User:Madalibi/New structure for Shunzhi
|3rd Emperor of the Qing Dynasty|
|Reign||8 October 1643 – 5 February 1661
( 17 years, 120 days)
|Qing Emperor of China|
|Reign||30 October 1644 – 5 February 1661
( 16 years, 98 days)
|Predecessor||Last reigning Emperor of the Ming Dynasty: Chongzhen Emperor|
|Burial||Xiaoling, Eastern Qing Tombs, Zunhua|
|Spouse||The Demoted Empress
Hiowan Yei, Kangxi Emperor
|House||House of Aisin-Gioro|
|Mother||Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang|
- 1 The Dorgon regency (1643-1650)
- 2 Personal rule (1651-1661)
- 3 Personality
- 4 Important themes of the Shunzhi reign
- 5 Notes
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 Find images...
The Dorgon regency (1643-1650)
A quasi emperor
In 1647, Dorgon officially stripped Jirgalang of his title of regent on charges of having usurped imperial prerogatives. In the mean time, he installed his allies in key positions in both the Banners and the bureaucracy.
The haircutting order
Haircutting command discussed in a section of that name in Wakeman 1985: 646-50. Local resistance is explained in Wakeman 1985: 651, and Struve 1988: 662-63.
The first provincial garrison was established in Xi'an in 1645. It remained there until the fall of the Qing in 1911. Other garrisons were created in Nanjing and Hangzhou (1646), Taiyuan (Shanxi) in 1649, Dezhou in 1654, Jingkou (i.e., Zhenjiang) in 1654, Fuzhou in 1656, and Guangzhou in 1661.
Gaining support for the Qing
Preserved some of the structure of the Ming bureaucracy and invited officials to keep serving in their old posts. Canceled the supplementary taxes that had been imposed since the reign of the Wanli emperor. Forbade new eunuchs from entering the palace.
Lots on defectors to the Qing (esp. former followers of Liu Liangzuo) in Wakeman 1985: 543-45.
Personal rule (1651-1661)
The posthumous fall of Dorgon
The "Jirgalang faction" was composed of Manchu princes and nobles who had opposed Dorgon and who returned to power after the latter died on December 31, 1650. Concerned that Dorgon's brother Ajige may try to succeed Dorgon, Jirgalang and his group arrested Ajige in early 1651. Jirgalang remained a powerful figure at the Qing imperial court until his death in 1655. The four future regents of the Kangxi Emperor - Oboi, Ebilun, Sonin, and Suksaha - were among his supporters.
Negotiations with Zheng Chenggong and other anti-Qing "pirates" based in Taiwan. Sending of Tong Guoqi (a Han-martial bannerman) to administer Fujian.
"Chinese" style of rule
The young emperor surrounded himself with Chinese advisors and teachers.
In 1653 Shunzhi recalled a retired northern Chinese official named Feng Quan (馮銓) to serve at his court. In the 1620s under the Ming, Feng had helped infamous eunuch Wei Zhongxian repress the Donglin movement (a reformist group of literati), but been forced into retirement in 1629. After submitting to Qing rule in 1644, as President of the Ministry of Rites he had orchestrated Shunzhi's ritual of imperial ascension, and in 1645 he had encouraged Dorgon to force all Han Chinese to shave their forehead and braid their hair into a queue as a sign of symbolic allegiance to the Qing.
Frontiers and foreign relations
- Importance of Tibetan Buddhism. The Tibetan Buddhist canon (the Kanjur) had been translated into Mongolian in the early seventeenth century during the reign of Ligdan Khan (1588–1634). It was read by the Manchus in that form.
- Albazin Fort.
Death and succession
The Shunzhi emperor suffered from poor health.
Lots on his personality (as described by Jesuits) in Wakeman 1985: 929n82.
"While overshadowed by his self-indulgence and prickly temper, the SZ emperor was by nature merciful and generous."
Love for his Consort. Prone to anger.
Important themes of the Shunzhi reign
Intellectuals and Ming loyalism
For various reasons, many intellectuals who had been born under the Ming dynasty refused to recognize the Qing rulers. Some refused to take part in the Qing imperial examinations and devoted themselves to scholarly research. Others associated their refusal of the Qing with a refusal of Manchu rule.
To many Chinese intellectuals, the fall of the Ming was a calamity. Notable thinkers like Wang Fuzhi, Gu Yanwu, and Huang Zongxi, Qian Qianyi, as well as dozens of lesser-known figures, refused to submit to the new dynasty. Some, like Wang Fuzhi and Wan Shouqi, supported the Southern Ming regime in Nanjing. Some had participated in the reform movements of the end of the Ming dynasty - called the Donglin (東林) Party and the Restoration Society (復社). Despite their serious reservations about the structure and functioning of Ming government, they refused to acknowledge the Qing as its rightful successor. To avoid the queue order, some chose to become Buddhist monks. In so doing, they could shave their entire heads instead of only their foreheads in the Manchu style. Many continued to write anti-Qing and anti-Manchu prose that was circulated among circles of sympathizers. Lü Liuliang.
