User:Krutoi dezigner/sandbox

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Agriculture and biotechnology[edit]

[1][2] 1814. By Petro Prokopovych

Beehive frame

[3][4] 1881–88. The credit is due to Fyodor Blinov. The first steam-powered tractor on continuous tracks.

Caterpillar farm tractor

[5] 1924–28. Raphanobrassica. The credit is due to Georgy Karpechenko. Rabbage (or Raphanobrassica), was the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding, which was an important step in biotechnology.

Fertile hybrid

[6][7] 1868. By Andrei Famintsyn

Grow light

[8] 1951–54. The credit is due to (Терентий Мальцев) Terenty Maltsev. A method of loosening the soil with implements which do not turn over a furrow; it is used during primary deep and shallow fall soil cultivation, during the cultivation of fallow lands, and during preplanting preparation of the soil in the spring.

Nonmoldboard soil cultivation
Безотвальная обработка почвы

[9] A type of ard (plough)

Sokha

[10][11] 1829–30s. By (Даниил Бокарев) Daniil Bokarev

Sunflower oil industry

The credit is due to Sergei Vinogradsky. The Vinogradsky column is a simple device for culturing a large diversity of microorganisms. Invented in the 1880s by Sergei Vinogradsky, the device is a column of pond mud and water mixed with a carbon source such as newspaper (containing cellulose), blackened marshmallows or egg-shells (containing calcium carbonate), and a sulfur source such as gypsum (calcium sulfate) or egg yolk. Incubating the column in sunlight for months results in an aerobic/anaerobic gradient as well as a sulfide gradient. These two gradients promote the growth of different microorganisms such as Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Chlorobium, Chromatium, Rhodomicrobium, and Beggiatoa, as well as many other species of bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae.

Vinogradsky column

External image
Rabbage, the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding

Arts and music[edit]

The credit is due to Vasily Kandinsky

Pure abstract art

[12] 1937–58. By Yevgeny Murzin

ANS synthesizer

[additional citation needed][13]

Birch bark art

[14]

Bone watch

Constructivism (art) was an artistic and architectural philosophy, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes.

Constructivism

1931. Rhythmicon. The credit is due to Lev Termen

Drum machine

...

Kuleshov Effect

[15] The credit is due to Lev Kuleshov.

Montage

[16][17] 1801. By Yegor Kuznetsov

Musical carriage

[18] 1916–24. By Vladimir Baranov-Rossine

Optophonic Piano

Socialist realism is a style of realistic art which was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other socialist countries.

Socialist realism

1911–16. By Konstantin Stanislavsky. The Stanislavsky's system is a progression of techniques used to train actors to draw believable emotions to their performances. The method that was originally created and used by Konstantin Stanislavsky from 1911 to 1916 was based on the concept of emotional memory for which an actor focuses internally to portray a character's emotions onstage.

Stanislavsky's system

1918–20. By Lev Termen. Theremin is an early electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer).

Theremin

[19] 1937. Worker and Kolkhoz Woman. Welded sculpture is an artform in which sculpture is made using welding techniques. The first such sculpture was the famous Rabochiy i Kolkhoznitsa by Vera Mukhina. Initially it was placed atop the Soviet pavilion at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. The choice of welding method was explained by a giant size of the sculpture, and also was intended to demonstrate the innovative Soviet technologies.

Welded sculpture

[14][20] 1837. By Semyon Bronnikov

Wooden watch

Chemistry and metallurgy[edit]

[21] 1859–65. The credit is due to Nikolai Beketov

Aluminothermy

1989–91.

BARS apparatus

1838. Modern rediscovery. By (Павел Аносов) Pavel Anosov

Bulat steel

1900. The credit is due to Mikhail Tsvet

Chromatography

[22] 1902. The credit is due to Aleksandr Loran. Fire fighting foam is a foam used for fire suppression. Its role is to cool the fire and to coat the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen, resulting in suppression of the combustion. Fire fighting foam was invented by the Russian engineer and chemist Aleksandr Loran in 1902. He was a teacher in a school in Baku, which was the main center of the Russian oil industry at that time. Impressed by the terrible and hardly extinguishable oil fires that he had seen there, Loran tried to find such a liquid substance that could deal effectively with the problem, and so he invented his fire fighting foam.

