User:Marine 69-71/Workshop3

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External audio
Marc Anthony's interpretation of Hernandez' "Preciosa" here
and "Lamento Borincano" here
"La Borinqueña" - Lola Rodriguez de Tio's revolutionary anthem interpreted by Danny Rivera here
"Que Bonita Bandera"' by Florencio Morales Ramos (Ramito)] here
Juan Antonio Corretjer and Roy Brown's interpretation of "Boricua en la Luna" here
"Verde Luz" interpreted by José Feliciano here
"Yo Soy Boricua" interpreted by various artists here
"Musica Patriotica de Puerto Rico" interpreted by various artists here
Pirate Flag of Jack Rackham.svg
Tony Santiago.jpg
Tony the Marine is "watching" you
So, don't mess with my Workshop!
This is my workshop number 3Desktop computer clipart - Yellow theme.svg
This is where I create some of the best stuff you've ever read

Flag of Puerto Rico.svg
The Workshop

I will no longer wish to nominate nor have of the articles which I have created nominated for "FA", "FL", "GA" or "DYK".
Thank you - Tony the Marine

The Marine's Workshop 1
The Marine's Workshop 2

Enectalí Figueroa-Feliciano
Pioneered the development position-sensitive detectors
and is an expert and researcher on dark matter
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

1. Go to: Enectalí Figueroa-Feliciano

Abdiel Colberg
"Television producer and movie director"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

2. Go to: Abdiel Colberg

Hispanics in the United States Coast Guard
"History of Hispanic participation in the
United States Coast Guard"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

3. Go to: Hispanics in the United States Coast Guard

Eladio Torres
"Composed "Tu vives en mi pensamiento" one of the three most famous
Puerto Rican Danzas of the 20th century."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

4. Go to: Eladio Torres

Hugo Margenat
"Poet and founder of "Acción Juventud Independentista" and
the "Federación de Universitarios Pro Independencia"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

5. Go to: Hugo Margenat

José "Aguila Blanca" Maldonado
"Legendary Puerto Rican revolutionary"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

6. Go to: José "Aguila Blanca" Maldonado

Clemente Soto Vélez
"Puerto Rican nationalist, poet, journalist and activist"
(August 2, 2010 version)
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

7. Go to: Clemente Soto Vélez

Lieutenant Junior Grade Clarence Samuels
"First Hispanic of African descent commanding officer
of a Coast Guard vessel during wartime"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

8. Go to: Lieutenant Junior Grade Clarence Samuels

Right Reverend Bavi Edna Rivera
"First Hispanic woman bishop and the 12th woman bishop
in the Episcopal Church"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

9. Go to: Right Reverend Bavi Edna Rivera

Ramón "Diplo" Rivero
"One of Puerto Rico's greatest comedians
and television and cinema pioneers"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

10. Go to: Ramón "Diplo" Rivero

PFC Carmen García Rosado
"Puerto Rican pioneer in the WAC's"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

11. Go to: Carmen García Rosado

Hispanics in the United States Air Force
"History of Hispanic participation in the
United States Air Force"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

12. Go to: Hispanics in the United States Air Force

Brigadier General Carmelita Vigil-Schimmenti
"First Hispanic female to attain the rank of Brigadier General in US Air Force"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

13. Go to: Brigadier General Carmelita Vigil-Schimmenti

Rafael Cancel Miranda
"Political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and
advocate of Puerto Rican independence"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

14. Go to: Rafael Cancel Miranda

Lt. Col. José Antonio Muñiz
"Co-founder of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

15. Go to: Lt. Col. José Antonio Muñiz

Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada
"Cuban native who fought in the American Civil War
and who later became the Commander-in-Chief
of the Cuban Liberation Army"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

16. Go to: Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada

Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada
"Cuban native who fought in the American Civil War
and who also fought for
the Cuban Liberation Army"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

17. Go to: Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada

Lola Sánchez
"One of three Cuan sisters
who spied for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

18. Go to: Lola Sánchez

Col. John Jackson Dickison
"Col. John Jackson Dickison led the attack on the USS Columbine, a Union vessel,
in the "Battle of Horse Landing" during the American Civil War.
It is considered the only known incident in US history where a cavalry unit sank an enemy vessel"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

