User:Matt Lewis/Nationality within the British Isles (including the United Kingdom and Ireland)

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Nationality within the British Isles (including the United Kingdom and Ireland)

This essay covers the "opening paragraph" nationality for people from the archipelago of the British Isles (which includes the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland).

The essay provides full definitions, with examples of present-day and historical usage, and offers a guide for finding the best-suited "opening paragraph" nationality, per the Wikipedia: Manual of Style (biographies) guideline.

The British Isles[edit]

The British Isles is an archipelago comprising of the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. In addition it includes three smaller islands known as "Crown dependencies": the Isle of Man, Guernsey and Jersey.

Ireland[edit]

The Republic of Ireland (commonly called Ireland) is an independent country.

The United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom (in full, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is made up of four constituent countries (known in the UK as the "home nations"):

Under British law, these four countries are an equal union, sharing a common British nationality (see British nationality law). The terms "Britain" and "Great Britain" are often used to mean "the United Kingdom". A UK passport describes its holder as a "British citizen".

Northern Ireland: British, Irish and dual citizenships[edit]

People of Northern Ireland are entitled to Irish citizenship by default (Irish citizenship being a fundamental "entitlement" that extends to all of the island). This automatically allows for dual British and Irish citizenship. Unequivocal "single citizenship" can be applied for from the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Consequently, Northern Irish people can be British only, Irish only, British while flexible on becoming Irish, or explicitly both British and Irish.

The Crown dependencies[edit]

The British Isles include three Crown dependencies that are not part of the United Kingdom. The Crown dependencies and the United Kingdom are collectively known as the "British Islands".

The Crown dependencies are:

The Channel Islands comprising of:

Citizens of the Crown dependencies are officially classed as “British citizens”, but as with citizens of the home nations, the accuracy of the appellation regarding each person should be verified.

Celtic heritage[edit]

The British Isles were once inhabited by Celtic tribes, the heritage of which lives on today. The remaining Celtic cultures (sometimes called the "Celtic nations") are as follows:

Area Name of Celtic people Language Celtic culture Example of use
Ireland and Northern Ireland Irish Irish Irish is taught in the Irish schools, (where 40% regard themselves as "competent") and in Northern Ireland (where 10% "have some knowledge"). Seamus Heaney
Scotland Scottish Scottish Gaelic Scotland has always had its own law-making powers. Around 60,000 Scottish citizens speak Scottish Gaelic (1%), and around 1.5m (25%) speak Scots (an English hybrid). In 1989 it successfully voted for its own Scottish Assembly, and a referendum for complete independence is currently scheduled for 2010. Robert Burns
Isle of Man Manx Manx The Isle of Man is a self governing Crown dependency in the Irish Sea, situated between northern England and Northern Ireland. Although the Manx language is no longer commonly spoken, a hybrid form of Manx English is widely used – which contains many original Manx words. Thomas Edward Brown
Wales Welsh Welsh Welsh is spoken by 600,000 people (20% of the population), and Wales is bilingually sign-posted. In 1998 Wales successfully voted for its own Welsh National Assembly. Dylan Thomas
Cornwall Cornish Cornish The county of Cornwall is the South-western peninsula-tip of England. The Cornish language and culture has undergone a renaissance in recent years. It is spoken by 3,500 people. Richard Trevithick

(A sixth "nation", Britanny, is a province in north-western France. Many Bretons also identify with their Celtic history and language.)

Historical examples of use[edit]

Various "unifications" have happened throughout the history of the British Isles. Unification happened first in the 16C between England and Wales, during the Welsh-decended Tudor dynasty. In the 18C, after the Tudor-connected Scottish Stuart became king, the Kingdom of Great Britain was formed. Unification happened with Ireland after it was eventually conquered by Great Britain: this lead to the first "United Kingdom" comprising of Great Britain and the island of Ireland. The second (and current) "United kingdom" comprises of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, after the Republic of Ireland achieved independence.

