User:Michelle Rice/sandbox

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This is my sandbox.

Ethnic Enclaves wikipage revision[edit]

The term “ethnic enclave” can define either a residential space with a high concentration of co-ethnics or a concentration of ethnic firms within a space that employ a greater proportion of co-ethnics. [1] Immigrants tend to cluster geographically in a proximate space. [2] The relationships that form among immigrants in these spaces produce social networks that in effect generate a pool of intangible resources that help to promote social development.[3] This phenomenon forms the basis of social capital, and is central to the development of an ethnic enclave. The effect of participation in an enclave is priori ambiguous. While residing in an enclave is associated with latency in acquiring host country skills, such as language and social norms, participation in the enclave economy may assist in achieving upward mobility through increased availability of employment opportunities in the enclave labor market. [4]

When discussing the ethnic enclave as defined by a spatial cluster of businesses, success and growth can be largely predicted by three factors. These factors include 1) the size and population of the enclave 2) the level of entrepreneurial skills of those in the enclave and 3) the availability of capital resources to the enclave. (Economic Sociology of Immigration 27). Successful enclaves can reach a point where they become self-sufficient, or “institutionally complete” through the supply of new immigrants and demand of goods offered in the market. (economic soci book, 28).


Historically, the formation of ethnic enclaves may be involuntary, as an ethnic or racial ghetto, due to housing discrimination which prevented members of ethnic, or religious minorities from settling in other parts of town. For example, in the United States this discrimination has taken the form of redlining, restrictive covenants[5] and mortgage discrimination. Discrimination still remains a factor in the persistence of racial enclaves in cities.[6][7] Although discrimination and racism have played roles in the creation of racial enclaves, they are not the only factors.

New immigrants and migrants typically settled in neighborhoods with others from their cultural background and even from their home villages. To city residents who are not part of the community, the ethnic area has become a dining and shopping destination and source of "authentic" ethnic food and groceries, such as Chinese cuisine in Chinatowns and Italian restaurants in Little Italys.

Survey evidence from both national and local studies shows that black households prefer neighborhoods that are half black and half white, while whites prefer neighborhoods ranging from 0 to 30 percent black.[8]

With continuing changes in American culture, community business leaders have found ways to promote certain ethnic enclaves as tourist attractions for revenue. Services and goods in the area are oriented toward the ethnic group, and the lingua franca for business and social exchanges in the area is the native language of the group. Street signs and business signs may be in the native language or in multiple languages, such as street signs in English and Chinese in Chinatowns. English is also used when conducting transactions with customers outside—even within (especially with American-born descendants of ethnic immigrants) —the ethnic group.

Ethnic enclaves may also be sources of imported goods not easily found or sold in mainstream American retail outlets. Japanese-language popular culture items such as anime may be sold in Little Tokyo, a wide range of ginseng and herbs as well as Hong Kong cinema Video CDs can be purchased in Chinatown, and Bollywood blockbuster DVDs can be found in Little India. Enclaves are also sources of ethnic-language media. These often provide a different scope of coverage than do mainstream news sources. For instance, Chinese-language newspapers are likely to carry more articles about mainland China. The ethnic media might focus closely on events in the country of origin and within the ethnic enclaves themselves (such as political rallies in Chinatown) and satellite immigrant communities.


In the case of many ethnic enclaves, businesses started by the members of the community are a major source of income for the people who chose to move into the enclave. Traditional shops to buy clothes and food from the countries in which the people come from are often some of the main things that are sold. The growth of these businesses may be due to discrimination of major industry in the city in which these people move to. Also not being able to speak English very well may also lead to the fact that these people have to start their own businesses because they are discriminated against. Often self-employment has been a very prosperous choice for the people who start these businesses because many people would rather go to these shops and they don't have to face the competition from larger businesses.[9]

The enclave economy is sheltered from other economies and basically have their own economy. The enclave is usually segregated to the people that live in the enclave and are of the same ethnic background as the other people that live in the enclave; this makes it difficult for other people from different backgrounds to get work or start businesses in the enclave. The housing, labor, and capital markets are sheltered from outside competition and are often restricted to the people in the enclave. They are also sheltered from regulation from the government and government interference. This sheltered form of economy is a positive alternative to joining the primary economic market because it protects the people in the enclave from outside competition.