Fire fighting foam

[23] 1831. The credit is due to (Павел Аносов) Pavel Anosov

Metallographic microscopy

BN-350 reactor

Nuclear desalination

1869. By Dmitry Mendeleyev. The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their properties. Elements are presented in increasing atomic number. Using the table, Mendeleyev predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered.

Current periodic table

[24] By Pyotr Sobolevsky and Vasily Lyubarsky, simultaneously with William Wollaston

Modern powder metallurgy

[25][26] 1913. The credit is due to Grigory Petrov. The Petrov contact liquor is a surface-active agent (detergent) consisting of a mixture of naphthene sulfonic acids and alkyl-aryl sulfonic acids. Widely used around the world under various marketing brands.

Synthetic detergent

[27][28] 1910. The first commercially viable form of production. The credit is due to Sergei Lebedev. Due to his discoveries, the Soviet Union became the first country to achieve a substantial industrial production of the material in the late 1930s.

Synthetic rubberPolybutadiene

By Aleksandr Butlerov, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure, the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas. The theory stated that the chemical compounds are not a random cluster of atoms and functional groups but structures with definite order formed according the valency of the composing atoms.

Theory of chemical structure

The credit is due to Igor Gorynin

Weldable titanium alloys

Communications[edit]

[29][30] 1907–11. The credit is due to Boris Rozing and Vladimir Zvorykin. In 1911, they created a television system that used a mechanical mirror-drum scanner to transmit still images over wires to the cathode ray tube in the receiver. It was one of the first experimental demonstrations where the cathode ray tube was employed for the purposes of television.

CRT television

[31][32] 1923. By Oleg Losev. In the early 1920s, Oleg Losev was experimenting with applying voltage biases to various kinds of crystals for manufacture of radio detectors. With a zinc oxide crystal he gained amplification. This was negative resistance phenomenon, decades before the tunnel diode. He then built regenerative and superheterodyne receivers, and even transmitters. However, this discovery was not supported by authorities and only a few examples for research was produced.

Crystodine

1925. The credit is due to Lev Termen. Interlaced video is a technique of doubling the perceived frame rate introduced with the composite video signal used with analog television without consuming extra bandwidth. In the domain of television, it was first demonstrated by Leon Theremin in 1925 starting with 16 lines resolution and eventually 64 in 1926.

Interlaced video

[33] 1794. By Ivan Kulibin. In 1794, Ivan Kulibin created a semaphore that employed his earlier invention, searchlight, as means of sending messages. This allowed the use of semaphore at night and during light fog, and extended the range between intermediate stations.

Optical telegraph

[34][35] 1958. By Leonid Kupriyanovich

Pocket phone

[34][36] 1957. By Leonid Kupriyanovich

Early portable mobile phone device

[37] 7 May 1895. The first practical device. The credit is due to Aleksandr Popov

Radio receiver

By Lev Termen. The Thing was one of the first "bugs" to use passive techniques to transmit an audio signal. Because it was energized and activated by electromagnetic energy from an outside source, it is considered a predecessor of RFID technology.

Thing (listening device)

External image
Kupriyanovich's 1958 mobile phone. More info (in Russian)

Computing and information technology[edit]

1999. The credit is due to Igor Pavlov

7z

Russian Wikipedia article

Acmeology

1967. By (Михаил Карцев) Mikhail Kartsev

Computer for operations with functions

[Note 1] MIR

Desktop workstation

[38] By Mikhail Bonch-Bruyevich, independently from William Eccles & Frank Jordan

Flip-flop (electronics)

1880. By Bruno Abakanowicz, independently from Charles Boys

Integraph

1832. The first application in informatics. The credit is due to Semyon Korsakov. Korsakov announced his new method and machines in September 1832, and rather than seeking patents offered the machines for public use.

Punched card

2009. Chatroulette. The credit is due to Andrei Ternovsky

Randomized webcam chat room

1993. The credit is due to Yevgeny Roshal

RAR

The Russian abacus or schyoty (literally "counts") is a decimal type of abacus that has a single slanted deck in a unique vertical layout, with ten beads on each wire (except one wire which has four beads, for quarter-ruble fractions, that is usually near the user). It was developed in Russia since the late 16th century, at the time when abacus already was falling out of use in the Western Europe. However, the decimality of the Russian abacus (explained by Russian ruble's being the world's first decimal currency) and its simplicity (compared to the previous European and Asian versions) led to the wide use of this device in Russia well until the advent of electronic calculators in the late 20th century.