Date (CE) Event Event-related nationality Example of use
43-300 Roman invasion of the Celtic tribes of Britannia Britain, or Great Britain is often used for Britannia. The terms Ancient Briton or "Brythons" can be used for its people Britons Boudica
Ireland Irish
300-900 emergence of Kingdom of Scotland Pictish or Gaelic Picts, Gaels Nechtan Morbet
300-1200 (excluding Galloway c. 900-1230s ) south of Forth before 1200s British or English/Anglo-Saxon etc (depending on culture) British or English (depending on culture) Run of Alt Clut, Owen the Bald
500-1707 consolidation of England English is often used for the Heptarchy of kingdoms that came to be known as "England" sometime in the 10C. English Alfred the Great
500-1707 consolidation of Wales Welsh is generally used; "British" and "Briton" used in contexts into the later middle ages Welsh Hywel Dda
900-1707 consolidation of Scotland Both Scottish, and Scots (though as with England (1066), avoid calling first or second generation Norman incomers "Scottish") Scottish, Scots Robert the Bruce
1066 Norman conquest of England The Norman conquest of England significantly changed the course of English history. The Normans gradually became naturalised, as did Normandy itself with France. Norman Gerald of Wales, Strongbow
1069 Norman invasion of Ireland Following the invasion, Gaelic Ireland lost central authority, but the English Crown was unable to consolidate authority effectively, leading to centuries of power struggle. Anglo-Irish
1536 unification of England and Wales Wales officially became a "Principality". Shakespeare, Robert Recorde
1607 - mid-1600s Plantation of Ulster The Gaelic order collapses, and central "English" authority is consolidated in Ireland. A hundred thousand English, Welsh and Scottish settlers are "planted" in the Ulster province, to ensure a quash resistance, sowing communal differences that underly the modern conflict in the area (renamed as Northern Ireland). Scots-Irish
1707 unification with Scotland The "Kingdom of Great Britain" was created. The term "British" came into common usage. British becomes an option Charles Dickens, Benjamin Disraeli, Walter Scott
1800 unification with Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created. Oscar Wilde, James Joyce
1920-1921 creation of Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was created. Northern Irish, Ulstermen/women George Best, Seamus Heaney
present-day United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland British, English, Irish, Northern Irish, Scottish, Welsh are all used today.

Present-day examples of use[edit]

Editors have strongly opposing ideas on the relative importance of the appellations "Irish", "British", "English", "Northern Irish", "Scottish" and "Welsh". All are proud and highly individual countries, and each contain people that cherish their independence as much as their union (and in many cases, more so).

Various different methods of referring to a UK citizen's nationality have been adopted, including:

Name and title Nationality Note
Patrick Lee is an Irish journalist... who might be from anywhere on the island of Ireland.
Jane Smith is a British chef... who happens to be English.
John Brown is an English lyricist... who writes about English life.
Liam O'Connor was a Belfast-born footballer... who is an "expatriate" from Northern Ireland, perhaps.
Muira McClair is a British politician from Scotland... who is part of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Dafydd Gruffudd was a Welsh author... who happened to write in English, rather than Welsh.
David Tanner (born on 13 June 1955 in Alloa, Clackmannanshire, Scotland) is a football pundit... who has only his birth country mentioned.
Tommy Arrow is a UK comedian... Occurs occasionally, but is considered by many to be a lazy option.

No variation is particular to any one nationality.

Guide to finding an appropriate nationality[edit]

The following guide is designed to help find the right "opening paragraph" nationality for your biography.

  • When looking for available evidence (perhaps through biographies, encyclopedias and news articles), bear in mind that conflicting examples can exist for any one person. Often, however, a clear national preference will arise (e.g., the actor Sean Connery is widely referred to as Scottish, and rarely - if ever - as British).
  • Try and stick to the country's media if possible - "international" media can make simplistic (and erroneous) assumptions about UK citizens: some use only British or English to describe them.
  • Look specifically for evidence that the person has a preferred nationality. You may wish to refer to the evidence in a footnote. The writer Iris Murdoch considered herself to be Irish, though some feel she was perhaps wrong to do so:[1] the current consensus on Wikipedia is to call her "Dublin-born".
  • Each UK home nation has its various national sporting teams, which are often are allowed to recruit new team members based on the nationality of their parents or grandparents. These players are sometimes described as a nationals of their team's nation, and often become proud to be a representative of the two different nations. The original nationality of the player is usually used in these cases – though some players may choose to adopt the nationality of the country they played for.

Changing an exisiting nationality[edit]

It cannot be called "wrong" to change an existing nationality (e.g., Welsh to British, or British to Irish) provided a sufficient connection exists.

Before making a change:

  1. Consider why the existing nationality was chosen.
  2. Examine the article for details that support the existing label.
  3. Look for existing consensus on the discussion page, and in any archives that may be present.
  4. Conduct research to be certain your choice is preferable (you can consult the guide above).

Sometimes no single "correct" choice exists. Is your change actually for the better? An editor may query you, or revert your choice – so be prepared to explain your decision.

Above all, be civil, assume good faith and respect other people's points of view. It is of course OK to "be bold" and apply your choice, but remember that strong feelings surround UK identity, and firm disagreement may arise!

Do NOT enforce uniformity[edit]

It is not possible to create a uniforming guideline, when such strong disagreement exists on the relative importance of the labels.

Re-labelling nationalities on grounds of consistency – making every UK citizen "British", or converting each of those labelled "British" into their constituent nationalities – is strongly discouraged. Such imposed uniformity cannot, in any case, be sustained.

Do NOT "edit war"![edit]

Be aware that "edit warring" with other editors by repeatedly changing the text of an article to suit your views is against Wikipedia policy, and may lead to action being taken against you by Wikipedia administrators.

Cannot decide?[edit]

If you are still uncertain how your biography nationality is best labelled, you may wish to follow this course of action:

  1. Look at what others have done in comparable articles.
  2. Post a message asking for advice or assistance on the talk page, and/or on relevant WikiProjects and notice boards.
  3. Consider simply leaving the matter to someone who has a better feeling for it.
  4. When an idea of nationality exists, consider deferring to that view.