19. Go to: Colonel John Jackson Dickison

María de las Mercedes Barbudo
"Mercedes Barbudo is the first Puerto Rican female "Independentista"
"Puerto Rico's first female Freedom Fighter"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

20. Go to: María de las Mercedes Barbudo

Second Lieutenant César Luis González
"First Puerto Rican pilot in the United States Army Air Force
and the first Puerto Rican pilot to die in World War II."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

21. Go to: Second Lieutenant César Luis González

Brigadier General José Semidei Rodríguez
"Brigadier General in the Cuban Liberation Army."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

22. Go to: Brigadier General José Semidei Rodríguez

Colonel Rafael Conti
" Member of the Puerto Rican Militia who helped defeat
Sir Ralph Abercromby and defend Aguadilla and Puerto Rico from a British invasion in 1797". "
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

23. Go to: Colonel Rafael Conti

Field Marshal Demetrio O'Daly
"First Puerto Rican to reach the rank of
Field Marshal in the Spanish Army."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

24. Go to: Field Marshall Demetrio O'Daly

Isabel Cuchí Coll
"Puerto Rican journalist and author
who served as Director of the "Sociedad de Autores Puertorriqueño"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

25. Go to: Isabel Cuchí Coll

Dr. Edna Coll
"Latin American literary "
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

26. Go to: Dr. Edna Coll

Cayetano Coll y Cuchí
"First President of Puerto Rico House of Representatives"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

27. Go to: Cayetano Coll y Cuchí

Emilio Díaz Colón
"Puerto Rico's Police Superintendent"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

28. Go to: Emilio Díaz Colón

Wilbert Parkhurst
"Founder of Empresas La Famosa, Inc."
"Stub" by Tony (The Marine) Santiago

29. Go to: Wilbert Parkhurst

Fernando López Tuero
"Puerto Rican scientist who discovered the bug
which was destroying the island's sugar canes"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

30. Go to: Fernando López Tuero

Dr. Ariel Lugo
"Dr. Lugo is a founding Member of the Society for Ecological Restoration"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

31. Go to: Dr. Ariel Lugo

Dr. Ramón M. Suárez Calderon
"Dr. Suárez Calderon was a cardiologist and scientist whose investigations
led him to identify the proper and effective treatment
of a type of anemia"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

32. Go to: Dr. Ramón M. Suárez Calderon

Dr. Pedro Beauchamp
"Dr. Beauchamp performed the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique in Puerto Rico"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

33. Go to: Dr. Pedro Beauchamp

Dr. Isaac González Martínez
"Dr. González Martínez was the first Puerto Rican urologist and pioneer in the fight against cancer in the island."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

34. Go to: Dr. Isaac González Martínez

Isolina Rondón
"Treasurer of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
and witness to the Rio Piedras massacre"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

35. Go to: Isolina Rondón

Raymond (Spanish Raymond) Márquez
"Legendary Harlem numbers King"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

36. Go to: Raymond "Spanish Raymond" Márquez

Manuel Corchado y Juarbe
"Corchado y Juarbe defended the abolition of slavery
and the establishment of a University in Puerto Rico."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

37. Go to: Manuel Corchado y Juarbe

Dr. Dolores Piñero
"the first Puerto Rican female doctor
to serve in the U.S. Army under contract in World War I."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

38. Go to: Dr. Dolores Piñero

Antonio Vélez Alvarado
"Father of the Puerto Rican Flag"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

39. Go to: Antonio Vélez Alvarado

Herbert Lewis Hardwick
"Cocoa Kid"
"Puerto Rican boxer
Inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 2012.
He was a member of boxing's feared
"Murderers' Row"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

40. Go to: Herbert "Cocoa Kid" Lewis Hardwick

Puerto Rico's Gag Law
"Puerto Rico's infamous Ley 53 (Ley de la La Mordaza)"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

41. Go to: Puerto Rico's Gag Law

Independence Association of Puerto Rico
"was a political organization whose members favored Puerto Rican Independence
and which played an important role in the formation of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

