User:MarcusBritish/Sandbox/Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte

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Emperor of France
Napoleon Bonaparte
Painting of Napoleon's farewell in 1814
Napoleon's farewell to the Imperial Guard, in the courtyard of the Palace of Fontainebleau, 1814, by Antoine-Alphonse Montfort (in Portuguese)
Born (1769-08-15)August 15, 1769
Died May 5, 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51)
St. Helena, South Atlantic Ocean
Years of service 1785–1815

Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte, Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution. As Napoleon I he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814, and briefly in 1815. The term "Napoleonic Era" is used by historians to broadly describe the period of his influence on politics, society, and warfare; although there is no consensus as to when the era began, it ended with his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, although his leadership and policies continued to affect Europe, even long after his death. From 1799, a complex series of events brought about Napoleon's opportunistic rise to power, ascension to Emperor leading to the founding of a French Empire, endless military campaigns throughout Europe, and ultimately his fall from grace in 1815. His military career, in excess of two decades of European conflict, is both extensive and formidable.

Rising through the ranks after studying at the French military academy, he would become an artillery officer. At the outset of the French Revolution, Napoleon would witness the effects of Parisian mob violence against trained troops, and became an exemplary officer in defence of revolutionary ideals. His firm beliefs would lead him to fight his own people, initially at the Siege of Toulon, where he would play a major role in crushing the rebellion by expelling an English fleet, and securing the valuable French harbour. Almost two years later, he would face an uprising in the heart of Paris, utilising his skills as a gunner once again, to make the city safe. Promoted to général in 1795, Napoleon was sent to fight the Austro-Piedmontese armies in Northern Italy the following year. In just a year the campaign ended; in defeating both armies he became France's most distinguished field commander.

His life remains a source of great study for historians, philosophers, military forces, scholars and academics worldwide.

Early years[edit]


Napoleon was born in Ajaccio, on the French-occupied island of Corsica, in 1769, to parents who were of Genoese nobility by birth, though without riches and privileges,[1] allowing them, by way of a French scheme, to send their male children to be educated in a military school or to train for the priesthood, but at no cost.[2] Napoleon's military career began at an early age when, at the age of nine, he was enrolled in the military academy of Brienne-le-Château, France.[3] In 1784, at the age of fifteen, he progressed to the École Militaire in Paris. Since the age of twelve he had wanted to join the navy; the École Militaire was the next level of education whether he chose to follow a career in the army or navy.[4] As a cadet Napoleon graduated in just one year, rather than the normal two years, excelling in mathematics, and passing his exams. He received his first commission on 1 September 1785, at the age of sixteen, to sous-lieutenant in the Royal Artillery.[5]

Napoleon's father had died in February 1785,[6] and he wanted to be as close to his family as possible. Following his commission Napoleon joined the La Fère-Artillerie regiment, garrisoned in Valence, southern France, which placed him as close to his home island of Corsica as possible.[5] It was not until January 1786 that Napoleon took to his duties – until then he served a short time in the ranks – before pursuing his role as an artillery officer, where he continued to learn about ballistics and the latest in French fire power.[7] He took leave from September 1786, lasting nearly two years, returning home to his mother.[8] In June 1788 he returned to his regiment, which had moved to Auxonne, but during his first years in the military Napoleon spent most of his free time alone, studying – he enjoyed reading and writing about history and politics, whilst developing his own ideas about social reform throughout Europe.[9]

Start of the Revolution[edit]

Representation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man
Representation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, by Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier, 1789

From 1786, tensions started to rise as the economic situation in France led to national debt; bankruptcy was declared in August 1788[10] – a result of its expenditures, including continued investment in unutilised war preparations against Great Britain, and strong support during the American Revolutionary War (1775–83) which had cost between 1,066 million[11] and 2,000 million[12] livres, with little gain. The situation led to unfair taxation as it attempted to reduce the deficit. Despite the attempts of King Louis XVI, and several appointed Finance Ministers, to introduce land taxation for nobility, parlements refused to register them, but maintained taxes on the poorest French citizens.[13] Instead of solving the crisis it led to civil unrest and rioting – isolated at first – Napoleon was to witness mob rioting at Seurre, in March 1789,[14] but national distemperment was quickly spreading. Food prices and unemployment were high;[15] France was facing a crisis, whilst higher social-classes continued to avoid instigating reform. A National Assembly was formed to oppose Louis XVI, effectively transferring power and putting the middle-class – bourgeoisie and commoners – in charge of France from 17 June 1789. On 20 June, an oath, pledging "never to separate until an acceptable constitution was established", sanctioned its intentions.[16] It became the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July. Rioting culminated in the storming of the Bastille, Paris, on 14 July,[17] and nationwide panic followed, known as la Grande Peur (the Great Fear), as unrest spread rapidly across France.[18][19] On 26 August, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was adopted by the Assembly – foundations of a French constitution detailing articles of civil rights, which Napoleon had long held were necessary to limit the powers of the monarchy.[20] The nobility of France was soon to lose its privileges as the Assembly took control, becoming the ruling government, and forming the National Guard, militia – citizen soldiers – whose beliefs lay in a government serving "the people". Its power was bolstered by journées[a] such as the March on Versailles, on 5 October 1789, as thousands of angry women attacked the palace in Versailles, embittered over the lack and price of bread, and aiming to bring Louis XVI to Paris to rule amongst the people.[21] As Louis XVI surrendered his doubts and authority to the Assembly, France became a constitutional monarchy. The long-standing ancien régime, a socio-political system which defined divisions between the Estates of the realm, namely the clergy, aristocracy and commoners, had come to an end. The opening months of the Revolution had been a realisation of Napoleon's ideals.[20] As an officer in a Royal Artillery regiment it was time for him to choose his side – king or country? With the threat of a counter-revolution, that could see sovereignty returned to the king, Napoleon was determined to defend the new constitution.[22]

Revolutionary idealist[edit]


In 1768–69 the Corsican Republic had fallen to a French invasion.[23] During his free time Napoleon studied the history of Europe and Corsica; he had disliked the French administration and absolutism – Corsica once had its own independence, until the French arrived. So when France decreed a constitution, Napoleon sought to end Corsican oppression. He returned to Corsica in October 1791, following the adoption of the French Constitution of 1791, on 3 September.[24] A Corsican National Guard was formed with Napoleon's encouragement, and following an election, in which Napoleon was a candidate, he became a lieutenant colonel in the Ajaccio Volunteers second battalion on 1 April 1792, at the age of twenty-two.[25]

Painting of Storming of the Tuileries Palace, by Jean Duplessis-Bertaux, 1793
Storming of the Tuileries Palace, by Jean Duplessis-Bertaux (in French), 1793
The Paris National Guard 1792
The Paris National Guard on its way to the Army, September 1792, by Léon Cogniet, 1836

After returning to Paris to account for his role in suppressing an Easter Sunday religious uprising in Ajaccio, he bore witness to violent rioting between the National Guard – encouraged by the Paris Commune – and Louis XVI's Swiss Guard, on 10 August 1792, at Tuileries Palace, resulting in the massacre of around 500 Swiss Guardsmen and 300 citizens.[26][27] Enmity was rising in Paris and across the nation as the Holy Roman Empire and Prussia, both opposed to the Revolution, announced their support of Louis XVI and intent to restore the monarchy, by military intervention if necessary, through an arrangement made formal by the Declaration of Pillnitz, on 27 August 1791.[28] France was still bankrupt and its army had grown thin since the Revolution began, whilst the population suspected Louis XVI of collaborating with royal families in Europe, seeking to reclaim control.[29] On 20 April 1792, France declared war on both countries. As a result of defending his actions in Ajaccio, and in embracing the Revolution fervently, Napoleon was made a capitaine in the regular French army artillery once again, effective from 31 August 1792, whilst retaining his lieutenant colonelcy with the Corsican National Guard.[30]

Throughout September 1792, Paris was struck with further violence as mobs of Parisians of the Third Estate – more commonly known as sans-culottes (radical lower-class militant revolutionists) – took to the streets brutally murdering many priests of the First Estate, and aristocrats of the Second Estate as they sat in Paris' prisons.[31] The September Massacres occurred as a political group, known as the Jacobins, led by Maximilien Robespierre,[32] began to assume power. The National Assembly had become the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791, and was represented by two political groups whose opinions were split between those who considered the Revolution a success and supported a constitutional monarchy, and those who distrusted the King and felt further measures were needed before France could re-establish itself.[33] The King's attempt to flee from France on 21 June 1791, with his wife, Marie Antoinette, in search of support from foreign allies, had destroyed all remaining public confidence in him. The "Flight to Varennes" resulted in their arrest, immediate return to Paris, and confinement in Tuileries.[34] The Assembly suspended Louis XVI's powers, and on 13 August, three days after the attack on the palace, the Royal family were arrested and placed in the Tour du Temple. On 20 September 1792, a new National Convention was formed to replace the Assembly; the monarchy was abolished the next day, and on 22 September the Convention declared the beginning of the French Republic.[35]

Napoleon left Paris amidst the September Massacres, returning to Ajaccio to resume his duty with the Corsican National Guard. The French army defeated an Austro-Prussian force at Valmy on 20 September 1792, and was on the offence against its erstwhile invaders.[36]



On 21 January 1793, in the heart of Paris, Louis XVI was publicly executed by guillotine.[37] The event caused uproar throughout Europe, whilst France remained defiant, with Marie Antoinette and her son Louis-Charles – despondent heir to the throne – still in prison, France's foreign enemies continued to grow. As the level of civil unrest remained high, the Convention faced the threat of civil war.[38] Napoleon had helped to deliver the French Constitution and its benefits to Corsica, his duty now required him to defend the constitution and Republic against surmounting opposition including,[39] from 1 February 1973, declaration of war on Holland and Great Britain.[40]

Painting of Pasquale Paoli, by Richard Cosway, 1798
Pasquale Paoli, by Richard Cosway, 1798

