User:LightandDark2000/My Notable Storms

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Hello, I am LightandDark2000. This is the page in which I will post my featured storms. Each storm is categorized by a notable characteristic that sets them apart, and the storms are listed in chronological order in their own respective sections. Note that while some storms may have characteristics that match multiple categories, each storm is only listed once on this page. The contents are subject to change, so please do not be upset if something "disappears." However, if the storm I erased was a major storm, chances are I'll put it back up later. Additionally, if you want to check out active tropical cyclones or the various tropical cyclone basins, see Portal:Tropical cyclones. Enjoy!

Contents

Timeline of Unusually occurring & Long-lived storms[edit]

Tropical Storm Zeta Hurricane Alice (December 1954) Cyclone Qendresa 2006 Central Pacific cyclone User:LightandDark2000/Cyclone Stephanie (2016) 1996 Lake Huron cyclone Hurricane Nadine Hurricane John (1994) Hurricane Catarina Hurricane Alex (2016) User:LightandDark2000/Cyclone Katrina–Victor–Cindy Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

Storms of the Year[edit]

Featured Storms Number 7, 8, & 9 – August 25, September 10, & September 20, 2017

The Storms of the Year – 2017

Hurricane Harvey[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Harvey 2017-08-25 2231Z.png Harvey 2017 track.png
Duration August 13, 2017 – September 3, 2017
Peak intensity 130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  938 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began monitoring an area of low pressure southwest of Cape Verde on August 13, which was expected to merge with a tropical wave that just emerged off the coast of Africa, within a few days.[1] Instead the two systems remained separate,[2] with the first low pressure area coalescing into a potential tropical cyclone by 15:00 UTC on August 17.[3] A reconnaissance aircraft investigating the system was able to locate a well-defined circulation, and the disturbance was upgraded to Tropical Storm Harvey accordingly, six hours later.[4] On a westward course into the Caribbean Sea, the storm was plagued by relentless wind shear, and it degenerated to an open tropical wave south of Hispaniola, by 03:00 UTC on August 20.[5] Harvey's remnants continued into the Bay of Campeche, where more conducive environmental conditions led to the re-designation of a tropical depression, around 15:00 UTC on August 23, and subsequent intensification into a tropical storm by 04:00 UTC on the next morning.[6][7] The cyclone began a period of rapid intensification shortly thereafter, attaining hurricane intensity by 17:00 UTC on August 24,[8] Category 3 strength around 19:00 UTC on August 25,[9] and Category 4 intensity by 23:00 UTC on that day.[8] Harvey crossed the shore between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas around 03:00 UTC on August 26, possessing maximum winds of 130 mph (215 km/h).[10] The storm gradually spun down, becoming a tropical storm around 18:00 UTC on August 26, as it meandered across southeastern Texas.[11]

Map of the total rainfall from Hurricane Harvey in the United States.

Rockport, Fulton, and the surrounding cities bore the brunt of Harvey's eyewall as it moved ashore in Texas. Numerous structures were heavily damaged or destroyed, boats were tossed or capsized, power poles were leant or snapped, and trees were downed. As debris covered roadways and cellphone service was compromised, communication to the hardest-hit locales was severed. One person was killed in Rockport after a fire began in his home, and approximately a dozen people were injured.[12] Farther northeast, dire predictions of potentially catastrophic flooding came to fruition in Houston and nearby locales, where floodwaters submerged interstates, forced residents to their attics and roofs, and overwhelmed emergency lines. The National Weather Service tweeted, "This event is unprecedented & all impacts are unknown & beyond anything experienced..." At least 30 people were killed in the Houston area due to flooding.[13] In addition to the flooding, Harvey spawned several tornadoes around Houston.[14] A preliminary report calculated a total of $198.63 billion (2017 USD) in damages due to Harvey, making Hurricane Harvey the costliest tropical cyclone on record, surpassing Hurricane Katrina, and the second-costliest natural disaster worldwide.[15] Harvey killed 91 people, including 1 in Guyana[16] and 90 in the United States.[17] The storm produced 64.58 in (1,640 mm) of rainfall in Texas, the highest-ever rainfall total for any tropical cyclone in the United States and the third-highest rainfall total for a tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin.[18][nb 1]

Harvey is the first major hurricane to strike the United States since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, ending the record-long drought that lasted 4,323 days.[19] It is the most intense tropical cyclone to move ashore the mainland since Hurricane Charley in 2004, the first Category 4 hurricane to make landfall in Texas since Hurricane Carla in 1961, and the wettest hurricane ever to strike the continental United States.[20]

Hurricane Irma[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Irma 2017-09-06 1745Z.jpg Irma 2017 track.png
Duration August 22, 2017 – September 16, 2017
Peak intensity 185 mph (295 km/h) (1-min)  914 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began monitoring a tropical wave over western Africa on August 26.[21] The disturbance entered the Atlantic late the next day,[22] gradually organizing into Tropical Storm Irma west of Cabo Verde around 15:00 UTC on August 30.[23] Early on August 31, Irma underwent a remarkable period of rapid intensification, with winds increasing from 70 mph (110 km/h) – a high-end tropical storm – to 115 mph (185 km/h), a major hurricane, in a mere 12 hours.[24] An eyewall replacement cycle then took place shortly thereafter, which caused the storm to fluctuate between Category 2 and 3 intensity. [25] Irma resumed intensifying on September 4, and was upgraded into a Category 4 hurricane by 21:00 UTC. At that time, hurricane warnings were issued for the Leeward Islands. By 11:45 UTC the following day, Irma had become a Category 5 hurricane with 175 mph (280 km/h) winds. Six hours later, its winds further increased to 185 mph (295 km/h), tying Irma with the 1935 Labor Day hurricane, Hurricane Gilbert of 1988, and Hurricane Wilma of 2005 for the second-strongest Atlantic hurricane by wind speed, surpassed only by Hurricane Allen of 1980.

In the aftermath of Irma, development on the islands of Barbuda and Saint Martin was described as being "95% destroyed" by respective political leaders, with 1,400 people feared homeless in Barbuda.[26] So far, Irma has resulted in at least 132 deaths, including 44 across the Caribbean, and 88 in the United States.[27][28][29]

Hurricane Maria (2017)[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Maria 2017-09-19 2015Z.png Maria 2017 track.png
Duration September 13, 2017 – October 3, 2017
Peak intensity 175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  908 mbar (hPa)

On September 13, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave southwest of Cabo Verde.[30] The disturbance moved west, organizing into a potential tropical cyclone at 15:00 UTC on September 16 and Tropical Storm Maria six hours later.[31][32] On a west-northwest course, Maria intensified at an exceptional rate and attained Category 5 strength around 23:45 UTC on September 18.[33] After striking Dominica at that intensity a little over an hour later,[34] the storm weakened slightly as it entered the eastern Caribbean Sea; amid favorable conditions, however, Maria regained Category 5 intensity and eventually reached peak winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) late on September 19.[35] Around 08:00 UTC on September 20, the eyewall of Maria struck Vieques,[36] and a little over two hours later, the core of the storm made landfall near Yabucoa, Puerto Rico, with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h).[37] Land interaction caused a significant degration in Maria's structure, and it weakened to a Category 2 hurricane while moving offshore.[38] Growing in size and curving north, Maria regained Category 3 strength and maintained this intensity for several days before entering a less conducive environment.[39] After fluctuating between tropical storm and minimal hurricane strength off the coastline of North Carolina,[40] the system turned sharply east away from the United States and ultimately transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over the far northern Atlantic on September 30.[41][42]

Dominica sustained catastrophic damage from Maria, with nearly every structure on the island damaged or destroyed.[43] Surrounding islands were also dealt a devastating blow, with reports of flooding, downed trees, and damaged buildings. Puerto Rico also suffered catastrophic damage. The island's electric grid was devastated, leaving all 3.4 million residents without power. Many structures were leveled, while floodwaters trapped thousands of citizens. The United States National Guard, Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and other like units worked to administer aid and assist in search and rescue operations. However, the U.S. federal government response was criticized for its delay in waiving the Jones Act, a statute which prevented Puerto Rico from receiving aid on ships from non-U.S. flagged vessels. Along the coastline of the United States, tropical storm-force gusts cut power to hundreds of citizens; rip currents offshore led to three deaths and numerous water rescues. Estimates of damage from Maria range from $40 billion to $95 billion, mainly in Puerto Rico. The death toll currently stands at 78, with 30 killed in Dominica, 5 in the Dominican Republic, 2 on Guadeloupe, 3 in Haiti, 34 in Puerto Rico, 1 in the United States Virgin Islands, and 3 in the Contiguous United States.[44]

Juggernauts[edit]

Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Haiyan Nov 7 2013 1345Z.png Haiyan 2013 track.png
Duration November 3, 2013 – November 11, 2013
Peak intensity 230 km/h (145 mph) (10-min)  895 hPa (mbar)

On November 3, a low-pressure area formed 45 nautical miles south-southeast of Pohnpei. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. A few hours later, the JTWC designated the depression as "31W". At 10 AM JST the next day, the JMA named 31W as Haiyan. Haiyan rapidly intensified as it headed towards Palau and the Philippines. Rapid deepening occurred and it became a Category 5 Super Typhoon as it entered the Philippine area of responsibility[clarification needed], and was named Yolanda. Haiyan reached a barometric pressure below 900 mbars (895 mbars), the first since Typhoon Megi in 2010. At one of the evacuation centers the storm brought down the roof of a church in Leyte resulting in at least 20 deaths.[45]

A total of 905,353 people have been affected by the typhoon since late November 7. Later that day, the death toll rose to three.[46] During the afternoon of November 8, the death toll rose to 23. On November 9, it was reported that a total of 56 were dead as Haiyan moved across the central Philippines.[47] Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at 04:45am 2013 (UTC). More than 30 trees were uprooted during that time and no casualties have been reported. State forecasters said that nearly 800,000 people were forced to flee their homes and damage was believed to be extensive. About four million people were affected.[48] In some places in Central Visayas, school will reopen on November 15. It was reported that there was one dead and one injured in Batangas due to high waves which is now a total of 139.[49] A total of 71,623 families (330,914 persons) are being served inside 1,223 evacuation centers during that time.[50] On November 10, 11,000 houses were reported destroyed in Aklan with seven casualties and the death toll rose to 151.[51] The NDRRMC reported that a total of 255 people died from Typhoon Yolanda on November 11. By 0900 UTC, November 11, estimates rose to over 10,000 deaths, with the vast majority in Tacloban.[52]

On November 8, Typhoon Haiyan weaken to a Category 4 typhoon as it entered the South China Sea. An eyewall replacement cycle occurred to Haiyan as it became a Category 3 typhoon. On November 9, the outer rainbands of the storm was felt in Cambodia and Vietnam. It weaken to a moderate typhoon as it was also felt in Laos. Typhoon Haiyan rapidly weakened to a severe tropical storm as it killed 12 people in China on November 10. Late on November 11, Haiyan dissipated inland.