UK terminology[edit]

Various terms have been used to describe the different countries of the United Kingdom. This fact is illustrated by the following two tables of reliable sources, which presents a maximum of 36 references per country or example of use.

"Countries of the United Kingdom"[edit]

The following table presents 36 reliable sources that use the term "Countries of the United Kingdom".

Term Reliable sources
Countries of the United Kingdom [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

Other terms in use[edit]

The following table presents reliable sources for the terms most commonly-used to describe the countries of the United Kingdom. The references are listed per country, and in some instances are used more than once, when more than one country is referred to in the source. To avoid duplication, individual examples have been found wherever possible. Each term is restricted to 36 examples per use. Some of the table is still under completion.

Term England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales
Constituent country [38][39] [38][39] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [38][39]
Constituent part [49] [49] [49] [49]
Country [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [61] [62] [63] [67] [64] [65] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [50] [54] [81] [61] [62] [63] [67] [65] [68] [69] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [70] [90] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [8] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [50] [52] [54] [60] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [50] [54] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [61] [61] [62] [63] [67] [65] [139] [68] [69] [70] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [8] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [98] [97]
Country within a country [50] [50] [50] [50]
Division [140] [140] [140] [140]
Home country [141] [86]
Home nation
Kingdom [142]
Nation [140] [140] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150][140] [140]
Part [106] [106] [100] [106] [106]
Principality - - - [52][151]
Province - [52][152] - -
Region [153] [153] [153] [153]

Legal terminology[edit]

There is no term in UK law for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales as a group of individual parts. Terminology has evolved out of usage and preference. The countries of the United Kingdom were legally united by a series of statutes; the Acts of Union. The distinct continuance of the former states was not contemplated in these statutes; each one was a complete incorporating union. Nevertheless for various purposes they do refer to the areas of the former states. These are listed below:

Terminology in the Acts of Union[edit]
  • The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 annexed the legal system of Wales to England[154] to create the single entity commonly known today as England and Wales. Wales was described as the "Country, Principality and Dominion", "Dominion of Wales"[154] or the "Dominion, Principality and Country" or "Dominion and Principality" of Wales[155]. Outside of Wales, England was not given a specific name or term.
  • The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "Part of the united Kingdom"[156]
  • The Acts of Union 1800 use "Part" in the same way. They also use "Country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland respectively, when describing trade between them[157]
  • The Government of Ireland Act 1920 does not use any term or description to classify Northern Ireland nor indeed Great Britain.


WikiProjects and notice boards[edit]

See also[edit]

