User:Mike Serfas/anaesthesia

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This is a set of working notes for expanding

The following herbs generally have been called analgesic, anti-inflammatory, narcotic, or are prescribed in rheumatism, dysmenorrhea, toothache, for bites and stings, or other pain.

NOTICE: Where uncited, entries originated with quotes/excerpts from Dr. Duke's phytochemical and ethnobotanical database]. Since that is a USDA server I don't think there are copyright issues, although in any case a strong argument can be made for fair use for purposes of commentary and discussion. Also note that this is not the full database, but contains only those herbs which a cursory examination suggested had some anaesthetic effect (whether anti-inflammatory, narcotic, or sedative). Some herbs listed may actually be antibacterial, antiviral or purely antipyretic. Data from different sources and contexts is jumbled together here and should be used only as a lead for further research. References to "I" or individuals are inherited from the database - it's not clear to me who they refer to.

Where cited, additional information was added from Plants For A Future. Although that site is covered by a Creative Commons-Attribution license, only fair use excerpts are used to maintain Wikipedia compatibility. It is worth noting that there was very little overlap between this and previous lists - suggesting that even this combined list represents a small fraction of the known anaesthetic herbs. However, an encouraging sign is that some genera are used similarly in vastly different traditions, even from opposite sides of the Atlantic.

The latest 120 of 1159 results of "(antiinflammatory OR anti-inflammatory) AND (herb OR herbal)" on PubMed have been integrated - still with very little overlap. It is beginning to appear that this will be a very long list.

Please remember that many of these plants are known to be toxic, and anaesthetics are almost always toxic in excess. Often special warnings have been removed for lack of space; this is NOT a pharmacopoeia!

Herbs listed by family, then binomial name:


Not Planta[edit]

  • Periostracum Cicadae - methanolic extracts contain a new N-acetyldopamine dimer, (2R,3S)-2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-acetylamino-7-(N-acetyl-2-aminoethylene)-1,4-benzodioxane "inhibiting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells." PMID 16919462
  • Cimicifuga - "Cimicifugae Rhizoma, mainly originated from C. acerina, C. dahurica, C. foetida, C. heracleifolia, C. racemosa and C. simplex, has long been used in traditional medicine system. During the past 45 years, a lot of efforts have been dedicated to the studies on their bioactive constituents, pharmacological effects and clinical uses, and a variety of biological activities including relief of hot flash, anti-osteoporosis, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), antiinflammatory, antidiabetes, antimalaria and vasoactive property have been discovered." PMID 17073639
  • Ganoderma tsugae - (Homobasidiomycetes:Ganodermataceae) "[triterpenoid extract] supplementation significantly decreased [bronchial airway hyperresponsiveness] and reduced the total infiltrating leukocytes and eosinophils, as well as the levels of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and eotaxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared with those of the control group. Lung histology also showed less cell recruitment and lung damage. TRE supplements suppressed IL-5 secretions from OVA-stimulated splenocytes, but did not affect the cell number of splenocytes, which was also reduced by prednisolone. Although OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels were not significantly different among the groups, a lower level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin G1, another Th2-related antibody, was found in TRE and prednisolone treatment."
  • Taiwanofungus camphoratus = Antrodia camphorata fruiting body methanol extract - iNOS, COX-2, ear edema suppression (PMID 17590297)


  • Andrographis paniculata Nees (ACANTHACEAE) is a traditional Chinese herb commonly used for treatment of infection, inflammation, and diarrhea... Neoandrographolide at concentrations (30-90 microM) significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the productions of NO and PGE(2) in LPS stimulated macrophages without inducing cytotoxicity.... The inhibition of NO release by neoandrographolide can be attributed to the block of iNOS mRNA transcription followed by inhibiting protein expression. However, neoandrographolide inhibited COX-2 protein expression only but without inhibiting COX-2 mRNA expression, which was involved in the inhibitory activity against the PGE(2 )overproduction. This suggests that the effect of neoandrographolide on iNOS expression may occur at the transcriptional level and the inhibition of COX-2 expression occurs at the translational level. Furthermore, we have found that the addition of neoandrographolide inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) instead of JNK, ERK1/2, or NF-kappaB. PMID 17109078 -- contains neoandrographolide, one of the primary diterpene lactones, which at 150 mg/kg oral dose suppresses dimethyl benzene induced ear edema, acetic acid induced vascular permeability, ; in vitro 30-150 micromolar inhibited respiratory bursts induced by PMA in RAW 264.7 cells, LPS-induced nitric oxide and TNF-alpha production. PMID 17436371.
  • Blepharis ciliaris (L.) BL Burtt (ACANTHACEAE) (ACANTHUS FAMILY) "Shawk al dab" Disinfectant, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, aphrodisiac; hemorrhoids.


  • Dracena serrulata Baker (AGAVACEAE) (AGAVE FAMILY) "'Ariyeb" "'ayrob" Anodyne; hemorrhage, dermatosis.
  • Yucca elata (AGAVACEAE) "Yucca" +++

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Starter Material for Steroids IND: Steroids used for arthritis, dysmenorrhea, menopause, PMS POS: Three 490 mg capsules 3x/day SEC: Though large doses of saponins can be hemolytic and problematic, "little is known about the toxicity of yucca saponins." (LRNP, Mar, 1994)


  • Achyranthes aspera L. (AMARANTHACEAE) (AMARANTH FAMILY) "Chaff Flower" "Mahoot" "na'eem" "no'eim" "wazer" Scorpion bites.
  • Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson (AMARANTHACEAE) (AMARANTH FAMILY) "Prostrate pigweed" "Dadh" "qutaif" "shegra al santeen" "shaeb" "sinder" Emollient. Scorpion stings, snakebites, dermatitis.
  • Amarantha graecizans (AMARANTHACEAE) Bites and stings (scorpion, snake, bee)


    • Holarrhena floribunda (ANACARDIACEAE)(DOGBANE FAMILY) Bark for dysentery; fever; snakebite
    • Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) G. Don. f. (H. antidysenterica) (ANACARDIACEAE) (DOGBANE FAMILY) "Tellicherry bark" "Alsan al teer" "kurchi" Febrifuge, vermifuge. Diarrhea, insomnia, restlessness, rheumatism.
  • Pistacia lentiscus (ANACARDIACEAE) Stomach cramps
  • Rhazya stricta Decaisne (ANACARDIACEAE) (DOGBANE FAMILY) "Harmal" "adfr" Anthelmintic, febrifuge, lactagogue, vermicide. Abdominal pain, bad breath, chest pain, colic, conjunctivitis, constipation, diabetes, fever, lactation, skin rash, sore throat, worms.
    • Rhus somalensis Engl. (ANACARDIACEAE) (CASHEW FAMILY) "Derfit" Antiseptic, astringent, hemostatic, diuretic, febrifuge. Appetite, general tonic.
    • Rhus toxicodendron L. (ANACARDIACEAE) (CASHEW FAMILY) "Eastern poison oak" -- PFAF: 'narcotic'; "The root has been used to make a poultice and salve in the treatment of chronic sores and swollen glands[257]." (a peculiar case)
    • Rhus typhina (ANACARDIACEAE) (CASHEW FAMILY) "Staghorn Sumach" Cough, Earache, Sorethroat
  • Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae). "Ciruela", "Hubo", "Ubos, "Ushun", "Hog Plum". Fruit edible. Wood for lumber and veneer. Root decoction used for diarrhea, and for mothers after giving birth, taking small doses for two consecutive months. Itaya residents use it for tuberculosis, as an adjuvant with antibiotics. Docoction used for vaginal baths to treat infections and hemorrhoids (AYA). "Campas" use it to lure tapirs (RVM). "Créoles" use the bark for diarrhea and upset stomach (GMJ). "Tikuna" use bark decoction as anodyne and hemostat in diarrhea, metrorrhagia and stomachache (SAR). A single cup, given each day during the menses, is believed contraceptive; drunk one day after delivery, it is believed to lead to permanent sterility (SAR). Tramil mentions antiviral, myorelaxant and uterotonic activities (TRA). In Brazil, used in ice creams and liqueurs (MJP).


  • Asimina triloba (L.)Dunal. (ANNONACEAE) "Pawpaw", "Prairie banana" - PFAF: "The leaves are ... applied externally to boils, ulcers and abscesses[4, 222]. The seed contains the alkaline asiminine, which is emetic and narcotic[222, 227]...The bark is a bitter tonic[4]. It contains the alkaline analobine, which is used medicinally[227]."