Super Typhoon Meranti (Ferdie)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Meranti 2016-09-13 0510Z.jpg Meranti 2016 track.png
Duration September 8 – September 17, 2016
Peak intensity 220 km/h (140 mph) (10-min)  890 hPa (mbar)

On September 8, 2016, a tropical depression formed[53] in a region of low wind shear, steered by ridges to the north and southwest, with warm water temperatures and outflow from the south.[54] The system reached tropical storm strength by 06:00 UTC on September 10, receiving the name Meranti.[55]

Rainbands and a central dense overcast continued to evolve as the wind shear decreased.[56] By early on September 12, Meranti reached typhoon status.[57] A small eye 9 km (5.6 mi) across developed within the spiraling thunderstorms, and Meranti started rapidly intensifying.[58] Meranti quickly attained estimated 1-minute sustained winds of 285 km/h (180 mph), equivalent to Category 5 on the Saffir–Simpson scale.[59] Meranti gradually reached its peak intensity on September 13 while passing through the Luzon Strait. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)[a] estimated peak 10-minute sustained winds of 220 km/h (140 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 890 hPa (mbar; 26.28 inHg),[60] while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center[b] estimated peak 1-minute sustained winds of 305 km/h (190 mph).[62] Based on the JMA pressure estimate, Meranti was among the most intense tropical cyclones. The JTWC wind estimate made Meranti the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide in 2016, surpassing Cyclone Winston, which had winds of 285 km/h (180 mph) when it struck Fiji in February.[63]

Late on September 13, the storm made landfall on the 83 km2 (32 sq mi) island of Itbayat in the Philippine province of Batanes while near its peak intensity.[64] At around 03:05 CST on September 15 (19:05 UTC on September 14), Meranti made landfall over Xiang'an District, Xiamen in Fujian, China with measured 2-minute sustained winds of 173 km/h (108 mph),[65] making it the strongest typhoon to ever make landfall in China's Fujian Province.[66] The system rapidly weakened soon after making landfall, while curving toward the northeast, degenerating into a tropical depression later in the day. On the next day, the system weakened into a remnant low, and re-emerged into the East China Sea. Meranti's remnant low dissipated on September 17.

Monsters of Destruction[edit]

Hurricane Mitch (1998)[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Mitch 1998 oct 26 2028Z.jpg Mitch 1998 track.png
Duration October 10, 1998 – November 9, 1998
Peak intensity 180 mph (285 km/h) (1-min)  905 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Thirteen was spawned by a tropical wave on October 22, while located offshore Colombia in the Caribbean Sea. Later that day, the depression became Tropical Storm Mitch, and within two days it intensified into a hurricane. While curving westward, the storm rapidly deepened, reaching its peak as a Category 5 hurricane with winds of 180 mph (285 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 905 mbar (26.7 inHg) late on October 26. Mitch weakened significantly while turning to the south, and on October 29 it moved ashore with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) east of La Ceiba, Honduras. It quickly weakened to a tropical storm, but did not deteriorate into a tropical depression until October 31 while over Central America. Mitch degenerated into a low pressure area on November 2 near the border of Mexico and Guatemala, although it was re-designated a tropical storm on November 3, after emerging into the Bay of Campeche. After turning to the northeast, the storm struck the city of Campeche early on November 4, and Mitch briefly weakened into a tropical depression over the Yucatán Peninsula. The storm re-intensified after reaching the Gulf of Mexico again, and Mitch made its final landfall near Naples, Florida with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) on November 5. Shortly thereafter the storm became extratropical near the northern Bahamas, which lasted several more days while crossing the Atlantic Ocean.[67]

Heavy rainfall in Jamaica flooded numerous houses and caused three fatalities from mudslides.[68][69] Strong winds, rough seas, and large amounts of precipitation resulted in minor effects in Cuba and the Cayman Islands.[69][70] Offshore Honduras, the Fantome sank, drowning all 31 people on board. In Honduras, the large and slow-moving storm dropped 35.89 inches (912 mm) of rain,[67] causing the destruction of at least 70% of the country's crops and an estimated 70-80% of road infrastructure. About 25 villages were completely dismantled, while about 33,000 homes were destroyed and another 50,000 were damaged.[68] Damage totaled about $3.8 billion in Honduras and at least 14,600 fatalities were reported.[71] In Nicaragua, rainfall totals may have reached 50 inches (1,300 mm). Over 1,700 miles (2,700 km) of roads required replacement or repairs, while effects to agriculture were significant.[68] Almost 24,000 houses were destroyed and an additional 17,600 were damaged.[72] About 3,800 deaths and $1 billion in damage were reported in Nicaragua.[68] In Costa Rica, the storm impacted 2,135 homes, of which 241 were destroyed. Extensive road infrastructure and crop damage was also reported. There were 7 people killed and $92 million in damage in Costa Rica.[73]

The storm caused flooding as far south as Panama, where three fatalities occurred.[68] Flash flooding and landslides in El Salvador damaged more than 10,000 homes, 1,200 miles (1,900 km) of roadway, and caused heavy losses to crops and livestock.[74] Damage totaled $400 million and 240 deaths were confirmed. Effects were similar but slightly more significant in Guatemala, where 6,000 houses were destroyed and an additional 20,000 were impacted to some degree. Additionally, 840 miles (1,350 km) of roads were affected, with nearly 400 miles (640 km) of it being major highways. Crop damage in Guatemala alone was nearly $500 million. It was reported that 268 deaths and $748 million in losses occurred in Guatemala.[75] The storm caused relatively minor effects in Mexico and Belize, with 9 and 11 fatalities in both countries, respectively.[68] Mitch brought tropical storm winds to South Florida and rainfall up to 11.20 inches (284 mm).[67] In the Florida Keys, several buildings that were damaged by Georges were destroyed by Mitch. Tornadoes in the state spawned by Mitch damaged or destroyed 645 houses.[68] The storm caused two fatalities and $40 million in damage in Florida.[67] Overall, Mitch caused $6.2 billion in losses and at least 18,974 people were left dead.[71][67][68][73][74][75]

Hurricane Ivan (2004)[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Ivan 13 sept 2004 1900Z.jpg Ivan 2004 track.png
Duration September 2, 2004 – September 24, 2004
Peak intensity 165 mph (270 km/h) (1-min)  910 mbar (hPa)

A westward-moving tropical wave developed into a tropical depression on September 2, before becoming Tropical Storm Ivan on the following day. After reaching hurricane intensity on September 5, the storm strengthened significantly, becoming a Category 4 hurricane on September 6. It subsequently weakened, though it reached major hurricane status again the next day. Late on September 7, Ivan passed close to Grenada while heading west-northwestward. While located near the Netherlands Antilles on September 9, Ivan briefly became a Category 5 hurricane. During the next five days, Ivan fluctuated between a Category 4 and 5 hurricane. The storm passed south of Jamaica on September 11 and then the Cayman Islands on the next day. While curving northwestward, Ivan brushed western Cuba as a Category 5 hurricane on September 14.[76]

Shortly after moving to the west of Cuba on September 14, Ivan entered the Gulf of Mexico. Over the next two days, the storm gradually weakened while tracking north-northwestward and northward. At 06:50 UTC on September 16, Ivan made landfall near Gulf Shores, Alabama with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). It quickly weakened inland, falling to tropical storm status later that day and tropical depression strength by early on September 17. The storm curved northeastward and eventually reached the Delmarva Peninsula, where it became extratropical on September 18. The remnants of Ivan moved southward and then southwestward, crossing Florida on September 21 and re-entering the Gulf of Mexico later that day. Late on September 22, the remnants regenerated into Ivan in the central Gulf of Mexico as a tropical depression, shortly before re-strengthening into a tropical storm. After reaching winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), wind shear weakened Ivan back to a tropical depression on September 24. Shortly thereafter, Ivan made a final landfall near Holly Beach, Louisiana with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and subsequently dissipated hours later.[76]

Throughout the Lesser Antilles and in Venezuela, Ivan caused 44 deaths and slightly more than $1.15 billion in losses, with nearly all of the damage and fatalities in Grenada.[76] While Ivan was passing south of Hispaniola, the outer bands of the storm caused four deaths in the Dominican Republic. In Jamaica, high winds and heavy rainfall left $360 million in damage and killed 17 people.[76] The storm brought strong winds to the Cayman Islands, resulting in two deaths and $3.5 billion in damage. In Cuba, a combination of rainfall, storm surge, and winds resulted in $1.2 billion in damage, but no fatalities. Heavy damage was reported along the Gulf Coast of the United States. Along the waterfront of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties in Florida, nearly every structure was impacted. In the former, 10,000 roofs were damaged or destroyed. About 4,600 homes were demolished in the county.[77] Similar impact occurred in Alabama. Property damage was major along Perdido Bay, Big Lagoon, Bayou Grande, Pensacola Bay and Escambia Bay. A number of homes were completely washed away by the high surge. Further inland, thousands of other houses were damaged or destroyed in many counties. Ivan produced a record tornado outbreak, with at least 119 twisters spawned collectively in nine states.[78] Throughout the United States, the hurricane left 54 fatalities and slightly more than $18.8 billion in damage.[76] Six deaths were also reported in Atlantic Canada.[79]