Religion has played a predominant role in the forming of ethnic enclaves. Enclaves are often driven by the desire for people to be around their own religious groups. As in China Town, there are many different groups who speak various languages which require some social stratification between one another. For example, the Church of Grace was first established to accommodate the influx of Fujianese in China Town, but had to be split due to other dividing qualities such as gender, kinship, surname, and regional groupings.

Italians did not give up their roots upon arrival to America; Little Italy is based around Catholicism just as in Italy. Many other enclaves, such as Irishtown, Little Saigon, and Little Manila, have a wide variety of religions due to oppression in original countries. In many cases the reason that people leave their countries is to rid themselves of religious oppression. When they come to a new country, they want to settle around people who share religion. Also, they don't want to face the same oppression that they once did in their homeland.

Enclave economic theory[edit]

The enclave economic theory states that the spatial concentration of an ethnic group permits it to create its own business enterprises, thus speeding the economic progress of the group. It stresses that ethnic and racial minorities can make more rapid initial economic progress when they create an enclave economy. Some advantages are that it creates an increasingly successful group of entrepreneurs in the ethnic community and the ties of the ethnic community allows the owners to give their employees a better deal. It gives them a better chance of moving forward than they would have in the outside economy. This is the position of Alejandro Portes and his colleagues.[10]

Administrative divisions[edit]

In some countries, an ethnic enclave may be an autonomous area of minority groups, as one of administrative division types.

in China, minority autonomous areas (Chinese: 民族区域) are autonomous regions (Chinese: 自治区), autonomous prefectures (Chinese: 自治州) and autonomous counties (Chinese: 自治县, or autonomous banners of Inner MongoliaChinese: 自治旗), Such autonomous areas have their local governments. Moreover, there are two basic units of administrative divisions: a minority township (Chinese: 民族乡) is a township-level division under the county level, and a minority village (Chinese: 民族村) is a village-level division under the township level.

in Myanmar, 7 states represent areas of non-Bamar ethnicity.

In Russia, there are 21 autonomous republics that they represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity.

Ethnic communities[edit]


A Chinatown is a section of an urban area containing a large number of Chinese people or Chinese run commercial activities within a city that is not in China. Chinatowns are most common in Southeast Asia and North America.

Many Chinatowns have a long history, such as Shinchimachi, the nearly three-century old Chinatown in Nagasaki, Japan, or Yaowarat Road in Bangkok, which was founded by Chinese traders more than 200 years ago, and the oldest Chinatown in the world located outside of China is in Binondo, Manila in the Philippines. Other Chinatowns are much newer: the Chinatown in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. formed in the 1990s. Most Chinatowns grew without any organized plans set in place, while a very few (such as the one in Las Vegas and a new area outside the city limits of Seoul, South Korea) resulted from deliberate master plans by the Chinatown community overlord (overseer) (sometimes as part of redevelopment projects to better the location). Indeed, many areas of the world are embracing the development and redevelopment (or regeneration) of Chinatowns, such as in Germany, the Netherlands, South Korea, and the United Kingdom.

Little Havana[edit]

In Miami, Florida, USA, a large neighborhood within the city, Little Havana is home to a large Cuban-American expatriate community. The neighborhood is just west of Downtown Miami and is named after the Cuban capital of Havana. The neighborhood started to grow in 1959, with the rise of Fidel Castro in Cuba. Today, it is Miami's largest and most prominent ethnic neighborhood.


In the U.S., Hispanic/Latino neighborhoods and sections. Examples would be East Los Angeles near L.A. (Mexican and Chicano) as the heart of Los Angeles County's large Hispanic population, the Spanish Harlem (Puerto Ricans) section in Manhattan, New York City; and Pilsen, Chicago in Chicago has one of the US' largest Latino communities.

Black neighborhoods[edit]

Harlem in New York City and The Hill District in Pittsburgh are famous examples. Many black neighborhoods were formed due to racial segregation and oppression. Greenwood in Tulsa, Oklahoma is a great example of a neighborhood formed due to segregation. Other good examples include Central City in New Orleans and Anacostia in Washington, DC. Other black enclaves can be found across large towns and cities within the United Kingdom. Notably Brixton, Peckham, Harlesden, Tottenham, and Hackney in London, Moss Side, Hulme, and Longsight in Manchester, Aston and Lozells in Birmingham Toxteth in Liverpool, St Anns in Nottingham, and Chapeltown in Leeds. There are also some black enclaves in Canada, such as Eglinton West, Jane and Finch, Lawrence Heights, Malvern, Oakwood-Vaughan, Rexdale, St. James Town, The Ward, and West Hill in Toronto and Little Burgundy in Montreal.