Russian abacus

1962. AVL tree. The credit is due to Yevgeny Landis and Georgy Adelson-Velsky

Self-balancing binary search tree

1956–59. Setun. The credit is due to Sergei Sobolev and Nikolai Brusentsov

Modern ternary computer

Was proposed in 1997 by Aleksei Kitayev

Topological quantum computer

1946–56. The credit is due to Genrikh Altshuller

TRIZ

Energy[edit]

[39] 1932. The credit is due to (Алексей Бахмутский) Aleksei Bakhmutsky

Cutting-loading machineCoal cutter-loader
Горный комбайнКомбайн очистной

1969. Severnoye Siyaniye barge. The credit is due to (Николай Кухто) Nikolai Kukhto

Floating power station

[40] 1926. Ramzin boiler. The credit is due to Leonid Ramzin

Flow-through boiler

[41] 1970s?. The credit is due to Aleksandr Kalina

Kalina cycle

[42] 1958. The credit is due to Aleksandr Klimenko

Klimenko cycle

1888–91. The cell based on the outer photoelectric effect. The credit is due to Aleksandr Stoletov

Solar cell

[43] 1888. The synthesis through electrolysis. The credit is due to Dmitry Lachinov

Synthesis of hydrogen and oxygen

[42] 1934–39. The credit is due to Pyotr Kapitsa

Current turboexpander

Oil and gas[edit]

1878–83. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Cylindric oil depot

[44] 1914. The credit is due to Mikhail Tikhvinsky

Gas lift

[45] 1846. By Nikolai Voskoboinikov and Vasily Semyonov

Modern oil well

Was proposed in 1863 by Dmitry Mendeleyev

Pipeline transport

1891. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Thermal cracking

[46][47] 1922. The credit is due to Matvei Kapelyushnikov

Turbodrill

Nuclear energy[edit]

Russian Wikipedia article

BREST reactor

...

Fast-neutron reactor

[48] International cooperation

GT-MHR reactor

...

Lead-cooled fast reactor

...

Nuclear power plant

Mass-produced

Nuclear power station barge

...

RBMK reactor

...

Traveling wave reactor

...

VVER reactor

Everyday life[edit]

[49] 1876. The credit is due to Pavel Yablochkov

AC transformer

1372. The first written Uralic language (after Hungarian)

Anbur script

[50]

Banya

1704. The Russian ruble

Decimal currency

1878. Yablochkov candle. The credit is due to Pavel Yablochkov

Electric street lights

[Note 2][51] 1927. By Oleg Losev

Light-emitting diode

[52] 1802. The credit is due to Osip Krichevsky

Modern powdered milk

Housing[edit]

[citation needed]

Water-based central heating

1795. By Nikolai Lvov

Early HVAC system

...

Izba

[Note 3][53] 1721–45. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk

Lightning rod

[54]

Russian oven

[55] 1795. By Ivan Kulibin

Screw drive elevator

Architecture[edit]

Forms and structural engineering[edit]

The bochka roof or simply bochka is the type of roof in the traditional Russian architecture that has a form of half-cylinder with elevated and sharpened upper part, resembling the sharpened kokoshnik. Typically made of wood, bochka roof was extensively used both in the church and civilian architecture in the 17th-18th centuries. Later it was sometimes used in the Russian Revival style buildings.

Bochka roof

1896. Shukhov Rotunda. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Gridshell

1896. Shukhov tower in Polibino. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Hyperboloid structure

[56] The kokoshnik is a semicircular or keel-like exterior decorative element in the traditional Russian architecture, a type of corbel blind arch. The name was inspired by the traditional Russian women's head-dress. Kokoshniks were used in the Russian church architecture in the 16th century, while in the 17th century their popularity reached the highest point. Kokoshniks were placed on walls, at the basement of tented roofs or tholobates, or over the window frames, or in rows above the vaults.