Hurricane Katrina (2005)[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Katrina August 28 2005 NASA.jpg Katrina 2005 track.png
Duration August 23, 2005 – August 31, 2005
Peak intensity 175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  902 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather over the Bahamas developed into a tropical depression on August 23, becoming a tropical storm on August 24 and a hurricane on August 25. It made landfall on August 25 in southern Florida, emerging a few hours later into the Gulf of Mexico. Katrina rapidly intensified to Category 5 status on the morning of August 28, becoming the fourth most intense recorded hurricane in the Atlantic basin. The hurricane weakened to a Category 4 as it turned northward, and weakened to a Category 3 hurricane with 125 mph (200 km/h) winds as it made landfall in southeastern Louisiana (as confirmed by the post-storm report; initially it was estimated as a Category 4 landfall). Hours later, it crossed the Breton Sound and held its strength, making its third and final landfall with 120 mph (190 km/h) winds near Pearlington, Mississippi.[80]

The Mississippi and Alabama coastlines suffered catastrophic damage from the storm's 30-foot (9m) storm surge. New Orleans escaped the worst damage from the storm, but levees along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and 17th Street and London Avenue Canals were ultimately breached by storm surge, flooding about 80% of the city. 1,836 people were confirmed dead across seven US states. Katrina is the costliest and one of the deadliest natural disasters in U.S. history, with damage totals around US $108 billion ($132 billion 2017 USD). It was the deadliest storm of the 2005 season. The damage and fatality estimates remain incomplete, as of late 2005.[80]

Hurricane Matthew (2016)[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Matthew 2016-09-30 2015Z.png Matthew 2016 track.png
Duration September 22, 2016 – October 10, 2016
Peak intensity 165 mph (270 km/h) (1-min)  934 mbar (hPa)

A vigorous tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 22 and moved rapidly across the Atlantic, being monitored by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) for possible tropical cyclogenesis Despite possessing tropical-storm winds as it approached the Lesser Antilles on September 27, the wave could not initially be classified as a tropical cyclone, as reconnaissance aircraft could not find a closed center. However, on September 28, the tropical wave developed a closed low-level circulation while located near Barbados, and intensified into Tropical Storm Matthew. Continuing westward under the influence of a mid-level ridge, the storm steadily intensified to attain hurricane intensity by 18:00 UTC on September 29. The effects of southwesterly wind shear unexpectedly abated late that day, and Matthew began a period of rapid intensification; during a 24-hour period beginning at 00:00 UTC on September 30, the cyclone's maximum winds more than doubled, from 80 mph (130 km/h) to 165 mph (270 km/h), making Matthew a Category 5 hurricane,[81] the first since Hurricane Felix in 2007.[82] Due to upwelling of cooler waters, Matthew weakened to a Category 4 hurricane later on October 1. Matthew remained a powerful Category 4 hurricane for several days, making landfall near Les Anglais, Haiti, around 11:00 UTC on October 4 with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h). Continuing northward, the cyclone struck Maisí in Cuba early on October 5. Cuba's and Haiti's mountainous terrain weakened Matthew to Category 3 status, as it began to accelerate northwestwards through the Bahamas.[81]

Restrengthening occurred as Matthew's circulation became better organized, with the storm becoming a Category 4 hurricane again while passing Freeport. However, Matthew began to weaken again as an eyewall replacement cycle took place. The storm significantly weakened while closely paralleling the coasts of Florida and Georgia, with the northwestern portion of the outer eyewall coming ashore in Florida while the system was a Category 2 hurricane. Matthew weakened to a Category 3 hurricane late on October 7 and then to a Category 1 hurricane by 12:00 UTC on October 8. About three hours later, the hurricane made landfall at Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, near McClellanville, South Carolina, with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h).[81] Convection became displaced as Matthew pulled away from land, with NHC declaring the system an extratropical cyclone about 200 mi (320 km) east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on October 9.[83] Matthew's remnants persisted for another day, before being absorbed by a cold front on October 10.[81]

Animation of Hurricane Matthew passing through the Bahamas on October 5-6

Heavy rains and strong winds buffeted the Lesser Antilles. The winds caused widespread power outages and damaged crops, particularly in St. Lucia, while flooding and landslides caused by the rainfall damaged many homes and roads. One person died in St. Vincent when he was crushed by a boulder.[84] The storm brought precipitation to Colombia's Guajira Peninsula, which saw its first heavy rain event in three years. One person drowned in a river in Uribia.[85] In Haiti, flooding and high winds disrupted telecommunications and destroyed extensive swaths of land; around 80% of Jérémie sustained significant damage.Jérémie,[86] Matthew left about $1.9 billion in damage and at least 546 deaths.[81][87] Heavy rainfall spread eastward across the Dominican Republic, where four were killed.[88] Effects in Cuba were most severe along the coast, where storm surge caused extensive damage.[89] Four people were killed due to a bridge collapse,[90] and total losses in the country amounted to $2.58 billion, most of which occurred in the Guantánamo Province.[91] Passing through the Bahamas as a major hurricane, Matthew inflicted severe impacts across several islands, particularly Grand Bahama, where an estimated 95% of homes sustained damage in the townships of Eight Mile Rock and Holmes Rock. In Florida, much of the damage occurred was caused by strong winds and storm surge in the east-central and northeastern portions of the state. About 1 million people lost power. Damage in Florida reached over $2.75 billion and there were 12 deaths. About 478,000 lost electricity in Georgia and South Carolina. Torrential rain caused severe flooding, especially in North Carolina, where some rivers exceed record heights set by Hurricane Floyd. About 100,000 structures were flooded and damage reached $1.5 billion. Overall, Matthew caused at least 603 deaths and about $15.1 billion in damage.

Record-Smashers[edit]

Super Typhoon Nancy (1961)[edit]

Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Super Typhoon Nancy 61.JPG Nancy 1961 track.png
Duration September 7, 1961 – September 17, 1961
Peak intensity 345 km/h (215 mph) (1-min)  882 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Nancy, having developed on September 7, 1961, in the open West Pacific, rapidly intensified to reach super typhoon status early on the 9th. Nancy continued to strengthen, and reached peak winds of 215 mph (187 knots) on the 12th. Such intensity is speculative, as Reconnaissance Aircraft was in its infancy and most intensities were estimates. Furthermore, later analysis indicated that equipment likely overestimated Nancy's wind speed; if the measurements were correct, Nancy would have had the highest wind speeds of any tropical cyclone by 25 mph. Nancy held this record unofficially until October 2015, when Hurricane Patricia surpassed the storm in both intensity and peak sustained winds. Regardless, Nancy was a formidable typhoon, and retained super typhoon status until the 14th as it neared Okinawa. The typhoon turned to the northeast, and made landfall on southern Japan on the 16th with winds of 100 mph. It continued rapidly northeastward, and became extratropical on the 17th in the Sea of Okhotsk. Well executed warnings lessened Nancy's potential major impact, but the typhoon still caused 172 fatalities and widespread damage.

Hurricane Patricia (2015)[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Patricia 2015-10-23 1730Z.jpg Patricia 2015 track.png
Duration October 11, 2015 – October 24, 2015
Peak intensity 215 mph (345 km/h) (1-min)  872 mbar (hPa)

On October 11, 2015, an area of disturbed weather traversed Central America and emerged over the eastern Pacific Ocean. The disturbance moved slowly over the next few days, later merging with a tropical wave on October 15. The merger of these systems and the effects of a concurrent Tehuantepec gap wind event spurred the formation of a broad area of low pressure. On October 20, this system strengthened into Tropical Depression Twenty-E, off the southwestern coast of Mexico. It only slowly intensified at first, becoming Tropical Storm Patricia later that day. It organized rapidly, beginning early on October 21, and became a hurricane late that day, in an atmosphere highly conducive to rapid deepening. On October 22, explosive intensification occurred, and in only 24 hours, Patricia became a Category 5 hurricane with 175 mph (280 km/h) winds.[92] The intensification rate rivaled those of Hurricane Linda in 1997 and Hurricane Wilma in 2005. Patricia subsequently attained winds of 215 mph (345 km/h) and a central pressure of 872 mbar (hPa; 25.75 inHg), becoming the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere, surpassing both the previous central pressure record set by Hurricane Wilma and the previous 1-minute sustained wind record set by Hurricane Allen. Patricia weakened even more rapidly than it intensified; just 30 hours after peaking in intensity, it was downgraded to a remnant low at 16:00 CDT on October 24.[93] The system completely dissipated soon afterward. However, Patricia's landfall in Western Mexico as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), was still sufficient to qualify as the strongest landfall by any Pacific hurricane.[92]

Superstorm Sandy (2012)[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Superstorm Sandy on 10-30-2012.png Sandy 2012 track.png
Duration October 4, 2012 – November 2, 2012
Peak intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  940 mbar (hPa)