South of Corsica, the island of Sardinia whose king had allied with the Austrians against France, became Napoleon's first military concern. Under the orders of the Convention, Corsica was to invade the Sardinian capital and force its capitulation. Corsican leader, Pasquale Paoli, had patriotically led his people, including Napoleon's father, against the 1768/69 French invasion, lost, and consequently had been exiled to Britain.[41] He returned, reinstated by the French government, in 1790, but became a royalist sympathiser and passive opponent of the course of the Revolution.[42] Opposed to the invasion of Sardinia, Paoli sent Napoleon's battalion to invade the small island of La Maddalena, under the command of his nephew, Colonel Colonna-Cesari (in French).[43] The expedition was supported by troops from Marseille, who were undisciplined and troublesome. The force left Corsica by sea on 18 February 1793, arriving on the 22 August. Napoleon played his part, as an artilleryman, intent on supporting a landing against a Sardinian fort by laying down heavy gunfire. But Colonna-Cesari refused to order an attack until 25 August, by which time the Marseille troops had determined not to engage the Sardinians and mutinied, forcing Napoleon, along with his senior commander and men, to return to the vessel, abandoning both their cannons and the mission.[44]

Napoleon did not hesitate in openly casting aspersions against Colonna-Cesari and Paoli to the French Convention, who attempted to investigate the matter. Paoli resisted, once again opposing French rule over Corsican affairs. Napoleon's brother, Lucien, a strong supporter of the Revolution and speaker at the Jacobin Club, denounced Paoli as a counter-revolutionist.[45] The Convention issued an arrest for Paoli, who in turn raised a revolt – Paoli's Corsican supporters sought to attack French officials, whilst all members of the Bonaparte family were declared outlaws, their livelihood destroyed – fleeing for their lives, they were forced to abandon Corsica on 10 June 1793 and resettle in France.[46]


Map of France, 1791
Map of France, 1791, showing former provinces (red) and départments (grey)

Following the execution of Louis XVI and France's declaration of war on Holland and Great Britain, the Convention decreed a levy of 300,000 men, through volunteers or conscription, to expand the French Revolutionary Army.[47] In March 1793, France also declared war on Spain. French opposition included Russia, Sardinia, Portugal, Naples and various Minor German states over the following months, mostly the result of British encouragement, resulting in the First Coalition.[48] Russia would, however, refuse to commit troops to the war and did not become an active participant in the coalition.[49]

In 1790, the Assembly had replaced the provinces of the ancien régime with a new set of boundaries, creating départments by which to administer the country, eliminate feudal land ownership, and create a more central government in Paris.[50] As an executive power the Convention sought to deal with France's economic problems through drastic means. Over the coming months it established a Revolutionary Tribunal in order to prosecute counter-revolutionists, decreed levée en masse (mass conscription), and passed the loi du maximum (Law of the Maximum) to fix and limit food prices due to frequent food riots in Paris. The law aimed to prevent hoarding by imposing capital punishment on those found guilty of price gouging or black marketeering.[51] In order to maintain order the Convention established "Revolutionary Armies" – authorised bands of patriots, typically sans-culottes, who would seek out offenders and deal with them.[52] The Convention also sought to deal with armed rebels and émigrés – aristocrats who had left France at the start of the Revolution, some having returned – prescribing death to those who were caught.[53] It also established a number of revolutionary committees, in March 1793, including the Committee of Public Safety (CPS) whose aim was to protect the Revolution from foreign influences and internal rebellion which, in July, received a new member – Robespierre.[54] From June that year, virtually all political opposition in the Convention had been expunged, resulting in a Jacobin-led government.

The response to the Convention's decrees was insurrection. As many as 70 of the 83 départments rejected a central government, although rebellion only became serious in eight of those.[55] The revolt in the Vendée began in March 1793 and would become a war in its own right.[56] Rebellious départments also included Lyon, Marseille and Toulon – France's three largest cities after Paris.[57][55] It was close to Marseille, where the Bonaparte family had resettled, that Napoleon would become involved in the civil war that was engulfing France.


In July 1793, Napoleon was placed under the command of Général Jean-Baptiste Carteaux to deal with rebels from Marseille, situated in Avignon, where army munitions destined for the French Army of Italy were being stored. On 24 July, Carteaux's National Guardsmen assaulted Avignon and successfully retook the town from rebellious Guardsmen, but killed thirty citizens in cold blood during the attack.[58] Napoleon went to nearby Tarascon to gather wagons for transporting the munition to the army. He visited Beaucaire, across the Rhône River from Tarascon, which had been holding its annual fair of Sainte-Madeleine. Napoleon arrived on 28 July, the last day of the fair, and visited a tavern where he ate and spoke with four merchants from Le Midi.[59] They discussed the Revolution, subsequent rebellions, and their consequences. Napoleon concluded that by adopting the constitution of the Republic the civil war would end, and allow the regular army to restore France.[60]

Painting of Le souper de Beaucaire
Le souper de Beaucaire, by Jean Lecomte du Nouÿ, 1868–94

Shortly after the meeting, possibly on the 29 July whilst still in Beaucaire, Napoleon wrote a political pamphlet titled Le souper de Beaucaire (The supper at Beaucaire) in which a soldier speaks with four merchants and sympathetic to their moderate opinions attempts to dissipate their counter-revolutionary sentiments.[61] After having it printed and distributed a copy reached Augustin Robespierre, brother of Maximilien Robespierre. He was impressed by its revolutionary tone although the pamphlet itself had no effect in deterring the rebels.[62] It served to advance Napoleon's career, however, recognised for his ambitions by Corsica-born friend and politician, Christophe Saliceti. Saliceti's influence in the Convention, along with fellow deputy Augustin Robespierre, advanced Napoleon into the position of Carteaux's senior gunner, on 16 September.[63][64]

On 24 August, Carteaux's troops reclaimed Marseille and executed around 500 people suspected of treason, all without trial.[59] Three days later, Toulon raised the Royalist flag. The following day, it admitted an Anglo-Spanish fleet into its harbour, whilst mostly British, but also Spanish and Piedmontese troops were permitted to garrison the city. The number gradually expanded to 17,000–18,000 troops, including Neapolitans and French émigrés, along with 28,000 citizens, many of whom supported the rebel cause.[65][66] As both a major naval arsenal and France's gateway to the Mediterranean Sea the loss of Toulon was unacceptable, but could prove difficult to recover.[67]

Napoleon's role as senior gunner initially proved difficult due to Carteaux's poor preparation for any siege. A lack of cannons, gunners and respect for the aspects and role of the artillery was immediately apparent. Starting from the day he arrived, on 18 September, Napoleon reorganised the artillery. He gathered additional guns from the region, whilst creating forges and workshops to manufacture shells and repair muskets, and training volunteers to fire them.[68] An arrangement of batteries were built around Toulon, opposing the British fleet and a number of enemy forts.[69] Saliceti once again recognised Napoleon's zeal, in addition to the need for experienced commanders, and recommended him for promotion. He was commissioned to chef de bataillon (major), on 18 October,[70] and his artillery was given independence from the army.[65] A week earlier Lyon had fallen, providing the Republic army surrounding Toulon with extra troops.[71] In order to have his proposals taken seriously, Napoleon wrote to the CPS, requesting a senior officer to command the artillery at Toulon. An aged Général Jean du Teil was sent from the Army of Italy, but due to ill-health he left Napoleon to his own devices.[72] Carteaux was relieved, and on 16 November Général Jacques Dugommier, a veteran of the Seven Years' War, took command of the siege.[73] The same day, in Paris, Marie Antoinette was executed.[74]

Napoleon was quick to determine, when he considered Toulon with its fortified harbour and high city walls, that any direct land attack would prove difficult and costly.[75] The inner harbour itself, a large basin with a narrow opening, was surrounded by high ground facing down onto Toulon but too distant for the available artillery to reach from Napoleon's position, on the western shore of the inner harbour. Anglo-Spanish troops occupied numerous forts around the city, including Fort l'Aiguillette whose position allowed for any occupant to command Toulon, the entire inner and outer harbour, and any fleet anchored therein.[65] Attempts were made to capture the height called Mount Caire which dominated Fort l'Aiguillette, on 22 September, but Carteaux provided insufficient troops to the effort, resulting in its failure.[76] Between Napoleon's artillery position and Fort l'Aiguillette, atop Mount Caire, a formidable earthwork called Fort Mulgrave was quickly built by the British and housed 24 cannon. The French nickname for it was "Little Gibraltar".[77] Napoleon and Dugommier agreed that the capture of Mulgrave would cause Fort l'Aiguillette to fall, and that the British fleet would be unable to remain secure in the harbour, nor its troops in Toulon.[75] As Napoleon amassed artillery he put it to immediate use, firing hot rounds, to force the British fleet to move out of range, and closer to Toulon. Napoleon had one considerably long range gun, a 44-pound culverin, with which to reach across the 3 mile-wide (5 km) inner harbour.[78] This meant that Napoleon could not sink the fleet, but the distance also prevented the British from using their naval guns against any massed infantry attack on the forts.