Discussions[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Conradi, Peter J. (2001-09-08). "Iris Murdoch: A Life by Peter J Conradi: Iris Murdoch always claimed she was Irish. But was she mythologising herself?". The Guardian (Saturday Review).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ Moores, B (July 1987). "The changing composition of the British hospital nursing workforce 1962-1984". 
  3. ^ Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS). "2001 Vital Statistics available from ONS". 
  4. ^ Nuffield Trust (27/11/2006). "NHS Values in Wales (summary)".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research agency (NISRA) (2006). "Vital Statistics". 
  6. ^ ESRC Public Services Programme. "Policies for Improving Public Service Performance". 
  7. ^ British Medical Journal (BMJ), Arthur Morris (1 May 1999). "BMJ should stop confusing its readers over national differences". 
  8. ^ a b c British Geriatrics Society (May 2006). "THE DISCHARGE OR TRANSFER OF CARE OF FRAIL OLDER PEOPLE FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SOCIAL SUPPORT".  “Methods of joint working between health and social care agencies vary across the 4 countries of the United Kingdom.”
  9. ^ British army. "Welsh Guards". 
  10. ^ Working Rights. "Solicitors and Legal Aid". 
  11. ^ Channel 4 News (28 Jun 2006). "Do the Scots subsidise the English?". 
  12. ^ Scottish Government Publications. "INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE ON QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS". 
  13. ^ Land Rover. "Takeback and recycle". 
  14. ^ They Work for You (25 June 2008). "House of Lords debate". 
  15. ^ Royal College of Nursing. "Evidence to the National Health Service Pay Review Body". 
  16. ^ Office for National Statistics. "Life expectancy by health and local authorities in the United Kingdom". 
  17. ^ "Report assesses impact of demographic changes for universities". 10 July 2008. 
  18. ^ SARS (academic census) (2001). "The Samples of Anonymised Records". 
  19. ^ Times Higher Education (20 March 2008). "The age of uncertainty". 
  20. ^ UNESCO. "Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland". 
  21. ^ Bat Conservation Trust (01/03/06). "Bats and the Law".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  22. ^ BBC News, Caroline Briggs. "Eurovision's frights and delights". 
  23. ^ Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Lavinia Mitton (16 July 2008). "Financial inclusion in the UK: Review of policy and practice". 
  24. ^ Guardian online, Alice Wignall (May 13 2008). "Paying for your course".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ The University of York, Social Policy Research Unit. "The well-being of children in the UK". 
  26. ^ Telegraph, Auslan Cramb (09 Jul 2008). [Barnett formula could undermine the Union, says think tank "Barnett formula could undermine the Union, says think tank"] Check |url= value (help).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  27. ^ British Council/BBC (6 July, 2006). "Living in the UK".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  28. ^ Professor David Blanchflower, Bank of England (26 Feb 2007). "Recent developments in the UK labour market" (PDF). 
  29. ^ The Scotsman, Lindsay Moss (17 July 2008). "UK 'trailing other countries on cancer survival rates'". 
  30. ^ The University of Manchester. "How To Reference". 
  31. ^ AEA Energy and Environment. "UK Smoke control areas". 
  32. ^ International Glaucoma Association (Apr 20, 2008). "UK Vision Strategy - Vision 2020". 
  33. ^ Department of Health (Oct 2004). "The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework". 
  34. ^ University of Arizona, James E Rogers College of Law. "Guide to Finding English and UK Law in the Law Library". 
  35. ^ "Life. Live it. The case for first aid education in UK schools. author=Red Cross" (PDF). 
  36. ^ British Embassy. "Tackling the Challenge of Climate Change Together". 
  37. ^ The Independent, Maxine Frith (25 August 2006). "Britain's population tops 60 million for first time". 
  38. ^ a b c d Office for National Statistics (2004-09-17). "Beginners' Guide to UK Geography: Administrative Geography". statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2008-04-16.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  39. ^ a b c d "DCA". Retrieved 2008-06-30.  Text "DCA " ignored (help) "nationally in this context will be taken to mean within the United Kingdom as a whole or within the constituent country (England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland), or both", at www.dca.gov.uk
  40. ^ Vickers, Dan; Rees, Phil. "Creating the UK National Statistics 2001 output area classification". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society). 170 (2): 379(25). 
  41. ^ Bramley, Glen. "The Sudden Rediscovery of Housing Supply as a Key Policy Challenge". Housing Studies. 22 (2): 221(21). 
  42. ^ Haubrich, Dirk; McLean, Iain. "EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT". Policy Studies. 27 (4): 271(23). 
  43. ^ Dixon, Tim. "Integrating Sustainability into Brownfield Regeneration: Rhetoric or Reality? – An Analysis of the UK Development Industry". Journal of Property Research. 23 (3): 237(31). 
  44. ^ Turner, Karen. "Additional precision provided by region-specific data: The identification of fuel-use and pollution-generation coefficients in the Jersey economy". Regional Studies. 40 (4): 347(18). 
  45. ^ Cole, Stuart. "Devolved Government and Transport—Relationships, Process and Policy". Public Money & Management. 25 (3): 179(7). 
  46. ^ Wells, Alan. "United Kingdom". European Environmental Law Review. 14 (6): 150(7). 
  47. ^ Hartley, Jean. "Innovation in Governance and Public Services: Past and Present". Public Money & Management. 25 (1): 27(8). 