On October 4, 2012, a tropical wave developed over East Tropical Africa. During the next week, the tropical wave slowly organized while moving westward, before emerging into the Atlantic Ocean on October 11. On October 22, at 1200 UTC, the tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Eighteen, while located about 350 miles (560 km) south-southwest of Kingston, Jamaica. Six hours later, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Sandy. Initially, the tropical storm headed southwestward, but re-curved to the north-northeast due to mid to upper-level trough in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. A gradual increase in organization and deepening occurred, with Sandy becoming a hurricane on October 24. Several hours later, it made landfall near Bull Bay, Jamaica as a moderate Category 1 hurricane. In that country, there was 1 fatality and damage to thousands of homes, resulting in about $100 million in losses. After clearing Jamaica, Sandy began to strengthen significantly. At 0525 UTC on October 25, it struck near Santiago de Cuba in Cuba, with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h); this made Sandy the second major hurricane of the season. In the province of Santiago de Cuba alone, 132,733 homes were damaged, of which 15,322 were destroyed and 43,426 lost their roofs. The storm resulted in 11 deaths and $2 billion in damage in Cuba. It also produced widespread devastation in Haiti, where over 27,000 homes were flooded, damaged, or destroyed, and 40% of the corn, beans, rice, banana, and coffee crops were lost. The storm left $750 million in damage, 54 deaths, and 21 people missing.[94]

The storm weakened slightly while crossing Cuba and emerged into the southwestern Atlantic Ocean as a Category 2 hurricane late on October 25. Shortly thereafter, it moved through the central Bahamas,[94] where three fatalities and $300 million in damage was reported.[95] Early on October 27, it briefly weakened to a tropical storm, before re-acquiring hurricane intensity later that day. In the Southeastern United States, impact was limited to gusty winds, light rainfall, and rough surf. The outerbands of Sandy impacted the island of Bermuda, with a tornado in Sandys Parish damaging a few homes and businesses. Movement over the Gulf Stream and baroclinic processes caused the storm to deepen, with the storm becoming a Category 2 hurricane again at 1200 UTC on October 29. Although it soon weakened to a Category 1 hurricane, the barometric pressure decreased to 940 mbar (28 inHg).[94] At 2100 UTC, Sandy became extratropical, while located just offshore New Jersey. The center of the now extratropical storm moved inland near Brigantine late on October 29. After moving ashore, Sandy continued moving to the west, weakening below hurricane force by the time it reached Pennsylvania. Because the system was non-tropical, the Weather Prediction Center (WPC) – known at the time as the Hydrometeorogical Prediction Center (HPC) –took over the responsibility of issuing advisories on the low.[96] The remnants of Sandy brought heavy snow and high winds to the central Appalachian Mountains, resulting in blizzard warnings being issued.[97] The system continued to weaken as it moved across western Pennsylvania,[98] and by 0300 UTC on October 31, the storm's movement had shifted to the northwest. Blizzard conditions continued in the Appalachians, bringing more snow to the region that had already seen high amounts the day before.[99] By 0900 UTC on October 31, the circulation degenerated into a trough of low pressure, with no discernible center of low pressure.[100] Later that day, the remnants of Sandy spread into the Great Lakes, and the WPC issued its last advisory. By the time the system had moved out of the region, nearly three feet of snow had fallen in some areas of West Virginia, Tennessee, and Maryland, with lesser amounts elsewhere in the region.[101] During the next 2 days, the remnants of Sandy crossed the Great Lakes and moved into Canada, while weakening rapidly. On November 2, the remnants of Sandy were absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone to the north, over Eastern Canada.[102]

In the Northeastern United States, damage was most severe in New Jersey and New York. Within the former, 346,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, while nearly 19,000 businesses suffered severe losses.[103] In New York, an estimated 305,000 homes were destroyed. Severe coastal flooding occurred in New York City, with the hardest hit areas being New Dorp Beach, Red Hook, and the Rockaways; eight tunnels of the subway systems were inundated. Heavy snowfall was also reported, peaking at 36 inches (910 mm) in West Virginia. Additionally, the remnants of Sandy left 2 deaths and $100 million in damage in Canada, with Ontario and Quebec being the worst impacted. Overall, 286 fatalities were attributed to Sandy. Damages totaled $65 billion in the United States and $68 billion overall, making Sandy the second-costliest Atlantic hurricane in recorded history, behind only Hurricane Katrina in 2005.[104]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Winston (2016)[edit]

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 5 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Winston 2016-02-20 0130Z (cropped).jpg Winston 2016 track.png
Duration February 7, 2016 – March 3, 2016
Peak intensity 280 km/h (175 mph) (10-min)  884 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Disturbance 09F developed on February 7, 2016, to the northwest of Port Vila, Vanuatu.[105] Over the next few days, the system gradually developed as it moved southeastward,[106] acquiring gale-force winds by February 11.[107] The following day it underwent rapid intensification and attained ten-minute maximum sustained winds of 175 km/h (110 mph).[108] Less favourable environmental conditions prompted weakening thereafter.[109] After turning northeast on February 14,[110] Winston stalled to the north of Tonga on February 17.[111] Regaining strength, the storm doubled back to the west, achieving Category 5 status on both the Australian tropical cyclone scale and the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on February 19.[112][113] It reached its record intensity the next day with ten-minute sustained winds of 280 km/h (175 mph) and a pressure of 884 hPa (mbar; 26.10 inHg), shortly before making landfall on Viti Levu, Fiji.[114][115] This made it the strongest storm to ever strike the nation, as well as the strongest tropical cyclone of the Southern Hemisphere in history.[116][117]

On February 26, Winston exited the South Pacific basin and entered the Australian region basin.[118]

In advance of the storm's arrival in Fiji, numerous shelters were opened,[119] and a nationwide curfew was instituted during the evening of February 20.[120] Striking Fiji at Category 5 intensity on February 20, Winston inflicted extensive damage on many islands and killed at least 44 people.[121][122] Communications were temporarily lost with at least six islands.[123][124] Total damage from Winston amounted to $FJ 2.98 billion ($1.4 billion 2016 USD), making it the costliest cyclone on record in the basin.[125][126]

Hurricane Ophelia (2017)[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Ophelia 2017-10-14 1454Z.jpg Ophelia 2017 track.png
Duration October 6, 2017 – October 22, 2017
Peak intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  960 mbar (hPa)

On October 6, a circulation developed at the end of a cold front in the northeast Atlantic, with a low pressure area developing within the circulation on the same day.[127] While the low drifted slowly to the northeast, it began to lose its frontal system and acquire subtropical characteristics by October 7.[128] The next day, the storm encountered stronger wind shear, removing some of its convection, and slightly weakening the system; however, the storm eventually grew better organized and developed more convection around its low pressure center later in the day.[129] Early on October 9, the system fully transitioned into a tropical cyclone, prompting the NHC to begin issuing advisories on Tropical Depression Seventeen.[130][131] The tropical depression continued to strengthen, becoming Tropical Storm Ophelia later that day.[132] Ophelia continued to strengthen due to low wind shear and on October 11, the National Hurricane Center upgraded it to a hurricane, making it the tenth consecutive storm this season to reach hurricane strength.[133] Ophelia became a Category 2 hurricane on October 12 at 5:00 p.m. AST (21:00 UTC).[134] On October 14 at 11:00 a.m. AST (15:00 UTC), Ophelia unexpectedly intensified to a Category 3 hurricane, making Ophelia the sixth major hurricane of the season and the easternmost storm of such strength in the Atlantic basin on record.[135] On October 15, Ophelia began to weaken, while accelerating northeastward towards Ireland and Great Britain, with the storm's wind field also expanding. Early on October 16, Ophelia transitioned into a hurricane-strength extratropical cyclone, as it began impacting Ireland and Britain. Ophelia made landfall on Ireland and then Britain on the same day, as a strong hurricane-force extratropical cyclone. Ophelia weakened afterward, continuing eastward and making landfall on Norway on October 18. Ophelia's remnant continued traveling eastward across Scandinavia and then Russia, before finally dissipating on October 22.

In County Waterford, a woman was killed when a tree fell on her car, caused by the winds from Ophelia's remnants.[136] In County Tipperary, a man was killed while clearing a fallen tree with a chainsaw.[137] Another person was killed in Dundalk when a tree fell on his car.[138] Two other men died after suffering fatal injuries while carrying out repairs to damage caused by Ophelia and Storm Brian.[139] Hurricane Ophelia also fanned wildfires in Portugal and Spain, killing 49 people.[140]

Long-Lived Storms[edit]

Typhoon Wayne (1986)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Wayne 04 sept 0646Z.jpg Wayne 1986 track.png
Duration August 16, 1986 – September 6, 1986
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

One of the longest lasting Western Pacific system on record began its long life on August 16 in the South China Sea, having formed from the monsoon trough. It drifted to the southwest, then looped back to the northwest, becoming a tropical storm on August 18. Wayne turned to the northeast and became a typhoon on August 19. In Hong Kong, winds gusted to 78 knots (144 km/h) at Tate's Cairn. The typhoon passed offshore of southeastern China and hit western Taiwan on August 22. Wayne turned back to the south and southwest. Vertical shear caused Wayne to weaken to a depression on August 25. Wayne turned back to the northeast, rotating around Vera. Once Vera accelerated away, Wayne drifted northeastward through the South China Sea, becoming a tropical storm on August 27.

Wayne turned southward, becoming a typhoon again on August 30. Wayne passed close to northern Luzon on September 2 before turning back to the west. Two days later while moving quickly westward through the South China Sea, Wayne reached a peak of 85 knots (157 km/h) winds. During its various passages of Hong Kong, a total of 295 millimetres (11.6 in) of rainfall accumulated at Sai Kung. The cyclone hit northern Hainan on September 5, entered the Gulf of Tonkin, and made its final landfall on northern Vietnam later that day as a 60 knots (110 km/h) tropical storm. The next day, Wayne dissipated over Vietnam, after 85 advisories and being the longest lasting Western Pacific system in history. Wayne brought torrential rains through its path to the Philippines, Taiwan, southeastern China, Hainan Island, and Vietnam. Because of this, 490 fatalities (most in Vietnam), tens of thousands left homeless, and US$399 million (1986 dollars) in damage can be attributed to Typhoon Wayne.