  • Angelica (APIACEAE) (CELERY FAMILY) (American, but also Angelica archangelica) - menstrual pain, other analgesia
  • Angelica sinensis (APIACEAE) (CELERY FAMILY) "Chinese Angelica"; "Dong Gui" "Dong Quai" Dysmenorrhea

DONG QUAI (Angelica sinensis) + ; ACT: Analgesic; Antiallergic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Female Tonic; Hypotensive IND: Dysmenorrhea; Hot Flashes; Menstrual Pain; Muscular Cramps; PMS POS:1-3 tsp tsp root/day; 5.5-12 g root/day; three 535 mg capsules 3x/day; two 630 mg STX capsules 2 x daily SEC: Psoralens can be phototoxic and carcinogenic. The aqueous extract inhibits experimentally induced IgE titers, suggesting immunosuppressive potential. "Its use cannot be recommended." Pregnant and nursing women, or patinets with diarrhea, should not take except under a doctor's instruction. --- "Danggui is a popular traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herb, which has long been used clinically to treat primary dysmenorrhoea.... ligustilide (LIG), one of the main compounds of Danggui essential oil, has multiple effects on uterine smooth muscles and possesses a non-specific antispasmodic function, which suggests that LIG might play a major role in the therapeutic activity of Danggui in primary dysmenorrhoea. Since pain is the main syndrome of dysmenorrhea, the present investigation was carried out to evaluate the analgesic activity of LIG in vivo. LIG was intra-gastrically administered to animals. We demonstrated for the first time that LIG could cause a significant dose-related reduction of acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced licking time in both the early and late phases. These results showed that LIG possessed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. (why antiinflammatory?) These findings plus the data we reported recently implied that LIG not only has an active dilatory effect on myometrium but also an effective role in reducing the neurogenic and inflammatory pain, thus having the potential to be developed into an effective drug for the treatment of various pain syndromes including primary dysmenorrhoea." PMID 17350195

  • Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae). "Anona", "Sweetsop". Cultivated. Fruit edible (RVM). Elsewhere used for abortion, bruises, carbuncles, chancre, cold, diarrhea, dyspepsia, fever, puerperium, rheumatism, spasm, syphilis, tumors, ulcers and venereal disease; considered astringent, insecticide, pectoral, pediculicide, purgative, soporific, tonic and vermifuge (DAW). Brazilians use the leaves in cough syrup (BDS). Like so many Annonaceae with seeds used to control insects and lice, this contains pesticidal acetogenins (JAD).
  • Coriandrum sativum L. (APIACEAE) "Coriander" "cilantro" PFAF: "Some caution is advised, however, because if used too freely the seeds become narcotic[4]. Externally the seeds have been used as a lotion or have been bruised and used as a poultice to treat rheumatic pains[254, 268]."
  • Ligusticum (APIACEAE)
    • Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (APIACEAE) "Sichuan Lovage" "Chuan Xiong" (CELERY FAMILY) Arthritis -- "Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LC), a traditional Chinese herb used for cerebrovascular diseases, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects." PMID 16872306
    • Ligusticum sinense Oliv. (APIACEAE) (CELERY FAMILY) "Gao Ben" Arthritis
  • Oenanthe aquatica (APIACEAE) "Water dropwort" -- PFAF: "...In overdose the fruits cause vertigo, intoxication and other narcotic effects. The roots have been used externally in the treatment of piles[4]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fruits. It is used in the treatment of bronchitis, coughs etc[9]." Contains myristicine
  • Pimpinella anisum L. (APIACEAE) (CELERY FAMILY) "Anise" "Anasn" "Yanisn" Analgesic, digestive, lactagogue. Indigestion, lactation, post-partum pain.


  • Adenium obesum (Forsskal) Roem. & Schult. (APOCYNACEAE) (DOGBANE FAMILY) "Desert rose" "'Adan" "'adana" "seyfid" Dislocations, rheumatism, sprains, paralysis, swellings, wounds, skin infections.
  • Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. (ASCLEPIADACEAE) (MILKWEED FAMILY) "Giant-milkweed" "Sodom-apple" "swallow-wort" "'Ashkar" "'oshar" "'oshur" "'ushar" Analgesic, diaphoretic, emetic. Difficult breathing, pain, paralysis, scorpion stings, wounds.
  • Carissa edulis (Forsskal) Vahl. (APOCYNACEAE) "Egyptian carissa" "Folk" Colic, constipation, gastroenteritis, menstrual pain, toothache.
  • Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (APOCYNACEAE, formerly PERIPLOCACEAE): Fever; inflammation, yeast
  • Kanahia laniflora (Forsskal) R. Br. (APOCYNACEAE: ASCLEPIADOIDEAE) (MILKWEED FAMILY) "Sibbi'a" Abscesses, swellings, ulcers.
  • Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. (Apocynaceae). "Misho runto", "Pelilla", "Sanango", "Turcassa", "Amazonian snakeroot". Around Pucallpa, the leaf decoction is used for toothache (VDF). "Shipibos", "Yaguas", and "Achuales" use the roots as arrow POISON (AYA). Reserpine, tetraphylline, and tetraphyllicine are obtained from this species and from R. sprucei (LAE).
  • Tabernaemontana sananho R.&P. (Apocynaceae). "Sanango", "Lobo sanango", "Toomecocoriu". Much as T. rimulosa. The leaves, softened by fire, are applied to relieve rheumatic pains (RVM). In Pastaza, taken one week after delivery. "Pulp is used as a gargle for sore throat and colds" (SAR). "Tikuna" mix the latex with water for eye wounds (SAR). "Jivaro" apply the bark juice to toothache (SAR). Considered sudorific, tonic, used for colds, obesity, rheumatism, syphilis (RAR).
  • Thevetia (APOCYNACEAE) Analgesic


ACT: Antiedemic; Antiinflammatory; Diuretic; Sedative; Tonic; Vulnerary IND: Burns; Edema; Failing Memory; Phlebitis; Psoriasis; Varicose Veins; Wounds POS: 1 tsp dry herb/cup; 600 mg powdered leaf/day SEC: LRNP (Dec '88) says that, despite claims of non-allergenicity, dermatitis has been reported in some patients taking the gotu kola. Reading their account, I'd not be any more afraid of gotu kola than wild lettuce.

  • Panax (ARALIACEAE)
    • Panax ginseng (ARALIACEAE) "Ginseng" - the importance of its anaesthetic or anti-inflammatory activity (as opposed to preventing injury) is unclear to me, e.g. "Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins as the active ingredients have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunostimulant properties, which raised speculations that these compounds could positively affect neurodegenerative disorders and delay neuronal aging. Conclusive clinical data in humans are still missing. However, results from animal studies and neuronal cell culture experiments indicate that ginsenosides can counteract and attenuate factors promoting neuronal death as environmental toxins, excitotoxic action of glutamate and rises in intracellular calcium, excessive release of free radicals and apoptotic events." PMID 17265697.
    • Panax notoginseng Buck F.H. Chen (Arialaceae sp?) - A water extract of Panax notoginseng Buck F.H. Chen. (Arialiaceae) root (PN) is being used as a therapeutic agent to stop haemorrhages and as a tonic to promote health in Korean and Chinese medicine. ...PN inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. PN reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while no influence on the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) or cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) was observed. PN significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. PMID 17128437.


  • Jessenia (ARECACEAE) Anodyne
  • Phoenix dactylifera L. (ARECACEAE) (PALM FAMILY) "Date Palm" "Nakhel" "nakhl" "tammar" "tamr" (fruit) Aphrodisiac, tonic. Bruises, headache .
  • Seronoa repens (ARECACEAE) "Saw palmetto" +++ OTC

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Diuretic IND: Impotence; Inflamed Prostate; Male Pattern Baldness; Polyuria POS: One 320 mg softgel STX/day; 1-2 g dry fruit; 2-3 600 mg capsules 3x/day SEC: Commission E reports no counter indications or interactions for the fruit. Adverse effects: gastric complaints (rarely). As improvement is symptomatic without eliminating prostatic hypertrophy, a physician should be consulted regularly.

  • Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae). "Ancusacha", "Pichana", Varilla". Considered analgesic, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, lactagogue, and sedative; used for alopecia, antibiotic, bilious conditions, bladder ailments, boils, burns, conjunctivitis, dermatosis, diarrhea, dyspepsia, dyspnea, gastrosis, gonorrhea, impetigo, leucorrhea, lupus, piles, rheumatism, snakebite, sores, thrush, tuberculosis, tumors, ulcers, urethritis, and wounds (DAW, TRA, RAR).


  • Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE) (BIRTHWORT FAMILY) "Ghghae" "ghka" "'iqleet" "loiya" "laaya" Skin problems, snake and scorpion bites.


  • Pergularia tomentosa (ASCLEPIADACEAE) Stomach cramps
  • Periploca aphylla Decne. (Apocynaceae?) (ASCLEPIADACEAE) (MILKWEED FAMILY) "Handabb" "sowas" Anodyne. Dermatosis, tumors, swellings.