Destruction of the French fleet
Destruction of the French fleet at Toulon, by Thomas Whitcombe, 1816

On 15 December, after weeks of careful preparation, Napoleon's batteries began a bombardment of Fort Mulgrave, which lasted for two days. On 17 December, in bitter rain, Général Dugommier led 7,000 infantry against Fort Mulgrave, in a night attack, with Napoleon leading the reserve. After several hours of fighting the fort was taken. L'Aiguillette and its neighbour, Fort Balaguier, were abandoned throughout the remainder of the day.[79] The next day, as predicted, the Anglo-Spanish began to withdraw under a constant barrage from the French Republic guns designed to maintain panic. They set fire to the naval arsenal warehouses and created fireships out of those French ships it could not take, which exploded violently.[80] On 19 December, the Republic troops entered Toulon. In recognition of his success Napoleon was provisionally commissioned to général de brigade (brigadier general) on 22 December, confirmed 16 February 1794; he was twenty-four years old.[81]

Military leadership[edit]


Following the siege of Toulon, Napoleon spent time inspecting coastal defences before being posted to the Army of Italy as senior gunner, under Général Pierre Dumerbion, which was engaged against the Piedmontese army in Northern Italy.[82] During the time he remained in the south of France, the Reign of Terror ran its course – Maximilien Robespierre had become head of the CPS acting with the capacity of a dictator.[83][84] The CPS itself became the de facto government as Robespierre sought to purge France of anyone suspected of counter-revolutionary behaviour regardless of class. Extreme measures and unpopular laws passed by the CPS, and "the incorruptible" sentiments of Robespierre and his closest followers, would ultimately lead to its downfall. On 27 July 1794, the coup of 9 Thermidor An II (date of the French Republican Calendar[b] (FRC)) saw members of the government, highly opposed to the CPS's overwhelming power, displace Robespierre and his followers. On the 28 July, Robespierre and many of his associates were executed including his brother, Augustin, and several members of the Revolutionary Tribunal, which had sent around 2,500 citizens of Paris to their deaths over the past ten months.[85][86]

Napoleon had not only received Augustin's favour through writing Le souper de Beaucaire, but as an officer in the Army of Italy of which Augustin was a représentant en mission, resulting in their friendship.[82] Saliceti had also been a representative of the Convention, and, possibly looking to distance himself from persecution, began to identify those who may have collaborated with the former radical, Robespierre.[87] Napoleon was arrested in Nice, on 6 August 1794, his behaviour and movements thoroughly investigated, and was released in less than two weeks without charge. Napoleon resumed his role with the Army of Italy,[88] and saw his first pitched battle at Dego in September.[89] He returned to Toulon in November to help plan an invasion of Corsica, but the attempt was prevented by the British navy in March 1795, and on 7 May Napoleon found himself assigned to command the artillery of the Army of the West, which was still engaged in the Vendée revolts.[90] Napoleon went to Paris to seek reassignment to Italy, but found himself rejected by the dogmatic Minister of War and unoccupied for several months as the government continued to shuffle personnel around and dismiss – or execute – unwanted pro-Jacobin generals following 9 Thermidor.[91] His skills as a competent strategist were recognised by the newly-appointed war minister, Doulcet de Pontécoulant, but instead of being posted to the army he was placed in the Bureau Topographique, from 20 August – planning centre of the CPS which drew up campaigns for its armies.[92][93]

Paris insurrection of 5 October 1795
13 Vendémiaire, by Felicien de Myrbach-Rheinfeld

On 22 August, the French Constitution of 1795 was passed. Realising that the Convention and its committees had proven unpopular by abusing its powers, the constitution decreed to replace the Convention with a bicameral government – an upper house, the Council of Ancients, and a lower house, the Council of Five Hundred – and the Directory compromising of five Directors with executive power.[94] The constitution, however, included a highly unpopular law which decreed that two-thirds of the new legislature would come directly from the current Convention. This posed the threat of Jacobin policies being prolonged and caused massive public distrust in Paris.[95] Royalists, encouraged by émigrés,[96] began to rise up in revolt against the Convention, demanding free elections and, in some cases, restoration of Louis XVIII (in exile) as King.[97] On the night of 4–5 October, 13 Vendémiaire An IV (FRC), mobs of thousands marched through Paris headed for the Tuileries where the Convention sat. Paris was divided into 48 sections, 32 of which had taken to the streets en masse,[98] resulting in as many as 25,000 rebels moving against 5,000 regular troops, and around 3,000 sans-culottes loyal to the constitution.[99] Whilst there were many isolated fights throughout the center of Paris, Commander-in-Chief Paul Barras was in command of the Convention's defence. He knew Napoleon, having also been at Toulon,[100] and so offered him command of the artillery, which needed to be retrieved from a camp, 6 miles (10 km) away, by cavalry. Upon arrival, 40 cannon were strategically situated around the gardens and streets leading to the palace, and were loaded with grapeshot. When the rebel force arrived they were fired upon with muskets, initially, but after refusing to fall back the guns opened fire, inflicting casualties, and eventually forcing the crowd to disperse as they failed to press their advantage in numbers, despite several hours of fighting. Although only around 300–400 people were killed, the Royalist cause was defeated.[101]

On 10 October, Barras made Napoleon his second-in-command of the Army of the Interior. He was further promoted to général de division (divisional general) on 16 October. As a result of Barras becoming a Director, and having to select an able successor, Napoleon was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Interior, from 26 October.[102][103] At the age of 26, Napoleon had suddenly advanced from being a little known artillery officer to becoming commander of France's largest army.[104] It was, however, to be a short appointment. The Army of the Interior was a force that maintained law and order, engaged rebels, and enforced the draft for the levée en masse. Napoleon remained in Paris for about 6 months, replacing its former rebellious National Guard with a centralised Parisian Guard, and purging the city of any Royalist and Jacobin remnants that might threaten the government further.[105] During this time, he was aware of the lack of action being taken by the Army of Italy, and repeatedly made his concerns known to the Directory regarding the lack of action being made against the Piedmontese and Austrian armies in the winter of 1796, expressing his beliefs that any wasted opportunity would result in the campaign being lost.[106] Following the resignation of Général Barthélemy Schérer, in March 1796, Napoleon was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Italy.[107] On the 9 March he married Joséphine de Beauharnais, before leaving Paris on the 11 March.[108] He arrived in Nice on 27 March, and took official command of the Army of Italy.[109]

1796–97: Italian Campaigns[edit]

Map of Northern Italy, 1796
Map of Northern Italy, 1796, during the War of the First Coalition

Napoleon's campaign against Austro-Piedmontese forces in Northern Italy began with the Montenotte Campaign on 10 April 1796. The Austrian army, commanded by Feldzeugmeister (General) Johann Beaulieu, and Sardinia-Piedmont army by Feldmarschall-Leutnant (Lieutenant-General) Michelangelo Colli,[110] engaged French forces in a rapid series of battles. They were driven apart as Napoleon advanced his army between them, preventing them from consolidating against him. Engagements continued for almost two weeks in the Ligurian Alps until, following the Battle of Mondovi on 19–21 April, Colli was forced to capitulate. On 28 April, the Armistice of Cherasco was signed, the Kingdom of Sardinia withdrew from the First Coalition, leaving Austria to face Napoleon alone.[111] On 10 May, he defeated the Austrian rearguard at the Battle of Lodi, in the Po Valley, and by 15 May the French occupied Milan,[112] a major city in Northern Italy, and capital of the Lombardy region, an Austrian province. In the space of a few short weeks, Napoleon had proven himself a competent battlefield general, and had gained the respect of his troops, who nicknamed him "le petit caporal" ("the little corporal") after seeing him take personal command of the artillery at Lodi.[113]

The Austrian army withdrew to the east following its defeat at Lodi. Beaulieu situated his forces across the River Mincio, using its adjoining lakes to protect his flanks, but in an attempt to protect all possible river crossings he spread his army too thin and without a reserve.[114] Napoleon pressed the center of his line at the Battle of Borghetto, on 30 May, forcing an Austrian retreat. 4,500 troops separated from the main force retired to the the fortress at Mantua where, on 4 July, the French would begin an eight month siege of Mantua.[115]

The fortress of Mantua was but one of four located in Northern Italy positioned close to the Alpine passes leading to Austria.[116] Known as the Quadrilatero (meaning Quadrilateral), these fortresses were of strategic importance to Austria for maintaining military authority over Lombardy and the Republic of Venice.[117] The French had taken the fortresses at Peschiera, Legnago and Verona following the victory at Borghetto, but Mantua was surrounded by swamps and three lakes, protected by 316 guns, and held a garrison of 12,000 troops, making any siege difficult.[118] In late June, Feldmarschall (Field Marshall) Dagobert Würmser replaced Beaulieu and led the Austrian army on an offensive campaign to relieve Mantua.[119] Mindful of its approach from the north, Napoleon was forced to lift the siege on 31 July in order to confront Würmser's 50,000 strong army with his full force, sacrificing 179 guns in the process.[119]

Würmser split his army into three columns, intent on converging on the French at Mantua.[120] Verona was retaken on 29 July, whilst the right column severed French communications back to Milan.[120] Napoleon moved fast, aiming to defeat the divided Austrian army in detail, as he had done during the Montenotte Campaign. He fell upon the right wing, a division under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Peter Quosdanovich, on 3 August at the Battle of Lonato.[121] Fighting continued on 4 August when Würmser's 4,000 strong vanguard attempted to support Quosdanovich from the south but was impeded, allowing Napoleon to defeat Quosdanovich's division, which was forced to retreat due to heavy losses.[121]

Painting of Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione, by Victor Adam, 1836

Würmser had resupplied Mantua in absence of any siege, and situated his army at Castiglione, south of Lonato. On 5 August Napoleon quickly turned his attention to the main Austrian force. The Battle of Castiglione was a pitched battle which led to Würmser's 25,000 strong force retreating, having suffered 2,000 casualties. It retired eastwards, then back towards the north, but Napoleon's troops were too tired to pursue.[122] The French regained Verona on 7 August before returning to Mantua,[123] which was now occupied by 17,000 troops. Having abandoned the siege train to engage Würmser, Napoleon was compelled to blockade Mantua and await its surrender once food and supplies were depleted. His own troops were badly equipped, improperly dressed, and mostly barefoot.[124] Their morale was low, and had been since the start of the campaign,[125] yet it had somehow managed to defeat the Piedmontese and Austrians at every major engagement. The inspiration he gave his troops led the Directory to become suspicious about his ambitions, and a decision was made to have his motives investigated. Secretly observed by Général Henri Clarke, the resulting report was highly in Napoleon's favour, and the Directory's support for his independent command increased henceforth.[126]