Cyclone Katrina–Victor–Cindy[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Cyclone Katrina 1998.png FULL Cyclone Katrina–Victor–Cindy Track.png
Duration December 30, 1997 – February 19, 1998
Peak intensity 165 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  940 hPa (mbar)

Main article: Cyclone Katrina–Victor–Cindy

Severe Tropical Cyclone Katrina–Victor–Cindy was a long lived and erratic tropical cyclone, which moved around Australia during parts of December 1997, January 1998, and February 1998.[141] The initial system developed on 2 January and meandered within the Coral Sea between the Queensland coast and Vanuatu for the next three weeks. After its decay the remnants of Katrina moved westward over Cape York Peninsula, past the Northern Territory and into the Indian Ocean where it developed into tropical cyclone Victor during February. Victor was then renamed Cindy by the Mauritius Meteorological Service as it moved into the South-West Indian Ocean.

Hurricane John (1994)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Hurricane John 23 aug 1994 0308Z.jpg John 1994 track.png
Duration August 11, 1994 – September 10, 1994
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  929 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression Ten-E formed on August 11 south of Mexico. It headed generally westward, and was upgraded into a tropical storm twelve hours after it formed and was named John. John fluctuated in strength as it headed west, always managing to stay at tropical storm strength. On August 20, steady intensification began, and John was a major hurricane when it entered the central Pacific. It continued westward, reaching Category 5 intensity on August 23. It passed around 245 miles (394 km) south of Hawaii, and passed just north of Johnston Atoll on August 26.[142] John stayed at hurricane intensity until it crossed the International Date Line on August 28, becoming a typhoon of the 1994 Pacific typhoon season.

While west-southwest of Midway John started to weaken. This marked the beginning of another intensification period, during which John recrossed the dateline, this time heading east, and out of the Western North Pacific. Two ship reports, at 1500 UTC and 1800 UTC on September 4, indicated that John had sustained winds of 55 knots (102 km/h).[143] No damage from John was reported in the Western North Pacific, although damage was reported from John on Johnston Atoll in the Central Pacific.[143] After weakening into a tropical storm, John recurved, looped, and recurved again.[144] John reintensified, and was a hurricane when it recrossed the dateline to reenter the central Pacific. John headed north-northeast until it went extratropical on September 10, thirty one days after it formed.

Ahead of the hurricane, the 1100 people at Johnston Atoll evacuated. On the atoll, John caused $15 million (1994 USD; $24.2 million 2017 USD) in damage. No deaths were reported. Other than on Johnston, Hurricane John had minor effects in Hawaii. Its remnants also affected Alaska.

Hurricane John was the longest lasting and farthest traveling tropical cyclone on Earth, in recorded history. It is also one of six tropical cyclones to exist in all three basins of the Pacific Ocean, an uncommon west-to-east dateline crosser, and one of the few tropical cyclone to cross the dateline more than once.

Hurricane Nadine (2012)[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Nadine Sept 30 2012 1530Z.jpg Nadine 2012 track.png
Duration September 10, 2012 – October 4, 2012
Peak intensity 90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  978 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen on September 10, while located about 885 miles (1,425 km) west of Cape Verde. Initially, it moved west-northwest, intensifying into Tropical Storm Nadine early on September 12. During the next 24 hours, the storm intensified quickly, reaching winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) by early on September 13; Nadine maintained this intensity for the next 36 hours. A break in the subtropical ridge caused the storm to curved northwestward, followed by a turn to the north on September 14. Later that day, the storm was upgraded to a hurricane. On September 15, it turned eastward to the north of the ridge. By the following day, Nadine began weakening and was downgraded to a tropical storm early on September 17. The storm then curved east-northeastward and eventually northeastward, posing a threat to the Azores. Although Nadine veered east-southeastward, it did cause relatively strong winds on the islands.[145]

Late on September 21, Nadine curved southward, shortly before degenerating into non-tropical low-pressure area. After moving into an area of more favorable conditions, it regenerated into Tropical Storm Nadine early on September 23. The storm then drifted and moved aimlessly in the northeastern Atlantic, turning west-northwestward on September 23 and southwestward on September 25. Thereafter, Nadine curved westward on September 27 and northwestward on September 28. During that five-day period, minimal change in intensity occurred, with Nadine remaining a weak to moderate tropical storm. However, by 1200 UTC on September 28, the storm re-strengthened into a hurricane. Slow intensification continued, with Nadine peaking with winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 978 mbar (28.9 inHg) on September 30. Thereafter, Nadine began weakened after turning southward, and was downgraded to a tropical storm on October 1. The storm then curved southeastward and then east-northeastward ahead of a deep-layer trough. After strong wind shear and cold waters left Nadine devoid of nearly all deep convection, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone at 0000 UTC on October 4, while located about 195 miles (315 km) southwest of the central Azores.[145] The low moved rapidly northeastward, degenerated into a trough of low pressure, and was absorbed by a cold front later that day.[145]

Hurricane Genevieve (2014)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Genevieve 2014-08-08 VIIRS.jpg Genevieve 2014 track.png
Duration July 17, 2014 – August 15, 2014
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  915 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression Seven-E formed on July 25.[146][147] The NHC and JTWC made their final advisories on Genevieve on July 27 as it became a remnant low. Just after two days of being a remnant low, it reorganized to a tropical depression,[148] before dissipating again the next day. As it entered favorable conditions again, the remnants regenerated into a tropical depression for a second time on August 2. It regained tropical storm intensity later that day.[149] As Genevieve continued westward on August 6, the CPHC noted that the cyclone had strengthened into a hurricane after almost two weeks of being weak. Due to explosive intensification, Genevieve strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane as it neared the International Date Line. Early on August 7, the hurricane crossed the date line and became Typhoon Genevieve.[150]

On August 7, Hurricane Genevieve entered the West Pacific basin at Category 4 super typhoon status.[151] Later that day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) upgraded the system to a Category 5 super typhoon.[152] Genevieve entered an area of favorable conditions and low vertical windshear, as it continued to intensify. Later on August 7, Genevieve reached its peak intensity, with winds of 110 knots (205 km/h; 125 mph), and with this, it became the strongest storm within the North Pacific in 2014.[153] On August 9, Genevieve started to move in a northward direction, towards low to moderate vertical windshear.[154] Later that day, the JTWC downgraded the system to a category 3 typhoon.[155] Later that day, Genevieve rapidly weakened to a strong Category 2 typhoon, as it began to encounter increasing windshear and drier inflow, to the south of the system. At the same time, the eye of the typhoon began to shrink.[156][157] On August 10, Genevieve weakened to a minimal typhoon, as it began to develop a secondary eye, but the secondary eye soon disappeared, due to the storm moving over cooler waters.[158]

Oddities[edit]

Hurricane Alice (December 1954)[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Alice 01 jan 1955 radar.jpg Alice2 1954 track.png
Duration December 28, 1954 – January 6, 1955
Peak intensity 90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

The final storm of the season, Alice, developed on December 30 from a trough of low pressure in the central Atlantic Ocean, in an area of unusually favorable conditions. The storm moved southwestward and gradually strengthened to reach hurricane status. It persisted into the following calendar year, passing through the Leeward Islands on January 2. Alice reached peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) before encountering cold air and turning to the southeast. It dissipated on January 6 over the southeastern Caribbean Sea.[159]

Alice produced heavy rainfall and moderately strong winds across several islands along its path. Saba and Anguilla were affected the most, with total damage amounting to $623,500 (1955 USD).[159][160] Operationally, lack of definitive data prevented the U.S. Weather Bureau from declaring the system a hurricane until January 2. It received the name Alice in early 1955, though re-analysis of the data supported extending its track to the previous year, resulting in two tropical cyclones of the same name in one season. It was one of only two storms to span two calendar years, along with Tropical Storm Zeta in 2005-06.[159][161][162]

The Perfect Storm (1991)[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Unnamed Hurricane 01 nov 1991 1906Z.jpg 1991 Atlantic hurricane 8 track.png
Duration October 28, 1991 – November 2, 1991
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

The origins of the Perfect Storm were from an area of low pressure that developed off Atlantic Canada on October 28. It moved southward and westward as an extratropical cyclone due to a ridge to its north, and reached its peak intensity. The storm lashed the East Coast of the United States with high waves and coastal flooding, before turning to the southwest and weakening.[163] Moving over warmer waters, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone before becoming a tropical storm.[164] It executed a loop off the Mid-Atlantic states and turned toward the northeast. On November 1 the system evolved into a full-fledged hurricane with peak winds of 75 mph (120 km/h).[165] The tropical system weakened, striking Nova Scotia as a tropical storm before dissipating.[165][166]

Damage totaled over $200 million (1991 USD)[167] and the death toll was thirteen.[166] Most of the damage occurred while the storm was extratropical, after waves up to 30 ft (9.1 m) struck the coastline from Canada to Florida and southeastward to Puerto Rico. In Massachusetts, where damage was heaviest, over 100 homes were destroyed or severely damaged.[167] To the north, more than 100 homes were affected in Maine,[168] including the vacation home of George H.W. Bush, the president at the time.[163] More than 38,000 people were left without power,[169] and along the coast high waves inundated roads and buildings. In portions of New England, damage was worse than had occurred from Hurricane Bob two months prior.[168] However, aside from tidal flooding along rivers, the storm's effects were primarily along the coastline.[167] A buoy off the coast of Nova Scotia reported a wave height of 100.7 ft (30.7 m), the highest ever recorded in the province's offshore waters.[166] In the middle of the storm, the Andrea Gail sunk, killing its crew of six and inspiring the book and later movie The Perfect Storm.[163][170] Off the coast of New York, a Coast Guard helicopter lost fuel and crashed, and although four members of its crew were rescued, one was killed.[169][171][172] Two people died after their boat sank off Staten Island. High waves swept a person to their death in both Rhode Island and Puerto Rico, and another person was blown off a bridge in New York.[167] The tropical cyclone that formed late in the storm's duration caused little impact, limited to power outages and slick roads; one person was killed in Newfoundland from a traffic accident related to the storm.[166]

Had this storm been named, it would have been named Hurricane Henri.