  • Achillea (ASTERACEAE)
  • Arctium lappa (ASTERACEAE) "Burdock" +++ OTC ; ACT: Antipyretic; Antitumor; Diaphoretic; Hypoglycemic; Immunomodulator

IND: Arthritis; Degenerative Diseases; Diabetes (NIDM); Lymphoma; Urethritis POS: Liquid Root Extract 2-8 ml; Liquid Seed Extract 0.5-2 ml; three 475 mg capsules 3x/day SEC: Physicians in Burgos Spain report 3 1995 cases of contact dermatitis caused by burdock root poultices. Herbs for Health (Nov./Dec.). p. 68., reviewing Rodriguez, P. et al. 1995. Allergic contact dermatitis due to burdock. Contact Dermatitis 33(2): 134-5.

  • Arctostaphylos alpina (L.) Spreng. (ERICACEAE) (Alpine Bearberry) - "An infusion of the pounded plant has been used as an external wash in the treatment of rheumatism and general illnesses[257]...The leaves are narcotic and have been smoked to cause intoxication[257]."
  • Artemisia
    • Artemisia afra (ASTER FAMILY) Leaves for cold, constipation, cough, gout THUJONE
    • Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae) -- "DA-9601 (ethanol extract) inhibited histamine and leukotriene releases in guinea pig lung mast cells activated with specific antigen/antibody reaction... BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA. DA-9601 was administered orally 1 h before every local OVA-challenge... DA-9601 reduced IgE level, recruitment of inflammatory cells into the BAL fluid and lung tissues, expressions of CD40, CD40L and VCAM-1 molecules, goblet cell hyperplasia, MMPs activity, expressions of mRNA and productions of various cytokines, activities of MAP kinases and NK-KappaB increased from OVA-challenged mice. These data suggest that DA-9601 may be developed as a clinical therapeutic agent in allergic diseases due to suppressing the airway allergic inflammation via regulation of various cellular molecules expressed by MAP kinases/NF-KappaB pathway." Contains eupatilin. PMID 16951557
  • Bidens tripartita L. (ASTERACEAE) (Burr marigold) PFAF:"The whole plant is antiseptic, aperient, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, narcotic, sedative, styptic and sudorific[4, 61, 165, 218]. It is an excellent remedy for ruptured blood vessels and bleeding of any kind..."
  • Calendula officinalis (ASTERACEAE) (Calendula) +++ OTC

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antiviral; Carminative; Immunostimulant; Vulnerary IND: Abrasions; Burns; Indigestion; Menstrual Distress; Stomach Distress POS: 1-5 g herb per cup tea, 3 x daily; 5-40 drops tincture 3 x/day SEC: I think it safer than coffee, discounting a report of anaphylactic shock in one Russian who gargled with the infusion (it's kin to ragweed) (LRNP, Aug. 1992)

  • Chicorium intybus L. (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Hindiba'" "hendiban" Analgesic, demulcent, febrifuge, hepatic, tonic. Dyspepsia, fever, headache, jaundice.
  • Conyza incana Willd. (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Arfaj" Anodyne. Arthritis, myalgia.
  • Costus guanaiensis Rusby var. guanaiensis. (Costaceae). "Caña agria" "Cañagre". Used to reduce internal fever, cough, bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis and tonsilitis; "Cuna" use the leaf decoction for stomachache (RVM). Maxwell chewed the cane when she had a cough (NIC).
  • Echinacea angustifolia (ASTERACEAE) Root CO2 extract contains alkamides undeca-2Z-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (A5), dodeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (A7), and dodeca-2E,4Z-diene-8,10-diynoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (A8) - PMID 17599805
  • Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae). "Huanguilla", "Naparo cimarron", "Shobi isa sheta", "Naparo cimarron". Around Pucallpa, leaf maceration used for headache (VDF). In Brazil the plant is used as an antiasthmatic and as a depurative. "Créoles" rub the leaf decoction on children for skin blemishes. It is also used for albuminuria (GMJ). Folk remedy elsewhere for catarrh, copremia, cough, dyspepsia, elephantiasis, enterorrhagia, headache, hemorrhage, hepatitis, jaundice, lumbago, marasmus, pertussis, splenitis, toothache, and vertigo. Also considered estrogenic and insecticidal (DAW). Being seriously studied as a remedy for snakebite (JAD). The active ingredient wedelolactone is antiinflammatory and inhibits hemorrhage and the liberation of creatinine kinase induced by snake venom (Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 86 {Suppl.II}:203-5).
  • Eupatorium perfoliatum (ASTERACEAE) "Boneset" Arthritis, Cold, Insomnia, Gastric ulcers, Pain, Tonic
  • Kleinia odora (Forsskal) DC. (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Egsib" "ga'adin" Anodyne, diuretic. Painful, stiff limbs; paralysis.
  • Lactuca sativa L. (ASTERACEAE) "Lettuce".; also Lactuca serriola, Lactuca virosa. These have been indexed, but see PFAF for interesting detail.
  • Launea nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Hwwa" "huwah" "howwah" Febrifuge. Fever, excessive bleeding after childbirth.
  • Matricaria (ASTERACEAE)

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antispasmodic; Carminative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Sedative IND: Dermatitis; Eczema; GI Distress; Gingivitis; Indigestion; Insomnia; Ulcers; Varicose Veins POS: 2-3 g per cup, 3-4x/day; 10-40 drops tincture 3 x/day; 2-3 355mg capsules 3 x/day SEC: Some people advise, perhaps over advise, that sensitive people may have an allergic reaction to this. I don't take camomile daily but almost daily I ingest a whole lot of peanuts, which are more dangerous, anaphylactically killing two people a year in the US.

  • Pluchea arabica (boiss.) Qaiser & Lack (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Godot" Deodorant. Boils, ear infections, skin sores, swellings.
  • Psiadia punctulata Dsyatke (P. arabica Jaub. et Spach) (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Tubbak" "fatah" Anodyne. Broken bones, myalgia.
  • Senecio asirensis Boulos et J.R.I. Wood (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Henna" Febrifuge. Fever.
  • Silybum marianum (ASTERACEAE) "Milk thistle" - used in liver disorders; anti-inflammatory and T cell modulating effects reviewed; active ingredient silymarin is a "mixture of flavanoid complexes" PMID 17548789 -- NF-kB effects noted in PMID 17484885. -- "The inhibitory effect on 5-lipoxygenase pathway resulting in inhibition of leukotriene synthesis is a pivotal pharmacological property of silymarin. Leukotriene (B4) synthesis was reduced while prostaglandin (E2) synthesis was not affected at higher concentrations... in isolated Kuppfer cells... a strong inhibitory effect on leukotriene B4 (LTB4) formation with the IC50 value of 15 µmoles/l. But no effect was observed on tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) formation... Silymarin is found to suppress both NF-kB DNA binding activity and its dependent gene expression induced by okadaic acid in the hepatoma cell line HEP G2. But the NF-kB activation induced by TNF-alpha was not affected by silymarin, demonstrating a pathway dependent inhibition by silymarin... The results of an in vivo study in male BALB/c mice treated with silymarin suggested that parenteral exposure to silymarin results in suppression of T-lymphocytes at low doses and stimulation of inflammatory process at higher doses." reviewed in PMID 17213517
  • Tagetes lucida Cav. (ASTERACEAE) "Mexican tarragon" -- PFAF: "The leaves and whole plant are digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, hypotensive, narcotic, sedative and stimulant[160, 192, 200, 238]. Use of the plant depresses the central nervous system, whilst it is also reputedly anaesthetic and hallucinogenic[238]. It is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, nausea, indigestion, colic, hiccups, malaria and feverish illnesses[238]. Externally, it is used to treat scorpion bites and to remove ticks[238]..."
  • Tanacetum parthenium (ASTERACEAE) "Feverfew" ++ OTC

ACT: Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Emmenagogue; Serotonin-Reuptake-Inhibitor IND: Arthritis; Cluster Headache; Fever; Menstrual Pain; Migraine POS: 125 mg dry lf/day with at least 0.2% parthenolide; two 400 mg capsules, 3 x/day SEC: Oral feverfew may cause mouth ulcers in ca 10% of patients. Should not be taken by pregnant women as the leaves have emmenagogue activity. No serious side effects have been noticed in those taking feverfew over years as a preventive. Ulcerations of the mouth, sore tongue, inflammation of the oral mucosa and tongue, swelling of the lips, unpleasant taste, loss of taste, urinary problems, headache, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, and vomiting are side effects (most were apparent only in the first week) reported by those using feverfew. Cases of contact dermatitis are rare. Mild tranquillizing and sedative effects have been reported. Chewing the leaves for extended periods may lead to abdominal pains and indigestion. Has shown abortifacient effects. Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), are aromatic compounds widely distributed in certain plant families, with highest concentrations generally found in leaves and flowers. Sheep and cattle poisonings due to SL-containing species have been reported. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis in humans have also been reported.