In mid-August of 1796, with French armies advancing along the Rhine into Germany, the Directory ordered Napoleon to take the Army of Italy northwards to prevent Austrian forces from consolidating against the offensive.[127] 10,000 troops remained at Mantua to uphold the blockade and protect the 33,000 strong French rear as it headed for Trento, headquarters of Würmser's army.[127] Würmser left Trento in early September with 20,000 troops, heading south-east via the Brenta valley, seeking to approach and relieve Mantua from the north-east. Napoleon has been unaware of his departure, and on 4 September defeated Feldmarschall-Leutnant Paul Davidovich at the Battle of Rovereto, forcing him to evacuate Trento and retreat northwards.[128] Taking the initiative, on 6 September Napoleon opted to pursue Würmser down the Brenta valley, leaving 10,000 infantry at Trento to guard his route. Moving to a rapid pace, the French caught up with the Austrian force on 8 September and engaged them in the Battle of Bassano. Although his force was divided in defeat, Würmser continued hurriedly towards Mantua. Arriving on 12 September, 16,000 Austrians forced their way through the French lines, raising the city garrison to 23,000. With Würmser sealed in, his baggage and guns abandoned at Bassano, he no longer posed a threat.[129]

As the siege continued, Napoleon established three new client republics in Northern Italy, namely Cisalpine Republic, Cispadane Republic and Transpadane Republic.[130] By November 1796, a new Austrian commander, Général József d'Alvinczi, an Austrian baron, whose military experience could threaten Napoleon's plans.[130] Alvinczi divided his 46,000 strong force into two corps, sending 18,000 to retake Trento, under Davidovich, as a diversion, whilst he advanced from the east with 28,000 men, his objective being Verona, the French central position.[131] 10,000 French under Général de division Claude Vaubois were to face off the army to the north, as Napoleon moved to confront d'Alvinczi's main army. Trento fell to the Austrians on the 4 November and Napoleon's troops were forced to withdraw at the Second Battle of Bassano on 6 November.[132] Davidovich defeated Vaubois' division at the Battle of Calliano, the next day, inflicting severe casualties.[132] However, Davidovich failed to press his advantage and continue to support d'Alvinczi, and remained idle. Quick to take advantage of this inactivity, Napoleon advanced, engaging d'Alvinczi at the Battle of Caldiero on 11 November. Having sustained heavy losses, Napoleon was compelled to fall back to Verona.[133] Finding himself in a desperate situation, with Davidovich's army to the north barely contained by Vaubois, d'Alvinczi's force to the east, and the possibility of Würmser's troops being released from Mantua, Napoleon openly began to doubt that the Italian campaign could succeed.[133]

Arcole Campaign[edit]

Napoleon formulated a new strategy, planning to move rapidly around d'Alvinczi's army, to take Villanova, at his rear, 16 miles (25 km) east of Verona. By doing this, he hoped to capture the Austrian supply trains and weaken their lines of communication, which would force them to retreat and engage him in marshland, on a small front which would deny them any advantage their superior numbers held.[134] Knowing this would leave Verona vulnerable, and may allow Davidovich to push south and join with d'Alvinczi, he left a small garrison of 3,000 to defend the city and departed during the night of 14 November, with 18,000 men, using the River Adige to cover his movements.[135]

Painting of Napoleon at the bridge of Arcole
Bonaparte leading his troops over the bridge of Arcole, by Horace Vernet, 1826

On 15 November, the French crossed to the north side of the river, using a pontoon bridge built by sappers, at Ronco. In order to reach Villanova, the tributary river Alpone had to be crossed at the village of Arcole, but d'Alvinczi was aware of Napoleon's plans and had reinforced the bridge there with 4,000 Croatian troops and several guns.[135]

For three days, the French pressed the defenders of Arcole. Having sustained heavy losses, Napoleon encouraged his tired men to follow him across the bridge, a tricolour held aloft in his hands. French troops crossed the river south of Arcole, on 17 November, and with diversionary cavalry support, encouraged the Austrians to withdraw. D'Alvinczi retired from Verona, leaving his forces divided east and west of the Alpone. Now holding the advantage, Napoleon attacked the weaker Austrian wing in the marshes, and continued to press north against the main force as it retreated east to Vicenza, French cavalry in pursuit.[136]

On 17 November, Davidovich routed Vaubois' division at Rivoli. Having secured Verona, Bonaparte marched to Vaubois' aid with his main force, and defeated the remaining Austrian threat at Rivoli on 21 November. Davidovich, outnumbered and no longer capable of supporting d'Alvinczi, abandoned his bid to reach Mantua. With the third Austrian relief attempt a failure, the siege continued. Against overwhelming odds, Napoleon had succeeded in maintaining his position for a while longer, and his military genius was beginning to show.[137]

By the end of 1796, d'Alvinczi had reinforced his numbers to 45,000. The Army of Italy's strength was increased to around 45,000 also, although 10,000–12,000 were required to maintain the siege. French units were garrisoned north and east of Mantua, along the Adige, covering all possible approaches that the Austrians might take in a further relief attempt, which was expected after peace negotiations between the French Directory and the Emperor of Austria hit an impasse.[138]

1797: Rivoli[edit]

In early January, 1797, d'Alvinczi sent units to attack Verona, Legnago, and points along the Adige. Napoleon, however, was certain that the enemy numbers did not constitute a serious threat, and did not commit himself to a stronger defence. On 13 January, Napoleon received word from Général de brigade Barthélemy Joubert, Vaubois' replacement,[139] that a large Austrian force had attacked his division at La Corona, 5 miles (8 km) north of Rivoli, the day before. With around 6,000 Austrians moving against Verona and 9,000 against Legnago, Napoleon determined that d'Alvinczi had taken his main force, 28,000 troops, north-west through the Brenta valley to Trento, and was pushing south for Mantua.[140]

Napoleon at the Battle of Rivoli, by Henri Philippoteaux, 1845

Napoleon proceeded to join Joubert, where the engagement had already begun on the plateau north of Rivoli, on 14 January. The battle continued into the next day, with French reinforcements arriving to repel the Austrian assault.[141]

Napoleon left command of the battle to Joubert, as he rushed south, where 9,000 Austrians under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Giovanni Provera had succeeded in crossing the Adige and were within sight of Mantua. Despite their efforts to break through French lines, Napoleon's arrival with a division to their rear blocked any chance of advance or retreat, leading to the surrender of 6,000 troops.[142] The Battle of Rivoli also ended that day. From 28,000 Austrians, about 4,000 casualties and 11,000 prisoners resulted. The remainder fled north, utterly defeated.[143] The French lost around 5,000 men.[144] Of d'Alvinczi's original strength, only 13,000 fragmented troops remained.[145]

Würmser made a futile attempt to link up with Proversa on 16 January. On 2 Feburary, with almost half of his 30,000 strong garrison sick with disease and hunger, Würmser surrendered.[145] Despite his long-awaited victory, Napoleon immediately moved south, invading Italy's Papal States and securing the Treaty of Tolentino on 19 February.[146]

In late February, Napoleon pressed east, aiming to take Vienna and end the war. In command of the army that was to prevent the French from gaining passage through the Eastern Alps into Austria was Archduke Charles of Austria – who, at 25 years old, was two years younger than Napoleon – the commander who had prevented the French Army of the Rhine from invading Germany in 1796.[147] By mid-March, Napoleon's advances made headway, pushing the Austrians back, but by April he suffered a loss of momentum as the Army of the Rhine failed to converge with the Army of Italy, leaving him with insufficient numbers to capture Vienna.[148] After calling for a ceasefire, Napoleon called for negotiations, without seeking the Directory's permission or waiting for an official diplomat. Situated in Leoben, 75 miles (120 km) short of the capital, he successfully bluffed the Austrians into thinking he was ready to attack in strength. On 17 April, the Preliminaries of Leoben were signed, forming a basis for the Treaty of Campo Formio, signed on 18 October, 1797. As territorial rights were settled, Napoleon returned to Paris in December a household name.[149]

After declaring war on Spain in 1793, the War of the Pyrenees began. The Spanish invaded Roussillon, a French province in Catalonia. In 1795 they were defeated and signed the Peace of Basel treaty in July, along with Prussia who had signed it in April, removing themselves from the First Coalition and making land concessions to France.[150] With the signing of the Treaties of Leoben and Campo Formio in 1797 the First Coalition ended. Great Britain remained France's sole adversary.

1798: Egyptian Campaign[edit]

Painting of Napoleon in Egypt
Bonaparte and his chief of staff in Egypt, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1863

At the end of 1797, Great Britain – all that remained of the First Coalition – was France's greatest threat. An assured peace between the French Directory and King George III, or Prime Minster William Pitt, seemed unlikely. Napoleon was directed to organise an invasion of England, with the Army of England, numbering 120,000 men, but upon inspection he determined that without control of the English Channel such an invasion would be costly or impossible.[151] He offered the Directory several alternative uses for the army, the most pertinent describing an invasion of Egypt, in order to disrupt major English trade routes into Europe from Africa, Asia, and its wealthy colonies in the East Indies, supplying commodities such as coffee, sugar, rice and cotton.[152] Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India, could prove a valuable French ally during the invasion – having fought against the British in all three Anglo–Mysore Wars, since 1766 – he was a formidable supporter of the Revolution itself.[153]

Napoleon's invasion plan was approved in March 1798, and preparations for the expedition were soon underway.[154] An Army of the Orient, totalling 36,000–40,000 men (54,000 including sailors and a multitude of civilians, such as cantinières, scientists, artists, merchants and bureaucrats),[155][156] guns, horses, provisions and supplies, was assembled in readiness to embark from various southern harbours and Corsica.[157][158] Secrecy regarding the destination was maintained by the Directory and Napoleon's senior staff, so that foreign spies aware of the assembling force could not identify its target with any certainty.[159] A British Royal Navy squadron was sent to investigate, commanded by flag officer Rear Admiral of the Blue Sir Horatio Nelson. Any discovery posed a threat to the campaign, and the British navy could not be allowed to consolidate its strength in the Mediterranean to oppose the French fleet.[157]