Cyclone Bonita (1996)[edit]

Intense tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Bonita 1996.jpg Bonita 1995 track.png
Duration January 3, 1996 – January 20, 1996
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

As Tropical Depression B2 was dissipating near Réunion, another tropical depression formed east of the Chagos Archipelago on January 3. It moved southwestward, initially without development, but conditions gradually became more favorable. On January 5, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Bonita, and three days later reached tropical cyclone status as it developed a well-defined eye. Later that day, Bonita quickly intensified to its 10 minute peak intensity of 185 km/h (115 mph), making it the strongest storm of the season. A ridge to the south turned the cyclone more to the west. On January 9, the JTWC estimated Bonita attained peak 1 minute winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), and the next day, the cyclone made landfall about 50 km (30 mi) north of Foulpointe in eastern Madagascar. Bonita quickly weakened into a tropical storm while crossing the country, but re-intensified slightly after reaching the Mozambique Channel on January 12. Late on January 13, Bonita made a second landfall in eastern Mozambique between Pebane and Quelimane.[173][174]

Although the basin's warning center, Météo-France, no longer classified it after January 15,[173] the Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) tracked the storm across southern Africa on satellite imagery. Maintaining a well-defined circulation over land, Bonita emerged into open waters on January 19, becoming the first known tropical cyclone to have crossed from the southwest Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic. On January 20, the circulation dissipated.[175]

In eastern Madagascar, 24 hour rainfall totals included 170 mm (6.7 in) at Toamasina, while gusts exceeded 230 km/h (140 mph) on the offshore island of Île Sainte-Marie.[173] Bonita caused widespread flooding of rice crops,[176] as well as heavy infrastructure and crop damage along the northeastern coastline.[177] The cyclone killed 25 people in Madagascar and left 5,000 people homeless.[173] In Mozambique, Bonita dropped heavy rainfall and produced flooding, killing as many as 17 people. Floodwaters destroyed 2,500 ha (6,200 acres) of crops and demolished many buildings, including about 12 schools.[178][179] The remnants of Bonita dropped the heaviest rainfall in 80 years in eastern Zimbabwe,[180] and heavy rainfall also spread into Zambia.[175]

Hurricane Huron (1996)[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
HurricaneHuron2.jpg Hurricane Huron track.png
Duration September 11 – September 16, 1996
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  993 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Huron was an unusual tropical cyclone that developed over Lake Huron during mid-September 1996. The true nature of the storm remains controversial, and how the system managed to obtain tropical characteristics while it was situated over land is still not fully known.

Hurricane Catarina (2004)[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Cyclone Catarina 2004.jpg Catarina 2004 track.png
Duration March 12, 2004 – March 28, 2004
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (1-min)  972 hPa (mbar)

Hurricane Catarina was an extraordinarily rare tropical cyclone, forming in the southern Atlantic Ocean in March 2004. Just after becoming a hurricane, it hit the southern coast of Brazil in the state of Santa Catarina on the evening of March 28, with winds estimated near 155 kilometres per hour (96 mph), making it a Category 2-equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The cyclone killed 3 to 10 people and caused millions of dollars in damage in Brazil.

At the time, the Brazilians were taken completely by surprise, and were at first in utter disbelief that an actual tropical cyclone could have formed in the South Atlantic despite the insistence of the Miami National Hurricane Center otherwise. Later, they were convinced, and adopted the name "Catarina" for the storm, after Santa Catarina state. This event is considered by some meteorologists to be a nearly once-in-a-lifetime occurrence.

Tropical Storm Zeta (2005)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Zeta 2005.jpg Zeta 2005 track.png
Duration December 28, 2005 – January 6, 2006
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Late on December 29, more than four weeks after the official end to the season, a tropical disturbance developed in the east-central Atlantic. It quickly became more organized and was declared Tropical Depression Thirty on December 30. The next day, Thirty was declared a tropical storm naming it Zeta. Zeta made a turn toward the west but stalled and gradually weakened until dissipating on January 6, 2006.[181]

Zeta is one of the latest-forming tropical cyclones ever to develop in the recorded history of the Atlantic hurricane seasons; the only later storm was Hurricane Alice of 1954-55, which is estimated to have become tropical on December 30, 1954 at 1:00 a.m. EST (0600 UTC). It is also the second recorded North Atlantic tropical cyclone (after Alice) to exist in two calendar years. In addition, Zeta surpassed Alice as the longest-lived tropical cyclone to form in December and cross over into the next year, and it was also the longest-lived January tropical cyclone. Zeta finally dissipated on January 6, 2006.[181]

Tropical Storm 91C (2006)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Storm 91C 01 nov 2006 2030Z.jpg 91C 2006 track.png
Duration October 28, 2006 – November 4, 2006
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

The 2006 Central Pacific cyclone was an extremely unusual system that acquired tropical characteristics over the northeast Pacific Ocean. On October 28, 2006, a cut-off extratropical cyclone stalled over the northeast Pacific Ocean and began to strengthen. By October 31, the storm had acquired tropical characteristics, including an eye, convection, and a warmer-than-average core. The system reached peak intensity on November 1, before slowly weakening and looping towards the Pacific Northwest. The system made landfall on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, on November 3, before rapidly weakening and dissipating on the next day. During the duration of the storm, the system was known as Storm 91C (or INVEST 91C). The storm's true nature still remains controversial among meteorologists today, due to disputes over the storm's exact structure and whether or not it had obtained tropical or subtropical characteristics. Because the storm was not within the area of responsibility of the National Hurricane Center or the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, the storm was never assigned a name.

2011 Unnamed North Atlantic Tropical Storm[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Unnamed TS 2011.jpg Unnamed Atlantic TS 2011 track.png
Duration August 28, 2011 – September 8, 2011
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Unnamed Atlantic Tropical Storm (2011)

As part of their routine post-season analysis, the National Hurricane Center identified an Unnamed Tropical Storm that formed near 0000 UTC, on September 1, roughly 290 mi (470 km) north of Bermuda. On August 31, a disturbance formed north of Bermuda, and the NHC classified it as Invest 94L, as they tracked the storm. On September 1, the storm organized into a tropical depression, very early that morning. Despite being embedded within an environment of moderate wind shear, the depression quickly intensified into a tropical storm, although it was not assigned a name, because it was not recognized operationally. The system reached a peak intensity of 45 mph (75 km/h) early on September 2, prior to its transition into an extratropical cyclone later that day. However, the extratropical remnant of the system continued to move east-northeast, and later eastward, as it slowly weakened. On September 4, at 0000 UTC, the extratropical remnant of the unnamed tropical storm dissipated to a weak surface trough.[182][183]

If this storm had been assigned a name, it would have been known as Tropical Storm Lee, instead of the next tropical storm.

Tropical Storm Rolf (2011)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical-like cyclone 01-M Rolf.2011312.terra.250m.jpg Mediterranean Tropical Storm November 2011 track.png
Duration November 4, 2011 – November 10, 2011
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

On November 4, an extratropical disturbance was spawned just off the coast of western France, within a cold front, by another extratropical cyclone to the north, named "Quinn."[184][185] On the next day, a low pressure area formed over western France, and the system was named Rolf by the Free University of Berlin, which names all significant low pressure systems affecting Europe.[186] On November 6, the system moved into the western Mediterranean Sea and stalled off the coast of Liguria, while slowly strengthening.[187] On the same day, torrential rainfall from the storm began to cause flooding in Liguria. On November 7, 2011, the extratropical system slowly transitioned into a subtropical low over the warm waters of the Mediterranean Sea.[188] The storm was then given the identification Invest 99L, by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (the NRL).[189] As the storm slowly moved westwards, it caused flooding in the Balearic Islands. As the storm continued its westward movement, it slowly organized, and convection began to increase. Over the next few days, the storm looped to the east, as it continued to organize. On November 7, the NOAA began watching the subtropical area of low pressure, which was now located in the Gulf of Lions, which NOAA identified as INVEST 99L, as the storm organized into a subtropical disturbance. Later that day, the subtropical disturbance transitioned and strengthened into a tropical depression, off the coast of France. The storm was then given the identification 01M/99L by NOAA. Late on November 7, the storm was upgraded to tropical storm status as it strengthened significantly. At that time, the Satellite Services Division and NESDIS both classified the storm as Tropical Storm 01M. The storm then began to impact and bring heavy rainfall, to other nearby countries, including Northern Italy and Eastern Spain. On November 8, the storm continued to strengthen (45 kt), as it came closer to France. At peak intensity, the storm had a minimum low pressure of 991 mb (29.3 inHg), and the storm had peak winds of 51 mph (82 km/h). On November 9, however, the storm made landfall on the island of Île du Levant, France, and soon afterwards on Southeastern France, near Hyères. Tropical Storm Rolf (01M) dissipated completely after the second landfall, early on November 10.[189][190][185]

The storm caused severe flooding, in parts of Italy, Switzerland, and France. From November 6–8, the storm dropped a total of 23.62 in (60.0 cm) of rain in about 72 hours over southwestern Europe. About 12 people total died from the storm; 6 people were Italian, and 5 were French. The storm caused at least $1.25 billion dollars in damages.[191] On December 16, 2011, the NOAA declared that they would no longer be monitoring storms in the Mediterranean Sea, possibly due to economic reasons and budget cuts.[192] However, in 2015, the NOAA resumed services in the Mediterranean region,[193] and by 2016, they were issuing new advisories on Tropical Storm 90M.[194]