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Aperitif; Bitter; Cholagogue; Diuretic; Natriuretic IND: Cirrhosis; Improper Bile Secretion; Hepatitis; Indigestion; Jaundice POS: 4-10 g dry lf 3x/day; 1-2 tsp root/cup/ AM & PM; three 515 mg capsules 3x/day SEC: Commission E reports counter indications: biliary obstruction, empyema of gall-bladder, ileus; adverse effects: gastric complaints. Other counter indications reported: biliary inflammation.

  • Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. (ASTERACEAE) (ASTER FAMILY) "Senika" "neeka" Anodyne, anthelmintic, diuretic, febrifuge. Eczema, fever, piles, ringworm, scorpion bites, skin problems, worms.


  • Ilex guayusa Loes. (Aquifoliaceae) "Guayusa". Cultivated. In Piura the leaf decoction, considered antipyretic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, and cholagogue, is used to treat venereal diseases and female sterility (FEO). Leaf infusion used by the "Achuales" as an emetic. Women get up early in the morning and prepare the infusion in the biggest pot available; then everyone, including the children, drinks as much as they can, and minutes later they all start vomiting. They do this to clean body and spirit; bad things they have consumed the day before are eliminated, to start a new day with clean body and renewed spirit (RVM). Amazonian Ecuadorians drink guayusa to settle nerves and to prevent the ayahuasca hangover. Also believed useful in aphrodisia, dysmenorrhea, fever, hepatosis, malaria, pregnancy, stomach problems, syphilis, and perhaps other venereal diseases (SAR).

== Araceae

  • Symplocarpus foetidus (ARACEAE) "Skunk Cabbage" Diabetes, Toothache, Tuberculosis -- PFAF: "Skunk cabbage was much used by the native North American Indians primarily for its expectorant and antispasmodic properties to treat bronchitis and asthmatic conditions, a use that is still employed in modern herbalism[254].... The root is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant and slightly narcotic... rootstock has been used internally in the treatment of respiratory and nervous disorders, including asthma, whooping cough, catarrh, bronchitis and hay fever[213, 238]. It is occasionally used to treat epilepsy, headaches, vertigo and rheumatic problems[254]. Externally, it has been used as a poultice to draw splinters and thorns, to heal wounds and to treat headaches[254]. The root hairs or rootlets have been applied to dental cavities to treat toothache[213]. A tea made from the root hairs has been used externally to stop bleeding[213]. An inhalation of the crushed leaves has been used in the treatment of headaches[238]. The leaf bases have been applied as a wet dressing to bruises[213]."


  • Berberis aristata (BERBERIDACEAE) "major herb widely used in Indian and Chinese systems of medicine" - isoquinoline alkaloid berberine has antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory effects and some CNS activity, antidepressant; affects iNOS, cGMP - PMID 17585901


  • Alnus crispa (BETULACEAE) "Alder" Cathartic, Cramps, Depurative, Diptheria, Fever, Gastrosis, Lameness, Nephrosis, Neuralgia, Pain, Rheumatism, Wounds


  • Arrabidaea chica (HBK) (BIGNONIACEAE) Verlot. Bignoniaceae. "Puca panga". Fresh leaves used in decoction alone or mixed with the fruits of Renealmia alpinia to dye fibers of Astrocaryum chambira or to make tattoos. This dye is also used to treat skin infections and herpes (RAR). Leaves also used as anti-inflammatory. "Chami" from Risaralda extract the red tint to dye baskets (RVM). "Tikuna" use leaf infusion for conjunctivitis (SAR). Achual "Jivaros" chew the leaves with clay to blacken the teeth (SAR). Tapajos residents use leaf tea for anemia, blood disorders, inflammation.
  • Jacaranda copaia Aubl. ssp. spectabilis A. Gentry. (Bignoniaceae). "Asphingo", "Chichicara caspi", "Huamanzamana", "Ishtapi", "Jacaranda", "Mami rao", "Meneco", "Paravisco", "Soliman". Wood for light construction; to make furniture, pulp for paper, beams and decks (RVM). Pucallpa natives use the leaf decoction for bronchitis, fever, rheumatism (VDF). "Andoke" use crushed leaves as a cicatrizant on wounds (SAR). Rio Vaupes natives use shredded bark in teas for colds and pneumonia, the sap for skin infections (SAR). Elsewhere considered cathartic and emetic (DAW). Brazilians believe burning the leaves and bark will keep illness and mosquitoes away. Also used for sores, syphylis, and toothache (dental abscesses) (RAR). "Créoles" and "Maroons" use it for leishmaniasis (MJP).
  • Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.Gentry. (Bignoniaceae). "Ajo sacha", "Boens", "Nia boens", "Wild garlic". Alcoholic maceration of the stem and roots used for rheumatism; leaf infusion used in baths to relieve "manchiari" (a nervous state caused by terror or sudden shock), especially in children. Also used as cleansing baths for bad luck. "Achuales" use the roots as antirheumatic (RVM). "Créoles" use the stem decoction in baths, to relieve fatigue and small needle-like cramps. "Palikur" use it to protect themselves against the bad spirits (shades of Dracula?). "Wayãpi" use the decoction of leaves and stems as antipyretic baths (GMJ), Tapajos natives for body aches, flu (BDS). Contains alline, allicin, allyl-disulfoxide, diallyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, propylallyl disulfide (AYA), and two cytotoxic naphthoquinones, 9-methoxy-alpha-lapachone and 4-hydroxy-9 methoxy-alpha-lapachone (Phytochemistry 31(3):1061. 1992).
  • Oroxylum indicum (BIGNONIACEAE) "A methanolic extract of the fruits..., which is widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for its anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and anti-hypersensitivity effects..." PMID 17341037
  • Tabebuia (BIGNONIACEAE) Analgesic -- PAU D'ARCO (Tabebuia spp.) +++

ACT: Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antifungal; Antitumor; Candidicide IND: Immune Dysfunction; Fungal Infections; Yeast Infections POS: 15-20 g inner bark/pint/day; three 505 mg capsules 3 x/day SEC: Side effect may include GI distress and nausea. Guiraud et al (1994) note that lapachol and beta-lapachone, though active against Candida, could be harmful). Multiple doses of oral lapachol at 500 mg/kg caused death with severe histopathological changes. In clinical trials, oral lapachol induced anticoagulant effects, nausea and vomiting. After 6 doses at 9 mg/kg. Beta-lapachone caused death, following anorexia, diarrhea and weight loss.

  • Tynnanthus panurensis (Bur.) Sandw. (Bignoniaceae) "Clavo huasca", "Inejkeu", "Clove vine". The pieces of roots and stems are macerated in aguardiente to make a stimulant liqueur, good for rheumatism (RVM). Resin used for fevers (DAT). Some explorama visitors have used it, effectivly, for toothache, being as effective as, and probably chemically similar to clove oil (JAD). Some visitors believe, others disbelieve, that the rays of the cross, steeped in aguardiente, are aphrodisiac, some for females, some for males, some for both. We have no incontrovertible empirical evidence, one way or the other.


  • Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm.) DC. (BORAGINACEAE) (BORAGE FAMILY) "Funn" "lisn al thour" Febrifuge. Fever, including malarial fever.
  • Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss. (BORAGINACEAE) (BORAGE FAMILY) "Libbeid" "lebbd" "'anzurn" "'uzz waran" Sore throat.
  • Cynoglossum officinale L. (BORAGINACEAE) "Hound's tongue" -- PFAF: "Caution should be applied, however, since narcotic effects result from large doses taken internally[7] and the plant is potentially carcinogenic[222] (though it has also been used in the treatment of cancer[218]). The leaves and roots are analgesic, antihaemorrhoidal, antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, emollient and slightly narcotic[4, 7, 9, 21, 46, 222]. The plant contains the alkaloids cynoglossine and consolidin, which are used medicinally to relieve pain[212]. They depress the central nervous system and are also potentially carcinogenic[222]. The plant has been used internally in the treatment of coughs and diarrhoea, though it is now mainly used externally as a poultice on piles, wounds, minor injuries, bites and ulcers[222, 238]. ... A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots... very effective in the treatment of insomnia[7]."
  • Heliotropium (BORAGINACEAE) *** Note NW/OW agreement ***
    • Heliotropium crispum Desf. (BORAGINACEAE) (BORAGE FAMILY) "Ramrm" "rumrm" Mouth blisters, snakebites, swellings, ulcers.
    • Heliotropium fartakense O. Schwartz (BORAGINACEAE) (BORAGE FAMILY) "Remrm" Burns, colic, dislocated joints, eczema, indigestion, swollen eyes, skin problems, snakebites, sprains, ulcers, wounds.
    • Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae). "Alacransillo", "Ihuin rao", "Ucullucui sacha". Around Pucallapa, used for scorpion stings and rheumatism (VDF). Elsewhere regarded as abortifacient (and ironically antiabortive), anodyne, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, pectoral, stomachic, and vulnerary; used for aftosa, asthma, boils, bugbites, calculus, cough, dermatoses, eczema, erysipelas, fever, furuncle, hyperuricemia, inflammation, itch, kidney stones, laziness, leprosy, myalgia, nephritis, ophthalmia, pharyngitis, rheumatism, scabies, sores, tumors, and warts (DAW). Folk remedy for cancer that contains an antitumor compound, indicine-N-oxide (JAD).
    • Heliotropium longiflorum (Hochst. & Steud. ex A. DC.) Jaub. & Spach (BORAGINACEAE) (BORAGE FAMILY) "Habg" "hbek" "ramrm" "rumrm" Swollen eyes, facial sores, skin infections, sores.