Kokoshnik

[57] The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture, which distinguishes Russia from other Orthodox nations and Christian denominations. Indeed, the earliest Russian churches, built just after the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which led some historians to speculate what Russian pre-Christian pagan temples might have looked like. Namely, these early churches were 13-domed wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (989) and 25-domed stone Desyatinnaya Church in Kiev (989-996). The number of domes typically has a symbolical meaning in Russian architecture, for example 13 domes symbolize Christ with 12 Apostles, while 25 domes mean the same with additional 12 Prophets from the Old Testament. Multiple domes of Russian churches were often made of wood and were comparatively smaller than the Byzantine domes.

Multidomed church

1164. Dobrila Evangeliary. The earliest depiction. The onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion, after which they are named. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they are set, and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous structure tapers smoothly to a point. The so-called onion dome is the dominant form for church domes in Russia, and though the earliest preserved Russian domes of such type date from the 16th century, the illustrations of the old chronicles indicate that they were used since the late 13th century.

Onion dome

The tented roof masonry was a technique widely used in the Russian architecture in the 16th-17th centuries. Before that time tented roofs (conical, or actually polygonal roofs) were made of wood and used in the wooden churches. These hipped roofs are thought to have originated in the Russian North, as they prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings during long winters. Wooden tents also were used to cover towers in kremlins, or even applied in some common buildings, like it was in Western Europe, but the thin, pointed, nearly conical roofs of the similar shape made of brick or stone became a unique form in Russian church architecture. Some scholars, however, argue that hipped roofs have something in common with European Gothic spires, and even tend to call this style 'Russian Gothic'. The Ascension church of Kolomenskoye, built in 1532 to commemorate the birth of the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV, is often considered the first tented roof church, but recent studies show that the earliest use of the stone tented roof was in the Trinity Church in Aleksandrov, built in 1510s.

Tented roof masonry

[53] 1721–45. Leaning Tower of Nevyansk. A rebar or reinforcing bar is a common metal bar (typically made of steel), used in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures. Rebars were known in construction well before the era of the modern reinforced concrete, since some 150 years before its invention rebars were used to form the carcass of the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk in Russia, which was built on the orders of the industrialist Akinfy Demidov. The purpose of such construction is one of the many mysteries of the tower. The cast iron used for rebars was of very high quality, and there is no corrosion on them up to this day.

Rebar

All-Russia Exhibition 1896. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Tensile structure

All-Russia Exhibition 1896. The credit is due to Vladimir Shukhov

Thin-shell structure

...

Vysotka

A zvonnitsa is a large rectangular structure containing multiple archs or beams that carry bells, where bell ringers stand on its basement level and perform the ringing using long ropes, like playing on a kind of giant musical instrument. It was an alternative to bell tower in the medieval architecture of Russia and some Eastern European countries. Zvonnitsa appeared in Russia in the 14th century and was widely used until the 17th century. Sometimes it was mounted right atop the church building, resulting in the special type of church called pod zvonom ("under ringing") or izhe pod kolokoly ("under bells"). The most famous example of such kind of a church is the Church of St. Ivan of the Ladder adjacent to Ivan the Great Bell Tower in the Moscow Kremlin.

Zvonnitsa

Native styles[edit]

...

Constructivism

...

Early Russian architecture

[58]

Neo-Russian

Developed

Neo-Byzantine

...

Late Muscovite

...

Russian Revival

...

Stalinist Empire

Russian Wikipedia article

Siberian Baroque

...

Middle Muscovite

...

Naryshkin Baroque

...

Postconstructivism

[59]

North Caucasus architecture

Russian Wikipedia article

Russian wooden architecture

Mechanical engineering[edit]

[60] 1832. The credit is due to Aleksandr Sablukov

Centrifugal fan

[61] 1811. The credit is due to (Иван Неведомский) Ivan Nevedomsky

Lever press
Машина для чеканки с коленчатым рычагом

1718. The credit is due to Andrei Nartov

Mechanic slide rest

Refer to [19][62][63][64] for inventions listed below

Welding:

...

Arc welding

[Note 4][65]

Automatic arc welding

...

Carbon arc welding

...