Subtropical Cyclone Julia (2012)[edit]

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone Julia on February 7, 2012.png 
Duration February 2, 2012 – February 11, 2012
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  982 mbar (hPa)

On January 31, 2012, an extratropical storm developed over western France, which was named Julia by the Free University of Berlin.[195] Within the next couple of days, the storm moved quickly southeastward into the Mediterranean Sea, but the system split in half on February 2, with the new low pressure center developing off the east coast of Spain, which was subsequently identified as Julia II.[196] Over the next couple of days, Julia II moved westward while strengthening, before absorbing the original low pressure area of Julia I on February 4, near Italy.[197][198] The storm weakened while passing to the south of Italy,[199] before reorganizing on February 6.[200] Afterward, Julia began to rapidly intensify, reaching peak intensity late on February 6, with a minimum low pressure of 982 mbar (29.0 inHg) and peak sustained winds at 61 mph (98 km/h).[201] Around the same time, the system briefly lost its cold front, and became a powerful subtropical storm. On February 7, Julia began to weaken and regained its frontal system, as the storm moved towards the Peloponnese. Later on the same day, Julia made landfall on the Peloponnese, bringing hurricane-force wind gusts and torrential rainfall.[201][202] After landfall, Julia rapidly weakened, with the system becoming disorganized, while gradually moving eastward.[203] On February 9, Julia made landfall in Turkey and began to accelerate eastward, while continuing to weaken.[204][205] Julia continued to accelerate eastward over the next couple of days, before being absorbed into another extratropical system on February 11.[206]

Tropical Cyclone Julia caused severe flooding and hurricane-force gusts in the Mediterranean and North Africa, especially in Greece. At least 12 people were killed in Greece and Bulgaria, and the storm caused at least $6.4 million (2012 USD) in damages. In addition, the storm worsened the effects of the Early 2012 European cold wave.

2013 Unnamed North Atlantic Subtropical Storm[edit]

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Unnamed Subtropical Storm Dec 5 2013 1445Z.jpg AL15 2013 track.png
Duration December 3, 2013 – December 7, 2013
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

In early December 2013, an upper-level trough stalled to the south of a ridge in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Late on December 3, an extratropical storm formed about 415 mi (260 km) south of the Azores, and with the ridge to the north it executed a cyclonic loop to the south. Amplified by an upper-level low to the west, the storm produced a large area of gale-force winds, reaching peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Early on December 4 the winds began to decrease. With low wind shear and water temperatures of 72 ºF (22 ºC), the system developed an area of convection near the center.[207] At around 1800 UTC on December 4, the NHC noted in a tropical weather outlook that further development was possible before encountering unfavorable conditions.[208] By 0000 UTC on December 5, the associated frontal features had dissipated and the convection became better organized, while the center was warm-core and co-located with an upper-level low. Based on the observations, it was estimated that the system had transitioned into a subtropical storm at that time with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). While the system was active, the NHC treated the system as a non-tropical low, but as part of a post-season review, the agency re-classified the system in February 2014.[207]

After becoming subtropical, the storm turned northward due to an upper-level system to the west. The wind field gradually became smaller while the convection organized into weak rainbands. Separating from the upper-level low aloft, the storm became more tropical in nature, although it was unable to complete the transition. On December 6, the storm turned sharply eastward under the influence of increased upper-level flow, which also increased wind shear. The circulation became exposed from the convection, resembling a sheared tropical storm, before all thunderstorms decreased. After turning back to the north, the storm weakened further due to cooler water temperatures, degenerating into a remnant low on December 7. The weakening storm produced sustained winds of 37 mph (59 km/h) on Santa Maria Island in the Azores, with gusts to 54 mph (87 km/h). Late on December 7, the circulation degenerated into a trough about 110 mi (180 km) south of the Azores.[207] A few hours later, the remnants of the unnamed tropical storm were absorbed by an extratropical cyclone approaching from the west-southwest, which bombed out shortly afterwards.[209]

Had this storm been named upon its intensification into a subtropical storm, it would have been assigned the name Nestor.

Subtropical Cyclone Qendresa (2014)[edit]

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Qendresa 2014-11-07 1215Z.jpg Qendresa 2014 track.png
Duration November 3, 2014 – November 11, 2014
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  978 mbar (hPa)

On November 5, 2014, a low-pressure system formed near northern Italy. Shortly afterwards, the system split, with the storm in the south, located just west of northern Italy, receiving the designation Qendresa I from the Free University of Berlin.[210] On November 7, Qendresa I briefly lost its cold front and acquired a closed low-level circulation, while located over the western Mediterranean, developing into a Medicane. Qendresa transitioned into a subtropical cyclone around the time of its peak intensity.[211] The subtropical cyclone moved across the island of Malta, producing sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h), gusts up to 96 mph (154 km/h), and a minimum barometric pressure of 978 mb (hPa; 28.88 inHg).[212] Farther west, the island of Lampedusa was reported as devastated, with dozens of ships capsized.[213] On November 8, as the system continued to move eastward, the storm regained its cold front, while maintaining it's intensity.[214] On November 9, Qendresa I re-acquired tropical characteristics in the southern Mediterranean, but by then, the storm was weakening.[215] On November 10, the system continued to decay, while moving over the island of Crete.[216] On November 11, Qendresa I dissipated.[217]

Subtropical Cyclone Katie[edit]

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Katie 2015-05-02 2125Z.jpg Katie 2015 track.png
Duration April 29, 2015 – May 6, 2015
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min)  993 hPa (mbar)

After the 2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season had ended, a rare subtropical cyclone was identified outside of the basin near Easter Island, during early May, and was unofficially dubbed Katie by researchers.[218] This storm is currently the one of the only few tropical or subtropical cyclones ever observed in the far Southeast Pacific Ocean, to the east of 120°W, and the only one observed at its intensity.

Hurricane Pali (2016)[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Pali 2016-01-12 2135Z.jpg Pali 2016 track.png
Duration January 7, 2016 – January 15, 2016
Peak intensity 100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  977 mbar (hPa)

At the onset of 2016, the dissipating Tropical Depression Nine-C left behind a large area of moisture across the equatorial Pacific. A powerful westerly wind burst—a feature commonly associated with strong El Niño events—spurred cyclogenesis within the disturbance, resulting in the formation of an area of low pressure. Fueled by unusually high sea surface temperatures, estimated at 29.5 °C (85.1 °F), the system gradually coalesced into a tropical depression on January 7. This marked the earliest formation of a tropical cyclone on record in the Central Pacific, surpassing 1989's Tropical Storm Winona by six days.[219] It soon strengthened into a tropical storm, receiving the name Pali, becoming the earliest such system in the northeastern Pacific on record.[220] Then, on January 11, Pali strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane, becoming the earliest hurricane on record in the northeast Pacific basin, beating the previous record set by Hurricane Ekeka in 1992.[221] Pali reached a minimum latitude of 2.0°N, making it the lowest latitude tropical cyclone on record in the Western Hemisphere, surpassing Tropical Depression Nine-C which attained a minimum latitude of 2.2°N just two weeks prior.[222][223] On January 12, Pali strengthened further into a Category 2 hurricane.[224] During the next few days, Pali rapidly weakened while turning back towards the south-southeast, before weakening into a remnant low early on January 15.[225]

Unrelated to Pali, Hurricane Alex developed over the Atlantic during the last few days of Pali's existence. This marked the first known occurrence of simultaneous January tropical cyclones between the two basins.[226]

Hurricane Alex (2016)[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Alex 2016-01-14 1435Z.jpg Alex 2016 track.png
Duration January 6, 2016 – January 17, 2016
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  981 mbar (hPa)

A weak area of low pressure developed over northwestern Cuba in association with a stationary front on January 6. The frontal wave intensified as it moved into the central Atlantic, temporarily attaining hurricane-force winds by January 10. Steered by anomalous high pressure, the disturbance turned southeast and tracked over warmer waters. Its associated fronts dissipated, its wind field became more symmetric, and convection increased near the center, leading to the formation of Subtropical Storm Alex by 18:00 UTC on January 12. Despite marginal ocean temperatures, Alex benefited from rapidly cooling upper-air temperatures, and it intensified quickly while turning northeast. The presence of deeper convection and an eye on conventional satellite showcased the storm's transition into a fully tropical cyclone and intensification into a hurricane by 06:00 UTC on January 14. Six hours later, it peaked with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). Alex turned north after peak, and the storm weakened to a tropical storm before making landfall on Terceira Island, Azores. With decreasing core convection and an impinging warm front, Alex transitioned into an extratropical cyclone by 18:00 UTC on January 15 and was absorbed by a larger extratropical low two days later.[227]

The precursor disturbance to Hurricane Alex produced gusts up to 60 mph (97 km/h) on Bermuda, as well as swells up to 20 ft (6 m) offshore; this disrupted air travel, downed trees, caused sporadic power outages, and suspended ferry services.[228] In the Azores, the cyclone produced maximum rainfall accumulations up to 4.04 in (103 mm) in Lagoa.[229] Peak gusts of 57 mph (92 km/h) affected Ponta Delgada, causing minor to moderate damage.[230] Landslides also contributed to minor damage.[231] One death occurred when a victim that suffered a heart attack was unable to be airlifted to a hospital due to unsettled conditions.[232]

Subtropical Cyclone Stephanie (2016)[edit]

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Bay of Biscay cyclone 2016-09-15.png 
Duration September 12 – September 16, 2016
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (1-min)  998 hPa (mbar)

On September 12, 2016, a cold front was draped across the Bay of Biscay in the far northeastern Atlantic.[233] Over the next 12–24 hours, a non-tropical area of low pressure formed along this front and began to condense into an extratropical cyclone. On September 14, the system acquired some characteristics resembling that of subtropical cyclones. Later on that day, the system began to drift towards Spain and France. Early on September 15, the storm developed an eye, and Météo-France began monitoring the cyclone in the Bay of Biscay, which they claimed was subtropical, having apparently possessing an asymmetric wind field of tropical-storm force winds and a warm thermal core.[234][235] The system drifted southeastwards, attaining a peak intensity of 996 millibars (29.4 inHg),[235] and eventually made landfall near the border of Spain and France, rapidly weakening and eventually dissipating shortly thereafter early on September 16.[236] The Free University of Berlin, in accordance with their naming of cyclones that affect their area, named the cyclone "Stephanie".[237] In some areas along the coastline, winds gusted up to 120 km/h (75 mph); however, damage was relatively minimal.

