icelandic),Bail'-Ath-Cliath (Scots Gaelic), Dooblin - Дублин (Russian), Dablin - דבלין (Hebrew)
Dubrovnik Dubrovnic (Romanian), Dubrovnik (Albanian, Croatian, Dutch, Finnish, Portuguese, Serbian, Swedish, Turkish), Dubrovnikas (Lithuanian), Ragusa (Italian, former Romanian), Raguse (old French), Dubrownik (Polish), Ragoúsa - Ραγούσα (Greek), Raguza (Ottoman Turkish), Dubrovnik - דוברובניק (Hebrew)
Dún Laoghaire Kingstown (former English), Dunleary (anglicised form before being renamed "Kingstown" in 1821, still reflected in the pronunciation of "Dún Laoghaire" by English-speakers)
Dunkirk Duinkerke (Dutch), Dunkerque (French, Romanian), Dünkirchen (German), Dunquerque (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Duunkèrke (Limburgish), Dunkierka (Polish), Dhunkérki - Δουνκέρκη (Greek), Dinkerk (Picard) - דינקרק (Hebrew)
Durrës Durrës (Albanian, Romanian), Dhirrákhio - Δυρράχιο (Greek), Epidamnos (Ancient Greek), Dyrrhachium (Latin), Durazzo (Italian), Durŭs - Дуръс, historically Drach Драч (Bulgarian), Dıraç - (Turkish), Drač (Croatian, Czech, Serbian)
Düsseldorf Diuseldorfas (Lithuanian), Dizeldorf - Дизелдорф (Serbian), Dīzeldorfa (Latvian), Düsseldorf (Brazilian Portuguese, Estonian, Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Dusseldórfia (Portuguese), Dusseldorp (Dutch, antiquated), Dusseldörp (Limburgish), Ντίσελντορφ-Dísseldorf (Greek), Diseldorf - דיסלדורף (Hebrew)

E[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Edinburgh 愛丁堡 (Chinese), Caeredin (Welsh), Dún Éideann (Irish), Dùn Èideann (Scots Gaelic), Embra (Lowland Scots), Edhimvúrgho - Εδιμβούργο (Greek), Edinborg (Icelandic), Edimbourg (French), Edimburgo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Edimburg (Catalan, German [rare], Serbian, Romanian), Edinburga (Latvian), Edinburgas (Lithuanian), Edinburk (Czech), Edynburg (Polish), Edinbro - אדינברו (Hebrew)
Edirne Adhrianúpoli - Αδριανούπολη (Greek), Adrianopel (German), Adrianopla (Portuguese), Adrianople (former English), Adrianopol (Polish, Romanian, Slovak), Adrianopole (Romanian), Adrianopoli (Italian, Finnish), Adrianopolis (Czech, Dutch, Finnish), Adrianópolis (Spanish), Drinápoly (Hungarian), Drinopol (variant in Czech and Slovak), Hadrianople (variant in English), Hadrianopolis (Latin), Jedrine (Serbian), Odrin (Bulgarian, Macedonian), Uskudama (Thracian), Adrianopojë, Εdrene (Albanian)
Eger Eger (Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish), Eğri (Turkish), Erlau (German), Jager (Czech), Jáger (Slovak), Jagier (former Polish)
Eisenhüttenstadt Eisenhüttenstadt (German), Żelazowa Huta (Polish), Stalinstadt (former German)
Elbląg Elbiąg (local Polish dialect), Elbląg (Polish), Elbing (German), Ilfing (Old Danish) Truso (Old Prussian)
Ełk Ełk (Polish), Lyck (German)
Elsinore Elseneur (French), Elsinor (Spanish, Romanian), Elsinore (Italian), Helsingør (Danish), Helsingör (Finnish, German, Swedish)
Emmerich Emmerich (German), Emmerik (Dutch)
Erlangen Erlangen (German), Erlanky (Czech)
Espoo Espoo (Estonian, Finnish), Esbo (Swedish)
Esztergom Esztergom (Hungarian), Eštergon (Serbian), Gran (German), Ostřihom (Czech), Ostrihom (Slovak), Ostrzyhom (Polish), Estergon (Turkish), Strigoniu (Romanian), Solva / Strigonium (Latin)
Eupatoria Kezlev (Crimean Tatar), Yvpatoriya - Євпаторія (Ukrainian), Yevpatoriya - Евпатория (Russian), Eupatoria (Polish, Romanian) , Ευπατορία (Greek)
Eupen Eupen (German, French, Dutch), Néau (French, archaïc), Neyow (Walloon), Naowe / Naouwe (Walloon, medieval spellings)

F[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Flensburg Flensborg (Danish, Low Saxon), Flensburg (German, Romanian, Swedish)
Florence Firenca (Croatian, Serbian), Firence (Slovene), Firenze (Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Italian), Flórans (Irish), Floransa (Turkish), Florença (Portuguese), Florència (Catalan), Florencia (Slovak, Spanish), Florencie (Czech), Florencija (Lithuanian), Florencja (Polish), Florens (Swedish), Florenţa (Romanian), Florenz (German), Florence (French, Latvian), Florance (Walloon), Florentía - Φλωρεντία (Greek)
Flushing Flesinga (Spanish), Flessinga (Italian), Flessingue (French), Vlissingen (Dutch)
Fort Augustus Cille Chumein (Scots Gaelic)
Frankfurt am Main 法蘭克福 (Chinese), Francfort (Catalan), Fráncfort del Meno (Spanish), Francfort-sur-le-Main (French), Francoforte sobre o Meno (Portuguese), Francoforte sul Meno (Italian), Frankfort aan de Main (Dutch, Limburgish), Frankfurt am Main (German), Frankfurt na Majni (Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, Serbian, Slovene), ('Main Kıyısında ki) Frankfurt (Turkish), Frankfurt nad Menem (Polish), Frankfurt nad Mohanem (Czech), Frankfurt nad Mohanom (Slovak), Frankfurt pe Main (Romanian), Frankfurte pie Mainas (Latvian), Frankfurtas prie Maino (Lithuanian), Frankfúrti - Φρανκφούρτη (επί του Μάιν) (Greek), Majnafrankfurt (former Hungarian), Frankfurt al Mayn - פרנקפורט על מיין (Hebrew)
Frankfurt (Oder) Fráncfort del Oder (Spanish), Francfort-sur-l'Oder (French), Francoforte sobre o Óder (Portuguese), Francoforte sull'Oder (Italian), Frankfurt (Oder) (German), Frankfurtas prie Oderio (Lithuanian), Frankfurt nad Odrą (Polish), Frankfurt nad Odrou (Slovak, Czech), (Oder Kıyısında ki) Frankfurt (Turkish), Frankfurt na Odri (Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, Serbian, Slovene), Frankfurt pe Oder (Romanian), Frankfurte pie Oderas (Latvian), Oderafrankfurt (older Hungarian), Φρανκφούρτη (επί του Οδέρου) (Greek)
Freiburg Frajburg (Serbian), Freiburg im Breisgau (German), Freiburga (Latvian), Fribourg-en-Brisgovie (French), Friburgo di Brisgovia (Italian), Fryburg (Polish)
Freising Brižinje/Brižine (Slovene), Freising (German), Frisinga (Italian, Spanish), Frisingue (French)
Fribourg Freiburg im Üechtland (German), Fribourg (French, Finnish), Friburg (Catalan, Romansh), Friborgo (Italian), Friburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Fryburg (Polish)
Frombork Frauenburg (German), Frombork (Polish)

G[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Gallipoli Galipolis (Lithuanian), Galipolje (Croatian, Serbian), Gallipoli (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Romanian), Gelibolu (Turkish), Kalípolis - Καλλίπολις (Greek), Galipoli - גליפולי (Hebrew)
Galway Gaillimh (Irish), Galvia (Latin)
Gdańsk Gdańsk (Polish, Dutch), Gyddanyzc (Pommeranian, mentioned in 997 AD), Gduńsk (Kashubian), Gedania/Dantiscum (Latin), Danzig (German, older Turkish), Dancig (older Hungarian), Danţig (older Romanian), Dants - דאַנץ (Yiddish), Dantsic (older English), Dantzig (Afrikaans, former Dutch), Danzica (Italian), Gdaňsk (Czech), Gdansk (Finnish, Romanian, Turkish), Gdanjsk (Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, Serbian), Gdaņska (Latvian), Gdanskas (Lithuanian), Gydanysg (Cymraeg), Gdansk - גדנסק (Hebrew), Гданьск (Russian), Гдањск (Serbian, Macedonian), Γδανσκ (Greek)
Gdynia Gdynia (Polish, Finnish, Romanian), Gdiniô (Kashubian/Pomeranian), Gdiņa (Latvian), Gdingen (former Dutch, German), Gdyně (Czech), Gdynė (Lithuanian), Gotenhafen (German 1939-1945) , Γδύνια (Greek)
Geneva 日內瓦 (Chinese), Cenevre (Turkish), Djeneve (Walloon), Genebra (Portuguese), Geneva (Romanian), Geneve / Genève (Afrikaans, Armenian, Dutch, Finnish, Swedish), Geneve (Finnish), Genève (French), Genevra (Romansh), Genewa (Polish), Genf (Estonian, German, Hungarian), An Ghinéiv (Irish), Ginebra (Catalan, Spanish), Ginevra (Italian), Jenewa (Bahasa Indonesia), Jinīf (Arabic), Yenévi - Γενεύη (Greek), Ženeva (Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Lithuanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian), Ženēva (Latvian), Zjenaef (Limburgish), Zhenevë (Albanian), Jeneva - ז'נבה (Hebrew)
Genoa Cenova (Turkish), Đenova (Serbian), Dženova (Latvian), Gênes (French), Gènova (Catalan), Genova (Finnish, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Slovene), Génova / Gênova (Portuguese), Génova (Spanish), Genua (Dutch, German, Latin, Polish, Swedish), Genuja (Lithuanian), Gjenova (Albanian), Janov (Czech, Slovak), Yénova - Γένοβα- Γένουα (Greek), Zena (Genoese),
Ghent Gand (French, Portuguese), Gandawa (Polish), Gante (Spanish), Gaunt (older English), Gent (Afrikaans, Bahasa Indonesia, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish), Ģente (Latvian), Guanto (old Italian) , Γάνδη (Greek), Гент (Belarusian, Russian), Gandava (Latin) [1], Chent - חנט (Hebrew)
Gibraltar 直布羅陀 (Chinese),Cebelitarık (Turkish), Gibilterra (Italian), Gibraltar (Dutch, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Polish), Gibraltaras (Lithuanian), Gibraltārs (Latvian), Jabal-Tarīq (Arabic), Γιβραλτάρ΄ (Greek), Gibraltar - גיברלטר (Hebrew)
Girona Gerona (Romanian, Spanish), Gérone (French), Girona (Catalan, Finnish, Portuguese)
Gjirokastër Gjirokastër / Gjirokastra (Albanian), Argirocastro (Italian), Aryirókastro - Αργυρόκαστρο (Greek), Ergiri (Turkish)
Glarus Glaris (French), Glarona (Italian), Glaruna (Romansh), Glarus (German)
Glastonbury Glaistimbir / Glaistimbir na nGael / Gloineistir (Irish)
Glasgow Glaschú (Irish), Glaschu (Scots Gaelic), Glāzgova (Latvian) Γλασκώβη (Greek), Glazgo - גלזגו (Hebrew)
Gliwice Gliwice (Polish), Gleiwitz (German)
Gloucester 告羅士打 (Chinese), Glevum (Latin) Caerloyw (Welsh)
Głogów Głogów (Polish), Glogau (German), Glogov (Serbian), Glogova (Lithuanian), Glogovia (Latin), Hlohov (Czech)
Gmünd Cmunt (Czech), Gmünd (German)
Gorizia Gorica (Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin, Romanian, Slovene, Serbian), Gorizia (Finnish, French, Italian), Görz (German), Gurize (Friulian)
Görlitz Görlitz (Afrikaans, Dutch, Finnish, German, Romanian), Zgorzelec (Polish), Zhořelec (Czech), Zhorjelc (Upper Sorbian)
Gothenburg Gautaborg (Icelandic), Gēteborga (Latvian), Gioteburgas (Lithuanian), Göteborg (Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Polish, Romanian, Swedish), Gøteborg (Norwegian), Göteburg (Turkish), Gotemburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Gotenburg (Afrikaans, Dutch, former German, former Polish), Gothembourg (former French)
Göttingen  哥廷根 (Chinese), Getynga (Polish), Göttingen (Turkish), Getynky (Czech), Gœttingue (French), Gotinga (Spanish, Portuguese), Gottinga (Italian), Göttinga (medieval Hungarian) , Γοττίγγη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Gramzow Grębowo (Polish),Gramzow (German)
Granada al-Ġarnāda (Arabic), Granada (Catalan, Dutch, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish), Grenade (French) , Γρανάδα΄ (Greek)
Graz Grác (Serbian), Grāca (Latvian), Gradec (Slovene), Gratz (French), Graz (Dutch, German, Hungarian, Romanian, Turkish), Grodziec (Polish), Štýrský Hradec (Czech)
Greifswald Greifswald (Afrikaans, Dutch, French, German), Gryfia (Polish, Pommeranian)
Grenoble Grasanòbol (Occitan), Grenoble (Dutch, French, Italian, Romanian)
Groningen Greuninge (Limburgish), Grins (Frisian), Groninga (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Groningen (Afrikaans, Dutch, German, Romanian), Groningue (French), Grönnen / Grunnen / Grunn'n (Gronings), Groot Loug or Stad (local nicknames)
Grozny Caharkala or Caharkale (alternative Turkish names), Djovkhar Ghaala (Chechen), Džochargala (alternative Lithuanian name), Groznas (Lithuanian), Groznîi (Romanian), Groznija (Latvian), Groznyj - Грозный (Russian), Grozni (Turkish), Grozny (Polish)
Grudziądz Grudziądz (Polish), Graudenz (German),
Günzburg Günzburg (German), Gunzburgo (Spanish)
Gusev Gąbin (Polish), Gumbinė (Lithuanian), Gumbinnen (German), Gusev - Гусев (Russian)
Győr Győr (Hungarian), Raab (German), Ráb (Czech)