Manual metal arc

[62] 1905. The credit is due to (Владимир Миткевич) Vladimir Mitkevich

Three-phase arc welding

[66]

Underwater welding

Medicine[edit]

[Note 5][67] The credit is due to (Сергей Соколов) Sergei Sokolov

Acoustic microscope

Chizhevsky Chandelier. The credit is due to Aleksandr Chizhevsky

Air ioniser

1990s. The credit is due to Anatoly Kaplunov, Mikhail Yegorov and others

Anthropometric cosmetology

1905. The credit is due to Nikolai Korotkov

Auscultatory blood pressure measurement

By Vladimir Bekhterev

Bekhterev's mixture

1930. The credit is due to Sergei Yudin

Blood bank

1928–30. The credit is due to (Владимир Шамов) Vladimir Shamov and Sergei Yudin

Cadaveric blood transfusion

1901–03. The credit is due to (Иван Толочинов) Ivan Tolochinov and Ivan Pavlov

Classical conditioning

The credit is due to Gavriil Ilizarov

Distraction osteogenesis

The credit is due to Nikolai Devyatkov, Mikhail Golant and others

EHF therapy

By Gavriil Ilizarov

External fixation

1847. The credit is due to Nikolai Pirogov

Field anesthesia

The first head transplant with full cerebral function. The credit is due to Vladimir Demikhov

Head transplant

1952. By Gavriil Ilizarov

Ilizarov apparatus

...

MM-wave therapy

1963. The credit is due to (Николай Сиротинин) Nikolai Sirotinin

Oxygen cocktail

1854. By Nikolai Pirogov

Pirogov amputation
Операция Пирогова

[68] By (Вадим Юревич) Vadim Yurevich

Plasmapheresis

1974. The credit is due to Svyatoslav Fyodorov

Radial keratotomy

1875. By Nikolai Sklifosovsky

Russian lock (Sklifosovsky lock)
Русский замо́к (Замо́к Склифосовского)

[Note 5] The credit is due to (Сергей Соколов) Sergei Sokolov

Ultrasonic testing

By (Александр Вишневский) Aleksandr Vishnevsky

Vishnevsky liniment
Линимент бальзамический (по Вишневскому)

Physics[edit]

By Yefim Berkovich

Berkovich tip

...

Cherenkov detector

By Gersh Budker (co-inventor)

Collider

The credit is due to Nikolai Basov and Aleksandr Prokhorov

Continuous-output maser

1962. The credit is due to Yevgeny Zababakhin, K. V. Volkov, Vyacheslav Danilenko, V. I. Yelina

Detonation nanodiamond

1802. By Vasily Petrov

Electric arc

1966. The credit is due to Gersh Budker

Electron cooling

[69] 1944. The credit is due to Yevgeny Zavoisky

EPR spectroscopy

By Zhores Alfyorov (co-developer)

Heterotransistor

[70] 1950. The credit is due to Andrei Tikhonov

Magnetotellurics

1944. The credit is due to Vladimir Veksler

Microtron

By Yevgeny Zavoisky (co-developer)

NMR spectroscopy

[71]

Nuclotron

The credit is due to Aleksandr Makarov

Orbitrap

[72] 1930–34. By Leonid Kubetsky

Photomultiplier

...

Reflectron

[73] 1939. By Nikolai Devyatkov

Reflex klystron

...

Shashlik (physics)

2001.

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

...

Synchrophasotron

By Vladimir Veksler (co-inventor)

Synchrotron

...

Tokamak

...

Voitenko compressor

Printing[edit]

[74] 1866–67. The credit is due to (Пётр Княгининский) Pyotr Knyagininsky

Automatic typesetter

[75][76] 1869. The credit is due to Mikhail Alisov

Hectograph

[Note 6][77] 1890. The credit is due to (Иван Орлов) Ivan Orlov

Orlov printing

[additional citation needed][78] By (Иван Орлов) Ivan Orlov

Iris printing (rainbow printing)
Ирисовая печать (радужная печать)

[79] 1870s. The credit is due to (Иосиф Ливчак) Iosif Livchak

Slug-casting typesetter

[76] 1870. The credit is due to Mikhail Alisov

Typewritter-typesetter
Наборно-пишущая машина

Recording[edit]

[80] 1962. The credit is due to Yury Denisyuk

3D holography

1926, 1927. The credit is due to (Павел Тагер) Pavel Tager and (Александр Шорин) Aleksandr Shorin