  • Lepidium sativum L. (BRASSICACEAE) (MUSTARD FAMILY) "Garden cress" "Rashd" "rishd" "thuffa" "hilf" Aches and pains, backache, bronchial problems, colic, coughs, cramps, measles, skin rash.
  • Physorhynchus chamaerapistrum (Boiss.) Boiss. (BRASSICACEAE) (MUSTARD FAMILY) "Khophaje" Earache, warts.


ACT: Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic IND: Arthritis; Inflammation; Rheumatism; Sports Injuries POS: Three 195 mg capsules boswellin/day SEC: This johnny-come-lately hasn't been among us occidentals long enough to accumulate much negative or positive folklore.

  • Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C. Chr. (BURSERACEAE) (COPAL FAMILY) "Mecca myrrh" "balm-of-Gilead" "Sukof" Dog bites, deodorant.
  • Commiphora habessinica Cold (BURSERACEAE) (COPAL FAMILY)
  • Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. (BURSERACEAE) (COPAL FAMILY) "Myrrh" "Murr" "subr" Aphrodisiac, febrifuge. Colds, digestion, fever, fractures, hemorrhoids, snakebites, toothache, wounds.


  • Buxus sempervirens L. (BUXACEAE) - PFAF: "[Dangerous and little used]; The leaves and the bark are alterative, antirheumatic, cathartic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, febrifuge, oxytocic and vermifuge[4, 7, 9, 21, 178]. .. The wood is diaphoretic, in full dose it is narcotic and sedative... An essential oil obtained from the plant is used in dentistry[7]. A homeopathic extensively used in the treatment of rheumatism[7]."


    • Tamarindus indica L. (CAESALPINIACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Tamarind" "tamr hind" "tur hind" sebbar" "humar" "'umar" Febrifuge, laxative, tonic, vermifuge, blood purifier. Boils, constipation, bone fracture, fever, hemorrhoids, infected sores, nausea, worms.


    • Lobelia inflata (CAMPANULACEAE) "Indian tobacco" Asthma, Earache, Fumitory
    • Lobelia tupa L. (CAMPANULACEAE) "Devil's tobacco" -- PFAF: "The whole plant is poisonous... [containing] the alkaloid lobeline which has a similar effect upon the nervous system as nicotine[274]. Even smelling this plant has been known to cause sickness[274]... A juice pressed from the leaves is used in the treatment of toothache[192, 238]. The plant is smoked as an intoxicant[192, 200, 238]." ..marvellous..


  • Cannabis sativa L. (CANNABACEAE) -- PFAF "The whole plant is anodyne, anthelmintic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diuretic, emollient, hypnotic, hypotensive, laxative, narcotic, ophthalmic and sedative..." etc. But more surprisingly: "The seed (emphasis mine) is anodyne, anthelmintic, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, narcotic and tonic[218]. It is used to treat constipation caused by debility or fluid retention[238]. The seed is an important source of essential fatty acids and can be very helpful in the treatment of many nervous diseases. A high content of very active antibacterial and analgesic substances has been found in the plant[240]." (Since seeds don't contain THC, this suggests some other, non-hallucinogenic anaesthetic???)
  • Humulus lupulus (CANNABACEAE) "Hops" +++ OTC

ACT: Estrogenic; Sedative; Tranquiulizer IND: Anxiety; Depression; Insomnia; Unrest POS: 500 mg/day (SF) SEC: Mild Allergies or Dermatitis may result from contact.


  • Cadaba farinosa Forsskal (CAPPARACEAE) (CAPER FAMILY) "Simar" "azan al arnab" Antiinflammatory. Colic, conjunctivitis, snakebite, stomachache.
    • Capparis cartilaginea Decne. (CAPPARACEAE) (CAPER FAMILY) "Lusef" "'aslub" "'albelib (fruit) Antiseptic. Arthritis, bruises, childbirth, deafness, earache, headache, myalgia, paralysis, skin rash, snakebite, swellings.
    • Capparis spinosa L. (CAPPARACEAE) (CAPER FAMILY) "Caper" "Lasafa" "fakouha" "shafallah" Anthelmintic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, tonic. Coughs, diabetes, earache, worms.
  • Maerua crassifolia Forsskal (CAPPARACEAE) (CAPER FAMILY) "Maeru" "Sarh" Laxative. Abdominal colic, constipation, pain from bone fracture.


  • Diervilla lonicera Mill. (CAPRIFOLIACEAE) "Bush honeysuckle" -- "A compound decoction has been used in the treatment of stomach aches[257]. This contrasts with a report that the leaves contain a narcotic principle, inducing nausea[207]. The plant is used as a gargle in catarrhal angina[207]. The root is diuretic, galactogogue, laxative and ophthalmic[257]. A cooled infusion has been used as an eyewash for sore eyes[257]. The bark is laxative and ophthalmic[257]. An infusion has been used to increase milk flow in a nursing mother and as an eyewash for sore eyes[257]."
  • Lonicera japonica (CAPRIFOLIACEAE) "Honeysuckle" ++

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic, Antiviral IND: Cavities, Cold, Conjunctivitis; Flu; Infection POS: 10 g flower/cup water SEC: Though flowers are reported as foods in the orient, I think of it as more medicine than food, but damn good antibiotic medicine (JAD). -- "Lonicera japonica THUNB. is a commonly used anti-inflammatory herbal medicine. The therapeutic effectiveness of L. japonica depends significantly on its geographical origin." (RFLP provided) PMID 17409519 -- "The anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extracts from Lonicera japonica (LJ) flower, an anti-inflammatory treatment in traditional Chinese medicine, were tested by radioimmunoassay of cyclooxygenase isoenzyme-generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis as well as by Western and Northern blot analysis of COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, respectively. Boiled LJ aqueous extracts directly inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 activity, while non-boiled extracts stimulated COX-1. Boiled LJ extracts also inhibited expression of IL-1beta-induced COX-2 protein expression and suppressed its mRNA induction by IL-1beta in A549 cells. Suppression of COX-2 mRNA induction required a significantly higher dose of aqueous extract than did suppression of protein expression, indicating that compounds in the extract act translationally or post-translationally at lower doses and transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally at higher doses. Direct inhibition of COX isoenzymes as well as down-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and protein may represent the mechanism by which this ancient herbal treatment decreases inflammation." PMID: 17314019



  • Dianthus deserti Kotschy (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) (PINK FAMILY) "d al-hilba" Sprains.


  • Maytenus macrocarpa (R.&P.) Briq. (Celastraceae). "Chuchuasi", "Chuchasha", "Chuchuhuasi". Bark maceration considered antidiarrheic, antiarthritic, used to regulate menstrual periods, for upset stomach. Its main use is in a cordial! Bark decoction used for dysentery. The wood is used for lumber (RVM). A shot of chuchuhuasi with aguardiente and honey was given many ecotourists on departure from the Iquitos airport in 1991 (JAD). Aril of a brazilian species contained 8,500 ppm caffeine (SAR). "Siona" boil stems in water for arthritis and rheumatism (SAR, under M. laevis). Under the name M. ebenifolia, Maxwell mentions the "chuchuhuasi" as an effective insect repellent. "Chuchuhuasi" is "probably the best known of all jungle remedies, in Colombia as well as Peru. of all antirheumatic medicines" (NIC).
  • Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (CELASTRACEAE) - "Lei gong teng" Chinese herbal remedy that has been been reported to be therapeutically efficacious in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. "triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide extracted from TWHF... significantly reduced the inflammatory responses and cartilage damage in the joint tissues... [and] interfered with CIA-augmented expression of matrix metalloproteinases-13 and -3, which are considered to be key enzymes in the pathological destruction of cartilage, and simultaneously augmented CIA-reduced tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 and -2 expression in the joints... [and] inhibited prostaglandin E(2) production via selective suppression of the production and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, but not COX-1. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 were also decreased by triptolide in the joint tissues and sera as well as the suppression of CIA-mediated expression of their mRNAs in the joints. In addition, triptolide treatment in vivo was able to reduce an abundance of nuclear factor-kappaB, the transcriptional factor closely related to the inflammatory process, in articular cartilage and synovium in CIA mice. These results suggest that triptolide exerts novel chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects on RA, and the therapeutic action of TWHF on RA is, in part, due to the triptolide activities. PMID 17097618.