42. Go to: Independence Association of Puerto Rico

Ruth Mary Reynolds
" an American educator, political and civil rights activist who
devoted many years of her life to the cause of Puerto Rico's independence."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

43. Go to: Ruth Mary Reynolds

Raimundo Díaz Pacheco
" Comandante (Commander) of the Cadets of the Republic"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

44. Go to: Raimundo Díaz Pacheco

Cadets of the Republic
"Quasi-military youth organization of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

45. Go to: Cadets of the Republic

Manistee Ranch
"Historic (NRHP) ranch in Glendale, Arizona "
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

46. Go to: Manistee Ranch

Cultural diversity in Puerto Rico
"Non-Hispanic influences in Puerto Rican culture"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

47. Go to: Cultural diversity in Puerto Rico

Victoria Leigh Soto
"Educator of Puerto Rican descent
who emerged as a hero in the tragic shooting
at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. "
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

48. Go to: Victoria Leigh Soto

Puerto Rico Adjutant General
"The position of Adjutant General in Puerto Rico"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

49. Go to: Puerto Rico Adjutant General

Henry Wickenburg
"Discovered the Vulture Mine and
founded the town of Wickenburg in Arizona."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

50. Go to: Henry Wickenburg

List of historic properties in Phoenix, Arizona
"This is a spin-off from the work
that I originally created in the article of Phoenix, Arizona"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

51. Go to: List of historic properties in Phoenix, Arizona

History of women in Puerto Rico
"A brief history of the Puerto Rican women"
I did not create the title however all of the content was originally created me
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

52. Go to: History of women in Puerto Rico

6th Avenue Hotel-Windsor Hotel
"Historic hotel in Phoenix, Arizona"
listed in the National Register of Historic Places
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

53. Go to: 6th Avenue Hotel-Windsor Hotel

List of municipal flags of Puerto Rico
"Spin-off from my "List of Puerto Rican flags"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

54. Go to: List of municipal flags of Puerto Rico

El Cid Castle
"History of a castle in Sunnyslope, Az."
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

55. Go to: El Cid Castle

Teresita A. Levy
"Puerto Rican historian"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

56. Go to: Teresita A. Levy

Vulture City
"Ghost town in Arizona"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

57. Go to: Vulture City

List of historic properties in Casa Grande, Arizona
"Historical structures of Casa Grande"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

58. Go to: List of historic properties in Casa Grande, Arizona

List of historic properties in Bisbee, Arizona
"Historical structures of Bisbee"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

59. Go to: List of historic properties in Bisbee, Arizona

List of historic properties in Wickenburg, Arizona
"Historical structures of Wickenburg"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

60. Go to: List of historic properties in Wickenburg, Arizona

List of historic properties in Goldfield, Arizona
"Historical structures of Wickenburg"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

61. Go to: List of historic properties in Goldfield, Arizona

Greenwood/Memory Lawn Mortuary & Cemetery
"Historic cemetery in Phoenix"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

62. Go to: Greenwood/Memory Lawn Mortuary & Cemetery

List of historic properties in Winslow, Arizona
"Historical structures of Winslow"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

63. Go to: List of historic properties in Winslow, Arizona

Sears-Kay Ruin in Carefree, Arizona
Ruins of an ancient Hohokam fort "
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

64. Go to: Sears-Kay Ruin

Andres Figueroa Cordero
a political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and an advocate of Puerto Rican independence
who on March 1, 1954 attacked the House of Representatives"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

65. Go to: Andres Figueroa Cordero

Rosa Collazo
a political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
who was the wife of Oscar Collazo"
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

66. Go to: Rosa Collazo

Adobe Mountain Desert Park
Railroad park and museum in Arizona
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

67. Go to: Adobe Mountain Desert Park

List of historic properties in Camp Verde, Arizona
Historic properties in Camp Verde
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

68. Go to: List of historic properties in Camp Verde, Arizona

St. Francis Catholic Cemetery
Historic St. Francis Catholic Cemetery
99% By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

69. Go to: St. Francis Catholic Cemetery

Philip Edward Tovrea Jr.
World War II Ace from Arizona
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