H[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Haderslev Hadersleben (German), Haderslev (Danish)
Hamburg 漢堡 (Chinese), Amburgo (Italian), Amvúrgho - Αμβούργο (Greek), Gamburg - Гамбург (Russian), Hamborg (Danish, Low Saxon), Hambourg (French), Hambūrġ (Arabic), Hamburg (Afrikaans, Catalan, Croatian, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Hamburga (Latvian), Hamburgas (Lithuanian), Hamburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Hamburk (Czech), Hampuri (Finnish)
Hämeenlinna Hämeenlinna (Estonian, Finnish), Tavastehus (Swedish)
Hamelin Hamelen (Dutch), Hamelin (French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian), Hamelín (Spanish), Hameln (German, Finnish)
Hanau Hanau (German, Romanian), Hanava (Czech)
Hanover 漢諾威 (Chinese), Anóvero - Αννόβερο (Greek), Ganover - Гановер (Russian), Hannover (Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Italian, Swedish, Turkish)), Hanôver (Portuguese), Hanóver (Spanish), Hanovera (Latvian), Hanoveris (Lithuanian), Hanovra (Romanian), Hanovre (French), Hanower (Polish), Hanôve (Walloon)
Hasselt Hasselt (Dutch, French, Limburgish, Romanian), Hasse / Hasque / Hassèl (Walloon),
Heerlen Heerlen (Dutch), Coriovallum (Latin), Heële (local Limburgish)
Heligoland Helgoland (German, Polish, Romanian, Turkish), Heligolândia (Portuguese), Dät Luun (North Frisian)
Helsinki Elsínki - Ελσίνκι (Greek), Helsingfors (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish), Helsingforsia (former Latin name), Helsingi (Estonian), Helsingia (Latin), Hel'sinki (Russian, Ukrainian), Helsinki (Finnish, German, Italian, Latvian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Turkish), Helsinkis (Lithuanian), Helsinky (Czech), Helsinque (Brazilian Portuguese), Helsínquia (Portuguese), Chielsynki - Хельсынкі (Belarusian) Helsset (North Sami), Helzinki - Хелзинки (Bulgarian), Hilsīnkī (Arabic), Herushinki - ヘルシンキ (Japanese), Helsingk'i - 헬싱키 (Korean), Stadi and Hesa (Slangi)
Heraklion Càndia (Catalan), Candia (Italian, Spanish), Cândia/Heráclion (Portuguese), Candie (old French), Héraklion (French), Iraklio - Ηράκλειο (Greek), Iraklion (Finnish, Polish, Serbian, Romanian), Kandiye (Turkish)
's Hertogenbosch 's Hertogenbosch (Dutch, German) and Den Bosch (Dutch), Bois-le-Duc (French), Boscoducale (Italian), De Bos(j) (Limburgish)
Homyel' Homiel = Гомель (Belarusian), Gomel' (Russian), Homl - האָמל (Yiddish), Homel (Polish), Homiel (Romanian)
Hoyerswerda Hoyerswerda (German), Wojerecy (Sorbian)
Hrodna Harodnia - Гародня (original Belarusian), Gardinas (Lithuanian), Grodņa (Latvian), Grodno (Finnish, Polish, Romanian, Russian), Grodne - גראָדנע (Yiddish), Гродно/Hrodno (Ukrainian)
Hum Hum (Croatian, Romanian, Serbian), Colmo (Italian)
Huy Huy (French), Hoei (Dutch), Hu (Walloon)

I[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Iaşi Iaşi (Romanian), Iasio - Ιάσιο (Greek), Iassy (former French), Jászvásár (old Hungarian), Jassy (German, Polish, former English), Yaş (Turkish)
Iglesias Iglesias (Italian, Romanian, Spanish), Igresias (Sardinian), Villa di Chiesa (former Italian), Is Cresias (former Sardinian), Esglesies or Iglesies (Catalan)
Iisalmi Iisalmi (Finnish), Idensalmi (Swedish)
Iraklion See Heraklion
Innsbruck Innsbruck (Finnish, German, Romanian), Inomost (Old Slovene), Innomostí / Inšpruk (Czech), Insbruka (Latvian), Insbrukas (Lithuanian), Insbruque (Portuguese), Inzbruk (Serbian)
Ioannina Giannina (Italian), Ianina (Aromanian, Romanian), Ioannina (Finnish), Ioánnina - Ιωάννινα (Greek), Janinë / Janina (Albanian, Czech), Yánena - Γιάννενα/Yánina - Γιάννινα (Greek variants), Yanya (Turkish)
Istanbul 依斯坦堡 or 依斯坦布爾 (Chinese), Bolis (Armenian), Estambul (Spanish), Istambul (Croatian, Italian, Portuguese), Istanboel (Dutch), Istanbūl (Arabic), Istanbuł / Stambuł (Polish), Istanbul (French, Romanian, Serbian, Slovenian), İstanbul (Turkish), Isztambul (Hungarian), Κωνσταντινούπολις / Konstantinúpolis Η Πόλη/I Poli (i.e. The City) (Greek), Mikligarður (Icelandic), Stamboll (Albanian), Stambul (Russian, Ukrainian), Stambula (Latvian), Stambulas (Lithuanian)


Former names: Caergystennin (Welsh), Bizancio / Constantinopla (Spanish), Constantinoble (Catalan), Bizánc / Konstantinápoly (Hungarian), Bizanc / Carigrad / Konstantinopel (Slovene), Bizâncio / Constantinopla (Portuguese), Bizancjum / Carogród / Konstantynopol (Polish), Bizant / Carigrad / Konstantinopolj (Croatian, Serbian), Bizanţ / Constantinopol(e) / Stambul / Ţarigrad (Romanian), Bisanzio / Costantinopoli (Italian), Bysants / Konstantinopel (Norwegian), , Byzance / Constantinople / Stamboul(French), Byzantium / Constantinople (English), Byzantium / Constantinopolis (Latin), Carigrad (Croatian, Serbian), Konstantinobolis (Armenian), Cařihrad / Konstantinopol (Czech), Carihrad / Konštantínopol (Slovak), Constantinopel (Dutch), Konstantinopel (German, Swedish), Konstantínópel (Icelandic), Konstantinopoli (Finnish), Mikligarðr (Old Norse), Mikligarður (Modern Icelandic),Miklagord - ( Old Swedish), Qushta - קושטא (Hebrew), Tsarigrad (Russian), Vizántion / Konstantinoupoli - Βυζάντιον / Κωνσταντινούπολη (Greek); Konstantiniye, Asitane, Dersaadet, Payitaht (some of the official Ottoman Turkish names used), Estambul, Konstantinopyla, Koshta, Koshtandina, Kospoli, Kostan (other variants during Ottoman period)

Ivangorod Ивангород (Russian), Jaanilinn (Estonian)
Ivano-Frankivsk Івано-Франківськ/Ivano-Frankivs'k (Ukrainian), Ивано-Франковск/Ivano-Frankovsk (Russian), Iwano-Frankowsk (Polish), İvano-Frankovsk (Turkish), Ivano-Frankovskas (Lithuanian), Iwano-Frankiwsk (German), Stanislau (former German), Станиславов/Stanislavov (former Russian), Stanislavovas (former Lithuanian), סטאַניסלעװ/Stanislev (Yiddish), Stanisławów (former Polish), Станиславів/Stanyslaviv (former Ukrainian)
Inverness Inbhir Nis (Gaelic), Inbhear Nis (Irish)

J[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Jablonec nad Nisou Gablonz (German), Jablonec nad Nysą (Polish)
Jakobstad Jakobstad (Swedish), Pietarsaari (Estonian, Finnish)
Jarosław Jaroslau (German), Jarosław (Polish), Yareslev - יאַרעסלעװ (Yiddish), Yaroslav (Russian)
Jelgava Mitau (German), лгава / Митава (Russian), Mitawa (Polish)
Jena Iéna (French), Iena (Romanian), Jena (German) , Ιένα (Greek)
Jihlava Iglau (German), Jihlava (Czech)
Jurbarkas Jurbarkas (Lithuanian), Georgenburg (German), Yurburg (Yiddish)

K[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Kajaani Kajaani (Finnish), Kajana (Swedish)
Kaliningrad Kaliningrad - Калининград (Finnish, Romanian, Russian, Swedish, Turkish), Kaliningrad / Królewiec (Polish), Kaļiņingrada (Latvian), Kalininhrad - Калінінград (Belarusian, Ukrainian), Karalaviec - Каралявец (Belarusian), Kaliningrado (Spanish, Portuguese), Kalinjingrad (Croatian, Serbian), Kaljinjingrad - Каљињинград (Serbian), Karaliaučius (Lithuanian), Kalinyingrád (Hungarian), Καλίνινγκραντ (Greek), Kalíngrad (Icelandic)

before 1946: Kenigsberg קעניגסבערג (Yiddish), Keunigsbarg (Low Saxon), Koningsbergen (Dutch), Königsberg (German, Hungarian), Konigsberga (Portuguese), Královec (Czech), Królewiec (Polish), Καινιξβέργη (Greek), Regiomontium (Latin)

Kamenz Kamenz (German), Kamjenc (Upper Sorbian)
Kamianets-Podilskyi Camenecium (Latin), Cameniţa (Romanian), Kamenets קאַמענעץ (Yiddish), Kamenets-Podol'skiy - Каменец-Подольский (Russian), Kamieniec Podolski (Polish), Kam"yanets'-Podil's'kyy - Кам’янець-Подільський (Ukrainian)
Kandalaksha Kandalaksha - Кандалакша (Russian), Kannanlahti / Kantalahti (Finnish)
Kartuzy Kartuzy (Polish), Karthaus (German), Cartusia (Latin)
Katowice Katowice (Polish, Hungarian), Katovicai (Lithuanian), Katovice (Czech, Latvian, Romanian, Serbian), Katoviçe (Turkish), Kattowitz (German); Stalinogród (Polish 1953-1956)
Kaunas Kauen (German), Kauņa (Latvian), Kaunas (Finnish, Lithuanian, Romanian, Serbian, Swedish, Turkish), Koŭna - Коўна (Belarusian), Kovne - קאָװנע (Yiddish), Kovno (Czech), Kovno - Ковно (Russian), Kowno (Polish)
Kayseri Caesarea (Latin), Kayseri (Turkish)
Kazan Casan (Latin), Kasan (German), Kazan (Turkish), Kazań (Polish), Kazaņa (Latvian), Qazan (Tatar)
Kem Kem' - Кемь (Russian), Kemi or Vienan Kemi (Finnish)
Kemi Giepma (Northern Sami)
Kerch Kerç (Crimean Tatar, Turkish), Kerch - Керч (Ukrainian), Kerch - Керчь (Russian), Kercz (Polish), Kerci (Romanian), Kertš (Finnish), Krč (older Croatian)
Kętrzyn Kętrzyn (Polish), Rastenburg (German)
Kharkiv Charkov (Czech, Slovak), Charkovas (Lithuanian), Charków (Polish), Harkov (Romanian, Serbian), Harkova (Finnish, Latvian), Hárkovo - Χάρκοβο (Greek), Karkov (Turkish), Kharkiv - Харків (Ukrainian), Khar'kov - Харьков (Russian)
Kiel Kiel (Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Low Saxon, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Ķīle (Latvian), Kilonia (Polish), Kylis (Lithuanian), Quília (Portuguese), Κίελο (Greek)
Kielce Kielce (Polish), Kelts - קעלץ (Yiddish), Kel'tsy - Кельцы (Russian)
Kiev Kænugarður (Icelandic), Kiëv (Dutch), Kiev (Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish) Kiev - קיִעװ (Yiddish), Kijeŭ - Кіеў (Belarusian), Kíevo - Κίεβο (Greek), Kiew (German), Kiiev (Estonian), Kijev (Croatian, Hungarian, Serbian, Slovene), Kijeva (Latvian), Kijevas (Lithuanian), Kijów (Polish), Kiova (Finnish), Kiyev - Киев (Russian), Kīyif (Arabic), Kyjev (Czech, Slovak); Kyyiv - Київ (Ukrainian, transliteration with double-"y" is controversial), Kyiv - Київ (Ukrainian, transliteration with single-"y" is controversial), Qiyev - קייב (Hebrew), Chiu ([very] old Romanian)
Kırklareli Kırkkilise (former/Ottoman Turkish), Kırklareli (Turkish), Lozengrad (Bulgarian), Saranta Ekklisyes (Greek)
Kirovohrad Kirovgrado (Portuguese, Spanish); Yelizavetgrad (former name)
Kilkenny Cill Chainnigh (Irish)
Kiruna Giron (Sami), Kiiruna (Finnish), Kiruna (Swedish)
Klagenfurt Celovec (Czech, Slovene), Klagenfurt (German, Romanian), Želanec (alternative Czech name)
Klaipėda Klaipėda (Lithuanian), Klaipeda (Estonian, Finnish, Romanian), Klaipēda (Latvian), Klajpeda (Belarusian), Kłajpeda (Polish), Meemel (former Estonian), Memel (German), Mēmele (former Latvian)
Kobarid Caporetto (Italian, Romanian), Kobarid (Slovene), Cjaurêt (Friulian)
Kolkwitz Gołkojce (Lower Sorbian), Kolkwitz (Niederlausitz) (German)
Kolomyya Colomeea (Romanian), Kilemey - קילעמײ (Yiddish), Kolomea (German), Kołomyja (Polish), Kolomyya - Коломия (Ukrainian)
Komárno Komárom (Hungarian), Komárno (Slovakian)
Komotini Gümülcine (Turkish), Komotini - Κομοτηνή (Greek)
Kondopoga Kondopoga - Кондопога (Russian), Kontupohja (Finnish)
Konstanz Constance (French, variant in English), Constança/Constância (Portuguese), Constanţa (Romanian), Costanza (Italian), Konstanca (Serbian), Konstancja/Konstanca (Polish), Kostnice (Czech), Konstántza - Κωνστάντζα/Κωνσταντία (Greek)
Konya Iconium (Latin), Ikkuninuwa (Hittite), Ikonion (Greek), Konya (Turkish)
Köpenick Köpenick (German), Kopník (Czech)
Koper Capodistria (Italian), Kopar (Croatian, Serbian), Koper (Slovene, Polish), Cjaudistre (Friulian)
Korçë Corizza (Italian), Korçë / Korça (Albanian), Koritsa - Κορυτσά (Greek)
Kortrijk Kortrijk (Dutch), Kortryk (Afrikaans) Courtrai (French, Romanian), Kortriek (Limburgish)
Košice Cassovia (Latin), Kaschau (German), Kasha (Romany), Kassa (Hungarian), Košice (Romanian, Serbian, Slovak), Koshytsi - (old Ukrainian) Koszyce (Polish), Caşovia (old Romanian)
Kosovo Polje Fushë Kosova (Albanian), Amselfeld (German), Câmpia Mierlei (Romanian), Champ des merles (French), Kosovo Polje (Serbian), Kosowe Pole (Polish), Kosifopédhio - Κοσσυφοπέδιο (Greek), Merelveld (Afrikaans, Dutch), Rigómező (Hungarian)
Kotor Cattaro (Italian), Kotor (Croatian, Serbian)
Kovel Kovel' - Ковель (Russian, Ukrainian), Kowel (Polish), Kovl - קאָװל (Yiddish)
Kraków Kraków (Polish, Swedish), Krakow and Kraków, formerly also Cracow (English variants), Cracovia (Italian, Romanian, Spanish), Cracóvia (Portuguese), Cracovie (French), Kroke - קראָקע (Yiddish), Kraká (Icelandic), Krakau (Dutch, German), Краків/Krakiv (Ukrainian), Krakkó (Hungarian), Krakov (Croatian, Czech, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish), Krakova (Latvian, Finnish), Krakovía - Κρακοβία (Greek), Krakovo (Esperanto), Krākūf (Arabic), Krokuva (Lithuanian), Krakaŭ - Кракаў (Belarusian)
Krems Krems (German, Romanian), Kremže / Křemže (Czech)
Kristianstad Kristianstad (Swedish), Kristianstadas (Lithuanian)
Kristinestad Christinae Stadh (former Swedish), Kristiinankaupunki (Finnish), Kristinestad (Swedish), Kristingrad - Кристинград (Serbian), Krinstianstad (Polish)
Krnov Carnovia (Latin), Jägerndorf (German), Karniów (former Polish), Krnov (Czech), Krnów (Polish)
Kudowa Zdrój Chudoba (Czech), Kudowa-Zdrój (Polish)
Kuopio Kuopio (Finnish, Swedish)
Kuressaare Arensburg (former German and Swedish)
Kwidzyn Kwidzyn (Polish), Marienwerder (German)
Kyle of Lochalsh Caol Loch Ailse (Scots Gaelic)

