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A reconstruction of a Peloponnesian soldier, based on archeological excavations


Recent PUA

{{wiktionary redirect}}

New phonetic alphabet[edit]

Letter Word 1972 version[1]   BNL song other suggestions
A aether aesthetic aisle "A" is aether across the aisles
B bdellium bdellium bdellium bdellometer "B" is blessing with bdellium and a bdellatomy
C czar cyst czar Chanukkah, chthonic "C" is the czar celebrating Chanukkah
D Django djellaba djinn ("gin") Dzongkha, 'dswounds ("zounds") "D" is a djinn dressed in a djellaba
E Euphrates euphemism Euphrates eye, ewe "E" is the eye of the Euphrates
F ffoulkes feign fohn ("phone") --> but dicts have "fain" or "fern", not "fone"
G gnome gnat gnarly gnu, gaol, gjetost "G" is a gnome going to gaol
H hour heuristic hour honor, hlonipa, Hsi-an "H" is the honor/hour of Hsian
I IHVH ithyphallic irk "I" is irking to IHVH
J jarlsberg jarlsberg jalapeño "J" is jarlsberg cheese with jalapeños
K knickers knickers knick-knack kshatriya, ktypeite ("tipi-ite"), kvetch "K" is a knight knitting knickers
L llama llama llama ("yama") Llandudno, Lodz, Lancut ("wine-soot") "L" is the llamas of Lancut
M mnemonic mnemonic mnemonic mnemic, Mpret ("bret") "M" is a mnemonic for Mpret
N Ndilo ("Deelo") nuance Ngomo ("Gomo") Nguyen ("win"), Ngaio "N" is the Nguyen family of Ndilo
O oestrogen oestrogen Ouija board oud
P psychotic pneumonia pneumonia, pterodactyl,
Przewalski's horse, pneus "news"? pseud? "P" is a psychotic pterodactyl
Q qi? quay qat ("cat") --> dicts have "kaht", not "cat" "Q" is unloading qat on the quay
R Rzeszów rhythm "R-gyle" Rwanda
S sjambok sjambok Saar sbirro, 'Sblood, sphere, Szechuan
T Tlingit ("Klinkit") tzar tsunami Tchaikovski, tmesis
U uilleann ulema urn uakari, Uighur, Uitlander "U" is uilleann pipes painted on an urn
V veld ("felt") veldt vraisemblance Vlach, vlei
W who wrath wren, wrinkly, who wrack, wheki ("feki"), Whakatane "W" is whoever wrecked Whakatane
X Xhosa xylophone Xi'an Xmas "X" is Xmas in Xhosaland
Y ych a fi? yttrium yperite Ypers ("wipers") , you
Z Zsa Zsa zloty zed zwitterion, zhuyin

Unified English Spelling[edit]

Thanks to Angr. My prefs:

  • -our/-or: US (etymology, derivation, length)
  • -re/-er: UK (etymology, derivation, but counterexamples fiber/fibrous, sober/sobriety, enter/entrance; on the other hand, centre/centering)
  • -ise/-ize: US/UK -ize (already in both countries, etymology, disambiguation)
  • -ogue/-og; -gramme/-gram, -fence/-fense, -exion/-ection: US (etymology, derivation, uniformity)
  • ae,oe / e: US (length)
  • ll/l: US (stress rules; woollen okay)
  • l/ll: US (derivation, stress rules)
  • license, and practice: US (derivation, pronunciation)
  • grey, cosy, artefact, vice (tool), mollusc, pyjamas, calliper, moustache, camomile (UK)
  • disk, tire, skeptic, carburetor, check, jewelry (US)
  • ax(e), mo(u)ld, mo(u)lt, plow/plough, sulfur/sulphur, liquorice/licorice, yog(h)urt (who cares)
  • story, cipher, draft (other form being abandoned in UK)


  • alumin(i)um

doesn't belong because it's not just a spelling difference.


  • judgement, acknowledgment: UK (derivation)

Useful templates[edit]

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Statistical significance in polls[edit]

Responses in an opinion poll need to be separated by 2σ to be considered significant. (A difference of 2σ gives a 97.7% probability,[3]; a difference of 1.65σ is 95% probable.[4])

The p = 0.1 for 95% significance above a specific percentage is 1.28σ.[5]

From the math ref desk:

The problem of computing mean value and standard deviation for the result of polls is solved here: [[6]]. If the first poll shows X1 ≈ μ1 ± σ1 and the second poll shows X2 ≈ μ2 ± σ2 , then compute the difference X = X1 − X2 ≈ (μ1 ± σ1) − (μ2 ± σ2) = (μ1 − μ2) ± √(σ12 + σ22) = μ ± σ . Compute the quotient U = μ/σ . If, say, U=2.7, then try with input CDF[NormalDistribution[0, 1], 2.7] , and get the probability 0.996533. Bo Jacoby (talk) 06:37, 22 April 2014 (UTC).

The sampling error z for 95% confidence (p=0.05) is 1.96σ. Thus the above would be 0.653 and 0.842 z.

Edit window[edit]

To do[edit]

  • velar clicks
  • S.Twa also indigenous, like Kwisi etc. (Inskepe). Kwisi may have once had cattle?
  • expand kantenji

maybe fix language infobox so E17 fn's in eg Kagwahiva language link better. maybe code-link (name) as w Glotto.

Language updates now that Glottolog codes finished

check for glotto\d w/o glotto: finish or consolidate ref

add Glotto codes for 'unclassified'

finish Pama–Nyungan languages classfj

Papi languages broke up, Suarmin language unclassified; note Glotto:sepik on why trimmed down

fix Zande languages (red + spurious)

fix Sak language: glotto includes Pyu & rem. Taman (split/merge Bodo-Garo too?)

fix Tibeto-Kinauri languages vs. West Himalayish languages

rem. Kaike, Bhoti, Tukpa from Kinnauri languages

fix Zeme languages when rem. spurious

why Sua language + Mbulungish language?

break up Kwomtari languages

update Grass languages, Duna–Pogaya languages

red links Bahinemo languages

dbl check East Tucanoan languages

break up Central Plateau languages

fix Iwam languages

merge Mambiloid languages unclass.

break up Banggi languages?

move Tatana language & Papar language & Tidongic languages to Murutic languages, and move Bookan inside

break up Li'o language per classification

redo tree in lang box for Flores languages

does Baloi language not belong in libi1251 Ngiri language?