70. Go to: Philip Edward Tovrea Jr.

John C. Lincoln
Inventor, Industrialist and philanthropist
who donated the money to begin the construction of
John C. Lincoln Hospital in the Sunnyslope section of Phoenix.
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

71. Go to: John C. Lincoln

List of historic properties in Black Canyon City, Arizona
Historic properties in Black Canyon City
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

72. Go to: List of historic properties in Black Canyon City, Arizona

Mansel Carter
Legendry Arizona Mountain Man
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

73. Go to: Mansel Carter

Joe Mayer
Founder of the town of Mayer,Arizona
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

74. Go to: Joe Mayer

Wells Fargo Museum
The Wells Fargo Museum in Phoenix, Arizona
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

75. Go to: Wells Fargo Museum (Phoenix)

List of historic properties in Agua Caliente, Arizona
Historic properties in Agua Caliente
(Ghost Town)
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

76. Go to: List of historic properties in Agua Caliente, Arizona

Twin Arrows, Arizona (Ghist Town)
Twin Arrows
(Ghost Town)
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

77. Go to: Twin Arrows, Arizona

List of historic properties in Jerome, Arizona
Historic properties and artifacts in Jerome
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

78. Go to: List of historic properties in Jerome, Arizona

Paul W. Litchfield
American industrialist, inventor and
founder of the town of Litchfield Park, Arizona
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

79. Go to: Paul W. Litchfield

Colonel Noel Zamot
The first Hispanic Commandant of the Air Force's elite Test Pilot School.
By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

80. Go to: Colonel Noel Zamot

Col. Maria Zumwalt

Maria Zumwalt, Colonel, U. S. Army
Zumwalt, a native of Bayamon, was the commander of the 48th Chemical Brigade.[1]

48th Chemical Brigade (United States) Jun 15, 2011

Col. Maria Zumwalt commanded Fort Hood's 2nd Chemical Battalion and on Friday, took command of its higher headquarters, the 48th Chemical Brigade.

Zumwalt recently completed the Senior Service Fellowship Program at the University of Texas. She served at Fort Hood with the 1st Cavalry Division and 2nd Chemical Battalion, taking command in April 2008 of the 1st Brigade Special Troops Battalion, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry.

She served as a battalion commander alongside Lt. Col. Tim Karcher, who commanded the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, when he was injured June 28, 2009, by a car bomb. Karcher attended Friday's ceremony and Zumwalt told him, "I owe you my life." Zumwalt assumes 48th Chemical Brigade command

Col. Maria Zumwalt, originally from Bayamon, Puerto Rico, joined the University of Puerto Rico ROTC program in order to earn some money for college. At the time, she had no connection to the military but after participating in military training, Zumwalt grew to enjoy the opportunities offered.

umwalt, a science major at school, said at the time of her commissioning, chemical companies were in the process of transitioning to male and female soldiers. Beginning with her first station in Germany, Zumwalt refers to herself as a someone who thrives on challenges.

“I see challenge in a positive light – it’s a good thing,” she said. “Challenge should not be an obstacle but an opportunity to make a difference.”

Currently, Zumwalt commands the 48th Chemical Brigade (Fort Hood, Texas) and she previously served as the commander for the 1st Brigade Special Troops Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division. While in the division, she deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Zumwalt said throughout her time in the military, she values every single minute spent training and caring for Soldiers. As she’s taken on the role of a leader, Zumwalt said this has only increased.

“Everything we do as leaders is ultimately about taking care of soldiers and their families,” she said. “Soldiers are the reason we have a job – we owe them the best. That’s why I’ve stayed in the Army for so many years.”

To Zumwalt, taking care of soldiers includes ensuring they have top training and systems in place to recognize excellence, as well as holding soldiers accountable. As the commander of the 48th Chemical Brigade, Zumwalt believes that trust, teamwork and discipline are components of a trained and ready unit.

“Discipline is everything. If you have discipline in your unit and Soldiers respect their leaders, anything and everything can be accomplished,” Zumwalt said.

To build a disciplined team that is not only experts in their core competencies, Zumwalt believes it is just as important that Soldiers understand they have to fulfill all the warrior tasks to the highest standard. Additionally, she believes it is crucial to take care of the families.