L[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Labin Albona (Italian), Labin (Croatian, Serban)
Lahti Lahti (Estonian, Finnish, Romanian, Slovene), Lahtis (Swedish)
Lakhva Лахва (Belarusian), Łachwa (Polish), Лахва (Russian), לחווא (Hebrew), לאַכװע (Yiddish)
Lappeenranta Lappeenranta (Estonian, Finnish), Villmanstrand (Swedish)
Lausanne Lausanne (French, Finnish, Romanian, Swedish), Lausana (Spanish, Portuguese), Losanna (Italian), Lozan (Armenian, Turkish), Lozana (Serbian), Lozáni - Λωζάννη (Greek), Lozanna (Latvian, Polish), Luzana (Slovene)
Leeuwarden Leeuwarden (Dutch, Finnish), Ljouwert (Frisian), Liwwarden (Town Frisian), Liewarde (Limburgish)
Leghorn Liorna (Spanish), Livorno (Italian, Finnish, German, Portuguese, Romanian), Livourne (French),Λιβόρνο (Greek)
Leicester لستر (Persian), Caerlyr (Welsh), Ratae (Latin), Leicestria (Church Latin)
Leiden Leida (Italian, Portuguese, Romanian), Leiden (Dutch, Slovene), Lejda (Polish), Leyde (French), Leyden (variant in English)
Leipzig 萊比錫 (Chinese), Lajpcig (Serbian), Lajpcyg - Ляйбцыґ (Belarusian), Leipciga (Latvian), Leipcigas (Lithuanian), Leipsic (older English), Leipzig (Finnish, French, German, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Lipcse (Hungarian), Lipsca (old Romanian), Lipsía - Λειψία (Greek), Lipsia (Italian), Lípsia (Portuguese), Lipsk (Lower Sorbian, Polish), Lipsko (Czech, Slovak)
Lębork Lauenburg (German), Lębork (Polish)
Leuven Leuven (Afrikaans, Dutch, Finnish), Louvain (French, Romanian), Lováin (Irish), Lovaina (Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish), Lovaň (Czech), Lovanio (Italian), Löwen (German), Lovin (Walloon), Léiwen (Luxembourgish)
Lezhë Lezhë / Lezha (Albanian), Alessio (Italian)
Liège Liège (French, Hungarian, Swedish), Lîdje / Lîdge (Walloon), Léck (Luxembourgish), Leodium (Latin), L'ež - Льеж (Russian), Лиеж (Bulgarian), Liege (Finnish, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Liége (former French, Portuguese), Liegi (Italian), Lieĝo (Esperanto), Lieja (Catalan, Spanish), Liéyi - Λιέγη (Greek), Liež (Bulgarian, Serbian), Lježa (Latvian), Luik (Dutch), Lutych (Czech), Lüttich (German), Luuk (Luik) (Limburgish), ولييج (Arabic), 列日 (Chinese), ליאז' (Hebrew), リエージュ (Japanese)
Liepāja Libau (German), Liepoja (Lithuanian), Libava (former Russian), Libave - ליבאַװע (Yiddish), Liepaja (Estonian, Finnish, Romanian), Liepāja (Latvian), Liibavi (former Estonian), Lipawa (Polish), Liyepaya (Russian)
Lier Lier (Dutch), Lierre (French)
Lille Lille (French, Finnish, Latvian, Portuguese, Romanian), Rijsel (Flemish Dutch), Rijssel (Dutch), Rijk (Flemish dialect), Lil (Serbian), Lilla (Catalan, Italian),
Limoges Lemòtges (Occitan), Limož (Serbian)
Limassol Lemesos - Λεμεσός (Greek), Leymosun (obsolete Turkish), Limasol (Turkish)
Limerick Limeriko (Esperanto), Luimneach (Irish)
Linköping Lincopia (Latin), Linköping (Danish, Finnish, Swedish)
Linz Lentia (Latin), Linca (Latvian), Linec (Czech), Linz (German, Finnish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene)
Lisbon 里斯本 (Chinese), ليسبون (Persian), Liospóin (Irish), Lisabon (Croatian, Czech, Serbian, Slovak), Lisabona (Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian), Lisboa (Portuguese, Spanish), Lisbona (Italian), Lisbonne (French), Lisbono (Esperanto), Lišbūna (Arabic), Lissabon (Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Russian, Swedish), Lissavóna - Λισσαβώνα (Greek), Lisszabon (Hungarian), Lizbon (Armenian, Turkish), Lizbona (Polish, Slovene), Ushbune (old Arabian)
Liverpool 利物浦 (Chinese), ليورپول (Persian), Learpholl (Irish), Lerpwl (Welsh), Liverpūle (Latvian), Liverpulis (Lithuanian), Liverpulo (Esperanto), Llynlleifiad (former Welsh)
Livorno Liorna (Catalan), Livorno or Leghorn (English), Livourne (French)
Ljubljana Laibach (German), Liubliana (Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish), Liublijana (Lithuanian), Liyūbliyānā (Arabic), Ljubljana (Croatian, Finnish, French, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish), Lubiana (Italian), Lubjanë (Albanian), Lublaň (Czech), Ļubļana (Latvian), Lublana (Polish), Ľubľana (Slovak), Lubliyana (Turkish), Loubliána - Λουμπλιάνα (Greek), Ljubljana - Люблянa (Russian),
Lleida Lerida (Italian, Romanian), Lérida (French, Portuguese, Spanish), Lleida (Catalan, Finnish)
Löbau Löbau (German), Lubij (Upper Sorbian), Lubiniec (Polish)
London 倫敦 (Chinese), Landan (Arabic), لندن (Persian, Urdu), Llundain (Welsh), Londain (Irish), Londan - Лёндан (Belarusian), Londe (Limburgish), Londen (Afrikaans, Dutch), Londhíno - Λονδίνο (Greek), Londinium (Latin), Londona (Latvian), Londonas (Lithuanian), Londono (Esperanto), Londra (Albanian, Italian, Romanian, Turkish), Londres (Catalan, French, Portuguese, Spanish), Londrez (Breton), Londyn (Polish), Londýn (Czech, Slovak), Lontoo (Finnish), Loundres (Cornish), Lundenwic (Anglo-Saxon), Lundúnir (Icelandic), Lunnainn (Scots Gaelic), Reondeon - 런던 (Korean), Rondon - ロンドン (Japanese)
Londonderry Derio (Esperanto), Derry (almost universally used in English in Republic of Ireland; disputed usage in Northern Ireland), Doire/Doire Cholm Cille (Irish), Lunnonderry (Scots)
Longwy Longwy (French), Langich (German), Lonkech or Lonkesch (Luxembourgish)
Lourdes Lorda (Catalan, Occitan), Lourde (Provençal), Lourdes (French, Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian), Lurdy (Czech) , Λούρδη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Lübben Lübben (German), Lubin (Lower Sorbian, Polish)
Lübbenau Lübbenau (German), Lubnjow (Lower Sorbian)
Lübeck Libek (Serbian), Lībeka (Latvian), Liubekas (Lithuanian), Lubecca (Italian), Lübeck (French, German, Low Saxon, Romanian, Swedish), Lubek (Czech), Lubeka (Polish), Lubeque (Portuguese), Lüübek (Estonian), Lyypekki (Finnish) , Λυβέκη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Lublin Lublino (Italian), Liublinas (Lithuanian), Люблин (Russian), ルブリン (Japanese), לובלין (Hebrew)
Lucca Luca (Portuguese), Lucca (Italian, Romanian), Lucques (French), Lukka (Polish)
Lucerne Liucerna (Lithuanian), Lucern (Czech, Serbian, Slovene), Lucerna (Italian, Latvian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Spanish), Lucerne (French), Lukérni - Λουκέρνη (Greek), Luzern (Afrikaans, Dutch, Finnish, German, Serbian, Swedish, Turkish), Luzerna (Catalan)
Luleå Luleå (Swedish), Lulėja (Lithuanian), Luleo (Latvian, Serbian), Luulaja (Finnish)
Lund Lund (Danish, Swedish), Lunda (Latin, Latvian)
Lüneburg Lüneburch (Low Saxon), Lüneburg (German, Romanian), Luneburgo (Italian, Portuguese), Lunenburg (Dutch, variant in English)
Lutsk Luckas (Lithuanian), Luţk (Romanian), Lutsk / Luts’k / Луцьк (Ukrainian), Łuck (Polish),
Luxembourg  盧森堡 (Chinese), Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish), Liuksemburgas (Lithuanian), Ljuksemburg - Люксембург (Bulgarian, Russian), Ljuksemburh (Ukrainian), Lucemburk (Czech), Lucsamburg (Irish), Luksemboarch (Frisian), Luksemburg (Croatian, Macedonian, Polish, Serbian, Slovene), Lüksemburg (Turkish), Luksemburga (Latvian), Luksemburgio (Esperanto), Lussemburgo (Italian), Lussimbork (Walloon), Lützelburg (former German), Lúxemborg (Icelandic), Luxemborg / Luxembourg / Luxemburg (Danish), Luxembourg (Estonian, French, Hungarian [for the city]), Luxemburg (Afrikaans, Basque variant, Catalan, Dutch, English variant, Finnish, German, Hungarian [for the country], Romanian, Swedish), Luxemburgia (Latin variant), Luxemburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Luxemburgum (Latin), Luxembursko (Slovak), Luxemvúrgho - Λουξεμβούργο (Greek), Luxenburgo (Basque), Lwcsembwrg (Welsh), Luksemburg - Люксэмбурґ(Belarusian)
L'viv Ilyvó (old Hungarian), Lavov (Croatian, Serbian), Lemberg (German), Lemberg - לעמבערג (Yiddish), Léopol (French), Leopoli (Italian), Leopolis (Latin), Liov (Romanian), L'viv - Львів (Ukrainian), L'voŭ - Львоў (Belarusian), Lvov (Czech, Portuguese, Slovene), L'vov - Львов (Russian), Ľvov (Slovak), Ļvova (Latvian), Lvovas (Lithuanian), Lwów (Polish)
Lyon Lião (Portuguese), Lijonas (Lithuanian), Lió (Catalan), Lión - Λυών (Greek) , Λούγδουνον (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Liona (Latvian), Lione (Italian), Liono (Esperanto), Liyon (Serbian, Turkish), Lugdunum or Lugudunum (Latin), Lyon (Finnish, French, German, Romanian, Slovene), Lyón (Spanish), Lyons (traditional English name)