The role of Han-martial Bannermen
The Qing conquest elite was partly ethnic, but also partly political, because it included Han and Mongols that had been integrated into the structure of the Eight Banners. In the Shunzhi reign and for some more years after his death, provincial governors, prefects, and county magistrates were usually chosen from Han-martial Bannermen, that is, Han families that had surrendered to the Manchus before 1644 and had been integrated into the Banner system. Chinese soldiers often played the role of artillery troops and were involved in many of the Qing's military campaigns. Manchu leaders considered these Han-martial bannermen more reliable than Han officials who had surrendered during the conquest.
Meng Qiaofang, who crushed Muslim rebels in the northwest between 1646 and 1650, was a member of the Han-martial Bordered Red Banner. He had offered his service to Hung Taiji in 1631 when the latter had occupied Yongping, a city within Shanhai Pass of which Miao was native and where he was living in retirement after serving in the Ming military.
- Mote 1999, p. 828.
- Rawski 1998, p. 99.
- Elliott 2001, pp. 106 and 108.
- Oxnam (1975): 47-49.
- Fang (1943): 5; Wakeman (1985), 895.
- Wakeman (1985), 928.
- Oxnam (1975): 38.
- Spence 1969, p. 24.
- Wakeman 1985, p. 954.
- Wakeman 1985, p. 443.
- Wakeman 1985, pp. 443 (named President of the Ministry of Rites in June 1644), 857 (organization of Shunzhi's formal ritual of enthronement in November 1644), 868 (role in the haircutting command of 1645).
- Perdue 2005, p. 126.
- Fang 1943, p. 258.
- Zhou 2009, p. 12.
- Dennerline 2003, p. 84, note 11.
- Larsen & Numata 1943, p. 572.
- Larsen & Numata 1943, p. 572.
- Dennerline, Jerry (2003), "The Shun-chih Reign", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1:The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Unknown parameter
- Elliott, Mark C. (2001), The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Fang, Chao-ying (1943a), "Abahai [i.e., Hung Taiji]", in Hummel, Arthur W., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912), Washington: United States Government Printing Office, pp. 1–3 Unknown parameter
- Fang, Chao-ying (1943b), "Fu-lin", in Hummel, Arthur W., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912), Washington: United States Government Printing Office, pp. 255–59.
- Finnane, Antonia (1993), "Yangzhou: A Central Place in the Qing Empire", in Cooke Johnson, Linda, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China, Albany, NY: SUNY Press, pp. 117–50 Unknown parameter
- Kim, Kwangmin (2008), "Saintly brokers: Uyghur Muslims, trade, and the making of Central Asia, 1696–1814", Ph.D. diss., History Department, University of California, Berkeley.
- Li, Zhiting 李治亭, editor in chief (2003), Qingchao tongshi: Shunzhi fenjuan, 清朝通史: 順治分卷 ["General History of the Qing Dynasty: Shunzhi Volume"], Beijing: Zijincheng chubanshe 紫禁城出版社 ["Fordidden City Press"].
- Mote, Frederick W. (1999), Imperial China, 900-1800, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
- Oxnam, Robert B. (1975), Ruling from Horseback: Manchu Politics in the Oboi Regency, 1661-1669, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
- Perdue, Peter C. (2005), China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia, Cambridge, Mass.; London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
- Qingshi gao 清史稿 ["Draft History of the Qing"]. Edited by Zhao Erxun 趙爾巽 et al. Completed in 1927. Citing from 1976-77 edition by Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, in 48 volumes with continuous pagination.
- Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998), The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.
- Rossabi, Morris (1979), "Muslim and Central Asian Revolts", in Spence, Jonathan D.; Wills, John E., Jr., From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 167–199.
- Spence, Jonathan D. (1969), To Change China: Western Advisors in China, 1620-1960, Boston: Little, Brown & Company.
- Wakeman, Frederic (1984), "Romantics, Stoics, and Martyrs in Seventeenth-Century China", Journal of Asian Studies, 43 (4): 631–665.
- Wakeman, Frederic (1985), The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press 2 volumes.
- Zhou, Ruchang [周汝昌] (2009), Between Noble and Humble: Cao Xueqin and the Dream of the Red Chamber, edited by Ronald R. Gray and Mark S. Ferrara, translated by Liangmei Bao and Kyongsook Park, New York: Peter Lang, ISBN 978-1-4331-0407-7.
- Paintings by Wan Shouqi (1603-1652), who lived during the Ming-Qing transition and was a supporter of the southern Ming regime established in Nanjing in the 1640s (ask about copyrights).
- Diagram concerning the battle formation of the Eight Banners.
- Picture of a document where Dorgon calls himself "Imperial Uncle"?
- Photo of the cover of the 1646 Qing Code.
- Portrait of Gu Yanwu?
- Something related to Li Zicheng (maybe old photo of the southwest gate through which he entered Beijing in 1644).
- Something on Shunzhi's Empresses or children.
- Portrait of Wu Sangui?
- Map of Manchu operations during the conquest of Jiangnan, or of the suppression of bandits following the take-over.
- Something related to the civil examinations, which were re-established in 1646.