  48. ^ Hodges, Ron; Macniven, Louise; Mellett, Howard. "Annual General Meetings of NHS Trusts: Devolving Power or Ritualising Accountability?". Financial Accountability & Management. 20 (4): 377(23). 
  49. ^ a b c d about.com, Matt Rosenberg. "Country, State, and Nation". 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h "Countries within a country". 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 2007-06-13. 
  51. ^ "England". Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-04-27. 
  52. ^ a b c d "ISO 3166-2". ISO. Retrieved 2008-06-30.  BS ISO 3166-2:2007 (second edition released 2007-12-13) consolidates changes detailed in ISO 3166-2 Newsletter I-9 (pg 11) which uses the terms "country" to describe England and Scotland, "principality" to describe Wales, and "province" to describe Northern Ireland, at www.iso.org
  53. ^ British Embassy. "England". britishembassy.gov.uk. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  54. ^ a b c d the Office for National Statistics states in its glossary that "In the context of the UK, each of the four main subdivisions (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) is referred to as a country". see statistics.gov.uk
  55. ^ England Rural Development Programme 2000 - 2006: 5.1 Description of the Current Situation - "5.1.2 England is a country of some 50,351 square miles". Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs at www.defra.gov.uk
  56. ^ British Embassy - What are Britain's national costumes? England: "Although England is a country rich in folklore and traditions, it has no definitive 'national' costume". British Embassy, Vilnius - Special features at www.britishembassy.gov.uk
  57. ^ The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 2003 - "England is a country of mostly low hills and plains. ". 2003 Yearbook at www.statistics.gov.uk
  58. ^ Civil Service Policy Hub - Performance pay for teachers (Last Updated: 12/2/2008) - "Many more schemes have appeared in recent years in other countries such as England, Sweden and Singapore". News item at www.nationalschool.gov.uk
  59. ^ Results for England from the UK 2007 Survey of Public Opinion of Forestry, carried out on behalf of the Forestry Commission, November 2007 - "The same principle is of course also valid for individual countries such as England, where an impractical level of afforestation would be required" PUBLIC OPINION OF FORESTRY 2007 - ENGLAND at www.forestry.gov.uk
  60. ^ a b The Oxford English Dictionary, in its 1893 edition, includes under "country" the meaning "3. The territory or land of a nation ; usually an independent state, or a region once independent and still distinct in race, language, institutions, or historical memories, as England, Scotland, and Ireland, in the United Kingdom, etc."
  61. ^ a b c d e "Foreign and International Law". Library of Congress.  "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the collective name of four countries, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland."
  62. ^ a b c d Europa, the European Untion Portal. "The education system in the United Kingdom".  "It must be remembered that the UK is actually four countries and that there are some differences in the education system across these four countries.
  63. ^ a b c d British Medical Journal (BMJ). "Is the English NHS underfunded?".  "The NHS is broadly similar in each of the four countries, but it is funded at different levels."
  64. ^ a b D. EVANS, E. KULA, H. SEZER (7 OCT 2005). "Regional welfare weights for the UK".  Check date values in: |date= (help) "Estimates of these weights are then provided for the four countries comprising the UK."
  65. ^ a b c d London School of Economics. "Government failing to learn valuable lessons from UK health care experiment".  "the health service across all four countries."
  66. ^ Ordnance Survey (28 October 2000). "Mapping mission offers close-up on England". 
  67. ^ a b c The Grocer (23-JUN-07). "Why school policies don't make the grade".  Check date values in: |date= (help) "Why school food policies don't make the grade: four countries, four sets of policies."
  68. ^ a b c Edinburgh Evening News (07 July 2008). "Our health service is the envy of the world, so let's cherish it".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  69. ^ a b c Channel 4 News (28 Jun 2006). "Do the Scots subsidise the English". 
  70. ^ a b c Commonwealth Secretariat. "United Kingdom - Geography". 
  71. ^ Research in Comparative & International Education, THERESA THONHAUSER, DAVID L. PASSMORE (2006). "ISO 9000 in Education: a comparison between the United States and England".  A study on “two different countries, the United States and England.”
  72. ^ a b c Birrell, Derek, Public Money & Management, Volume 27, Number 5 (Nov 2007). "Divergence in Policy Between Great Britain and Northern Ireland: The Case of Local Taxation". 
  73. ^ a b c NHS National Library for Health (April 2008). "NHS Structure: the impact of devolution".  “Up until this time the NHS policy differences between the four countries had been marginal,”
  74. ^ a b c Sarah Carter, LLRX (2001). "The UK Legal System".  “The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of four countries forming three distinct jurisdictions each having its own court system and legal profession: England & Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.”
  75. ^ a b c Nuffield Trust (29/11/2006). "Values and health policy in the European Union (summary)".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  76. ^ a b c TOEFL. "Four nations in one".  “The UK may be relatively small, but it is extremely diverse. It is home to 60 million people and comprises four countries – England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales – each with a distinct history and culture. “
  77. ^ a b c New Policy Institute. "Education-related websites". 