M[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Maastricht Mastriht (Serbian), Maastricht (Dutch, Finnish, French, Romanian), Maestricht (former French, Flemisch, Romanian variant), Mastrichtas (Lithuanian), Māstrihta (Latvian), Mastrique (Spanish), Mestreech (Limburgish), Traiectum ad Mosam or Traiectum superius (Latin), Måstrek / Li Trek (Walloon)
Madrid 馬德里 (Chinese), Madhríti - Μαδρίτη (Greek), Madorīdo - マドリード (Japanese), Madri (Brazilian Portuguese), Madrid (Finnish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Madridas (Lithuanian), Madride (Latvian), Madrido (Esperanto), Madryt (Polish), Maidrid (Irish), Mecrit (Arabic)
Mahilyow Mahiloŭ - Магілёў (Belarusian), Mogilev (Russian), Mogilew or Mohylew (Polish), Molev - מאָלעװ (Yiddish), Movilău (Romanian), Moghilău (Romanian variant), Mogiliovas (Lithuanian)
Mainz 美因茨(Chinese), Määnz (local dialect), Magonza (Italian), Maguncia (Spanish), Mainca (Latvian), Mainz (Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish), Majnc (Serbian), Mayence (French), Mogúncia (Portuguese), Moguncja (Polish), Moguntiacum (Latin), Mohuč (Czech, Slovak), Meenz (former local dialect), Maienţa (old Romanian), Maghentía - Μαγεντία (Greek, along with the modern name)
Malbork Malbork (Polish), Marienburg (German), Malborg (Romanian)
Malmö Malme (Latvian), Malmø (Danish), Malmö (Finnish, Swedish, Turkish), Malmogia (Latin)
Manchester 曼彻斯特 (Chinese), Manceinion (Welsh), Mančestera (Latvian), Manĉestro (Esperanto), Mančesteris (Lithuanian), Manchain (Irish), Manchéster (Portuguese), Mancunium (Latin) , Μαγχεστρία (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Mantua Mantoue (French), Mantova (Italian, Finnish, Czech, Romanian, Slovak), Mantua (Latin), Mântua (Portuguese)
Maribor Marburg (German), Marburgo (Portuguese), Maribor (Finnish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene), Morpurgo (old Italian)
Mariehamn Maarianhamina (Finnish), Mariehamn (Swedish)
Marktredwitz Marktredwitz (German), Ředvice (Czech)
Marseille Mareseļa (Latvian), Marseille (Finnish, French, Swedish), Marseilles (English variant), Marsel' - Марсель (Russian), Marselha (Portuguese), Marselis (Lithuanian), Marselj (Serbian), Marseljo (Esperanto), Marsella (Spanish), Marsiglia (Italian), Marsilha/Marselha (Occitan), Marsilia (Romanian), Marsīliyā (Arabic), Marsilya (Armenian, Turkish), Marsylia (Polish), Massalía - Μασσαλία (Greek), Massilia (Latin)
Mechelen Malinas (Spanish), Malines (Catalan, French, Romanian), Mechelen (Dutch, Finnish), Mecheln (German), Mechlin (older English name)
Meißen Meisene (Latvian), Meißen (German), Meissen (Romanian), Míšeň (Czech), Misnia (Italian), Miśnia (Polish)
Melk Medlík (Czech), Melk (German), Mölk (former German)
Messina Mesīna (Latvian), Mesíni - Μεσσίνη (Greek), Messina (Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish), Messine (French), Messyna / Mesyna (Polish), Missina (Sicilian)
Metz Divodurum (Latin), Meca (Latvian), Mec - Мец (Bulgarian, Serbian, Russian), Mety (Czech), Metz (Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian)
Międzybórz Mezbizh - מעזביזש (Yiddish), Międzybórz (Polish)
Miercurea-Ciuc Csíkszereda (Hungarian), Miercurea-Ciuc (Romanian), Szeklerburg (German)
Mikkeli Mikkeli (Finnish), Sankt Michel (Swedish)
Mikulov Mikulov (Czech), Nikolsburg (German)
Milan 米蘭 (Chinese), Mailand (German), Mediolan (Polish), Mediólana Μεδιόλανα (former Greek), Mediolānum (Latin), Milà (Catalan), Milaan (Dutch), Milan (French, Friulian), Milán (Czech, Spanish), Milāna (Latvian), Milano (Croatian, Esperanto, Finnish, Italian, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Miláno - Μιλάνο (Greek, Slovak), Milánó (Hungarian), Mīlānū (Arabic), Milão (Portuguese), Milanas (Lithuanian)
Minsk Minsk - Мінск or Miensk - Менск (Belarusian), Minsk - Минск (Russian, Serbian), Minsk - מינסק (Yiddish), Mińsk (Polish), Mins'k - Мінськ (Ukrainian), Minska (Latvian), Minsko (Esperanto), Minszk (Hungarian), Minskas (Lithuanian), Minsk (Finnish, Romanian, Turkish)
Miskolc Miskolc (Hungarian, Finnish), Miškolc (Serbian), Miškovec (Czech, Slovak), Miszkolc (Polish), Mişcolţ (Romanian)
Moineşti Moineşti (Romanian), Mojnest (Hungarian)
Modena Modène (French), Módena (Spanish), Mutina (Latin)
Monaco 摩納哥 (Chinese), Manaka - Манака (Belarusian), Monaco (Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Swedish, Welsh), Monacó (Irish), Mónaco (Portuguese, Spanish), Monakas (Lithuanian), Monako (Basque, Esperanto, Latvian, Polish, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish), Monakó - Μονακό (Greek), Mónakó (Icelandic), Monegue (Occitan), Monoecus (Latin), Munegu (Monegasque)
Mons Bergen (Dutch), Berĥeno (Esperanto), Mons (French, Romanian), Mont (Walloon), Berg (Limburgish)
Monschau Monschau (German), Montjoie (French)
Montbéliard Mömpelgard (German), Montbéliard (French, Romanian)
Moscow 莫斯科 (Chinese), Maskava (Latvian), Maskva (Lithuanian), Maskva - Масква (Belarusian), Mosca (Italian), Moscó (Irish), Moscou (French, Brazilian Portuguese), Moscova (Romanian), Moscou (Portuguese of Brazil), Moscovo (Portuguese of Europe), Moscú (Spanish), Mosekao (Hawaiian), Moskau (German), Móskha - Μόσχα (Greek), Moskou (Afrikaans, Dutch), Moskova (Finnish, Turkish), Moskva (Armenian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Hebrew, Norwegian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish, Ukrainian, Icelandic), Moskve - מאָסקװע (Yiddish), Moskvo (Esperanto), Moskwa (Bahasa Indonesia, Polish), Mosukuwa - モスクワ (Japanese), Moszkva (Hungarian), Mūskū (Arabic)
Mosonmagyaróvár Mosonmagyaróvár (Hungarian), Wieselburg-Ungarisch Altenburg (German)
Motovun Motovun (Croatian, Serbian), Montona (Italian)
Mścisłaŭ See Amścisłaŭ
Mukacheve Mucacevo (Romanian), Mukačevo (Czech, Slovak), Mukacheve - Мyкaчeвe (Ukrainian), Mukachevo - Мyкaчeвo (Russian, Serbian), Mukachiv - Мyкaчiв (Ruthenian), Mukaczewo (Polish), Minkatsh - מינקאַטש (Yiddish), Muncaci (Romanian variant), Munkács (Hungarian), Munkatsch (German)
Mulhouse Milhüse or Milhüsa (Alsatian), Mülhausen (German), Mulhouse (Finnish, French, Romanian), Mylhúzy (Czech), Miluza (Polish) , Μυλούζη (Greek)
Munich 慕尼黑 (Chinese), Minhen (Serbian), Minhene (Latvian), Minkhn - מינכן (Yiddish); Miunchenas (Lithuanian), Miyūnikh (Arabic), Мюнхен/Myunkhen (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian), Mnichov (Czech), Mníchov (Slovak), Monachium (Polish), Monaco di Baviera (Italian), Mónakho - Μόναχο (Greek), Monakovo (old Slovene), München (Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Romanian, Low Saxon, modern Slovene, Swedish), Munĥeno or Munkeno (Esperanto), Múnich (Spanish), Münih (Turkish), Munique (Portuguese), Mûnik (Walloon), Munikh (Armenian) Minga (Bavarian)
Münster Minstere (Latvian), Münster (German, Romanian, Turkish), Meuster (Walloon), Monastyr (Polish)
Murmansk Moermansk (Dutch), Mourmansk (French), Murmansaka (Latvian), Murmansk - Мурманск (Belarusian, Russian, Serbian), Murmansk (Finnish, Italian, Romanian), Murmańsk (Polish), Murmanskas (Lithuanian), Murmansko (Esperanto), Muurmanni or Muurmanski (former Finnish), Muurmansk or Murmansk (Finnish); Romanov-on-Murman (former name), Múrmansk (Icelandic)
Mykolaiv or Mykolayiv Nikolayev or Nikolaev - Никола́ев (Russian)

N[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Namur Namur (French, Romanian), Namen (Dutch), Nameur (Walloon)
Nancy Nancy (French, Romanian), Nanzig (German), Nanzeg (Luxembourgish)
Nantes An Naoned (Breton), Nantes (French), Naunnt (Gallo) , Νάντη (Greek)
Naoussa Naoussa - Νάουσα (Greek), Negush - Негуш (Macedonian, Bulgarian)
Naples Nābūlī (Arabic), Napels (Dutch), Naples (French), Nápoles (Portuguese, Spanish), Napoli (Italian, Finnish, Romanian, Turkish), Napolo (Esperanto), Nàpols (Catalan), Nápoly (Hungarian), Napulj (Croatian, Serbian), Neapel (German, Swedish), Neapelj (Slovene), Neapole (Latvian, old Romanian), Neapolis (Latin, Lithuanian), Neapol (Czech, Polish, Slovak), Neapol' (Russian, Ukrainian), Nápoli - Νάπολη (modern Greek), Neápolis - Νεάπολις (ancient Greek)
Narbonne Narbo or Narbo Martius (Latin), Narbona (Catalan, Italian, Occitan, Spanish), Narbonne (French, Romanian)
Navahradak Navahrudak - Навагрудак (Belarusian), Naugardukas (Lithuanian), Nowogródek (Polish), Novogrudok (Russian)
Neuchâtel Neuchâtel (French, Romanian), Neuenburg (German)
Newcastle upon Tyne 纽卡素 (Chinese), An Caisleán Nua (Irish), Nova Castra (Latin)
Newport (Monmouthshire) Casnewydd (Welsh)
Newport (Pembrokeshire) Trefdraeth (Welsh)
Nice 尼斯 (Chinese), Nica (Belarusian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Serbian), Niça (Catalan, Occitan), Nicaea (Latin), Nice (French, Swedish), Nicea (Polish), Níkea - Νίκαια (Greek), Nis (Turkish), Nisa (Romanian), Nissa (Occitan variant, Provençal), Niza (Spanish), Nizza (Italian, Finnish, German, Hungarian)
Nicosia Lefkoşe or Lefkoşa (Turkish), Lefkosía - Λευκωσία (Greek), Nicosia (Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish), Nicósia (Portuguese), Nicosie (French), Nikosia / Lefkosia (Finnish), Nikosia (German), Nikosija (Latvian, Russian, Ukrainian), Nikosio (Esperanto), Nikozija (Lithuanian, Serbian), Nikozja (Polish), Nīqūsiyā (Arabic)
Nieuweschans Neuschanz (German), Nieuweschans (Dutch)
Nijmegen Nijmegen (Dutch, Romanian), Nimega (Italian, Spanish), Nimègue (French), Nimwegen (German), Nîmegue (Walloon), Batavodurum, Noviomagum (Latin), Nimwege (local dialect, possible Limburgs), Nijmege (common Limburgs)
Nizhny Novgorod Nižni Noŭharad - Ніжні Ноўгарад (Belarusian), Nijni-Novgorod (French, Romanian, Turkish), Nischnij Nowgorod (German), Nizhni Novgorod (Finnish, Serbian), Nižnij Novgorod - Нижний Новгород (Russian), Nižný Novgorod (Slovak), Nowogród (Polish); Gorky (former name 1932-1990), Nižny Novgordas (Lithuanian), Ņižņnovgoroda (Latvian)
Novi Sad Neusatz (German), Novi Sad - Нови Сад (Serbian), Nový Sad (Slovak), Újvidék (Hungarian), Novi Sadas (Lithuanian), Novisada (Latvian), Novi Sad (Romanian), Nowy Sad (Polish)
Nowy Sącz Neu-Sandez (German), Nowy Sącz (Polish), Sandz - סאַנדז (Yiddish)
Nuoro Nuoro (Italian), Nugoro (Sardinian)
Nuremberg Neurenberg (Dutch), Niremvéryi - Νυρεμβέργη (Greek), Nirnberg (Serbian), Norimberg (Slovene), Norimberga (Italian), Norimberk (Czech), Nörnberg (Low Saxon), Norymberga (Polish), Núremberg (Spanish), Nuremberga (Portuguese), Nürnberg (Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Swedish, Norwegian, Turkish), Nürenberg (Romanian), Nirnberga (Latvian), Niurnbergas (Lithuanian), Näöreberg (Limburgish)

O[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Óbuda (now part of Budapest) Altofen (German), Óbuda (Hungarian), Starý Budín (Czech), Buda (Polish), Buda (Veche) (Romanian)
Odessa Ades - אַדעס (Yiddish), Hacıbey (obsolete Turkish), Одеса/Odesa (Ukrainian, Serbian), Odessa (Russian, Polish, Turkish variant), Odesa (Latvian, Romanian, Turkish), Odhissós - Οδησσός (Greek)
Ohrid Охрид (Macedonian, Bulgarian,Serbian), Ohrídha - Οχρίδα/Αχρίδα (Greek), Ohër (Albanian), Ochryda (Polish), Ohri (Turkish)