Napoleon arrived in Toulon on 9 May, where his flagship, L'Orient, 12 ships of the line and part of a convoy of 300–400 various sized warships, gunboats, corvettes, frigates, brigs, merchant ships and transport vessels were ready for departure.[158][160] A mistral wind blew up on 12 May, halting his plans to set sail that day. The storm persisted for a week before settling on 19 May, allowing the vast fleet to set sail.[161] On 21 May, Nelson's squadron was hit by a gale storm, demasting Nelson's flagship and forcing him to seek harbour for repairs. As a result of the British vessels being divided and ineffectual, the French fleet entered the Mediterranean without incident.[162]


On 9 June, the French fleet arrived at the island of Malta, and invaded its capital, Valletta, which was defended by around 330 Knights of St John, around 200 of whom were French and unwilling to fight. On 11 June, following brief negotiations, Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch surrendered, without ever a shot being fired.[163][164] The invasion of Malta had been planned long in advance, and during the week following its capitulation, the French seized Maltese riches in order to further finance the expedition. Napoleon applied modern law and reform, abolishing feudal rule and slavery – 2,000 Turks and Moors were freed – he extended education to cover the French Constitution, and granted equal rights to Christians, Jews and Muslims.[165] The old and unpopular Order was gone, the latest victim of the Revolution. Around 2,000 Maltese troops, French Knights and freed slaves, joined Napoleon's army when it resumed course for Egypt on 19 June.[166]


The French fleet approached the Egyptian coastline on 30 June, successfully evading the British navy by feinting eastward towards Crete, their paths having crossed unaware during the misty night of 22–23 June.[167] Sailing south-east from Malta, Nelson's faster ships had overtaken the French and arrived at Egypt as early as 28 June, before heading north, still unaware of where Napoleon intended to land his force, Nelson continued to search.[168] Details of the actual landings were ill-prepared, and Napoleon selected a beachhead 5 miles (8 km) west of Alexandria, whose enclosed harbour he did not consider safe to enter. Fleet Vice Admiral François-Paul Brueys refused to anchor any closer than 3 miles (5 km) to the shore due to uncharted shoals. On 1 July, the slow process of landing began.[169]

Fall of Alexandria as depicted on the Arc de Triomphe
La prise d'Alexandrie (Fall of Alexandria), by sculptor J.E. Chaponnière, as depicted on the Arc de Triomphe, Paris

When Napoleon and his staff came ashore on 2 July, with less than 4,000 troops carrying rationed ammunition, and no chance of cavalry or artillery support, he recognised the urgency to secure Alexandria's harbour so he could unload supplies, and use its wells to supply water to his men who quickly became thirsty in the African heat.[170] Harassed by Bedouin cavalry, he advanced on Alexandria, facing a garrison of around 500 Egyptians and 20 Mamluks, whose Bey leader – situated in Cairo and communicating by messenger – was certain a French force on foot could be defeated.[171] The French attack was swift, and despite facing resistance from both soldiers and citizens the city fell by the afternoon, with less than 50 French dead compared to 700–800 Egyptian casualties.[172] Accounting for the high total, Adjudant-général (adjutant general) Pierre-François Boyer (in French) wrote that French troops spent four hours slaughtering inhabitants who had taken refuge in mosques.[173]

Once secured, the fleet continued unloading remaining troops, horses and guns. By 3 July, the majority of Napoleon's forces were on-land. Napoleon had negotiated terms with the local Egyptians, Arabs and Ottoman Turks, by claiming to be in Egypt only to fight the Mamluk beys for harassing French merchants,[174] he quickly established order. Napoleon appealed to the Muslim faith, warned off aggression from the population, and promised to free Egypt of Mamluk rule, before sending the first elements of his army south-east, towards Cairo.[175]


The march to Cairo would take several weeks, with French troops crossing the desert whilst a flotilla of chebecs was sent down the Nile carrying supplies and to serve as gunboats.[176][177] Napoleon joined his desert-bound army on 6 July, concentrating 18,000 men at Damanhur on 9 July before moving towards the Nile.[178] With insufficient rations and their uniforms proving inadequate for the harsh environment, the 72-hour desert-crossing resulted in severe thirst and dehydration. Bedouin tribesmen filled wells with sand and picked off French stragglers who became sick or lost during sand storms, often blinded; many became delirious and committed suicide.[179] Although Napoleon had made agreements with to prevent hostilities, a fatwa had been issued by Cairo's clerics, ordering all true Muslims to take up arms against the French "infidels".[180] All locals now posed a threat to the expedition.

On 13 July, whilst approaching Shubrâkhît, a village on the Nile, Napoleon's troops were attacked by 4,000 Mamluk cavalry and 12,000 fellahin (militia composed of peasants), led by Murad Bey.[178] On the Nile, Napoleon's supply ships were ambushed by a number of gunships, supported by cannons positioned along the shore.[181] The battle at Shubrâkhît was brief, with Napoleon forming his divisions into infantry square formations six men deep, with cannons placed at the corners to resist cavalry charges. He also ordered artillery to support his gunboats against the enemy vessels. A direct hit against the Mamluk flagship's magazine resulted in a huge explosion.[182] Murad's army fled from the field, demoralised by the loss, having caused very few casualties on-land, but several hundred French sailors were killed as a result of boarding and vicious hand-to-hand combat with scimitars.[183]

By 18 July the French army arrived at Wardan where they were granted 48 hours of rest before pressing on to Cairo.[184] Making one final stop on 20 July, 18 miles (29 km) away from the capital, the sick and weary army of 25,000 men were once again marching south several hours before dawn, 21 July, as Napoleon anticipated the upcoming battle.[185]

The Battle of the Pyramids, which took place on the afternoon of 21 July, would more accurately be described as the "Battle of Embabeh", a village on the north-east banks of the Nile, 1 mile (1.6 km) from Cairo. It was here that joint-rulers of Egypt, Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey,[c] prepared to meet the French. Though contemporary art often displays the battle at the foot of the Pyramids of Giza themselves, the fighting took place 8–10 miles (13–16 km) north-east of the necropolis.[186] Napoleon pointed them out to his troops declaring, "You are going into a battle which will be engraved upon the memory of mankind. You will be fighting the oppressors of Egypt. Soldiers, forty centuries of history are looking down on you".[187] In reality, the distance and haze would have made the sight less impressive than Romanticist artists such as Antoine-Jean Gros or François Watteau depict in their works.[188][189]

Forming each of his five divisions into large rectangular "squares" along a 2 mile (3 km) front, with the Nile protecting his left flank, Napoleon prepared to receive the Mamluk charge. Murad Bey, leading 6,000 cavalry, attempted to break the French right flank and rear.[185] Two divisions of the French left stormed Embabeh, held by 12,000 fellahin, inciting panic. Ibrahim Bey watched from across the Nile as the engagement developed, but had insufficient boats with which to cross and support Murad with his own army.[190] Lacking coordination, the Mamluk cavalry was unable to penetrate the deep French lines as they sustained casualties. In less than two hours, having lost several thousand men to less than 300 French casualties (of which only 29 dead), Murad and his troops were routed, many drowned after diving into the Nile as they fled. Ibrahim, having never joined the fight, ordered a general retreat east into Syria. On 22 July Cairo surrendered and was occupied on 24 July.[191]

Battle of the Pyramids by Lejeune
The Battle of the Pyramids, by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, 1808

Trapped in Egypt[edit]

Battle of the Nile, by Thomas Luny, 1834

On 1 August 1798, Nelson's squadron located the French fleet after a lengthy Mediterranean campaign to intercept the French expedition known to have left Toulon. It had been harboured in Aboukir Bay to await the conclusion of Napoleon's mission, despite Napoleon's orders that the fleet anchor in Alexandria port, if deep enough, and should withdraw to Corfu if threatened (ceded to France by Austria under the Campo Formio treaty).[192] Vice Admiral Brueys refused to abandon the army and decided to anchor in the bay.[193]

For two days a line of battle engagement raged across the bay between thirteen British and thirteen French ships of the line and a handful of smaller armed vessels.[194] The first day of combat ended after the French flagship L'Orient, the only first-rate vessel present in either fleet, exploded when a fire detonated its magazine supplies, killing hundreds of sailors, including Brueys.[195] Fighting resumed early the next morning and by 3 August all French warships were destroyed, captured or had surrendered, excepting two that escaped.[196]

Nelson would earn a peerage for his victory, making him a baron and Lord Nelson of the Nile.[197] The destruction of Revolutionary France's naval strength in the Mediterranean would encourage other nations to join Great Britain in forming future coalitions opposed to French ideals and expansion;[198] an effect which would continue throughout Napoleon's reign. But in the immediate aftermath, Napoleon and his Army of the Orient were isolated in Egypt with no means of returning to France and no way of receiving further supplies or communications. It would not be until around 12–15 August that Napoleon learned of the loss of his fleet.[199][200][201] He had travelled north-east towards the Sinai Peninsula in pursuit of Ibrahim Bey and caught up with him at El Saliyeh (Salahieh). Once again defeated, Ibrahim retreated into Syria.[202]

Invading Syria[edit]

On 9 September 1798, the Ottoman Empire's central government, the Sublime Porte, under Sultan Selim III, declared a holy war against the French invaders. French authority in Egypt had flouted Islamic practices, with the introduction of taxation and various civil ordinances.[203] Cut-off from home, with a British blockade preventing supplies from reaching Egyptian ports, the French had to adapt to living amongst people who were neither welcoming nor hospitable. French soldiers that strayed from the safety of their garrisons were attacked by mobs or murdered.[204][205] As tensions increased, Napoleon did little to appease the population, since he did not believe the Ottoman decleration of war.[203] On 21–22 October, a violent Revolt of Cairo took place. Around 300 French soldiers were killed by the rioting mobs. In reprisal and on Napoleon's orders, at least 3,000 civilians were killed, massacred by French troops in their Grand Mosque;[206] many rioters bearing arms were taken prisoner. Napoleon ordered private executions; at least 80 rebels were beheaded, their bodies thrown into the Nile, on 4 November.[207]