Little Italy[edit]

Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated (or formerly populated) primarily by Italians or people of Italian ancestry. It can also be the name of a specific Italian neighborhood. Some Italian neighborhoods may have other names, but are colloquially referred to as "Little Italy".


Greektown is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated (or formerly populated) primarily by Greeks or people of Greek ancestry. It can also be the name of a specific Greek neighborhood. Some Greek neighborhoods may have other names (such as Little Athens in Toronto).

Little India[edit]

India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, is one of at least 20 Asian Indian enclaves characterized as a Little India which have emerged within the New York City Metropolitan Area.

Little India is any place around the world, which hosts a concentration of people who have migrated from the Indian Subcontinent. This definition includes people mainly from India, but also includes Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi, etc. nationals. The term is generally used in Western countries, but can be seen in other regions, such as Southeast Asia, South West Asia (the Middle East), and Europe. A few examples of Little Indias around the world are India Square in Jersey City and Oak Tree Road in Edison, New Jersey as well as Jackson Heights, New York, all in the United States; Little India, Singapore; Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Gerrard Street East in Toronto, Canada; and Southall and Alperton in London, England.

Also see: Non Resident Indian.


Irishtown in Ireland, during the medieval era and later, native Irish people were prohibited from living inside the walls of most cities and towns. The areas they lived in outside the walls became known as Irishtown, and this survives in many modern place names in towns and cities like Athlone, Clonmel, Dublin, Kilkenny, and Limerick.


Japantown is a common name for Japanese American, Japanese Canadian or Japanese Filipino communities in big cities. Alternatively, Japantowns are called Little Tokyos or Nihonmachis (日本町 or 日本街) or J-towns. Liberdade is the Japanese district in São Paulo, Brazil; San Miguel and Dilao, Paco; and Manila, the Philippines have large Japanese populations. Liberdade, São Paulo has the largest Japanese population outside of Japan. Large Japanese communities are also found in Lima, Peru; San Francisco and Los Angeles, California USA; and Honolulu, Hawaii USA.

Little Saigon[edit]

Little Saigon is a name given to any of several overseas Vietnamese immigrant and descendant communities outside Vietnam, especially in the United States. There has been relatively little direct immigration to the United States from the northern portions of Vietnam.

Little Manila[edit]

Little Manila (also known as Manilatown or Filipinotown) is a community with a large overseas Filipino immigrant and descendant population outside the Philippines. Little Manilas are very common in the United States and Canada.

Little Pakistan[edit]

Little Pakistan is a locality of an urban area containing a large number of Overseas Pakistanis. They are found in Europe, the United States, and the Middle East.

Little Portugal[edit]

Little Portugal is an area in South London, specifically Stockwell where there is a large Portuguese community. Many families first settled in the area during the 1960s and 1970s. Many worked in the catering and hospitality trade, with some women gaining a reputation as efficient and courteous domestic servants. Later, others, with their savings, started to open restaurants on South Lambeth Road.

Polish neighborhoods[edit]

Communities made up of Polish people (a.k.a. Poles) can be found across the USA, like Chicago and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Also there are Polish communities in Canada, France, Germany and the UK, as well Polish immigration into Ireland in the 2000s after Poland's admission (2004) to the European Union. Tens of millions of ethnic Poles established a global diaspora called Polonia and an estimated 8 million Polish-Americans live in the USA alone. [citation needed]


Koreans comprise the majority of the population (52%) of Palisades Park, Bergen County, New Jersey, USA.[15][16]

In Newark, New Jersey, the Ironbound section is made up of mostly Portuguese people and Brazilian people. The great import of Portuguese people arrived in the late 1950s. The Ironbound most popular landmark is Ferry street.[17] There are multiple Portuguese and Brazilian stores, restaurants, and clubs located on Ferry street.[18] Another famous landmark is St. Stephan's Church (Ironbound, Newark, New Jersey) which was built in 1874.