“When it comes to CBRNE soldiers, I don’t think there’s a more adaptable and flexible force, and I don’t say that lightly,” Zumwalt said. “You can say CBRNE soldiers are the quintessential athletes.” Commanders reflect on career paths

GRADUATES Army War College

Class 19 – 2011 John Anderson, COL ARNG William Bailey, LTC AC Timothy Baxter, COL AC David Kaczmarski, COL AC Robert McVay, COL AC Richard Noriega, COL ARNG William Phillips, LTC USAR Kurt Pinkerton, COL AC Dale Rivers, LTC USAR William Robare, LTC AC Maria Zumwalt, COL AC University of Texas

Nov 5, 2009 Commander of the BSTB, 1st BCT, 1st Cav Div.

1st.Brigade Special Troops Battalion, 1st. Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. Troop Scoop

Decades of Surveillance of Puerto Rican Groups

New Light on Old F.B.I. Fight; Decades of Surveillance of Puerto Rican Groups By MIREYA NAVARRO Published: November 28, 2003 Sign In to E-Mail


In 1965, the Federal Bureau of Investigation wanted to tap the home telephone of a dying Pedro Albizu Campos, then the titular head of Puerto Rico's Nationalist Party. But there was a problem: he did not have a phone.

So while federal agents leaned on the telephone company to speed up Mr. Albizu Campos's installation order, they found out that his family and friends sometimes used a neighbor's phone, and they tapped that one. The agents were eavesdropping to prepare for a possible violent reaction to Mr. Albizu Campos's death. What were they after? Current, precise information as to condition of subject, the agents in San Juan wrote to J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Plans to foment assassination attempts and other violence at the time of subject's death.

This radiogram is part of secret files on Puerto Rico's independence movement that the F.B.I. kept for decades. For the last three years, the declassified files have been trickling into a tiny office at Hunter College in New York, a few hundred pages at a time. There, amid boxes neatly stacked on wall metal racks, a researcher and a group of students working for Hunter's Center for Puerto Rican Studies are painstakingly producing a detailed inventory of the files.

Of the 1.5 million to 1.8 million pages in the files, about 120,000 have arrived. There are many blacked-out portions. But at a time civil libertarians worry that the F.B.I. may be turning to past controversial methods to fight terrorism, the boxes at Hunter give a sense of the lengths to which the government kept tabs on an old enemy: those fighting for Puerto Rican independence.

Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the United States, has strong pro-statehood and pro-commonwealth movements, the latter made up of those who want to keep the status quo or some modified version of it. But in the 1930's, 1940's and early 1950's, the independence movement was much more widespread than it is today, and ranged from legal political parties to violent militant groups.

Many Americans became aware of the independence struggle when, on Nov. 1, 1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists tried to shoot their way into Blair House, where President Truman was living while the White House was being remodeled. Mr. Truman was not injured, but one of the Puerto Ricans and a White House guard were killed in the gunfire.

The F.B.I. papers arriving at Hunter so far span six decades, from 1936 to 1995. They track everything from the Puerto Rican Independence Party (still active and known as PIP) to student demonstrations and workers' strikes to bomb explosions and assassination attempts as part of an armed struggle.

They include a 1961 directive from Mr. Hoover to seek information on 12 independence movement leaders, six of them operating in New York, concerning their weaknesses, morals, criminal records, spouses, children, family life, educational qualifications and personal activities other than independence activities. The instructions were given under the domestic surveillance program known as Cointelpro, which aimed at aggressively monitoring antiwar, leftist and other groups in the United States and disrupting them.

In the case of Puerto Rican independence groups, Mr. Hoover's 1961 memo refers to our efforts to disrupt their activities and compromise their effectiveness. Scholars say the papers provide invaluable additions to the recorded history of Puerto Rico. I expect that this will alter somewhat the analysis of why independence hasn't made it, said Félix V. Matos Rodríguez, director of the center at Hunter. In the 1940's, independence was the second-largest political movement in the island, (after support for commonwealth status), and a real alternative. But it was criminalized.

The existence of the F.B.I. papers came to light during a House Appropriations subcommittee hearing in 2000, when Representative José E. Serrano of New York questioned Louis J. Freeh, then F.B.I. director, on the issue. Mr. Freeh gave the first public acknowledgment of the federal government's Puerto Rican surveillance and offered a mea culpa.