Alliances formed between September 1798 and February 1799 by Great Britain, Portugal, the Kingdom of Naples, Russia, and Austria, would lead to a Second Coalition opposing France.[208] The Ottoman Empire became a member, supported by Britain but also by Tsar Paul I of Russia, protector of the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller, who wanted to expel the French from Malta and expand his empire in the Mediterranean region.[209] Sultan Selim III intended to assemble 60,000 men to confront the French.[210] The British Royal Navy would transport an army of 15,000 men from Rhodes to Alexandria, whilst a land army would advance into Egypt where the two armies would converge and attack the French in a pincer movement.[211]

Napoleon would not wait to be attacked by a concentrated force. On 10 February 1799, he advanced into Syria with 13,000 men and 52 field guns,[205] intent on confronting Djezzar Pasha of Acre, the military governor of Syria, whose cruel reputation as a former assassin earned him the epithet of al-Jazzar, meaning "the Butcher".[212] Djezzar hated the French did not honour the diplomatic status of Napoleon's emissaries, instead having them confined and executed.[213][214]

Battle record[edit]

Key to flags
 Austrian Empire (from 1806)  Bavaria  Brunswick
 Egyptian Mamluk[x]  French Royalist  Great Britain (pre-1801)
Province of Hanover Hanover  Holy Roman Empire (pre-1806) Sovereign Military Order of Malta Malta
 Naples  Nassau  Netherlands
 Ottoman Empire  Prussia  Russian Empire
 Sardinia  Saxony  Spain
 Sweden  United Kingdom (from 1801)  Württemberg
Key to coalitions and campaigns
1 War of the First Coalition 2 War of the Second Coalition 3 War of the Third Coalition
4 War of the Fourth Coalition 5 War of the Fifth Coalition 6 War of the Sixth Coalition
7 War of the Seventh Coalition
Montenotte Campaign Six Days Campaign
Key to outcome
Decisive victory Decisive defeat
Date War Action Opponent/s Type Country Rank Outcome Notes
1793 02-22 22–25 Feb 1793 French Revolutionary Wars La Maddalena Invasion of La Maddalena SardKingdom of Sardinia Invasion Sardinia Lieutenant Colonel Defeat [215]
1793 09-18 18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793 French Revolutionary Wars Toulon Siege of Toulon BritKingdom of Great BritainKingdom of FranceSpainKingdom of the Two SiciliesKingdom of Sardinia Siege France Major Victory [216]
1794 09-21 21 Sep 1794 French Revolutionary Wars Dego 1 First Battle of Dego AusHREHoly Roman EmpireKingdom of Sardinia Battle Italy (Kingdom of Sardinia) Brigadier General Victory [217]
1795 10-05 5 Oct 1795 French Revolution 13 13 Vendémiaire French RoyalKingdom of France Insurrection France Brigadier General Victory [218]
1796 04-11 11–12 Apr 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Montenotte Battle of Montenotte AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Republic of Genoa) General Victory [219][220]
1796 04-13 13–14 Apr 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Millesimo Battle of Millesimo AusHREHoly Roman EmpireKingdom of Sardinia Battle Italy (Kingdom of Sardinia) General Victory [221]
1796 04-14 14–15 Apr 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Dego 2 Second Battle of Dego AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Kingdom of Sardinia) General Victory [222]
1796 04-16 16 Apr 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Ceva Battle of Ceva AusHREHoly Roman EmpireKingdom of Sardinia Battle Italy (Kingdom of Sardinia) General Victory [223]
1796 04-19 19–21 Apr 1796[x1] French Revolutionary Wars Mondovì Battle of Mondovì AusHREHoly Roman EmpireKingdom of Sardinia Battle Italy (Kingdom of Sardinia) General Victory [224][225][226]
1796 05-07 7–9 May 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Fombio Battle of Fombio AusHREHoly Roman Empire Skirmish Italy (Duchy of Milan) General Victory [227]
1796 05-10 10 May 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Lodi Battle of Lodi AusHREHoly Roman EmpireKingdom of Naples Battle Italy (Duchy of Milan) General Victory [228][229]
1796 05-30 30 May 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Borghetto Battle of Borghetto AusHREHoly Roman EmpireKingdom of Naples Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [230]
1796 07-04 4 Jul 1796 – 2 Feb 1797 French Revolutionary Wars Mantua Siege of Mantua AusHREHoly Roman Empire Siege Italy (Duchy of Mantua) General Victory [231]
1796 10-03 3–4 Aug 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Lonato Battle of Lonato AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [232]
1796 10-05 5 Aug 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Castiglione Battle of Castiglione AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Duchy of Mantua) General Victory [232][233]
1796 09-04 4 Sep 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Rovereto Battle of Rovereto AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (County of Tyrol) General Victory [234]
1796 09-08 8 Sep 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Bassano 1 Battle of Bassano AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [235]
1796 11-06 6 Nov 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Bassano 2 Second Battle of Bassano AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Defeat [236]
1796 11-12 12 Nov 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Caldiero Battle of Caldiero AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Defeat [237]
1796 11-15 15–17 Nov 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Arcole Battle of the Bridge of Arcole AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [237][238]
1796 11-22 22 Nov 1796 French Revolutionary Wars Rivoli Battle of Rivoli AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [239]
1797 01-14 14–15 Jan 1797 French Revolutionary Wars Rivoli Battle of Rivoli AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [240][241]
1797 03-16 16 Mar 1797 French Revolutionary Wars Valvasone Battle of Valvasone AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Venetian Republic) General Victory [242][243]
1798 06-09 9–11 Jun 1798 Egypt–Syria Campaign Malta French occupation of Malta MaltSovereign Military Order of Malta Invasion Malta General Victory [244]
1798 07-02 2 Jul 1798 Egypt–Syria Campaign Alexandria Siege of Alexandria MameMameluke Flag.svg Siege Egypt General Victory [245][246]
1798 07-12 13 Jul 1798 Egypt–Syria Campaign Chobrakit Battle of Shubra Khit MameMameluke Flag.svg Battle Egypt General Victory [247]
1798 07-21 21 Jul 1798 Egypt–Syria Campaign Pyramids Battle of Pyramids MameMameluke Flag.svg Battle Egypt General Victory [248][249]
1798 08-11 11 Aug 1798 Egypt–Syria Campaign El Saliyeh Battle of El Saliyeh MameMameluke Flag.svg Skirmish Egypt General Victory [250][251]
1798 10-21 21 Oct 1798 Egypt–Syria Campaign Cairo Revolt of Cairo OttoOttoman Empire Insurrection Egypt General Victory [252][253]
1799 02-08 8–19 Feb 1799 Egypt–Syria Campaign El Arish Siege of El Arish OttoOttoman Empire Siege Egypt General Victory [254]
1799 03-03 3–7 Mar 1799 Egypt–Syria Campaign Jaffa Siege of Jaffa OttoOttoman Empire Siege Syria General Victory [255]
1799 03-17 17 Mar – 21 May 1799 Egypt–Syria Campaign Acre Siege of Acre OttoOttoman EmpireKingdom of Great Britain Siege Syria General Defeat [256]
1799 04-16 16 Apr 1799 Egypt–Syria Campaign Mount Tabor Battle of Mount Tabor OttoOttoman Empire Skirmish Syria General Defeat [257]
1799 07-25 25 Jul 1799 Egypt–Syria Campaign Abukir Battle of Abukir OttoOttoman Empire Battle Egypt General Victory [258]
1800 06-14 14 Jun 1800 French Revolutionary Wars Marengo Battle of Marengo AusHREHoly Roman Empire Battle Italy (Kingdom of Sardinia) General Victory [259][260]
1805 10-15 15–19 Oct 1805 War of the Third Coalition Ulm Battle of Ulm (Ulm Campaign) AusHREHoly Roman Empire Skirmish Germany (Bavaria) Emperor Victory [261][262]
1805 12-02 2 Dec 1805 War of the Third Coalition Austerlitz Battle of Austerlitz AusHREHoly Roman EmpireRussian Empire Battle Austria Emperor Victory [263][264]
1806 10-14 14 Oct 1806 War of the Fourth Coalition Jena Battle of Jena-Auerstedt PrussKingdom of PrussiaElectorate of Saxony Battle Prussia Emperor Victory [265]
1806 12-23 23–24 Dec 1806 War of the Fourth Coalition Czarnowo Battle of Czarnowo RussRussian Empire Battle Poland Emperor Victory [266]
1807 02-07 7–8 Feb 1807 War of the Fourth Coalition Eylau Battle of Eylau RussRussian EmpireKingdom of Prussia Battle Prussia Emperor Victory [267][268]
1807 06-10 10 Jun 1807 War of the Fourth Coalition Heilsberg Battle of Heilsberg RussRussian EmpireKingdom of Prussia Battle Prussia Emperor Defeat [269]
1807 06-14 14 Jun 1807 War of the Fourth Coalition Friedland Battle of Friedland RussRussian Empire Battle Prussia Emperor Victory [270][271]
1808 11-30 30 Nov 1808 Peninsular War Somosierra Battle of Somosierra SpanSpain Battle Spain Emperor Victory [272]
1809 04-20 20 Apr 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Abensberg Battle of Abensberg AustAustrian Empire Battle Germany (Bavaria) Emperor Victory [273]
1809 04-21 21 Apr 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Landshut Battle of Landshut AustAustrian Empire Battle Germany (Bavaria) Emperor Victory [274]
1809 04-21 21–22 Apr 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Eckmuhl Battle of Eckmühl AustAustrian Empire Battle Germany (Bavaria) Emperor Victory [275][276]
1809 04-23 23 Apr 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Regensburg Battle of Regensburg AustAustrian Empire Battle Germany (Bavaria) Emperor Victory [277]
1809 05-21 21–22 May 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Aspern Battle of Aspern-Essling AustAustrian Empire Battle Vienna Emperor Defeat [278][279]
1809 07-05 5–6 Jul 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Wagram Battle of Wagram AustAustrian Empire Battle Austria Emperor Victory [280][281]
10–11 Jul 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Battle of Znaim Austrian Empire Battle Austria Emperor Indecisive
1812 08-16 16–18 Aug 1812 Invasion of Russia Smolensk Battle of Smolensk RussRussian Empire Battle Russia Emperor Victory [282][283]
1812 09-07 7 Sep 1812 Invasion of Russia Borodino Battle of Borodino RussRussian Empire Battle Russia Emperor Victory [284][285]
1812 10-24 24 Oct 1812 Invasion of Russia Malojaroslawetz Battle of Malojaroslawetz RussRussian Empire Battle Russia Emperor Defeat [286]
1812 11-14 14–18 Nov 1812 Invasion of Russia Krasnoi Battle of Krasnoi RussRussian Empire Battle Russia Emperor Defeat [287]
1812 11-26 26–29 Nov 1812 Invasion of Russia Berezina Battle of Berezina RussRussian Empire Battle Russia Emperor Victory [288][289]
1813 05-02 2 May 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Lützen Battle of Lützen PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle Germany (Leipzig) Emperor Victory [290][291]
1813 05-20 20–21 May 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Bautzen Battle of Bautzen PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle Germany (Saxony) Emperor Victory [292][293]
1813 05-22 22 May 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Reichenbach Battle of Reichenbach RussRussian Empire Battle Germany (Saxony) Emperor Victory [294]
1813 08-26 26–27 Aug 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Dresden Battle of Dresden PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle Germany (Saxony) Emperor Victory [295][296]
1813 10-16 16–19 Oct 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Leipzig Battle of Leipzig RussRussian EmpireKingdom of PrussiaAustrian EmpireSwedenElectorate of Saxony Battle Germany (Saxony) Emperor Defeat [297][298]
1813 10-22 22 Oct 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Eckartsberga Battle of Eckartsberga AustAustrian Empire Battle Germany (Saxony) Emperor Victory [299]
1813 10-26 26 Oct 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Horselberg Battle of Hörselberg PrusKingdom of Prussia Battle Germany (Saxony) Emperor Indecisive [299]
1813 10-30 30–31 Oct 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition Hanau Battle of Hanau AustAustrian EmpireKingdom of Bavaria Battle Germany (Hesse) Emperor Indecisive [300][301]
1814 01-29 29 Jan 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Brienne Battle of Brienne PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [302][303]
1814 02-01 1 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition La Rothiere Battle of La Rothiere PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Defeat [304][305]
1814 02-10 10 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Champaubert Battle of Champaubert PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [306]
1814 02-11 11 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Montmirail Battle of Montmirail PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [307][308]
1814 02-12 12 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Château-Thierry Battle of Château-Thierry PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [309]
1814 02-14 14 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Vauchamps Battle of Vauchamps PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [310]
1814 02-17 17 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Mormans Battle of Mormans RussRussian EmpireKingdom of Württemberg Battle France Emperor Victory [311]
1814 02-18 18 Feb 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Montereau Battle of Montereau AustAustrian EmpireKingdom of Württemberg Battle France Emperor Victory [312]
1814 03-07 7 Mar 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Craonne Battle of Craonne PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [313][314]
1814 03-09 9–10 Mar 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Laon Battle of Laon PrusKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Defeat [315][316]
1814 03-13 13 Mar 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Reims Battle of Reims RussRussian EmpireKingdom of Prussia Battle France Emperor Victory [317]
1814 03-20 20–21 Mar 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Arcis-sur-Aube Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube AustAustrian EmpireRussian EmpireKingdom of WürttembergKingdom of Bavaria Battle France Emperor Defeat [318][319]
1814 03-26 26 Mar 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition Saint-Dizier Battle of Saint-Dizier RussRussian Empire Battle France Emperor Victory [320]
1815 06-16 16 Jun 1815 Hundred Days Ligny Battle of Ligny PrusKingdom of Prussia Battle Belgium Emperor Victory [321][322]
1815 06-18 18 Jun 1815 Hundred Days Waterloo Battle of Waterloo BritUnited KingdomKingdom of PrussiaUnited Kingdom of the NetherlandsProvince of HanoverDuchy of Brunswick Battle Belgium Emperor Defeat [323][324]