Ethnic enclaves in the United States[edit]

The idea of an ethnic enclave is really where the so-called "American Dream" may start for those who come to America. It is not merely a neighborhood of an ethnic group or certain culture, but more of a comfort zone to those who are starting new lives. It exists because when you have practically nothing, which many immigrants do, you need a place to start. Also when immigrants go to another country, it is easier to start a new life around people in the same situations as they are and who speak the same language. It may be easier to find a job or start a business with people who come from the same culture.

An ethnic enclave is a subdivision of an American city with more layers than appear present. The ethnic enclaves of America have always been a place where immigrants are worth something and can be in a comfortable world because they are surrounded by individuals of the same culture and ethnicity. This is a place where new immigrants can stay when moving to America or any country and get a foundation under them.

In the 19th and 20th century immigrations of populations from rural areas, new immigrants typically didn't have much else than what they could bring with them. They often found jobs in ethnic enclaves and worked to become established, hoping to move on themselves or for their children to have better opportunities. It is also a place to help them adapt to American culture.[19]

New York City has many ethnic enclaves, where as many as 800 languages are spoken and over 200 different countries are represented. Ethnic groups with ethnic enclaves in New York City include Puerto Ricans, Dominican Americans, Chinese Americans, Indian Americans, Koreans, Italians, African Americans and Afro-Caribbean Americans, Greek Americans, Russians, and, as an ethnoreligious group, Jewish Americans.

Los Angeles is home to the largest population of Koreans outside of Korea with a population of about 100,000.[20]

San Antonio, Texas has several mostly Mexican-American and other ethnic/racial communities. [citation needed]

Other U.S. major cities known for ethnic enclaves are Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, and Seattle.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Portes, Alejandro, and Leif Jensen. "Disproving the Enclave Hypothesis: Reply." American Sociological Review. 57. no. 3 (1992): 418-420.
  2. ^ Borjas, George J. Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. 10.
  3. ^ Massey, Douglas S. “Why Does Immigration Occur? A Theoretical Synthesis.” The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience, Charles Hirschman, Philip Kasinitz, and Josh DeWind, editors. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1999.
  4. ^ Edin, Per-Anders, Peter Fredriksson, and Olof Aslund. "ETHNIC ENCLAVES AND THE ECONOMIC SUCCESS OF IMMIGRANTS—EVIDENCE FROM A NATURAL EXPERIMENT." The Quarterly Journal of Economics. no. 1 (2003): 329-357.
  5. ^ The Origins and Diffusion of Racial Restrictive Covenants Michael Jones-Correa Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 115, No. 4 (Winter, 2000–2001), pp. 541–568
  6. ^ The Racial Structuring of the Housing Market and Segregation in Suburban Areas Linda Brewster Stearns, John R. Logan Social Forces, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Sep., 1986), pp. 28–42
  7. ^ Stephen R Holloway (1998) Exploring the Neighborhood Contingency of Race Discrimination in Mortgage Lending in Columbus, Ohio Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88 (2), 252–276.
  8. ^ Residential segregation in American cities: a review and interpretation W. A. V. Clark Population Research and Policy Review Volume 5, Number 2 / January, 1986
  9. ^ "A Comparison of the Cuban and Black Economies in Miami." Kenneth L. Wilson American Sociological Review. Vol. 88 (1982) pp. 135–161
  10. ^ Stark, Rodney. Sociology: Tenth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007.
  11. ^ "Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-19. 
  12. ^ "Chinatown". Indo New York. Retrieved 2011-12-19. 
  13. ^ Sarah Waxman. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  14. ^ David M. Reimers. Still the golden door: the Third ... - Google Books. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  15. ^ KAREN SUDOL AND DAVE SHEINGOLD (October 12, 2011). "Korean language ballots coming to Bergen County". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  16. ^ Kirk Semple (May 18, 2012). "In New Jersey, Memorial for 'Comfort Women' Deepens Old Animosity". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  17. ^ "Ferry Street Newark, NJ". 
  18. ^ "Newark; A Cornucopia for Carnivores". Gretchen Kurtz. 
  19. ^ "What's an Ethnic Enclave? The Case for Conceptual Clarity." A. Portes, American Sociological Review
  20. ^