  • Suaeda aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) Zohary (CHENOPODIACEAE) (LAMBSQUARTER FAMILY) "Kaku" "khreiza" "molleih" "rigilah" "suwwd" "tarteer" Tooth and gum infections. Snuff for dizziness, headaches, hysteria, nausea, nervous system, vision.


  • Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai (CHLORANTHACEAE) "Caoshanhu" - "a Chinese medicinal herb with reported anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and non-specific immunoenhancing properties. Although the plant has been clinically used for treating a variety of diseases, its bioactive ingredients are largely unknown and its mode of action has never been investigated." PMID 17203183


ACT: Antidepressant, Antiinflammatory, Antiviral; Monoamine-Oxidase-Inhibitor; Tranquilizer IND: Burns; Depression, HIV; Insomnia, Stress POS: 2-4 g dry herb (0.2-1 mg hypericin)/day; 300 mg STX (0.3% hypericin) 3x/day ; one 425 mg STX 2x/day SEC: active ingredients may be photoactive, especially in fair-skinned people. Reichert takes it even more seriously. Although hypericum is not as strong as synthetic MAO inhibitors, patients should still avoid the things usually avoided when taking MAO's: high tyramine foods (smoked or pickled), alcoholic beverages; amphetamines, cold and hay fever remedies, narcotics, tryptophan, tyrosine. Do not take during pregnancy or intense sun exposure. Foster (1996) is moderate. St. John's-wort should not be mixed with synthetic antidepressants. Because it may inhibit MAO, taking it with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac could cause serious health damage... Although side effects have not been reported in clinical studies, range animals eating the plant and then standing in bright sunlight have experienced sunburn or blindness from photosensitization. . .This treatment option should be discussed with your health-care provider.


    • Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth. (CONVOLVULACEAE) (MORNING GLORY FAMILY) "Kemerot" Anodyne, purgative. Asthma, cleansing agent, headlice, ophthalmia, pain, to improve vision.
    • Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. (CONVOLVULACEAE) (MORNING GLORY FAMILY) "Beach morning-glory" "Railroadvine" "Derg" Purgative. Colic, rheumatism, poisonous jellyfish stings.


  • Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (CUCURBITACEAE) (GOURD FAMILY) "Colocynth" "Handal" "murrah" "sri" "hedeg" "shry" Analgesic, laxative, purgative. Dog, insect, and snakebites, colic, constipation, rheumatism.
  • Coccinia grandis (L.) J.O. Voigt (CUCURBITACEAE) (GOURD FAMILY) "Ivy gourd" "Bakhra'a" Bronchial catarrh, diabetes, earache, skin diseases, throat pains.
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum (CUCURBITACEAE) "jiaogulan" "is a traditional medicine widely used in the treatment of respiratory inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis ... Gypenoside XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is a prominent component ... a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator" Inhibits VCAM-1 induction by TNF-alpha at the transcriptional level; similar to Wy-14643, a PPAR-alpha activator, and is abolished by MK-886, a blocker of PPAR-alpha. PMID 17434475. "Here we demonstrate that Gyp XLIX (0-300 microM) concentration dependently inhibited TF promoter activity after induction by the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with promoter reporter constructs pTF-LUC. Furthermore, Gyp XLIX inhibited LPS-induced TF mRNA and protein overexpression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Its inhibition of LPS-induced TF hyperactivity was further confirmed by chromogenic enzyme activity assay. The activities of Gyp XLIX reported in this study were similar to those of Wy-14643, a potent synthetic PPAR-alpha activator. Furthermore, the Gyp XLIX-induced inhibitory effect on TF luciferase activity was completely abolished in the presence of the PPAR-alpha selective antagonist MK-886." PMID 17141290
  • Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). "Papailla", "Balsam pear". Fruit edible cooked. Plant decoction used for colic, and worms; infusion of fruit and flowers used for hepatitis. Seed pulp mixed with lard as a suppurative (SOU). Considered vermicide, stomachic, emmenagogue, and very effective in the expulsion of Trichocephalos. Fruit decoction used as febrifuge and emetic (PEA). Leaf decoction used by the "Cuna" for measles (RVM), by Brazilians for fever, itch, and sores (BDS). Seeds and pericarp contain saponin glycosides which produce elaterin and alkaloids, which causes vomiting and diarrhea (LAE). Leaf infusion a common folk remedy for diabetes around Iquitos (AYA). TRAMIL cites it as relatively POISONOUS (TRA). On the patent for Compound Q for AIDS, as a source of momocharin. Also contains rosmarinic acid, with antiviral activity and calceolarioside and verbascoside.


  • Juniperus (CUPRESSACEAE)
    • [[Juniperus communis] (CUPRESSACEAE) "Juniper" Burns, Colds, Cuts, Flu, Gastrosis, Nephrosis, Rheumatism, Sore, Sprain, Tonic, Dysuria
    • Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. ssp. polycarpos (C. Koch) (CUPRESSACEAE) (CYPRESS FAMILY) "Al'allan" "ktrn" Analgesic. Myalgia, paralysis.
  • Thuja occidentalis (CUPRESSACEAE) "Cedar" Swelling


  • Cycas circinalis L. (CYCADACEAE) "Sago palm" -- PFAF:"The pollen is narcotic[240]. The bark and the seeds are ground to a paste with oil and used as a poultice on sores and swellings[240]. The juice of tender leaves is useful in the treatment of flatulence and vomiting[240]." (PFAF warns of carcinogenicity and chronic nervous disorders)


  • Cyperus (CYPERACEAE)
    • Cyperus laevigatus L. (CYPERACEAE) (SEDGE FAMILY) "Hasir" "hasal" Toothache.
    • Cyperus rotundus L. (CYPERACEAE) (SEDGE FAMILY) "Purple nutsedge" "Sa'ad" "hasir" "si'd" Anthelmintic, diuretic, febrifuge, galactagogue. Earache, bee stings, bites, dysmenorrhea.


  • Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae)
    • Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae). "Ñati papa", "huayra papa", "Air potato". Cultivated. The tubers are edible. The crushed raw pulp is poulticed onto boils (RVM). Tubers considered alexeteric, antidotal, antiinflammatory, diuretic (RVM), hemostatic, even POISONOUS, and used for cancer, dysentery, fever, goiter, hernia, piles, sores, syphilis and tumors (DAW).
    • Dioscorea villosa "Wild yam" +++

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Starter material for progesterone, testosterone and other steroids IND: Steroids used for arthritis, dysmenorrhea, menopause, PMS POS: 2-4 ml Liquid Extract; two 505 mg capsules/day; one 505 mg STX capsule/day SEC: While the medicinal yams are so rich in saponins as to be distasteful, over consumption is not to be recommended. Reichert (1996) reports GI distress in volunteers taking high doses of wild yam, after saying that the investigators (Araghiniknam et al, 1996) he was reviewing "noted no adverse effects".


  • Euclea schimperi (A. DC.) Dandy (EBENACEAE) (PERSIMMON FAMILY) "Kilit" Antiseptic, analgesic, tonic. Blood purifier, to cleanse teeth and refresh mouth, colic, diarrhea, indigestion, inflammation, pain.