  78. ^ a b c Post-News Education.com, The Denver Newspaper Agency (March 18, 2007). "A Crucial vote in Northern Ireland".  “Northern Ireland is one of four countries that make up what is known as the United Kingdom, or U.K.”
  79. ^ World Wildlife Foundation. "Natural Rivers Programme – UK". 
  80. ^ USA Today. "England". 
  81. ^ General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland (1-May-2008). "Changing Assessment Practice Process: Principles and Standards".  Check date values in: |date= (help) "..in all four countries of the UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland."
  82. ^ EADT24 (21 July 2008). "Belfast trip cannot be underestimated". 
  83. ^ British Dental Journal (24 May 2008). "Northern Ireland turns to private sector to solve dentist shortage". 
  84. ^ Adfero (15 July 2008). "Mental health survey for people in Northern Ireland". 
  85. ^ British Council. "Why come to Northern Ireland?". 
  86. ^ a b E-HEALTH-MEDIA LTD (2005). "Northern Ireland unveils plans for electronic records". 
  87. ^ The Food Standards Agency (1 May 2007). "Draft Official Feed and Food Controls Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2007". 
  88. ^ Pat Stacey, Herald.ie (July 23 2008). "Dignified look at tragic loss of life".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  89. ^ ITS Magazine. 22 things you should know about Northern Ireland.  “The Northern Ireland economy is the smallest of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom.”
  90. ^ Olivia Fens (11/07/200). "Women obtaining abortion pill online".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  91. ^ a b The Four Countries - Social Care Information Network (27 March 2006). "Leeds Workshop 27 March 2006 Report".  “The workshop was designed to be an initial opportunity to bring together leading information specialists and policy makers from the four countries of the UK“
  92. ^ a b European Union Youth Portal. "Travelling Europe, The United Kingdom".  "The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales."
  93. ^ a b BBC World Service Teacher Blog - Anne Bell (12 April 2008). "Union Jack Day". 
  94. ^ a b European Commission Expert Working Group on the social determinants of health inequalities (2–3 March 2006). "Tackling Health Inequalities – The UK Situation".  "The UK consists of four countries England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland."
  95. ^ a b various. "Oxford Journals 'Parliamentary Affairs' Research Articles (3 summaries)". 
  96. ^ a b Cancer Research. "UK Bladder Cancer mortality statistics". 
  97. ^ a b UNICEF (16 August 2002). "UNICEF salutes Scottish Bill on right to breastfeed in public". 
  98. ^ a b CBC News (Nov 23, 2006). "The 39th Parliament Nations within nations". 
  99. ^ British Embassy in the United States of America
  100. ^ a b A publication submitted by the UK to the United Nations Economic and Social Council states Scotland is a "constituent part" and "country", but "should not be considered as a first-order administrative division".United Nations Economic and Social Council (August 2007). "Ninth United Nations Conference on the standardization of Geographical Names" (PDF). unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2008-04-14. 
  101. ^ Explanatory Notes to Waste And Emissions Trading Act 2003
  102. ^ Census 2001 - Ethnicity and religion in England and Wales
  103. ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 28 Feb 2000 (pt 35)
  104. ^ Alex Salmond MP MSP, (nationalist) First Minister of Scotland calls Scotland a "country". First Minister Alex Salmond at openscotland.gov.uk
  105. ^ Joint statement released on behalf of Helen Liddell MP, (unionist) Secretary of State for Scotland, and Jack McConnell MSP, (unionist) First Minister for Scotland, which states "Scotland is a country with a proud history, with strong traditions and customs". Scotland Office Press Release 2002-11-21 at www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk
  106. ^ a b c d e Britannica describes Scotland as "the most northerly of the four parts of the United Kingdom" and later as a "country" four times in its introduction to the topic (nation or subdivision is not used).Scotland at www.britannica.com
  107. ^ Encarta describes Scotland as "one of the four national units that make up the United Kingdom" and later as a "country" two times in its introduction to the topic (nation or subdivision is not used).Scotland at encarta.msn.com
  108. ^ Patricia Ferguson, MSP, Minister for Tourism, Culture and Sport - Scotland is a country known world-wide for its history and its landscape. Historic Scotland: Scotland's Historic Environment (Published 2007) at www.historic-scotland.gov.uk
  109. ^ RURAL DEVELOPMENT REGULATION (EC) NO 1257/1999: PLAN FOR SCOTLAND. "5.2 Scotland is a country of some 30,414 square miles" Chapter 5 at www.scotland.gov.uk
  110. ^ Jack McConnell MSP, (former) First Minister for Scotland - Scotland is a country with strong traditions and a proud history of achievement. Welcome Message to 'scotlandnow' at www.friendsofscotland.gov.uk
  111. ^ Helen Liddell MP, (former) Secretary of State for Scotland - Scotland is a country of inventors and entrepreneurs and we have many excellent, dynamic companies. Press Release 2002-07-31 at www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk
  112. ^ Wendy Alexander MSP, Leader of the Labour Party in the Scottish Parliament - "Scotland is a country I love to the core of my being." Speech to Scottish Conference by Wendy Alexander at www.scottishlabour.org.uk
  113. ^ Local Government Boundary Commission for Scotland, Report Number E97002, November 1997 - 14. However, since Scotland is a country of great diversity Third Statutory Review of Electoral Arrangements at www.lgbc-scotland.gov.uk
  114. ^ World Offshore Renewable Energy Report 2004-2008 - 5.3.3 Scotland is a country with potential to be at the centre of the worldwide tidal industry. Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform at www.berr.gov.uk