Your question goes back to a period, particularly in the 1960's, when the F.B.I. did operate a program that did tremendous destruction to many people, to the country and certainly to the F.B.I., Mr. Freeh said, according to transcripts of the hearing. Mr. Freeh said that he would make the files available and see if we can redress some of the egregious illegal action, maybe criminal action, that occurred in the past.

The F.B.I. did not work alone. It often used information provided by the Police Department of Puerto Rico.

Discovery of the police files caused a public outcry in the 1980's in Puerto Rico and prompted hundreds of civil rights lawsuits. An official apology came in 1999 from Gov. Pedro J. Rossello, who set up a fund to compensate those who were denied jobs, harassed or discredited as a result of blacklisting.

Both the F.B.I. and the police department in Puerto Rico have made their files available to investigation subjects who claim them. One of those subjects is Ramón Bosque-Pérez, a sociologist and the researcher now leading the effort at the Hunter center to preserve the F.B.I. historical trove.

Mr. Bosque-Pérez was one of the authors of a 1997 book on the Puerto Rican police dossiers, known as carpetas. He said the first inkling that he was under investigation came in the late 1960's, when he was still in high school and politically active. Two plainclothes police officers visited his mother, he said, and advised her to keep him out of trouble.

When Mr. Bosque-Pérez, who later became president of the main pro-independence group at the University of Puerto Rico, claimed his surveillance files, he learned that he had been tracked through the early 1980's. His files recorded his arrest for refusing to register for the draft and his participation in public events beginning in high school, he said.

But his much bulkier police dossier, running more than 2,000 pages, he said, included such minutiae as the license plates of the cars he drove and a partial guest list of a wedding he attended.

The extent of the invasion of privacy and of the threat to the basic right of citizens to express themselves politically was surprising, said Mr. Bosque-Pérez, who said it took him 10 years to obtain his bachelor's degree because his political activities led to frequent suspensions by college administrators.

The F.B.I.files on Mr. Albizu Campos, who headed the Nationalist Party from 1930 until his death in 1965, fill two boxes with 4,700 pages, including meticulous medical records from a long hospital stay at Columbus Hospital in Manhattan (later part of Cabrini Medical Center).

Writing most of the night, a nurse reported in her overnight notes for April, 11, 1945. Unable to sleep.

Regarded as the father of Puerto Rico's independence movement by his followers, Mr. Albizu Campos launched a militant crusade in Puerto Rico in the 1930's to sever ties with the United States. He served prison sentences for subversion, attempted murder and conspiring to overthrow the government. It was his followers who tried to assassinate President Truman in 1950, and on March 1, 1954, shot and wounded five congressmen from the visitors' gallery of the House of Representatives.

But members of radical groups were not the only ones being watched. Individuals and groups who worked legally for the cause of independence are also in the files. One 1972 memo listed the number of meetings eight major pro-independence parties and groups had held over a period of five months.

Some of the most interesting papers track the political development of Luis Muñoz Marín, Puerto Rico's first elected governor and founder of the Popular Democratic Party, both architects of the island's current American commonwealth status. Mr. Muñoz Marín, who served four terms, started out as a young socialist and was deemed to be anti-American by informants who in the early 1940's reported about his mistress, his political associates and his drinking.

In 1941, when Mr. Muñoz Marín was already president of the Puerto Rican Senate, an F.B.I. agent described him as a political opportunist supported by radical politicians who desire Puerto Rico's independence from the United States.

He has no moral character, he is absolutely irresponsible financially, but he is probably the most brilliant politician on the political horizon of Puerto Rico, the agent wrote.

In an interview, Representative Serrano said that most of the surveillance was improper and that some of the violence attributed to independentistas was, in fact, the work of infiltrators trying to destroy the movement. Since his Washington office began receiving the F.B.I. files in 2000, he has forwarded copies of the material to both Hunter College and the Judiciary Committee of the Puerto Rican Senate.