  • Eleagnus multiflora Thunb. (Elaeagnaceae) - ethyl acetate extract has highest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, tyrosinase inhibitory activity; chloroform extract has a antiplatelet aggregation activity and is a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide production (0.5 g/l). PMID 17472476


  • Gaultheria (ERICACEAE) - most common "wintergreens", producing methyl salicylate, used for headache?
  • Kalmia angustifolia (ERICACEAE) "Sheep laurel" "Lambkill" Poison, Rheumatism, Sore limbs, Swelling. PFAF: "Sheep laurel is a very poisonous narcotic plant the leaves of which were at one time used by some native North American Indian tribes in order to commit suicide[4]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The leaves are usually used externally as a poultice and wash in herbal medicine and are a good remedy for many skin diseases, sprains and inflammation[4, 257]. They can also be applied as a poultice to the head to treat headaches[257]. The singed, crushed leaves can be used as a snuff in the treatment of colds[257]. Used internally, the leaves are analgesic, astringent and sedative and have a splendid effect in the treatment of active haemorrhages, headaches, diarrhoea and flux[4, 21, 61, 257]. This species is said to be the best for medicinal use in the genus[4]."
    • Kalmia latifolia L. (ERICACEAE) "Mountain laurel" -- PFAF: Similar to sheep laurel, but: "The leaves are analgesic, astringent, disinfectant, narcotic, salve and sedative[257]. An infusion of the leaves is used as a disinfectant wash and liniment to treat pain, scratches, rheumatism, inflammations and to get rid of body parasites[257]. Used internally, the leaves have a splendid effect in the treatment of active haemorrhages, diarrhoea and flux[4, 21, 61]. They are also used in the treatment of syphilis, inflammatory fevers, neuralgia, paralytic conditions, tinnitus and angina[238]."
    • Kalmia polifolia Wangenh. (ERICACEAE) "Swamp laurel" -- PFAF: as per other members of the genus, but "The leaves are astringent and sedative[4, 21, 61]. They are used externally to make a poultice or a wash in the treatment of many skin diseases, open sores, wounds that will not heal and inflammation[4, 257]."
  • Ledum (ERICACEAE)
    • Ledum groenlandicum Oeder. (ERICACEAE) "Labrador tea" -- PFAF: "Labrador tea was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints[257]. In modern herbalism it is occasionally used externally to treat a range of skin problems. The leaves are analgesic, blood purifier, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral and tonic[4, 172, 222, 257]. A tea is taken internally in the treatment of headaches, asthma, colds, stomach aches, kidney ailments etc[222, 257]. Externally, it is used as a wash for burns, ulcers, itches, chapped skin, stings, dandruff etc[222, 238, 257]. An ointment made from the powdered leaves or roots has been used to treat ulcers, cracked nipples, burns and scalds[257]. The plant is apparently a mild narcotic, it was taken by Indian women three times daily shortly before giving birth[207]" Narcotic poison called Ledel.
    • Ledum palustrum L. (ERICACEAE) "Wild rosemary" -- PFAF: "The plant has been used as a hop substitute in making beer, though this has caused an unpleasant kind of drunkenness which is accompanied by a headache and dizziness... The leaves and young flowering shoots are astringent, diaphoretic, disinfectant, diuretic, laxative, pectoral, stomachic and tonic[4, 172, 222, 257]. The plant is more strongly narcotic than L. groenlandicum[4] and should not be used without expert supervision[9]. A tea is taken internally in the treatment of asthma, coughs, colds, stomach aches, kidney ailments etc[4, 222, 257]. Externally, it is used as a wash for burns, ulcers, stings, infections etc[222, 257]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the whole, dried and powdered, plant[232]. This is used in the treatment of stings, injuries and joint pains[232]. It is also used in the treatment of various chest complaint, asthma, menstrual pain etc[9]."
  • Vaccinium (ERICACEAE)

ACT: Antiaggregant; Antiinflammatory; Antioxidant; Antiseptic; Astringent; Capillary-strengthener; Circulatory-stimulant IND: Cataracts; Diabetic Retinopathy; Diarrhea; Fragile Capillaries; Impaired Vision (esp. at night); Maculitis; Sore Throat;Varicose Veins POS: 20-60 g dry fuit/day; 240-480 mg STX/day; 2 500 mg capsules 2x/day SEC: Fresh berries may cause diarrhea. Leaves can be poisonous consumed over a long period of time. (TMA, 1996) Commission E reports leaf not permitted for therapeutic use; higher doses or prolonged use can produce chronic poisoning; chronic administration of 1.5 g/kg/day is lethal in animals. (AEHD)


  • Erythroxylum species were omitted here since coca is listed already, but should be revisited due to indications of antiinflammatory activity in species with little or no cocaine content.


  • Acalypha fruticosa Forsskal (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "Anama" Bee stings.
  • Croton confertus Baker (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "Hr" Analgesic, laxative, tonic. Blood purifier, constipation, coughs, pain, stomach ache, swellings.
  • Euphorbia (EUPHORBIACEAE)
    • Euphorbia amak Schweinf. (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "'Amk sabur" Analgesic, laxative. Constipation, rheumatism.
    • Euphorbia cactus Baker (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "Zuger" Anesthetic. Skin ulcers, sores, ringworm, toothache.
  • Jatropha (EUPHORBIACEAE)
    • Jatropha dhofarica Radcliffe-Smith (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "Zabrt" "zeberwot" "zebrt" Antiseptic, deodorant, hemostatic, laxative, vermifuge. Constipation, skin sores, worms, wounds.
    • Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae). "Piñón negro", "Black physic nut". Cultivated. Latex used as a cicatrizant for infected wounds and erysipelas (BDS). Seeds contain oil and have purgative and emetic properties. The leaf decoction is used for venereal diseases as blood purifier, and as an emetic for stomachache. The roots are used as antidote to Hippomane mancinella and Guarea guara. The latex is used for hemorrhoids and burns. The leaves are poulticed onto swellings (PEA, SOU). Leaf tea used in baths for flu in Brazil (BDS). Mashed leaves poulticed onto headache (RAR). "Créoles" use seed oil and leaf decoction as a purge; "Palikur" and "Wayãpi" use against witchcraft (GMJ). Another example of a reputedly POISONOUS folk cancer remedy containing compounds with antitumor activity, e.g. jatrophone (CRC).
  • Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae). "Chanca piedra", "Sacha foster", "Stone-breaker". Like other species, quite effective in eliminating kidney- and gallstones (NIC). Considered anodyne, apertif, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, laxative, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge, used elsewhere for blennorrhagia, colic, diabetes, dropsy, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, flu, gonorrhea, itch, jaundice, kidney ailments, malaria, proctitis, stomachache, tenesmus, tumors and vaginitis (DAW). Plant has proven antihepatotoxic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, diuretic, febrifugal, and hypoglycemic activity (TRA).
  • Ricinus communis L. (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "Castorbean" "'arash" "kharwa" "khirwa" "Khurwa'a" "zait" Analgesic, laxative, purgative. Blisters, constipation, halitosis, ophthalmia, toothache, ulcers.
  • Securinega phyllanthoides Muell.-Arg. ssp. phyllanthoides Webster (EUPHORBIACEAE) (SPURGE FAMILY) "Hinna gaml" Chest pains.


  • Alhagi maurorum Medik. (FABACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Camelthorn" "Caspian manna" "'Aqul" "Al heej" "kag" "'igol" "'aqul" Analgesic, aphrodisiac, hepatic. Cataracts, jaundice, migraine, rheumatism.
  • Astragalus membranaceous (FABACEAE) (HUANG QI) ++

ACT: Antibacterial, Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic; Antiviral; Diuretic; Immunostimulant; Tonic IND: Cancer; Cold; Fatigue; Flu; HIV; Other Infections; Immune Dysfunction POS: 9-15 g sliced root; six 500- mg capsules/day; two 400 mg capsules 3 x day SEC: No side effects reported but "pregnant women should check with their practitioners before using." No botanist knows all the species of Astragalus, and some very toxic ones look pretty much like the innocuous ones.

  • Cassia italica, Cassia alexandrina (FABACEAE) Stomach cramps
  • Dipteryx odorata Aubl. (Fabaceae:Faboideae). "Charapilla del murciélago", "Shihuahuaco". The wood is used for bridges, dormers, posts, etc. (RVM). Seeds soaked in rum are used by the "Créoles" for snakebite, shampoos, contusions and rheumatism. The "Wayãpi" use the bark decoction as antipyretic baths, and the "Palikur" use it as fortifying baths for infants and small children (GMJ). Brazilians make a cough pill by balling up the crushed seed (BDS). Elsewhere used as anticoagulant, antidyspeptic, antitussive, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, fumigant, narcotic, stimulant and stomachic DAW. The coumarin explains its anticoagulant activity (JAD).
  • Erythrina (FABACEAE)
    • Erythrina acanthocarpa E.Mey.(FABACEAE) -- PFAF: "The plant is narcotic and purgative[200]."
    • Erythrina crista-galli L. (FABACEAE) "Coral tree" PFAF: "The plant is narcotic and purgative[200]."
    • Erythrina herbacea L. (FABACEAE) "Cardinal spear" PFAF: "The plant is narcotic and purgative[200]. A cold infusion of the root has been used to treat bowel pain in women[257]. A decoction of the roots or berries has been used to treat nausea, constipation and blocked urination[257]. A decoction of the 'beans' or inner bark has been used as a body rub and steam for numb, painful limbs and joints[257]. A decoction of the leaves has been used as a general tonic[257]."
    • Erythrina humeana Spreng. (FABACEAE) PFAF: "The plant is narcotic and purgative[200]."
    • Erythrina senegalensis "Coral Flower" (FABACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) Root for toothache, venereal diseases
    • Erythrina zeyhari Harv. (FABACEAE) "Prickly Cardinal" - PFAF: "The plant is narcotic and purgative[200]."
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (FABACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Licorice" "'Irk al hilou" "'irk al hiel" "'ud al ss" Analgesic, digestive, expectorant, purgative. Cough, indigestion, myalgia. -- LICORICE ++ OTC