  115. ^ David Blunkett MP, (former) Home Secretary, Speech to TUC Conference 2004-11-10 - "in the country of Scotland who are pioneering the programme of getting people to move to Scotland" Speech to TUC Conference on Managed Migration at http://press.homeoffice.gov.uk
  116. ^ SECOND DIVISION, INNER HOUSE, COURT OF SESSION, XA39/03 - 9 "within Scotland" meant within the geographical limits of the country of Scotland OPINION OF THE COURT delivered by LORD JOHNSTON, 2003-12-02 at www.scotcourts.gov.uk
  117. ^ RENEWABLE ENERGY INQUIRY by ENTERPRISE AND CULTURE COMMITTEE, 2004-01-22. 3.5:"Scotland is a country which sells its scenery, as the basis for its largest single industry, tourism". Evidence from SCOTTISH NATURAL HERITAGE
  118. ^ Bertie Ahern, (former) Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ADDRESS TO THE SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT - WEDNESDAY 20 JUNE 2001 - "Scotland is a country rightly renowned for the distinguished historical contribution of its thinkers and scientists to the development of democracy and technological progress". Scottish Parliament. Parliamentary News Release at www.scottish.parliament.uk
  119. ^ Andrew Hardie, Baron Hardie, (former) Lord Advocate, - "In a small country like Scotland, the courts have not had sufficient cases in the area of private law to allow the private law to be developed by judicial decision". SPEECH TO CONFERENCE ON SCOTTISH DEVOLUTION - STRATHCLYDE UNIVERSITY - 27 FEBRUARY 1998 at www.scotland.gov.uk
  120. ^ Scottish Aggregates Survey 2005 - 6. These areas recognise the difficulties of defining market areas in a country like Scotland The Scottish Government Publications at http://openscotland.gov.uk
  121. ^ Response from the Welsh Assembly Government to HM Treasury’s consultation on a merged fund to support UK health related research - "6.1 In 2003 Ernst and Young recommended (on the basis of experience in other countries, including Scotland)" Response at www.hm-treasury.gov.uk
  122. ^ Births and Deaths June 2004 quarter - This pattern has also been observed in other countries, including Scotland. Statistics New Zealand at www2.stats.govt.nz
  123. ^ Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vo1, No.1 - January-March 1995: An Outbreak of Shigella sommei infection... - "together with reports from other European countries, including Scotland, Sweden and Norway" Dispatches at www.cdc.gov
  124. ^ Parliament of Ireland - "This is not just evident in Ireland but in other countries, including Scotland". Parliamentary Debates (Dáil and Seanad) 2000 at www.irlgov.ie
  125. ^ Estate agency market in England and Wales - "Comparisons with markets in other countries, including Scotland" 2004 Market Study at www.oft.gov.uk
  126. ^ HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. Neutral Citation no. [2007] NIQB 5826, Ref:GILC5850, Delivered:5/9/07 - The law in other jurisdictions [33] - "I delayed the giving of judgment in this case to afford the parties an opportunity to consider certain research which I had caused to be carried out into similar provisions in other countries including Scotland, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, Canada and Australia". Judgment: approved by the Court for handing down at www.courtsni.gov.uk
  127. ^ The Nicholson Committee: Review of Liquor Licensing Law in Scotland, 2003 - Chapter 5, 5.5 - "we are firmly of the view that in a country such as Scotland the desirability of promoting the licensing principles" CHAPTER 5 LICENSING HOURS at www.scotland.gov.uk
  128. ^ World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Is housing improvement a potential health improvement strategy? (Updated 23 February 2005) - "In countries such as Scotland, Portugal and Spain, the levels of excess winter deaths are higher than in Scandinavia" Health Evidence Network (HEN) at www.euro.who.int
  129. ^ Office of the First Minister & Deputy First Minister for Northern Ireland. Policylink Bulletin 12 (June 2006): Migration Trends - "Countries such as Scotland faced with rapid demographic ageing welcome the flow of migrant workers". Policylink 12 at www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk
  130. ^ UNESCO-1994. The impact of examination systems on curriculum development: an international study. Chapter 1. SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION - Geographical Scope: "To give a suitably international context to the study, seven countries were selected and agreed with UNESCO. The seven, namely Colombia, Egypt, France, Japan. Scotland. the United States of America (US) and Zimbabwe were chosen" UNESCO Report at www.unesco.org
  131. ^ Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, Wynford Vaughan-Thomas's Wales, Mermaid Books 1983, ISBN 0 7181 2251 8, p8, ch1 Welcome to Wales: "Who would expect to find a country speaking its own language, and with its own fiercely defended culture and traditions, within seventy miles of the huge English urban complexes of Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester?"
  132. ^ Gwynfor Evans, Land of My Fathers, Y Lolfa 1992, ISBN: 0 86243 265 0, pp434/435 ch10 Facing the British: "Arthur Henderson, ... Foreign Secretary ... 1924, believed: 'One could not imagine a country where federal self-government has a better chance of success than Wales...Given self-government Wales could become a modern Utopia.' He stressed that the smallness of the country was a great advantage from the standpoint of good government."