See also[edit]


  • a Journées were notable days during the revolution, such as major riots which had significant political consequences.[325][326]
  • b The French Republican Calendar, or French Revolutionary Calendar, was introduced on 22 September 1793, by the Convention, to commemorate a new era. "An II", meaning "Year II", is reference to the second year of the Republic, etc. It remained in use until 31 December 1805, 10 Nivôse An XIV (FRC).[327]
  • c In terms of leadership, Murad Bey was a Mamluk military chieftain as Emir el-Hadj (prince or leader of the pilgramage to Mecca), where Ibrahim Bey held the title Shiekh el-Beled (head or chief of the country); they ruled with de facto power.[328][329]
  • x The Mamluk flag image design is speculative. The main source pointing to this design is the Catalan Atlas, which as a historical primary source cannot be considered a reliable reference.
  • x1 Sources differ as to when the Battle of Mondovi took place. Fremont-Barnes (2006) states 19–21 April 1796,[224] Lachouque (1966) and Chandler (1966) state 21 April,[225][330] while Smith (1998) states 22 April.[226]


  • Page numbers in italic denote a full-page illustration, map or table.
  1. ^ Cronin, p. 15.
  2. ^ Cronin, p. 27.
  3. ^ Cronin, pp. 27–28.
  4. ^ Cronin, pp. 38; 40.
  5. ^ a b Cronin, p. 43.
  6. ^ Cronin, p. 42.
  7. ^ Cronin, p. 44.
  8. ^ Barnett, pp. 21–22.
  9. ^ Cronin, pp. 46–49.
  10. ^ Taylor, pp. 12–14.
  11. ^ Doyle, p. 68.
  12. ^ Hibbert, p. 36.
  13. ^ Hibbert, pp. 35–41.
  14. ^ Cronin, pp. 54–55.
  15. ^ Barnett, p. 25.
  16. ^ Hibbert, pp. 59–60.
  17. ^ Cronin, p. 55.
  18. ^ Doyle, p. 114.
  19. ^ Hibbert, p. 93.
  20. ^ a b Cronin, p. 56.
  21. ^ Hibbert, pp. 96–100.
  22. ^ Cronin, pp. 64–65.
  23. ^ Cronin, pp. 18–19.
  24. ^ Cronin, pp. 58; 60–61.
  25. ^ Cronin, p. 61.
  26. ^ Cronin, p. 64.
  27. ^ Hibbert, p. 161.
  28. ^ Hibbert, p. 143.
  29. ^ Cronin, p. 63.
  30. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 14.
  31. ^ Hibbert, pp. 169–176.
  32. ^ Hibbert, p. 210.
  33. ^ Hibbert, pp. 135–139.
  34. ^ Hibbert, pp. 123–130.
  35. ^ Hibbert, pp. 180–181.
  36. ^ Cronin, pp. 65–66.
  37. ^ Hibbert, pp. 185–189.
  38. ^ Hibbert, pp. 193–195.
  39. ^ Cronin, p. 66
  40. ^ Hibbert, pp. 193; 332.
  41. ^ Cronin, pp. 17–19.
  42. ^ Ireland, p. 145.
  43. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 15.
  44. ^ Cronin, pp. 67–68.
  45. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 16–17.
  46. ^ Cronin, p. 69.
  47. ^ Doyle, p. 224.
  48. ^ Doyle, p. 202.
  49. ^ Doyle, p. 204.
  50. ^ Doyle, pp. 125; 127.
  51. ^ Doyle, p. 265.
  52. ^ Doyle, p. 244.
  53. ^ Hibbert, p. 194.
  54. ^ Hibbert, pp. 201–203.
  55. ^ a b Doyle, p. 241.
  56. ^ Doyle, p. 232.
  57. ^ Hibbert, p. 202.
  58. ^ Cronin, p. 71.
  59. ^ a b Dwyer, p. 131.
  60. ^ de Chair, pp. 59–70.
  61. ^ Chandler (2002), p. 21.
  62. ^ Cronin, p. 72.
  63. ^ Chandler (2002), p. 22.
  64. ^ Dwyer, pp. 122–123.
  65. ^ a b c Dwyer, p. 138.
  66. ^ Cronin, p. 72–73.
  67. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 20.
  68. ^ Cronin, pp. 73–74.
  69. ^ Dwyer, p. 139.
  70. ^ Dwyer, p. 136.
  71. ^ Doyle, p. 254.
  72. ^ Cronin, p. 74.
  73. ^ Chandler (1999), pp. 127–128.
  74. ^ Hibbert, p. 222.
  75. ^ a b Cronin, p. 75.
  76. ^ Dwyer, p. 137.
  77. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 23.
  78. ^ Ireland, p. 207.
  79. ^ Ireland, pp. 262–263.
  80. ^ Ireland, pp. 275–278.
  81. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 28.
  82. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 30.
  83. ^ Doyle, pp. 247–271.
  84. ^ Hibbert, pp. 221–248.
  85. ^ Jones, pp. 115–212.
  86. ^ Hibbert, pp. 264–268.
  87. ^ Dwyer, pp. 154–155.
  88. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 34.
  89. ^ Dwyer, p. 156.
  90. ^ Dwyer, p. 157.
  91. ^ Cronin, pp. 81–82.
  92. ^ Cronin, p. 83.
  93. ^ Dwyer, p. 168.
  94. ^ Dwyer, p. 171.
  95. ^ Doyle, p. 321.
  96. ^ Hibbert, p. 283.
  97. ^ Hibbert, p. 281.
  98. ^ Dwyer, p. 172.
  99. ^ Hibbert, p. 286.
  100. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 42.
  101. ^ Hibbert, pp. 286–288.
  102. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 40.
  103. ^ Cronin, pp. 86–87.
  104. ^ Dwyer, p. 177.
  105. ^ Dwyer, p. 179.
  106. ^ Dwyer, p. 180.
  107. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 41.
  108. ^ Cronin, p. 110.
  109. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 56.
  110. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 62.
  111. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 75–76.
  112. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 81–85.
  113. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 84.
  114. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 86.
  115. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 87.
  116. ^ Chandler (2002), p. 27.
  117. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 352.
  118. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 87–88.
  119. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 92–93.
  120. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 93.
  121. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 94.
  122. ^ Hawthornthwaite (1995), pp. 102–103.
  123. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 95.
  124. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 88–89.
  125. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 53–54.
  126. ^ Cronin, pp. 122–123
  127. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 96.
  128. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 97.
  129. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 98.
  130. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 101.
  131. ^ Chandler (2002), p. 31.
  132. ^ a b Smith, p. 126.
  133. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 103.
  134. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 105.
  135. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 106.
  136. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 106–112.
  137. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 113.
  138. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 113–114.
  139. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 114.
  140. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 115.