Graphical sound

The credit is due to Lev Termen

Light beam microphone

[81] 1925. The credit is due to Sergei Rzhevkin

Piezoelectric microphone

[82] 1933. The credit is due to Fyodor Leontovich

Underwater movie camera

Photography[edit]

[83] 1840. The credit is due to Aleksei Grekov

Electroplated daguerreotype

[84] 1882. The credit is due to Sigizmund Yurkovsky

Instant focal-plane shutter

1891. 1939. The credit is due to (Яков Наркевич-Иодко) Yakov Narkevich-Iodko and Semyon Kirlian

Kirlian photography

[85] 1852. The credit is due to (Иван Александровский) Ivan Aleksandrovsky

Stereo camera

By Vyacheslav Sreznevsky (a prolific inventor in the field of photography): [86][87]

1875

Portable photographic studio

1882

Expeditional photocamera

1886

Aerial camera and photographic plates

1886

Watertight marine camera

1887

Camera for solar eclipses

Space exploration[edit]

1756

The credit is due to Mikhail Lomonosov

Night vision telescope

1762

Published in 1827. By Mikhail Lomonosov

Off-axis reflecting telescope

1959, 1895

Proposed by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Yury Artsutanov

Space elevator

1903

By Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Theoretical foundations of spaceflight

1916

The credit is due to Yury Kondratyuk

Lunar orbit rendezvous

1959, 1919

Proposal, first application

Gravity assist

1930

By Pavel Molchanov, independently from Robert Bureau

Radiosonde

1931

...

Hypergolic propellant

1931

...

Space suit

1941

...

Maksutov telescope

1951, 1947

The credit is due to Mikhail Tikhonravov and Dmitry Okhotsimsky

Modern multistage rocket

1963, 1949

Proposal, first application

Staged combustion cycle

????

The credit is due to Gavriil Tikhov

Feathering spectrograph

????

[citation needed] First application

Electric propulsion

1957

...

Spaceport

1957

...

Orbital space rocket

1957

...

Satellite

1957

...

Space capsule

1958

...

Air-augmented rocket

1961

...

Space food

1961

...

Human spaceflight

1961

...

Reentry capsule

1963

...

Plasma propulsion engine

1964

...

Kardashyov scale

1964

...

Pulsed plasma thruster

1965

...

Extra-vehicular activity

1965

...

Molniya orbit satellite

1966

Luna 9

Lander spacecraft

1966

Luna 10

Orbiter

1966

...

Orbital module

1967

...

Automated space docking

1967

...

Space toilet

1970

...

Space probe

1970

...

Robotic sample return

1970

...

Space rover

1971

...

Space station

1971

...

Hall effect thruster

1975

Venera 9

Venus lander

1975

...

Androgynous Peripheral Attach System

1978

...

Unmanned resupply spacecraft

1979

[88]

Space-based radio telescope

1982

...

Modular space station

1992

...

Space mirror

1995

...

Submarine-launched spacecraft

1999

Multinational cooperation

Sea Launch

2001

...

Space tourism

2015

[89] Planned

Space cleaner

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Soviet MIR had the most functions among all early precursors of a modern personal computer. It was created for use in engineering and scientific applications, employed a user-friendly interface and was capable of a high-level programming language.
  2. ^ No application was found at the time of the invention.
  3. ^ The first lightning conductor in the modern era might have been used intentionally in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk. However, it remains unknown if it was created as a grounding measure.
  4. ^ Automatic arc welding was developed and implemented almost simultaneously in Russia, USA and Germany. Some of the Russian contributions to the process include creation of a method of automatic submerged arc welding and equipment for rapid automatic arc welding.
  5. ^ a b Not realized due to immaturity of technology at the time of the invention.
  6. ^ Orlov printing: distinct color edges without disruptions or displacements. Iris printing: smooth transition of colors.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Petro Prokopovych (1775–1850)". Beekeeping in Ukraine. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  2. ^ Демиденко, Надія (2009). "Життєвий і творчий шлях П. І. Прокоповича (1775–1850) – патріарха вітчизняної бджільницької науки" (PDF). Історія науки і біографістика. Національна академія аграрних наук України (2009–2). 
  3. ^ Деревянченко, Анатолий; Чулков, Алексей (1990). Волжский самородок: Страницы жизни Ф. А. Блинова. Их имена в истории края. Саратов: Приволжское книжное издательство. 
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