Tropical Storm Trixi/90M (2016)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm 90M intensifying, on 10-30-2016.jpg 
Duration October 27, 2016 – November 3, 2016
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

On October 27, 2016, an extratropical storm formed over Corsica, in the Mediterranean Sea.[238] During the next 2 days, the storm moved southeastward, while slowly strengthening.[239] On October 29, while located east of Malta, the storm turned to the southwest, and weakened below gale-force intensity. On October 30, the storm turned to the northeast and re-organized, with the system's convection clustering around its center of circulation, and transitioned into a subtropical storm. The storm was assigned the identifier Invest 90M by the NOAA at this time.[194][240][241] The storm continued to intensify as it moved eastward, before fully transitioning into a tropical storm later on the same day, developing a distinctive, spiral cloud structure and an eye. Early on October 31, Tropical Storm 90M reached its peak intensity, with peak sustained winds of 62.1 mph (99.9 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of around 1,005 mb (29.7 inHg). Around this time, Tropical Storm 90M lashed Crete and Greece with gale-force winds and heavy rain.[242][243] Tropical Storm 90M was also nicknamed "Medicane Trixi" by some media outlets in Europe during its duration.[244] Later on October 31, the storm began to be sheared by the jet stream, and it also began to merge with a cold front near Greece, causing 90M to transition back into an extratropical storm. On November 1, 90M linked with the cold front, while located over Cyprus.[245][246] The storm continued moving eastward while continuing to merge into the larger frontal system, before being fully absorbed on November 3.[247]

Tropical Storm Arlene (2017)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Arlene 2017-04-20 1512Z.jpg Arlene 2017 track.png
Duration April 15, 2017 – April 23, 2017
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  993 mbar (hPa)

In mid-April 2017, a cold front was draped across the Atlantic Ocean. An extratropical cyclone formed along this front on April 15, well southwest of the Azores (an example of a cut-off low). The system initially did not organize much during the next day; however, by April 17, sporadic convection was beginning to be produced in and around the circulation, which was increasingly becoming better defined. However, a lack of sufficient convection prevented classification of the system as a tropical cyclone, as well as evidence of fronts beginning to dissipate.[248] Convection waxed and waned a few times, before the storm significantly organized in the early morning hours of April 19; only a small increase in organization remained until it could be classified.[249] A curved banding feature wrapped around the well-defined center, prompting the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to upgrade the low to Subtropical Depression One at 15:00 UTC that day, as it was interacting with an upper-level low.[250] Little change in strength occurred throughout the day, nor was any expected due to another large system approaching the depression, although the wind field had contracted slightly.[251]

Convection became more concentrated during the early morning hours of April 20, and the system transitioned to a fully tropical cyclone at 15:00 UTC that day.[252] Six hours later, despite forecasts predicting it would dissipate, the storm unexpectedly strengthened into Tropical Storm Arlene at 21:00 UTC, becoming only the second named storm on record to exist in the month of April, the other being Ana in 2003. Referring to the unexpected intensification, NHC forecaster Lixion Avila stated "[I] have to add one more surprise to my long hurricane forecasting career".[253] Revolving around a newly-forming low just to its west that it was forecast to be absorbed into, Arlene defied forecasts again and attained a peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h) at 03:00 UTC on April 21, despite a deteriorating satellite presentation.[254] Twelve hours later, Arlene became embedded within the larger extratropical cyclone, and lost its identity as a tropical cyclone, even as its deep convection diminished.[255] Arlene's extratropical remnant was forecasted to be absorbed by the larger extratropical cyclone within a day.[256] However, Arlene's remnant persisted for another day, making a counterclockwise loop around the larger extratropical cyclone, while in the process of merging with it.[257] Early on April 23, Arlene's remnant fully merged into the larger extratropical system.[258]

Prior to becoming a subtropical cyclone, the precursor to Arlene produced waves as high as 40 feet (12 m), which was analysed by the Ocean Prediction Center on April 17.[259]

When Arlene was upgraded to a tropical storm on April 20, it marked the sixth recorded time that a subtropical or tropical cyclone formed in the month of April, after Ana in 2003, a subtropical storm in April 1992, and three tropical depressions in 1912, 1915, and 1973, respectively.[260] Additionally, it formed at an unusually high latitude, being designated at around 37°N, one of the northernmost formations for a storm so early in the year.[261] Furthermore, it was the strongest Atlantic storm recorded in the month of April, with a central pressure of 993 millibars (29.3 inHg), surpassing Ana's previous record of 994 millibars (29.4 inHg).

Super Typhoon Noru (2017)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Noru 2017-07-31 0415Z.jpg Noru 2017 track.png
Duration July 18, 2017 – August 9, 2017
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 hPa (mbar)

The JMA reported that a non-tropical low had transitioned into a tropical depression north-northwest of Wake Island early on July 19.[262] Fluctuations in intensity occurred until late on July 29, when explosive intensification ensued.

Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten (2017)[edit]

Potential tropical cyclone
PTC 10 at peak intensity, on August 31.jpg 
Duration August 13, 2017 – September 3, 2017
Peak intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  971 mbar (hPa)

A long-tracked tropical wave was designated as Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten on August 27, while it was located northeast of Florida. The NHC gave this disturbance a 90% chance of becoming a tropical cyclone within the next 48 hours.[263] However, the system failed to attain any more tropical characteristics, and began to undergo an extratropical transition. Consequently, the NHC issued its last advisory on the system on August 29, and declared the system to be an extratropical low.[264]

Super Typhoon Lan (Paolo)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Lan 2017-10-21 0412Z.jpg Lan 2017 track.png
Duration October 11, 2017 – October 23, 2017
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) initially mentioned a tropical disturbance over Chuuk on October 11.[265] After the slow consolidation, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert to the elongated system early on October 14,[266] shortly after the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) started to monitor it as a low-pressure area.[267] The agency upgraded it to a tropical depression almost one day later and began to issue tropical cyclone warnings since 06:00 UTC on October 15.[268][269] In the afternoon, the JTWC also upgraded it to a tropical depression assigning the designation 25W, which formative but shallow convective bands had become more organized, and symmetrically wrapped into a defined low-level circulation center.[270] About three hours later, the JMA upgraded it to the twenty-first Northwest Pacific tropical storm in 2017 and assigned the international name Lan, when it was located approximately 310 km (190 mi) to the northeast of Palau.[271] Early on October 16, the JTWC upgraded Lan to a tropical storm too, based on T-number 2.5 of the Dvorak technique,[272] shortly before it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility and received the name Paolo from PAGASA.[273] Total economic losses from the communal facilities in Mainland Japan were counted to be JPY 13.748 billion (USD 120.53 million).[274][275] Total economic losses from the agriculture facilities in Mainland Japan were counted to be JPY 10.8 billion (USD 94.68 million).[276]

Around its peak intensity, Typhoon Lan was the second-largest tropical cyclone on record, behind only Typhoon Tip, with a gale diameter of about 1,670 km (1,040 mi).[277]

Subtropical Storm Numa (2017)[edit]

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Numa 2017-11-18 0929Z.jpg 
Duration November 11, 2017 – November 20, 2017
Peak intensity 70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

On 11 November 2017, the remnant of Tropical Storm Rina from the Atlantic contributed to the formation of a new extratropical cyclone, east of the British Isles, which later absorbed Rina on the next day. On 12 November, the new storm was named Numa and began undergoing a subtropical transition. On 14 November 2017, Extratropical Cyclone Numa emerged into the Adriatic Sea. On the following day, while crossing Italy, Numa began to gain subtropical characteristics, though the system was still extratropical by 16 November.[278] The storm began to impact Greece as a strong storm on 16 November. Some computer models forecasted that Numa could transition into a warm-core subtropical or tropical cyclone within the next few days.[211] On 17 November, Numa completely lost its frontal system.[279] On the afternoon of the same day, Météo France tweeted that Numa had attained the status of a subtropical Mediterranean depression.[280] During the next several hours, Numa continued to strengthen, before reaching its subtropical peak intensity on 18 November.[281] Around the time of Numa's subtropical peak, the storm had a clear, well-defined eye structure, and sustained winds of 115 km/h (71 mph), equivalent to the strength of a strong subtropical storm.[282] Later on the same day, Numa made landfall in Greece, and rapidly weakened into a low-pressure area, before emerging into the Aegean Sea on 19 November.[283] On 20 November, the remnant low of Numa was absorbed into another extratropical system approaching from the north.[284]

Numa caused heavy flooding in central mainland Greece, killing at least 21 people, becoming the worst natural disaster in Greece since 1977.[285][286][287][288]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Higher rainfall totals occurred during the Greater Antilles hurricane of 1909; peaking at 135.00 in (3,429 mm) in Jamaica, and Hurricane Flora of 1963; peaking at 100.39 in (2,550 mm) in Cuba. For more information, see List of wettest tropical cyclones by country.

References[edit]

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