  141. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 116–120.
  142. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 120–121.
  143. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 120.
  144. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 382.
  145. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 121.
  146. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 442.
  147. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 89.
  148. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 122–124.
  149. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 125; 207.
  150. ^ Durant, p. 85.
  151. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 208–209.
  152. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 210–211.
  153. ^ Strathern, p. 32.
  154. ^ Strathern, p. 33.
  155. ^ Cole, p. 8.
  156. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 213–214.
  157. ^ a b Strathern, p. 44.
  158. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 213.
  159. ^ Strathern, pp. 42–43.
  160. ^ Schom, p. 96.
  161. ^ Strathern, p. 47.
  162. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 215.
  163. ^ Strathern, pp. 49–50.
  164. ^ Cronin, p. 148.
  165. ^ Strathern, p. 50.
  166. ^ Strathern, p. 51.
  167. ^ Strathern, p. 58.
  168. ^ Strathern, p. 60.
  169. ^ Strathern, pp. 63–64.
  170. ^ Strathern, p. 65.
  171. ^ Strathern, p. 66.
  172. ^ Strathern, p. 69.
  173. ^ Dyer, p. 365.
  174. ^ Strathern, p. 67.
  175. ^ Strathern, p. 74–76, 81.
  176. ^ Strathern, p. 83.
  177. ^ Asprey (2000), p. 263.
  178. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 222.
  179. ^ Dwyer, pp. 368–369.
  180. ^ Asprey (2000), p. 264.
  181. ^ Strathern, p. 104.
  182. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 223.
  183. ^ Strathern, pp. 104–105.
  184. ^ Strathern, p. 109.
  185. ^ a b Chandler (1966), p. 224.
  186. ^ Strathern, p. 128.
  187. ^ Strathern, pp. 119–120.
  188. ^ Baron Antoine-Jean Gros-Battle Pyramids 1810.jpg Battle of the Pyramids, July 21, 1798 by Antoine-Jean Gros, 1810.
  189. ^ Francois-Louis-Joseph Watteau 001.jpg Battle of the Pyramids by François Watteau, 1798–99.
  190. ^ Strathern, p. 125.
  191. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 226.
  192. ^ Schom, p. 68.
  193. ^ Schom, pp. 134–135.
  194. ^ Strathern, pp. 153–154.
  195. ^ Lavery, p. 199.
  196. ^ Lavery, p. 213.
  197. ^ Lavery, p. 273.
  198. ^ Lavery, p. 287.
  199. ^ Cole, p. 110.
  200. ^ Strathern, p. 173.
  201. ^ Lavery, p. 256.
  202. ^ Cole, pp. 89–92.
  203. ^ a b Dwyer, p. 402.
  204. ^ Strathern, pp. 176; 213.
  205. ^ a b Connelly, p. 57.
  206. ^ Dwyer, p. 403.
  207. ^ Dwyer, p. 405.
  208. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 217.
  209. ^ Adams, pp. 29–30.
  210. ^ Strathern, p. 311.
  211. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 234.
  212. ^ Strathern, pp. 185; 334–335.
  213. ^ Strathern, pp. 185–186.
  214. ^ Herold, p. 147.
  215. ^ Chandler (1966), pp. 15–16.
  216. ^ Smith, p. 63.
  217. ^ Smith, p. 92.
  218. ^ Barnett, pp. 37–39.
  219. ^ Smith, p. 111.
  220. ^ Sutherland, pp. 8–9.
  221. ^ Smith, pp. 111–112.
  222. ^ Smith, p. 112.
  223. ^ Chandler (1999), pp. 86–87.
  224. ^ a b Fremont-Barnes, pp. 647–648.
  225. ^ a b Chandler (1999), pp. 283–284.
  226. ^ a b Smith, pp. 112–113.
  227. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 153.
  228. ^ Smith, p. 113.
  229. ^ Sutherland, pp. 10–11.
  230. ^ Smith, pp. 113–114.
  231. ^ Smith, pp. 118–119, 124, 131–132.
  232. ^ a b Smith, p. 119.
  233. ^ Sutherland, pp. 11–12.
  234. ^ Smith, p. 122.
  235. ^ Smith, p. 123.
  236. ^ Smith, p. 126.
  237. ^ a b Smith, p. 127.
  238. ^ Sutherland, pp. 14–16.
  239. ^ Smith, p. 128.
  240. ^ Smith, p. 131.
  241. ^ Sutherland, pp. 16–17.
  242. ^ Smith, p. 131.
  243. ^ Esposito, map 30.
  244. ^ Smith, p. 139.
  245. ^ Smith, pp. 139–140.
  246. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 8.
  247. ^ Chandler (1999), p. 410.
  248. ^ Smith, p. 140.
  249. ^ Sutherland, pp. 20–21.
  250. ^ Strathern, p. 150.
  251. ^ Chandler (1966), p. 227.
  252. ^ Schom, pp. 161–163.
  253. ^ Dwyer, p. 403.
  254. ^ Smith, p. 145.
  255. ^ Smith, p. 146.
  256. ^ Smith, pp. 155–156.
  257. ^ Smith, p. 151.
  258. ^ Smith, p. 161.
  259. ^ Smith, pp. 186–187.
  260. ^ Sutherland, pp. 24–25.
  261. ^ Smith, p. 205.
  262. ^ Sutherland, pp. 28–29.
  263. ^ Smith, pp. 215–217.
  264. ^ Sutherland, pp. 31–33.
  265. ^ Smith, pp. 223–225.
  266. ^ Smith, p. 234.
  267. ^ Smith, pp. 241–243.
  268. ^ Sutherland, pp. 38–39.
  269. ^ Smith, pp. 247–248.
  270. ^ Smith, pp. 249–251.
  271. ^ Sutherland, pp. 41–42.
  272. ^ Smith, p. 271.
  273. ^ Smith, p. 290.
  274. ^ Smith, p. 291.
  275. ^ Smith, pp. 291–293.
  276. ^ Sutherland, p. 50.
  277. ^ Smith, p. 293.
  278. ^ Smith, pp. 307–310.
  279. ^ Sutherland, pp. 52–53.
  280. ^ Smith, pp. 318–322.
  281. ^ Sutherland, pp. 54–56.
  282. ^ Smith, pp. 387–388.
  283. ^ Sutherland, pp. 70–71.
  284. ^ Smith, pp. 390–392.
  285. ^ Sutherland, pp. 72–74.
  286. ^ Smith, pp. 397–398.
  287. ^ Smith, pp. 403–405.
  288. ^ Smith, pp. 406–408.
  289. ^ Sutherland, pp. 77–79.
  290. ^ Smith, pp. 403–405.
  291. ^ Sutherland, pp. 80–81.
  292. ^ Smith, pp. 420–422.
  293. ^ Sutherland, pp. 81–82.
  294. ^ Smith, p. 423.
  295. ^ Smith, pp. 443–445.
  296. ^ Sutherland, pp. 85–86.
  297. ^ Smith, pp. 461–470.
  298. ^ Sutherland, pp. 87–89.
  299. ^ a b Smith, p. 472.
  300. ^ Smith, pp. 473–475.
  301. ^ Sutherland, pp. 89–90.
  302. ^ Smith, pp. 490–491.
  303. ^ Sutherland, pp. 92–93.
  304. ^ Smith, pp. 491–493.
  305. ^ Sutherland, p. 94.
  306. ^ Smith, p. 494.
  307. ^ Smith, pp. 494–495.
  308. ^ Sutherland, pp. 95–96.
  309. ^ Smith, p. 496.
  310. ^ Smith, pp. 496–497.
  311. ^ Smith, p. 498.
  312. ^ Smith, pp. 498–499.
  313. ^ Smith, pp. 507–508.
  314. ^ Sutherland, pp. 97–98.
  315. ^ Smith, p. 510.
  316. ^ Sutherland, pp. 99–100.
  317. ^ Smith, p. 511.
  318. ^ Smith, pp. 512–513.
  319. ^ Sutherland, pp. 101–102.
  320. ^ Fremont-Barnes, pp. 932–933.
  321. ^ Smith, pp. 535–536.
  322. ^ Sutherland, pp. 104–105.
  323. ^ Smith, pp. 538–548.
  324. ^ Sutherland, pp. 106–109.
  325. ^ Hibbert, p. 324.
  326. ^ Jones, p. 415.
  327. ^ Jones, pp. 425–429.
  328. ^ Strathern, p. 110.
  329. ^ Chandler (1999), pp. 205, 291.
  330. ^ Lachouque, p. 40.