Older Graeco-Illyrian names include Dyassarites, Lychnidos, Lychnis, Ochrida, and Achrida

Olbia Olbia (Italian), Terranoa (Sardinian), Tarranoa (Corsican), Terranova Pausania (former Italian)
Oldenburg Oldemburgo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Oldenburg (German), Starogard (Polish, Serbian)
Olkusz Hilcus (Latin), Ilkenau (German 1942-45), Ilkusz (former Polish), Olkusch (German), Olkusz (Polish)
Olomouc Olmütz (German), Olomóc or Holomóc (Czech - Hanakian dialect), Olomouc (Czech), Olomuncium, Iuliomontium or Olomucii (Latin), Ołomuniec (Polish)
Olsztyn Allenstein (German), Olsztyn (Polish), Olštinas (Lithuanian), Ольштын (Russian)
Oneşti Oneşti (Romania), Onyest (Hungarian)
Opatija Abbazia (Italian), Opatija (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian, Slovene), Sankt Jakobi (German)
Opava Opava (Czech), Opavia (Latin), Opawa (Polish), Troppau (German)
Opole Opole (Polish), Opolí (Czech), Oppeln (German)
Oradea Gran Varadino (Italian), Großwardein (German), Magno-Varadinum (Latin variant), Nagyvárad (Hungarian), Oradea (Romanian, Polish), Oradea-Mare (former Romanian), Varadinum (Latin), Varat (Turkish)
Oranienburg Bocov (Czech), Bötzow (former German), Oranienburg (German)
Oristano Oristano (Italian), Aristanis (Sardinian), Oristany (Catalan), Oristan (Spanish)
Osijek Eszék (Hungarian), Esseg (former German), Mursa (Latin), Osijek (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Romanian, Swedish), Osijekas (Lithuanian), Осијек (Serbian), โอซีเยค (Thai), Osiek (Polish)
Oslo Asloa (Latin), Oslo (Bahasa Indonesia, Danish, Dutch, Esperanto, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Latvian, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Osló (Irish), Ósló (Icelandic), Ūslū (Arabic), Oslas (Lithuanian), Christiania (former Dano-Norwegian name 1624-1925), Kristiania (late version of former name)
Osnabrück Osnabrück (German, Romanian), Osnabrugge (Dutch), Osnabruque (Portuguese)
Ostend Oostende (Dutch), Ostenda (Italian, Polish), Ostende (Czech, French, German, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian), Ostendo (Esperanto), Ostendė (Lithuanian), Ostinde (Walloon) , Οστάνδη (Greek)
Ostrava Ostrau (German), Ostrawa (Polish)
Ostrów Wielkopolski Ostrovia (Latin), Ostrowo (German), Ostrów (former Polish), Ostrów Wielkopolski (Polish)
Oświęcim Oświęcim (Polish), 奧斯威辛 (Chinese), Auschwitz (German, Romanian), Aushvitsa (Romany), Oshpitizin (Yiddish), Osvětim (Czech), Osvienčim (Slovak), Osvyenchim (Romany), Aušvice (Latvian)
Oulu Oulu (Estonian, Finnish, Polish), Olu (Latvian), Uleåborg (Swedish)
Oxford Okkusufōdo - オックスフォード (Japanese), Oksfordo (Esperanto), Oxonia (Latin), Rhydychen (Welsh), Oksforda (Latvian), Oksfordas (Lithuanian), Oksford (Polish, Serbian), Oksfórdhi - Οξφόρδη (Greek), 牛津 (Niú jìn - literally ox ford) (Chinese)
Ozieri Ozieri (Italian), Othieri (Sardinian), Ocier (Spanish, Catalan)

P[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Padua Padoue (French), Padova (Italian, Finnish, Romanian, Croatian, Czech, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene), Pádua (Portuguese), Paduja (Latvian), Padua (German, Swedish), Padwa (Polish), Padue (Friulian) , Πάδουα/Πάδοβα (Greek)
Palermo Palermu or Palemmu (Sicilian), Palerme (French), Palermo (Dutch, German, Italian, Finnish, Latvian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Swedish, Turkish), Palermas (Lithuanian), Panormos - Πάνορμος (Greek), Palerma - Палерма (Belarusian)
Pamplona Banbalūna (Arabic), Iruña (Basque), Pamplona (Catalan, Dutch, Finnish, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish), Pampelune (French), Pampaluna / Lunapampa (Old Provençal), Pampeluna (Polish), Pompaelo (Latin)
Panevėžys Poniewież (Polish), Ponewesch (German)
Paris 巴黎 (Chinese), Bārīs (Arabic), Lutetia (Latin), Paräis (Luxembourgish), Páras (Irish), Pari - パリ (Japanese), Parigi (Italian), Pariis (Estonian), Pariisi (Finnish), Parijs (Dutch), París (Catalan, Spanish, Icelandic), Paris (French, German, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish) Parísi - Παρίσι (Greek), Παρίσιοι Greek - καθαρεύουσα)

, Париж/Pariž (Bulgarian, Russian), Pariz (Croatian, Slovene), Pariz - Париз (Serbian), Pariz - פּאַריז (Yiddish), Paříž (Czech), Paríž (Slovak), Parīze (Latvian), Parizo (Esperanto), Párizs (Hungarian), Parys (Afrikaans), Paryż (Polish), Париж/Paryzh (Ukrainian), Paryžius (Lithuanian), Paries (Limburgish), Paryž - Парыж (Belarusian)

Parma Parma (Dutch, Finnish, German, Italian, Latin, Latvian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish, Belarusian), Parme (French), Πάρμα Greek)
Pärnu Parnawa (Polish), Pärnu (Estonian, Finnish, Portuguese, Swedish), Pernau (German), Pērnava (Latvian), Piarnu (Belarusian, Lithuanian)
Passau Batavia Bavariae (feudal Latin), Castra batava (Roman Latin), Pasawa (Polish), Pasov (Czech), Passau (Dutch, French, German, Romanian, Turkish), Passovia (Italian)
Pazin Mitterburg (German), Pazin (Croatian, Serbian), Pisino (Italian),
Pechory Petschur (former German), Petseri (Estonian, Finnish)
Pécs Beci (old Romanian), Pětikostelí (Czech), Peç (Turkish), Pečuh (Croatian), Fünfkirchen (German), Päťkostolie (Slovak), Pecz (Polish), Pečuj - Печуј (Serbian), Quinqueecclesiae (Latin), Cinquechiese (old Italian)
Peenemünde Peenemünde (German), Pianoujście (Polish)
Perpignan Perpignan (Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, French, Finnish, German, Romanian), Perpignano (Italian), Perpiñán (Spanish), Perpinhan (Occitan), Perpinhão (Portuguese), Perpinjan (Serbian), Perpinyà (Catalan)
Perugia Pérouse (French), Perugia (Dutch, German, Italian, Romanian), Perusa (Spanish), Perusia (Latin)
Petrozavodsk Petrosawodsk (German), Petroskoi (Finnish), Petrozavodsk (Russian), Petrozavodskas (Lithuanian), Pietrazavodzk - Петразаводзк (Belarusian), Äänislinna (former Finnish), Pietrozawodzk (Polish)
Piacenza Piacenza (German, Italian), Pjaćenca (Serbian), Plaisance (French), Plasencia (Spanish), Piacenţa (Romanian) , Placentia (Latin), Plakentia - Πλακεντία (Greek)
Piatra Neamţ Piatra Neamţ (Romanian), Karácsonkő (Hungarian)
Piła Piła (Polish), Schneidemühl (German)
Piotrków Trybunalski Piotrków Trybunalski (Polish), Petrikau (German), Petrikev - פּעטריקעװ (Yiddish), Petrokov (Russian),
Piran Piran (Croatian, German, Serbian, Slovene), Pirano (Italian), Pyrrhanum (Latin)
Plauen Plauen (Dutch, French, German, Polish), Plavno (Czech)
Pleven Pleven (Bulgarian, Serbian), Plevna (Romanian, Russian), Plevne (Turkish), Plevno (Czech), Plewen (German, Polish)
Plovdiv Filippopoli (Italian), Philippolis (Roman Latin), Philipúpoli - Φιλιππούπολη (Greek), Plovdiv (Bulgarian, Dutch, Finnish, Romanian, Serbian, Portuguese), Plowdiw (German), Płowdiw (Polish), Pulpudeva (Thracian, former name), Evmolpias (Thracian, former name), Trimontium (Roman Latin, former name), Filibe (Turkish, former name), Paldin (Slavic, former name)
Plymouth Pleimuiden (Dutch alternate), Plimuto (Esperanto)
Plzeň Pilsen (English, German, Italian, Portuguese, former Romanian), Pilzene (Latvian), Pilzno (Polish), Plzeň (Czech, Romanian)
Podgorica Titograd (former name), Ribnica (former name), Podgorica (Finnish, Portuguese, Polish)
Polatsk Połacak - Полацак (traditional Belarusian), Połack - Полацк(sovietized Belarusian), Połock (Polish), Полоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock (Russian), Poloţk (Romanian)
Pompeii Pompei (Italian, Romanian, Turkish), Pompéi (French), Pompéia (Portuguese), Pompeji (Dutch, German, Latin, Slovene), Pompeya (Spanish), Pompeja (Latvian, Serbian), Pompeje (Polish, Czech), Pompiía - Πομπηία (Greek), Pompeiji (Finnish), Pompėja (Lithuanian), Pompeji, (Danish, Swedish)
Porec Parenzo (Italian), Poreč (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene)
Pori Björneborg (Swedish), Pori (Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Latvian)
Porto Burtuqāl (Arabic), Oporto (Italian, Spanish, English variant), Portas (Lithuanian), Porto (Czech, Esperanto, Finnish, French, German, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Turkish), Portus Cale (Latin)
Portorož Portorose (Italian), Portorož (Serbian, Slovene)
Porvoo Borgå (Swedish), Porvoo (Estonian, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian), Borgoa (Latin)
Potsdam 波茨坦 (Chinese), Podstupim (Lower Sorbian), Postupim (Czech, Slovak), Potsdam (Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish), Poczdam (Polish), Potsdama (Latvian), Potsdamas (Lithuanian)
Poznań Poznań (Polish), Posen (Dutch, German), Posnania (Latin), Poyzn - פּױזן (Yiddish), Poznaņa (Latvian), Poznanė (Lithuanian), Poznaň (Czech), Poznan (French (for the city), Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Turkish), Poznań - Познань (Belarusian, Ukrainian), Posnanie (French alternate, but only for the region/province), Poznanie (French alternate, but only for the region/province),
Prague Birāġ (Arabic), Praag (Dutch, Limburgish), Prag (Bosnian, Croatian, Danish, German, Luxembourgish, Serbian, Swedish, Turkish, Icelandic), Prâg (Welsh), Prág (Irish), Pràg (Scottish Gaelic), Praga (Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Italian, Kashubian, Latin, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovene, Spanish), Prago (Esperanto), Prága - Πράγα (Greek, Hungarian), Prague (English, French, Tagalog), Praha (Belarusian, Czech, Estonian, Finnish, Ido, Indonesian, Nauruan, Norwegian, Slovak, Ukrainian, Lithuanian), Prāga (Latvian), Prog - פּראָג (Yiddish), Puraha - プラハ (Japanese)
Pravdinsk Friedland (German), Pravdinsk (Russian), Romuva (Lithuanian)
Priozersk Kexholm / Keksholm (Swedish), Käkisalmi (Finnish), Korela (alternative Finnish name), Priozersk (German, Russian)
Priština Prishtinë (Albanian), Priština - Приштина (Serbian), Priština (Czech),Priştina (Romanian, Turkish), Prisztina (Polish), Pristina (Portuguese), Pristino (Esperanto), Priština (Latvian, Lithuanian, Slovene), Prístina - Πρίστινα (Greek)
Pruszcz Gdański Pruszcz Gdański (Polish), Praust (German),
Przemyśl Przemyśl (Polish), Peremyshl - Перемишль (Russian, Ukrainian), Premisl - פּרעמיסל (Yiddish), Romanian), Peremisla (old Romanian), Pieramyšl - Перамышль (Belarusian), Prömsel (rare German)
Pskov Pihkova (Finnish), Pihkva (Estonian), Pleskau (historical German), Pleskava (Latvian), Pskov (Dutch, Romanian, Russian), Pskovas (Lithuanian), Pskow (modern German, Psków (Polish), Pskoŭ - Пскоў (Belarusian)
Pula Pola (Dutch, French, German, Italian), Póla (Hungarian), Pula (Croatian, Finnish, German, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian), Pulj (Slovene), Polei (archaic German)
Puławy Pilev - פּילעװ (Yiddish), Puławy (Polish) Pilev (English, Spanish) Pullno (German)
Pyrzyce Pyrzyce (Polish), Pyritz (German),

Q[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Quimper Quimper (French), Kemper (Breton), Corspotium (Latin)