  133. ^ Peter Berresford Ellis, Celt and Saxon - The Struggle for Britain AD 410 - 937, Constable and Company 1993, ISBN 0 09 472160 2, pp241, ch16 Do 'The British' Really Exist?: "Monoglot English clergy had been appointed to livings in Wales as a matter of course. A Dr Bowles had been given the living of Trefdaeth and Llangwyfan where, of 500 parishioners, only five had any knowledge of English. This was in 1768 and the Welsh decided to rebel. They argued that they should have a minister who spoke Welsh. The case took five years to argue. Dr Bowles's counsel was quite clear on the position of Wales: 'Wales is a conquered country, it is proper to introduce the English language, ...' "
  134. ^ Wales - The Rough Guide, Mike Parker and Paul Whitfield, The Rough Guides 1997, ISBN 1-85828-245-4, p. viii/ Introduction, Para 2: "As you cross the border from England, you are, in fact, immediately aware of the different attitudes and cultures of the two countries. ..." ... "WALES AND ITS SHIFTING COUNTY BOUNDARIES. Wales is a small and thinly populated country ..."
  135. ^ Prys Morgan (Ed), History of Wales 25,000 B.C. - A.D. 2000, Tempus Publishing 2001, ISBN 0 7524 1983 8, p78 ch3 Frontier Wales c1063-1282: "Of course, throughout this period Wales remained an overwhelmingly rural country, ..."
  136. ^ Wales: History of a Nation, David Ross, Gedded & Grosset 2005, ISBN 1 84205 018 4, p15 Introduction: "... At its head [a Welsh national army] was the Prince of Wales, Owain Glyndwr. For five years he had resisted the might of England, ranging the strength of all Wales behind him, making treaties with the Kingdoms of France and Scotland, acting as a sovereign in his own country."
  137. ^ Wales: History of a Nation, David Ross, Gedded & Grosset 2005, ISBN 1 84205 018 4, p256: "'A vineyard placed in my care is Wales, my country, To deliver unto my children, And my children's children, Intact: an eternal heritage' Saunders Lewis, Buchedd Garmon, translated by D.M. Lloyd"
  138. ^ The Wikipedia article Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau says: " "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" (IPA: [heːn ˈwlaːd vəˈn̥adaɨ], usually translated as "Land of My Fathers", (but literally old country of my fathers) is, by tradition, the national anthem of Wales."
  139. ^ Ordnance Survey (11 July 2002). "Ordnance Survey spreads the word in Welsh for the Royal Welsh Show". 
  140. ^ a b c d e f g h Scotland is Not a Country
  141. ^ London School of Economics. "Government failing to learn valuable lessons from UK health care experiment".  "different approaches to health policy that have been adopted by each home country since devolution."
  142. ^ The Scottish Parliament. FAQ's - "Is Scotland a country? - The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the full name of the country. Scotland is a kingdom within the United Kingdom (UK)" Your Scotland Questions at www.scottish.parliament.uk
  143. ^ G. K. Chesterton, "Edward VII. and Scotland" -- I am quite certain that Scotland is a nation; I am quite certain that nationality is the key of Scotland; I am quite certain that all our success with Scotland has been due to the fact that we have in spirit treated it as a nation.
  144. ^ David McCrone, Scotland, Small? -- Scotland is a nation which has lived quite happily within a loose confederation, a union, and now finds itself within a bigger union - of Europe.
  145. ^ Heald, Geaughan & Robb, "Financial Arrangements for UK Devolution" in Elcock & Keating Remaking the Union -- ... from the recognition that Scotland is a nation within the United Kingdom.
  146. ^ Davidson, The Origins of Scottish Nationhood -- Because Scotland is a nation, and not a region or an urban district, opposition took a form which was impossible in most other parts of Britain.
  147. ^ Anderson, "Fernand Braudel & National Identity" in Clark, The Annales School -- ... Scotland is a nation that is something like a quasi-state, Britain a state that is at least a quasi-nation.
  148. ^ Von Beyme, "Fischer's move towards a European Constitution" in Joerges, Mény & Weiler, What kind of Constitution for what kind of Polity -- In this age of football, one whimsical definition defines the nation by the very existence of a national football team. On this definition Scotland is a nation and Bavaria not.
  149. ^ Haesly, "Identifying Scotland and Wales" in Nations and Nationalism, vol. 11, no. 2 -- As they argue, 'Scotland is a nation; therefore, Scotland should become an independent nation state' ...
  150. ^ Bultmann, Scottish Rights Vindicated: Identity and Nationalism in Mid-Nineteenth Century Scotland (unpub PhD [?] thesis), quotes one of William Burns' NAVSR tracts of 1854 -- so long as Scotland is a nation - by contract merely forming part of the united Empire - so long the Scottish people have a basis upon which, with consistency, they may rest such things as national demands.
  151. ^ Home Office Police Research Group Crime Prevention Unit Series, December 1993, sourced 2008-06-30, Paper NO.50 - Vehicle Watch in Wales, 1: "Forces in the Principality of Wales have demonstrated a particularly high level of commitment to the Vehicle Watch concept", at www.homeoffice.gov.uk
  152. ^ OFT Consultation on a market investigation reference on personal current account banking in Northern Ireland, 2005-02-11, accessed 2008-06-30, Annex A.3: "The Geographic market is defined as the Province of Northern Ireland", at www.oft.gov.uk
  153. ^ a b c d about.com, Matt Rosenberg. "Geography". 
  154. ^ a b Laws in Wales Act 1535, Clause I
  155. ^ Laws in Wales Act 1542
  156. ^ e.g. "... to be raised in that Part of the united Kingdom now called England", "...that Part of the united Kingdom now called Scotland, shall be charged by the same Act..." Article IX
  157. ^ e.g. "That, from the first Day of January one thousand eight hundred and one, all Prohibitions and Bounties on the Export of Articles, the Growth, Produce, or Manufacture of either Country, to the other, shall cease and determine; and that the said Articles shall thenceforth be exported from one Country to the other, without Duty or Bounty on such Export"; Union with Ireland Act 1800, Article Sixth.