Kevin Wilkinson, the F.B.I. Congressional liaison who is overseeing the transfer of the documents to Mr. Serrano's office, said the files must be viewed in the context of their times -- the cold war, anti-Vietnam War protests, radical groups. There were incidents of violence and destruction in Puerto Rico by groups that were considered terrorists, like the Macheteros, he said of one of the violent groups.

But he said that the whole playing field has changed since then, and that current federal guidelines and oversight would prevent the F.B.I. from taking action against people peacefully exercising their First Amendment rights.

Kenneth D. McClintock, the Senate minority leader in Puerto Rico and an advocate of statehood, noted that government persecution was not the only factor contributing to the decline of independence fervor. There were also economic and political considerations, he said. But he said of the surveillance, Undoubtedly, it had a chilling effect on the political opposition in Puerto Rico.

Mr. Matos Rodríguez, the director of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies, one of the largest Latino archives in the United States and the only one focusing on the history of the Puerto Rican diaspora, wants to see the first batch of F.B.I. files posted on the Center's Web site,, by spring. While he expects the collection to be the subject of academic study, he said it may also spark new -- and uncomfortable -- public dialogues.

The other side of the story is the extensive network of Puerto Ricans telling on each other, he said. This could not have happened without the collaboration of many people in Puerto Rico.

New York Times

Dawn Lafferty Hochsprung, 47 Hochsprung became principal of Sandy Hook

Mary Sherlach, School Psychologist Sherlach had been a school psychologist at

Lauren Rousseau, 30 Lauren Rousseau worked as a substitute teacher before

Rachel D'Avino, 29 Rachel D'Avino was a behavioral therapist

Anne Marie Murphy, 52 Anne Marie Murphy was employed as a special education teacher

Workshop Tools

In Articles

1. Ñ ñ, á, é, í, ó, ú, ü, ¿, ¡

2.{{Portal|Puerto Rico}}

3.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Joseph De Castro - Medal of Honor Citation |work=United States Government |publisher=Home of Heroes |accessdate=April 05, 2009}}</ref>


A. example.: <ref group=note>{{Spanish name|'''Vélez'''|'''Alvarado'''}}</ref>

B.<references group=note/>

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5.{{ external media | align = center | topic = | audio1 = [-- '''here'''] }}For external audio


7. <div class="reflist4" style="height: 220px; overflow: auto; padding: 3px" > {{Reflist|2}} </div>

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In Talk Pages


2. {{PuertoRicoproj| class=| importance=}}

3. {{auto archiving notice|bot=MiszaBot I|age=30}}

In Images


For the portraits of Governors, First Ladies, Senate Presidents, House Speakers and Military heroes in the Capital Building of Puerto Rico.

For images from the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña - Institute of Puerto Rican Culture

For images from the Puerto Rico State History Preservation

This is to be sent to anyone who wishes for their image in Wiki

"I _____, as the copyright holder of the image attached/in url xxx, agree to release in under the terms of GFDL/CC-BY/CC-BY-SA (choose one license. the links are important so that we know the copyright holders understand what he/she's talking about). I understand that this allows anyone to use the image for any purpose, including commercial use, as long as the constraints in the license, like attribution, are respected."

The mail must be sent to "" by the copyright holder himself/herself.

Useful Sites

Unofficial list of articles created Tony "The Marine" Santiago (Not all are listed)

"Social Security Records"

"Copyrights sites"

Just follow the steps 1, 2 and 3 as shown and fill in the details
Hello! Here's how to add references from reliable sources for the content you add to Wikipedia. This helps maintain the Wikipedia policy of verifiability.

Adding well formatted references is actually quite easy:

  1. While editing any article or a wikipage, on the top of the edit window you will see a toolbar which says "Cite". Click on it.
  2. Then click on "Templates".
  3. Choose the most appropriate template and fill in as many details as you can. This will add a well formatted reference that is helpful in case the website link (web URL) becomes inactive (dead/link rot) at some point.
  4. Click on Preview when you're done filling out the 'Cite (web/news/book/journal)' to make sure that the reference is correct.
  5. Click on Insert to insert the reference into your editing window content.
  6. Click on Show preview to Preview all your editing changes.
  7. Click on Save page. ...and you've just added a complete reference to a Wikipedia article.

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