R[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Raahe Raahe (Finnish), Brahestad (Swedish)
Rădăuţi Rădăuţi (Romanian), Radautz (German), Radevits - ראַדעװיץ (Yiddish), Radowce (Polish), Rádóc (Hungarian), Rothacenum (Latin)
Radymno Radymno (Polish), Redem - רעדעם (Yiddish)
Rakvere Wesenberg or Wesenbergh (former German)
Rauma Rauma (Estonian, Finnish), Raumo (Swedish)
Ravenna Raben (old German), Ravena (Romanian), Ravenna (Italian, Finnish), Rawenna (Polish) , Ραβέννα (Greek)
Regensburg Ratisbona (Italian, Portuguese, former Romanian, Spanish), Ratisbonne (French), Ratyzbona (Polish), Ratisbon (former English, Latin), Regensborg (Low Saxon), Regensburg (Dutch, German, Romanian), Řezno (Czech) ,Ρατισβόννη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Rennes Roazhon (Breton), Rennes (French, Finnish), Resnn (Gallo)
Reykjavík Reykjavik (Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Norwegian, Romanian), Reykjavík (Icelandic, Swedish), Rejkjaviko (Esperanto), Reikjavīka (Latvian), Reikyavik (Persian), Reykyavik or Reykavik (Turkish), Rejkiawik + Reykjawik (alternates for Polish)
Rheims Reims (Dutch, Finnish, French, Romanian, German), Remeš (Czech), Remso (Esperanto), Reimsa (Latvian), Reimsas (Lithuanian), Ρήμες (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Riga Riga (Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Rīga (Latvian), Rīġā (Arabic), Rige - ריגע (Yiddish), Ріга/Riha (Ukrainian), Riia (Estonian), Riika (Finnish), Ryga (Lithuanian, Polish), Ryha - Рыга (Belarusian), Ρίγα (Greek)
Rijeka Fiume (Italian, old Hungarian), Reka (Slovene), Rijeka (Croatian, Finnish, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian), St. Veit am Flaum (German), Rieka (Persian)
Rivne Рівне/Rivne (Ukrainian), Rovne - ראָװנע (Yiddish), Rovno (Romanian, Russian), Równe (Polish), Rowno (German)
Roč Roč (Croatian), Rozzo (Italian)
Roman Roman (Romanian), Románvásár (Hungarian), Romanvarasch (German)
Rome 羅馬 (Chinese), Rhufain (Welsh), Rim (Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Russian, Slovene), Rím (Slovak), Řím (Czech), An Róimh (Irish), Rom (Danish, German, Swedish), Rómi - Ρώμη (Greek), Róma (Hungarian), Roma (Catalan, Italian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Turkish), Rōma - ローマ (Japanese), Rome (Dutch, French), Romo (Esperanto), Rooma (Estonian, Finnish), Roum (Luxembourgish), Roym - רױם (Yiddish), Rūmiya (Arabic), Рим/Rym (Ukrainian), Rzym (Polish), Rome, Roeme, Roame (Limburgish, depending on dialect), Róm (Icelandic)
Roskilde Hróarskelda (Icelandic), Roskilde (Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Swedish, Turkish, Polish)
Rostock Rostock (Estonian, Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Rostoka (Latvian), Rostokas (Lithuanian), Roztoka (former Polish), Rostock/Rostok (alternates for Polish)Roztoky (Czech)
Rouen Rouen (French, Romanian), Rouaan (Dutch alternate), Ruão (Portuguese), Ruāna (Latvian), Rúðuborg (Icelandic), Ρουένη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Rovaniemi Roavenjarga (Sami), Rovaniemi (Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Turkish), Rovaniemis (Lithuanian)
Rovinj Rovigno (Italian), Rovinj (Croatian, Slovene)
Rzeszów Rzeszów (Polish, Romanian), Reichshof (German 1939-1945), Řešov (Czech), Reyshe - רײשע (Yiddish), Ryashiv (Ukrainian),

S[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
St Albans Verlamion (British), Verulamium (Latin), Verlamchester or Wæclingacaester (Old English)
St Andrews Cille Rimhinn (Scottish Gaelic), Sanct Andraes (Lowland Scots), Kilrymont or Kilrule (former)
Saarbrücken Saarbrücken (German, Romanian), Sarrebruck (French, Spanish), Sarbriukenas (Lithuanian), Saarbrécken (Luxembourgish)
Saarlouis Sarrelouis (French), Saarlouis (German), Saarlautern (German 1939-1945)
Sagunto Sagunt (Catalan, German), Sagunto (Italian, Spanish), Sanguntum (Latin)
Salzburg 薩爾茨堡 (Chinese), Salisburgo (Italian), Salzbourg (French), Salzburg (German, Finnish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Salzburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Solnograd (old Slovene), Solnohrad (Czech), Zalcburga (Latvian), Zalcburgas (Lithuanian)
Samara Kujbišev (Slovene, former name), Kuybyshev (former name)
Sânnicolau Mare Groß Sankt Nikolaus (German), Nagyszentmiklós (Hungarian), Sânnicolau Mare / Sân Nicolau Mare (Romanian)
San Sebastián Donostia (Basque), San Sebatian (Romania), San Sebastián (Spanish, Finnish), Sant Sebastià (Catalan), Saint-Sébastien (French), San Sebastijanas (Lithuanian)
Santiago de Compostela Šānt Yāqūb (Arabic), Santiago de Compostel·la (Catalan), Sant Jaume de Galícia (former Catalan), Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle (French), Santiago de Compostela (Galician, Finnish, Portuguese), Santiago di Compostella (Italian)
Saragossa Caesaraugusta (Latin), Saragoça (Portuguese), Saragosa (Latvian, Serbian, Slovene), Saragossa (Catalan, German, Polish), Saragosse (French), Saragozza (Italian), Zaragoza (Aragonese, Czech, Finnish Romanian, Spanish, Swedish), Sarkusta (Arabic)
Sarajevo Saraievo (Romanian), Sarāyīfū (Arabic), Sarajevo (Croatian, Bosnian, Finnish, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish), Sarajewo (German, Polish), Saraybosna (Turkish), Szarajevó (Hungarian), Sarājeva (Latvian), Sarajevas (Lithuanian), Sarajevë (Albanian)
Saranda Sarandë / Saranda (Albanian), Áyii Saránda - Άγιοι Σαράντα (Greek), Santiquaranta (Italian)
Sarreguemines Sarreguemines (French), Saargemünd (German)
Sartene Sartè (Corsican), Sartena (Italian), Sartene (French)
Sassari Sàsser (Catalan), Sásser (Old Spanish), Sassari (Corsican, Finnish, Italian, Sassarese), Sassari / Tathari / Tattari (Sardinian)
Saverne Zabern (German)
Schaffhausen Schaffhouse (French), Schaffhausen (German, Romanian), Sciaffusa (Italian), Schaffusa (Romansh), Szafuza (Polish)
Schmogrow Schmogrow (German), Smogorjow (Lower Sorbian)
Schweinfurt Schweinfurt (German, Romanian, Slovene), Svinibrod (Czech)
Schwerin Schwerin (German), Swaryń (Polish), Zuarin (Obotritic), Zvěřín (Czech)
Schwyz Schwytz (French, Finnish), Schwyz (German), Svitto (Italian), Sviz (Romansh)
Senj Segna (Italian), Senj (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Zengg (former Hungarian)
Sevastopol Aqyar (Crimean Tatar, Tatar), Sevastopol' - Севастополь (Russian, Ukrainian), Akyar and variant Sivastopol (Turkish), Sebastopol (former English), Sevastopol (Finnish, Romanian), Sevastopole (Latvian), Sewastopol (Polish), Sevastúpoli - Σεβαστούπολη (Greek), Sebastopoli (Italian)
Seville al-Išbīliya (Arabic), Hispalis (Latin), Sevila (Slovene), Sevilha (Portuguese), Sevilia (former Romanian), Sevilja (Serbian), Seviljo (Esperanto), Sevilla (Catalan, Finnish, German, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish), Séville (French), Sevilya (Turkish), Sewilla (Polish), Siviglia (Italian), Seviļa (Latvian), Sevilija (Lithuanian), Sevíli - Σεβίλλη (Greek)
's-Hertogenbosch Den Bosch or 's-Hertogenbosch (Dutch), Bois-le-Duc (French), Herzogenbusch (German), Hertogenbosch (Italian), 's-Hertogenbosch (English, Polish, Swedish)
Shkodër İşkodra (Turkish), Shkodër (Albanian), Scutari (Italian, old Romanian), Scodra (Latin), Scutari (Italian, old Romanian), Skadar (Czech, Serbian, Slovene), Szkodra (Polish), Skutari (German) , Σκόδρα (Greek)
Shrewsbury Amwythig (Welsh)
Šiauliai Šaŭli - Шаўлі (Belarusian), Schaulen (German), Shaulyay or Shavli (Russian), Shavl - שאַװל (Yiddish), Šiauliai (Lithuanian, Finnish), Šauļi (Latvian), Szawle (Polish)
Sibenik Sebenico (former Hungarian, Italian), Šibenik (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Szybenik (Polish)
Sibiu Sibiň (Czech), Sibiu (Romanian, Finnish, Turkish), Hermannstadt (German), Nagyszeben (Hungarian), Sybin (Polish)
Siedlce Sedlets (Russian), Shedlets - שעדלעץ (Yiddish), Siedlce (Polish)
Sienna Sienne (French), Siena (Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Spanish, Turkish), Siena (Lithuanian)
Sighişoara Schässburg (German), Segesvár (Hungarian), Sighişoara (Romanian), Sigiszoara (Polish)
Simferopol Aqmescit (Crimean Tatar, Tatar), Simferopol' - Сімферополь (Ukrainian), Simferopol' - Симферополь (Russian), Akmescit (Turkish), Simferopol (Romanian), Simferopole (Latvian), Symferopol (Polish), Συμφερούπολη (Greek)
Skopje Shkupi (Albanian), Scupi (Latin), Skop'e - Скопье (Russian), Skópia - Σκόπια (Greek), Skopia (Spanish), Skopie (Bulgarian - Скопие, Polish), Skopje (Dutch, Macedonian, Latvian, Portuguese, Slovene, Romanian, Swedish), Scoplie (Romanian variant), Skoplje (Serbian, Croatian), Skūbyī (Arabic), Uskub (Ottoman Turkish), Üsküp (Turkish), Skopjė (Lithuanian), Szkopje (Hungarian)
Sligo Sligeach (Irish)
Słupsk Stolp (German), Stolpe (Latin), Stôłpsk (Kashubian), Stölpe (Swedish), Slupska (Latvian), Слупск (Russian and other languages written in Cyrillic script)
Smolensk Smalensk - Смаленск (Belarusian), Smolensk (Portuguese, Romanian), Smoleńsk (Polish), Smoļenska (Latvian), Smolenskas (Lithuanian), Смоленск (Russian)
Södertälje Södertälje (Swedish), Telga australis (Latin)
Solin Salona (Dutch, Italian), Solin (Croatian, Slovene)
Sofia Safija - Сафія (Belarusian), Serdica (Thracian), Sófia - Σόφια (Greek), Sófia (Portuguese), Sofia (Dutch, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Swedish), Sofía (Spanish), Sofija - София (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian), Sofija (Croatian, Slovene, Latvian, Lithuanian), Sofio (Esperanto), Sofya (Turkish), Sredets (Slavic), Sūfiyā (Arabic), Szófia (Hungarian)
Solothurn Soleure (French), Solothurn (Dutch, German), Soletta (Italian), Soloturn (Romansh), Solura (Polish)
Sønderborg Sonderburg (German)
Sopron Ödenburg (German), Šoproň (Czech), Sopron (Hungarian, Romanian), Šopron (Croatian)
Sovetsk Sovetsk - Советск (Russian), Sovjetsk (Serbian, Slovene), Sovyetsk (Turkish), Tilsit (German), Tilzīte (Latvian), Tilžė (Lithuanian), Tylża (Polish)
Speyer Espira (Spanish, Portuguese), Spiers (Dutch), Spira (Italian, Polish), Spire (French), Spires (former English), Špýr (Czech)
Spišská Nová Ves Igló (Hungarian), Nowa Wieś Spiska / Spiska Nowa Wieś (Polish), Noveysis (Romany), Spišská Nová Ves (Slovak), Villa Nova (Latin), (Zipser) Neu(en)dorf (German)
Split Spalato (former Hungarian, Italian), Split (Croatian, Dutch, Finnish Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Polish), Splita (Latvian), Splitas (Lithuanian) , Σπολάτο (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Spremberg Grodk (Lower Sorbian), Spremberg (German)
St. Gallen Saint-Gall (French, Romanian), Sankt Gallen (Dutch, German), San Gallo (Italian), Son Gagl (Romansh), Svatý Havel (Czech)
St. Petersburg 聖彼得堡 (Chinese), Ayía Petrúpoli - Αγία Πετρούπολη (Greek), Peterburg - פּעטערבורג (Yiddish), Peterburi (Estonian), Petroburgo (Esperanto), Pietari (Finnish), Saint-Pétersbourg (French), Sankt-Pieciarburh - Санкт-Пецярбург (Belarusian), Sankt-Peterburg (Russian, Slovene), Sankt Peterburg (Serbian, Slovak), Sanktpēterburga (Latvian), Sankt Peterburgas (Lithuanian), Sankt Petěrburk (Czech), Sankt Petersborg (Danish), Sankt Petersburg (German, Polish, Romanian, Swedish), Sankt Peterburg (Serbian), San Petersburgo (Spanish), San Pietroburgo (Italian), Sānt Bītarsbūrġ (Arabic), São Petersburgo (Portuguese), Sint-Petersburg (Dutch), St. Petersburg Norwegian, St Petersburg or Petersburg (Turkish), Szentpétervár (Hungarian); Petrograd (former Russian, former Serbian, former Slovene), Petrohrad (former Czech), Piotrogród (former Polish), Pēterpils (former Latvian), Petrapilis (former Lithuanian), Sankti Pétursborg (Icelandic)

Leningrad (former English, German), Leningrado (former Italian), Lenjingrad (former Serbian)

St. Moritz Sankt Moritz (German), San Murezzan (Romansh), Svatý Mořic (Czech), Sanktmorica (Latvian)
Starokonstantinov Alt-Konstantin (German), Starokonstantinov / Староконстантинов (Russian), Old Constantine (former English), Starokostyantyniv (Ukrainian)
Sterzing-Vipiteno Sterzing (German), Vipiteno (Italian), Stérzen or Sterzinga (former Italian)
Stockholm Estocolm (Catalan), Estocolmo (Portuguese, Spanish), Holmia (Latin), Istūkhūlm (Arabic), Stoccolma (Italian), Stockholm (Dutch, Estonian, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Stócólm (Irish), Stokgol'm (Russian), Štokholm (Slovak), Stokholm (former Estonian, Serbian, Turkish), Stokhol'm (Ukrainian), Stokholma (Latvian), Stokholmas (Lithuanian), Stokholmo (Esperanto), Stokkhólmi - Στοκχόλμη (Greek), Stokkhólm (Faroese), Stokkhólmur (Icelandic), Sztokholm (Polish), Tukholma (Finnish)
Stralsund Stralsund (German, Swedish), Strzałowo or Strzałów (Polish)
Strasbourg Estrasburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Schdroosburi or Strossburi (Alsatian), Straatsburg (Dutch), Strasbourg (French, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Strasburg (Polish), Štrasburg (Slovak), Strasburgo (Esperanto, Italian), Štrasburk (Czech), Strassburg (Finnish), Straßburg (German), Strazbur (Serbian), Strazburg (Turkish), Strastbūra (Latvian), Strasbūras (Lithuanian), Stroossbuerg (Luxembourgish), Strasvúrgo - Στρασβούργο (Greek)
Straubing Straubing (German), Štrubina (Czech)
Stuttgart Estugarda (Portuguese), Štíhrad (Czech), Stoccarda (Italian), Stuttgart (Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Stoutgárdhi - Στουτγάρδη (Greek), Štutgarte (Latvian), Štutgartas (Lithuanian)
Subotica Mariatheresiopel (German), Subotica - Суботица (Serbian), Subotica (Finnish, Slovene, Polish, Romanian), Szabadka (Hungarian)
Suceava Shots - שאָץ (Yiddish), Suceava (Romanian), Suczawa (Polish, German), Szucsava (Hungarian)
Swansea Abertaŭo (Esperanto), Abertawe (Welsh), Swansea (Dutch, German, Slovene), Svonsi (Serbian)
Świnoujście Swinemünde (German), Świnoujście (Polish)
Syracuse Sarausa (Sicilian), Siracusa (Italian, Romanian, Portuguese, Spanish), Siragüza (Arabic), Sirakuso (Esperanto), Siracuza (former Romanian), Sirakuza (Serbian), Siraküza (Turkish), Sirakuze (Slovene), Sirakūzai (Lithuanian), Sirakúses - Συρακούσες (Greek), Syrakuzy (Polish), Syrakus (German), Syrakusa (Finnish, Swedish), Syrakuse (Dutch), Syrakúzy (Slovak),
Szczebrzeszyn Shebreshin שעברעשין (Yiddish), Szczebrzeszyn (Polish)
Szczecin Scecinum / Stetinum (Latin), Stettin (German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Turkish, former English), Szczecin (Polish, Romanian), Štětín (Czech), Štetín (Slovene), Stettino (Italian), Ščecina (Latvian), Šćećin (Serbian), Štetinas (Lithuanian), Ščecin - Шчэцін (Belarusian) , Στεττίνο (Greek)
Szczytno Ortelsburg (German), Ortulfsburg (older German), Szczytno (Polish)
Szeged Partiscum (Latin), Segedín (Czech, Serbian), Segedin (Turkish), Szeged (Hungarian), Seghedino (Italian), Segedyn or Szegedyn (Polish), Seghedin (Romanian), Szegedin or Segedin (German), Siget (Croatian)
Székesfehérvár Alba Regia (Latin), Stoličný Bělehrad (Czech), Stolni Biograd (Croatian), Stuhlweißenburg (German), Stoličný Belehrad (Slovak), İstolni Belgrad (Turkish)
Szentendre Sentandreja - Сентандреја (Serbian), Svatý Ondřej (Czech), Szentendre (Hungarian)
Szombathely Kamenec (Czech), Steinamanger (German), Szombathely (Hungarian, Slovene)

T[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Tallinn Rääveli (former Finnish), Rävel (former variant in Swedish), Reval (former English, German, Swedish and Danish), Revalia (Latin), Revel - Ревел (former Russian), Rewel (former Polish), Rēvele (former Latvian), Tālīn (Arabic), Talinas (Lithuanian), Talin (alternate Portuguese, Serbian, alternate Turkish), Tallin (Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak; also a variant in Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, used mainly between 1944-1991), Tallinn (Estonian, Danish, German, Norwegian, Portuguese, Swedish, Turkish), Tallina (Latvian), Tallinna (Finnish; former Estonian), Ταλλίνη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Tampere Tammerfors (Swedish), Tampere (Estonian, Finnish, Latvian, Portuguese, Romanian), Tamperė (Lithuanian)
Taranto Taranto (Italian, Romanian), Táras - Τάρας (ancient Greek), Tárantas - Τάραντας (modern Greek) Tarent (Czech, German, Polish, Romanian variant, Serbian), Tarente (French), Tarento (Spanish), Tarentum (Latin) Trentino (Finnish)
Târgu Mureş Marosvásárhely (Hungarian), Neumarkt (am Mieresch) (German), Târgu Mureş (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Mureş (Romanian, old spelling)
Târgu Neamţ Németvásár (Hungarian, Târgu Neamţ (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Neamţ (Romanian, old spelling)
Târgu Ocna Aknavásár (Hungarian), Târgu Ocna (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Ocna (Romanian, old spelling)
Târgu Jiu Zsilvásárhely (Hungarian), Târgu Jiu (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Jiu (Romanian, old spelling)
Tarnów Tarne - טארנע (Yiddish), Tarnów (Polish)
Tarnowskie Góry Tarnowitz (German), Tarnowskie Góry (Polish)
Tartu Derpt - Дерпт (former Russian), Dorpat (former German, Polish and Swedish), Tartto (Finnish), Tartu (Estonian, German, Latvian, Romanian, Russian, Swedish, Turkish), Tērbata (Latvian, before 1918), Tharbata (Latin), Yur'yev - Юрьев (former Russian)
Taurage Taurage (Lithuanian), Tauroggen (German), Taurogi (Polish)
Tbilisi Tbilisi (Georgian, Italian, Latvian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish), Tbilisis (Lithuanian), Tbilissi (French), Tbiliszi (Hungarian), Teflis - تفلیس (Persian), Tiflis (Armenian, Dutch, German, former name, former Romanian, Spanish, Turkish, old Finnish), Tiflīs (Arabic), Tyflída - Τυφλίδα (Greek), Tyflis (former Polish)
Tekirdağ Byzanthe (an ancient Thracian town very near to the modern city), Rhaidestos (Greek), Rhaedestos, Raidestos, Rhaedestus, Visanthii (Greek variants), Rodosçuk (early Ottoman Turkish), Rodosto (Latin and various European languages), Rodostó (Hungarian), Tekfurdağı (late Ottoman Turkish), Tekirdağ (Turkish)
Tempio Pausania Tempio Pausania (Italian), Tempiu (Corsican, Sardinian), Tempio (Spanish, Catalan, former Italian)
Terezín Terezín (Czech, Slovak), Theresienstadt (German)
The Hague L'Aia (Italian), Gaaga (Russian), De Haach (Frisian), Den Haag / 's-Gravenhage (Dutch), Haag (Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finnish, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish), Den Haag / der Haag (German), Haaha (Ukrainian), Hag (Serbian), Hāga (Latvian), Haga (Polish, Romanian, Lithuanian), Hága (Hungarian), Haia (Portuguese), An Háig (Irish), La Haya (Spanish), La Haye (French), Ηáyi - Χάγη (Greek), Lāhāy (Arabic), Lahey (Turkish), D'n Haag (D'n Haog) (Limburgish)
Theodosia Θεοδωσία- Theodhóssia (Greek)Kefe (Crimean Tatar, Turkish), Feodosiya - Феодосія (Ukrainian), Feodosiya - Феодосия (Russian), Teodozja (Polish)
Thessaloniki Salonic (Romanian), Salonica (alternative English name), Salónica (alternative Portuguese, alternative Spanish), Salonicco / Tessalonica (Italian), Salonikai (Lithuanian), Saloniki (German, Latvian, Polish, alternative Greek name), Săruna (Aromanian), Selanik (Turkish), Solun (Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian, Slovene), Soluň (Czech), Solún (Slovak), Sołuń (historical Polish name), Szaloniki/Tesszaloniki (Hungarian), Thessaloniki - Θεσσαλονίκη (Greek), Tesalonic (alternative Romanian name), Tesalónica (Spanish), Tessalónica (Portuguese), Tessalonika (Finnish), Thessalonique (French) Tessaloniki (Finnish)
Thionville Diedenhofen (German), Diedenhoven (former Dutch), Diddenhuewen (Luxembourgish), Thionville (French)
Timişoara Temešvár (Czech, Slovak), Temeswar / Temeschburg / (Temeschwar) (German), Temesvár (Hungarian), Temišvar (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Timişoara (Romanian), Timiszoara (Polish), Temeşvar (Turkish)
Tipperary Tiobraid Árann (Irish)
Tirana Tiranë / Tirana (Albanian), Tirana (Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish), Tirāna (Latvian), Tiran (Turkish), Τίρανα (Greek)
Tongeren Tongeren (Dutch), Tongern (German), Tongres (French), Tongue (Walloon), Aduatuca (Latin)
Tornio Duortnus (Northern Sami), Torneå (Swedish), Tornio (Estonian, Finnish)
Tórshavn Thorshavn (Danish, Finnish, Romanian), Torshamn (Swedish), Þórshöfn (Icelandic)
Toruń Torun (Romanian), Toruń (Polish), Toruň (Czech), Thorn (German), civitas Torunensis (Latin), Torń (Kashubian)
Toulon Tolone (Italian), Toulon (French, Finnish, Romanian) Tulon (Polish, old Romanian), Tulona (Latvian)
Toulouse Tolosa de Llenguadoc (Catalan), Tolosa (Italian, Latin, Occitan, former Spanish, Basque), Toulouse (French, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish), Tuluza (Polish), Tuluz (Serbian) , Tulūza (Latvian, Lithuanian), Tulúzi - Τουλούζη (Greek)
Tournai Doornik (Dutch), Tournai (French, Romanian)
Trabzon Trabzon (Romanian, Turkish), Trapezunt (German, Finnish, Polish, former Romanian), Trapezúnda - Τραπεζούντα (Greek), Trebisonda (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese), Trebizonda (former Romanian alternative to Trapezunt), Trébizonde (French), Trebizon (former variant in English)
Trakai Troki - Трокі (Belarusian), Trakai (Lithuanian, Turkish), Trakay (alternative Turkish), Traķi (Latvian), Troki (Polish)
Trent Trento (Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish), Trient (German), Trident (Czech), Trente (French, Dutch), Trydent (Polish)
Trier Trevír (Czech, Slovak), Trèves (French), Treviri (Italian), Tréier (Luxembourgish), Trewir (Polish), Tréveris (Spanish, Portuguese), Trier (Dutch, German), Trive (Walloon) , Τρεβήροι (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Trieste Tergeste (Latin), Terst (Czech), Triëst (Dutch), Triest (Dutch, Friulian, German, Polish, Romanian variant), Trieszt (Hungarian), Trieste (Finnish, Italian, Latvian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Triyeste (alternative Turkish), Trst (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Tergésti - Τεργέστη (Greek)
Trogir Traù (Italian), Trogir (Croatian, Romanian, Serbian)
Tromsø Tromssa (Finnish, Sami), Tromsö (Turkish)
Trondheim Nidaros (Norwegian 997-15th century and again 1930), Trondhjem (Dano-Norwegian 15th century-1929), Trondheim (Dutch, Norwegian 1931-1939 and 1945-present, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Drontheim (1940-1945) (German name during WWII occupation), Þrándheimur (Icelandic), Tronheima (Latvian), Trondheimas (Lithuanian), Trondhjem (the citizens of Trondheim's pronunciation)
Tübingen 圖賓根 (Chinese), Tubinga (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Tubingue (French), Tubinky / Tybinky (Czech), Tybinga (Polish), Tivíngi - Τυβίγγη (Greek)
Turin Torí (Catalan), Torino (Finnish, Italian, Croatian, Greek, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Finnish, Turkish), Torinó (Hungarian), Turijn (Dutch), Turim (Portuguese), Turin (French, Friulian, German, Swedish), Turín (Czech, Slovak, Spanish), Turyn (Polish), Turīna (Latvian), Turinas (Lithuanian), Turien (Limburgish) , Τουρίνο (Greek)
Turku Åbo (Swedish), Aboa / Aboia / Turcua (Latin), Turu (Estonian), Turku (Finnish, Latvian, Romanian, Turkish)
Tver Kalinin (former name), Tver (Italian, Romanian, Slovene), Twer (Polish, German), Tvera (Latvian), Tverė (Lithuanian), Ćvier - Цьвер (Belarusian)
Tyszowce Tishevits - טישעװיץ (Yiddish), Tyszowce (Polish)

U[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Überlingen Überlingen (German, Romanian), Jibrovice (Czech)
Udine Udin (Friulian), Udine (Dutch, Finnish, German, Italian, Romanian), Videm (Czech, Slovene), Udinė (Lithuanian), Weiden (old German)
Ulcinj Dulcigno (Italian), Ulcinj (Croatian, Serbian), Ulqin (Albanian)
Ulm Ulm (Dutch, Finnish, German, Romanian, Turkish), Ulma (Italian), Ulmas (Lithuanian)
Ulyanovsk Simbirsk (former name), Ulianovsk (Romanian), Uljanovsk (Serbian, Slovene), Uljanowsk (German), Uljanovskas (Lithuanian)
Umag Umago (Italian), Umag (Croatian, Finnish, Romanian)
Umeå Umeå (Swedish), Uumaja (Finnish)
Uppsala Ουψάλα (Greek), Upsal (French), Upsala (Finnish, Latvian, Romanian), Upsalia (Latin), Upsalo (Esperanto), Uppsala (Danish, Dutch, German, Norwegian, Swedish),
Utrecht Traiectum (Latin), Utert (Frisian), Utrecht (Afrikaans, Bahasa Indonesia, Dutch, Finnish, Romanian), Utrechtas (Lithuanian), Utrehta (Latvian), Utreĥto (Esperanto), Utrek (Walloon), Utrech, Utrei (Limburgish), Utreque (Portuguese), Utréhti - Ουτρέχτη (Greek)
Uzhhorod Ungvár (Hungarian), Ungvir, Ingver, Yngvyr - אונגװיר (Yiddish), Ungwar (German), Ujgorod (Romanian), Uschhorod (German), Uzhgorod - Ужгород (Russian), Uzhhorod - Ужгородъ (Ruthenian), Užhorod (Slovak), Uzhhorod - Ужгород (Ukrainian), Użgorod (Polish)

V[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Vaasa Vaasa (Estonian, Finnish), Vasa (Swedish), Waza (Polish), Nikolainkaupunki (alternative old Finnish name), Nikolaistad (alternative old Swedish name)
Valencia València (Catalan/Valencian), Valence (French), Valencia (Dutch, Finnish, German, Romanian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish), Valência (Portuguese), Valencio or Valencujo (Esperanto), Walencja (Polish), Valensija (Belarusian, Latvian, Lithuanian), Valensiya (Turkish), Valentia (Latin) , Βαλεντία (Greek), Balansiyah (Arabic)
Valkenburg Valkenburg (Dutch, German), Fauquemont (old French)
Valletta il-Belt (colloquial Maltese), il-Belt Valletta (Maltese), Fālītā (Arabic), Valéta- Βαλέτα (Greek), La Valeta (Portuguese, Spanish), La Valette (French), La Valetta (Romanian, Turkish), La Valletta (Italian, Polish, Slovak), Valeta (Latvian, Lithuanian), Valetta (alternative Turkish), Valletta (Finnish, Swedish)
Valmiera Wolmar (German)
Vantaa Vanda (Swedish), Vantaa (Finnish)
Vaslui Vaslui (Romanian), Vaszló (Hungarian)
Vatican City 梵蒂岡 (Chinese),Cité du Vatican (French), Città del Vaticano (Italian), Ciudad del Vaticano (Spanish), Status Civitatis Vaticanæ (Latin), Vaticaanstad (Dutch), Vatikanstaten (Norwegian), Vatikán, Vatikanstadt (German), Vatikán (Czech), Vatikánváros (Hungarian), Watykan (Polish), Vatikan (German, Turkish) Vatikaani (Finnish)
Venice 威尼斯 (Chinese), Benátky (Czech, Slovak), Benetke (Slovene), al-Bunduqīya (Arabic), Feneyjar (Icelandic), Fenis (Welsh), An Veinéis (Irish), Mleci (older Croatian), Velence (Hungarian), Venècia (Catalan), Venecia (Spanish), Venēcija (Latvian), Venecija (Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian), Veneco (Esperanto), Venedig (Danish, German, Swedish), Venedik (Turkish), Veneetsia (Estonian), Venetía - Βενετία (Greek), Ενετία(Greek - καθαρεύουσα) , Veneţia (Romanian), Venetië (Afrikaans, Dutch), Venetik (Armenian), Venetsia (Finnish), Veneza (Portuguese), Venezia (Italian), Venise (French), Venetsye - װענעציע (Yiddish), Wenecja (Polish), Venetië/ Venies (Limburgish), Vignesie (Friulian)
Ventimiglia Vintimille (French)
Verdun Verdun (Dutch, French, German, Romanian), Wirten (old German)
Verona Verona (Dutch, Finnish, German, Italian, Hungarian, Latin, Latvian, Romanian), Vérone (French), Bern (old German), Werona (Polish),
Vienna Beč (Croatian, Serbian), Bécs (Hungarian), Bech or Vidnya (Romani), Dunaj (Slovene), Fienna (Welsh), Vena (Russian), Vīne (Latvian), Vídeň (Czech, Ukrainian), Viedeň (Slovak), Viena (Belarusian, Catalan, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish), Vienna (Italian), Vienne (French), Viénni - Βιέννη (Greek), Vieno (Esperanto), Viin (Estonian), Vin - װין (Yiddish), Vín (Irish, Icelandic), Vina - וינה (Hebrew), Vindobona (Latin), Viyana (Turkish), 維也納 (Chinese), Wene (Afrikaans), Wenen (Dutch), Wiedeń (Polish), Wien (Finnish, German, Swedish), Wīn - ウィーン (Japanese)
Vileyka Vilejka - Вілейка (Belarusian), Vilejka - Вилейка (Russian), Wilejka (Polish, German)
Viljandi Fellin (former German), Felloin (former French), Viljandi (Estonian, Finnish, German, Swedish), Vīlande (Latvian)
Villach Bělák (Czech), Beljak (Slovene), Bilachium (Latin), Villach (German), Villaco (Italian)
Vilnius Filniyūs (Arabic), Vėlnios (Samogitian), Vilna (Italian, Spanish, Slovene, Finnish, Norwegian, old Romanian variant), Vilne - װילנע (Yiddish), Vilnius (French, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Viļņa (Latvian), Vilna (English until 1945, Finnish) Vilnia - Вільня (Belarusian), Vil'njus (Вильнюс Russian, Ukrainian), Vilnjus (Serbian), Vilno (Czech, Russian obsolete (Вильно)), Wilnioes (Dutch alternative), Wilna (Dutch, German), Wilno (Polish)
Vynohradiv Nagyszőlős (Hungarian), Vinohradiv - Віноградів (Ukrainian)
Visé Visé (French), Vizé (Walloon), Wezet (Dutch)
Vitoria Gasteiz (Basque), Vitoria (Dutch, German, Romanian, Spanish), Vitória (Portuguese), Vitorija (Lithuanian)
Vitsyebsk Viciebsk/Vitsyebsk - Віцебск (Belarusian), Vitebsk (Dutch alternate, Romanian), Vitebsk - Витебск (Russian), Vitebsk - װיטעבסק (French, Yiddish), Vitebska (Latvian), Vitebskas (Lithuanian), Witebsk (Dutch alternate, German, Polish)
Vladikavkaz Ordzhonikidze (former name 1932-1944 and 1954-1990), Dzaudzhikau (former name 1944-1954), Uladzikaŭkaz - Уладзікаўказ (Belarusian), Vladikaukāza (Latvian), Vladikaukazas (Lithuanian), Władykaukaz (Polish)
Vlorë Aulon (Latin), Aulonas - Αυλώνας (Greek), Avlonya (Turkish), Avlona (Italian alternate), Flora (Croatian), Vlorë / Vlora (Albanian), Valona (English alternate, German, Italian, Serbian)
Vodnjan Vodnjan (Croatian), Dignano (Italian)
Volodymyr-Volynsky Volodymyr-Volynsky / Volodymyr-Volynskyi / Volodymyr-Volyns'kyi - Володимир-Волинський (Ukrainian), Włodzimierz Wołyński (Polish)
Volgograd Stalingrad (former name 1925-1961), Tsaritsyn (former name), Wołgograd (Polish), Carycyn (former Polish), Volgograd (Romanian, Slovene, Turkish), Volgogrado (Portuguese, Spanish), Wolgograd (German), Estalinegrado (former Portuguese), Estalingrado (former Spanish), Stalingrado (former Italian), Volgograda (Latvian), Volgogradas (Lithuanian)
Vyborg Viiburi (Estonian), Viipuri (Finnish), Viborg (Dutch, Romanian, Swedish), Vīborga (Latvian), Wiburg (German), Wyborg (Polish)

W[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Wangen Vanky (Czech), Wangen (German)
Waremme Borgworm (Dutch), Waremme (French), Warème / Wareme (Walloon)
Warsaw 華沙 (Chinese), Vársá (Irish), Varšava (Latvian), Varšava - Варшава (Belarusian, Czech, Croatian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian), Varsavia (Italian), Varshava (Armenian), Varshe - װאַרשע (Yiddish), Varsjá (Icelandic), Varsó (Hungarian), Varsova (Finnish), Varşova (Turkish), Varsovia (Latin, Spanish), Varsovía - Βαρσοβία (Greek), Varsóvia (Portuguese), Varşovia (Romanian), Varsovie (French), Varsovio (Esperanto), Varssavi (Estonian), Varšuva (Lithuanian), Warsawa (Bahasa Indonesia), Warschau (Dutch, German), Wārsū (Arabic), Warszawa (Danish, Polish, Swedish), Warushawa - ワルシャワ (Japanese)
Waterford Port Láirge (Irish) Vaterfjord (Old Norse)
Wavre Waver (Dutch), Auve / Wåve (Walloon), Wavre (French)
Weimar Výmar or Vejmar (Czech), Weimar (Bahasa Indonesia, Dutch, German, Romanian), Veimāra (Latvian), Veimaras (Lithuanian) , Βαϊμάρη (Greek)
Wejherowo Wejherowo (Polish), Wejherowska Wola (former name), Neustadt in Westpreußen/Neustadt bei Danzig (German),
Wexford Loch Garman (Irish)
Wicklow Cill Mhantáin (Irish)
Winchester Caerwynt (Welsh)
Wolgast Wolgast (Dutch, German), Wołogoszcz (Polish)
Worcester Caerwrangon (Welsh)
Worms Vermayze װערמײַזע (Yiddish), Wormacja (Polish), Wormazia (former Italian), Vormsa (Latvian), Worms (Dutch, German, Romanian) , Βορματία (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Wrocław Wrocław (Polish, Swedish), Boroszló (Hungarian), Breslau (former Danish, former Dutch, German, former Norwegian, former Romanian, former Swedish), Braslavia (old Romanian), Breslavia (Italian), Vratislav (Czech), Vratislavia / Wratislavia / Wracislavia (Latin), Vratislav / Vroclav (Slovak, Serbian), Vroclava (Latvian), Vroclavas (Lithuanian), Wroclaw (Finnish, Romanian, Slovene), Urocłaŭ - Уроцлаў (Belarusian)
Würzburg Wörzborg (Low Saxon), Würzburg (Dutch, German, Romanian), Wurzbourg (French), Wurzburgo (Spanish)

Y[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Yalta Yalta (Crimean Tatar, Turkish, English), Yalta - Ялта (Russian, Ukrainian), Ialta (Portuguese, Romanian), Jalta (Finnish, Latvian, Swedish), Jałta (Polish, Lithuanian)
York 約克 (Chinese),Caerefrog / Efrog (Welsh), Eabhrac (Irish), Eboracum (Latin), Efrawg (Breton, Cornish), Iorc (Scots Gaelic), Iorque (Portuguese), Jorvik (ancient Scandinavian), Jórvík (Icelandic), Jork (Polish), Jorko (Esperanto), Jorka (Latvian), Jorkas (Lithuanian) , Υόρκη (Greek) , Εβόρακον (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Ypres Ieper (Dutch), Ieperen (Dutch dialect variant), Ypres (French, Finnish, Romanian), Ypern (German), Ipro (Esperanto)

Z[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Zabrze Hindenburg (German 1915-1945), Zabrze (Polish)
Zadar Zara (Italian, Portuguese), Zára (Hungarian), Zadar (Croatian, Romanian), Zadara (Latvian), Zadaras (Lithuanian)
Zagreb Agram (former German and Russian), Zágráb (Hungarian), Zagabria (Italian), Zagreb (Asturian, Bahasa Indonesia, Croatian, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Zagreba (Latvian), Zagrebas (Lithuanian), Zagrebo (Esperanto), Zagrep (Turkish), Zaġrib - زغرب (Arabic), Zagrzeb (Polish), Záhřeb (Czech), Záhreb (Slovak), Zahreb (Ukrainian), Загреб (Serbian), Άγρανον (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), জাগরেব (Bengali)
Zeebrugge Seebrügge (German), Zeebruges (French)
Železnice Eisenstadtl / Eisenstadtel (German). Železnice (Czech)
Zhytomyr Jitomir (Romanian), Zhitomir - Житомир (Russian), Zhitomir - זשיטאָמיר (Yiddish), Zhytomyr Житомир (Ukrainian), Żytomierz (Polish), Žytomir - Жытомір (Belarusian)
Zielona Góra Grünberg (German), Mons Viridis (Latin), Zielona Góra (Polish)
Zittau Žitava (Czech), Zittau (Dutch, German), Żytawa (Polish)
Zlín Gottwaldov (former name)
Znamensk Vėluva (Lithuanian), Wehlau (German), Welawa (Polish), Znamensk (Russian)
Znojmo Znaim (German), Znojmo (Polish, Czech, Slovak)
Zolochiv Złoczew or Złoczów (Polish), Zlotshev - זלאָטשעװ (Yiddish), Zolochev (Russian), Золочів/Zolochiv (Ukrainian)
Zug Zoug (French alternate), Zug (Dutch, German, Romansh), Zugo (Italian)
Zurich 蘇黎世 (Chinese), Chūrih(h)i - チューリ(ッ)ヒ (Japanese), Cirih - Цирих (Serbian), Cīrihe (Latvian), Ciūrichas (Lithuanian), Ciurych - Цюрых (Belarusian), Cjurikh (Russian, Ukrainian), Curiĥo (Esperanto), Curych (Czech), Turitg (Romansh), Zurich (French), Zürich (Estonian, German, Finnish, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Zúrich (Spanish), Zurigo (Italian), Zürih (Turkish), Zūrīk (Arabic), Zurique (Portuguese), Zurych (Polish), Zyríkhi - Ζυρίχη (Greek)
Zwickau Cvikov (Czech), Zwickau (Dutch, German)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gent/o". Universität Leipzig. 

External link[edit]