ACT: Adrenal-Stimulant; Antiasthmatic; Antiinflammatory; Antitussive; Antiviral; Demulcent; Diuretic; Expectorant IND: Adrenal Insufficiency; Asthma; Bronchitis; Cough; Herpes; Indigestion; Ulcers; Virus POS: 5-15 g root/day; 200-600 mg glycyrrhizin/day SEC: Too much (>50 g/day) can raise the blood pressure, cause sodium and water retention, and lower potassium levels to far. May result in pseudoaldosterianism. Adverse effects reported in M30 (amenorrhea, cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure, headache, hyperprolactinemia, hypertension, hypokalemia, muscle weakness, myoglobinuria, myopathy, and paralysis, Commission E reports counter indications: cholestatic liver diseases, liver cirrhosis, hypertension, hypokalaemia, severe renal insufficiency, pregnancy. As prolonged use/higher doses may give mineralocorticoid adverse effects/interactions, the root should not be used for more than 4-6 weeks without consulting physician. The use to correct taste in doses providing maximum 100 mg of glycyrrhizin per day is also allowed. Cantelli-Forti et al (1994) note that "serious side effects related to glycyrrhizin ingestion, including headaches, edema, body weight increase, and disturbances in body-electrolyte balance were observed either after daily high LE personal consumption or in clinical use." "Continuous consumption of licorice root extract in daily use as food or for therapeutic purposes is safer than the use of glycyrrhizin alone (or when the latter is added to man-made products {chewing gums, drinks, drugs, sweets etc.}). I would extend that into a generality for whole herbal extracts rather than silver bullets: "Continuous consumption of whole plants or plant extracts is safer than the use of their major active ingredient alone (or purified and added to drugs)"

  • Indigofera (FABACEAE) Analgesic
  • Lathyrus aphaca L. (FABACEAE) "Yellow-flowered pea" -- PFAF: "The ripe seeds are said to be narcotic[2, 105, 240]. The flowers are resolvent[240]." (however, causes lathyrism in large quantities)
  • Melilotus (FABACEAE)
    • Melilotus alba Medic. (FABACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "White sweetclover" "Otrah" "raimn" Analgesic, astringent, narcotic. Rheumatism.
    • Melilotus indicus (L.)All (FABACEAE) "Annual yellow sweetclover" -- PFAF: "The seed is made into a gruel and used in the treatment of bowel complaints and infantile diarrhoea[218, 240]. The plant is discutient, emollient, astringent, strongly laxative and narcotic[218, 240, 257]. It is used externally as a poultice or plaster on swellings[218, 240]. The plant contains coumarin, which is an anticoagulant[218]. The plant also contains dicumarol, which is a broad spectrum bactericide[218]."
  • Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (Fabaceae). "Nescafé", "Nescao". Cultivated. Toasted ground seeds are used as a coffee substitute (RVM). Elsewhere regarded as anodyne, antidotal, aphrodisiac, diuretic, nervine, resolvent, rubefacient, and vermifuge; used for anasarca, asthma, cancer, cholera, cough, diarrhea, dogbite, dropsy, dysuria, insanity, mumps, pleuritis, ringworm, snakebite, sores, syphilis, tumors, and worms (DAW). Interesting that this reputedly aphrodisiac plant should contain l-dopa, side effects of which include priapism (JAD).
  • Myroxylon (FABACEAE) Anodyne
  • Piscidia (FABACEAE:FABOIDEAE) Analgesic Anodyne
  • Phaseolus vulgaris L. (FABACEAE) "French bean" -- PFAF: "The root is dangerously narcotic[4]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the entire fresh herb[9]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis, plus disorders of the urinary tract[9]." (Note: there are many varieties of "common beans" of this species; for instance, kidney beans are more toxic than most - not sure which is indicated here)
  • Psoralea corylifolia L. (=Cullen corylifolia (L.) Medikus [per GRIN]) (FABACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Mahleb shari" "mahleb aswad" Aphrodisiac, cooling, deodorant. Dyspnea, fever, mastitis, painful swellings.
  • Robinia pseudoacacia L. (FABACEAE:FABOIDEAE) "Black locust" -- PFAF: "A strong, narcotic and intoxicating drink is made from the skin of the fruit[13]. Piperonal is extracted from the plant, it is used as a vanilla substitute[105]." [but toxic unless cooked; flowers can be used as a febrifuge] "The inner bark and the root bark are emetic, purgative and tonic[4, 7, 218, 257]. The root bark has been chewed to induce vomiting, or held in the mouth to allay toothache[222, 257], though it is rarely if ever prescribed as a therapeutic agent in Britain[4]. The fruit is narcotic[13]. This probably refers to the seedpod...."
  • Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) Link (FABACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Dhafra" Bronchitis, cough, earache, nasal congestion, pain from bone fractures, swelling, swollen joints, wounds.
  • Trifolium sp. (FABACEAE) "Clover" Fever, Stings

ACT: Antiangiogenic; Antiinflammatory; Diuretic; Estrogenic; Expectorant IND: Asthma; Bronchitis; Cancer Prevention; Indigestion; Menopause; Whooping Cough POS: 3-6 g dry flowers; three 355mg capsules 3x/day SEC: Safe at levels normally consumed by humans, clovers have so much estrogenic activity that when pregnant animals graze heavily on them, they may suffer miscarriage. Apparently healthy clovers may be fungally infected with much higher levels of estrogens, rarely even slaframine, a toxic fungal metabolite.

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Estrogenic, Hypocholesterolemic, Hypoglycemic; Steroid Precursor; IND: Arthritis; Diabetes (NIDM), High Blood Pressure, High Cholesterol; Indigestion; Sore Throat POS: 50-100 g/day; one 625 mg capsule 2-3 x/day SEC: Commission E reports no counter indications or interactions for oral use of the seed. Adverse effects: skin reactions to repeated external use. An idiosyncratic gastroenteritis was fingered on fenugreek in LRNP (July, 1987). One micromastic female complained of mastogenic activity following ingestion of fenugreek sprouts. -- Abdominal colic, bronchitis, cough, puerperium, sprains.


  • Geranium trilophum Boiss. (GERANIACEAE) (GERANIUM FAMILY) "Zahra'a" Analgesic. Backache.


  • Ginkgo biloba - (GINKGOPHYTA:GINKGOACEAE) "we have previously demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract, a Chinese herb with antioxidant activity, could significantly suppress inflammatory cytokine-stimulated endothelial adhesiveness to human monocytic cells by attenuating intracellular ROS formation, redox-senstive transcription factor activation, and VCAM-1 as well as ICAM-1 expression in human aortic endothelial cells. The similar anti-atherosclerosis effects have been also shown in other Chinese herbs or dietary supplements with antioxidant activity such as magnolol and salvianolic acid B either in vitro or in vivo." PMID 17378773 --- "Ginkgo biloba extract is an antiatherothrombotic Chinese herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties... G. biloba extract inhibited LPS-induced HASMC [human aortic smooth muscle cell] proliferation and decreased the expression of TLR4 by inhibiting LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activation, mRNA stabilization, and MAPK signaling pathways." PMID 17266329


  • Lachnanthes carolina (Lam.)Dandy. (Haemodoraceae) "Red Root" -- PFAF: "The root is astringent, narcotic, tonic and nervine[4]. Taken internally it produces a peculiar form of cerebral stimulation and narcosis, it was often used as a narcotic by some native North American Indian tribes[4]. It is also used in the treatment of bowel complaints, coughs, pneumonia and the spitting of blood[61, 257]..."



  • Belamcanda chinensis (L.)DC (IRIDICEAE) (LILY FAMILY) "Leopard Lily" "She gan" Sore Throat
  • Crocus sativus L. (IRIDACEAE) "Saffron" -- PFAF: "The styles and stigmas are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, appetizer, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative and stimulant[4, 7, 21, 174, 176, 218]. They are used as a diaphoretic for children, to treat chronic haemorrhages in the uterus of adults, to induce menstruation, treat period pains and calm indigestion and colic[4, 254]. A dental analgesic is obtained from the stigmas[7]. The styles are harvested in the autumn when the plant is in flower and are dried for later use[4], they do not store well and should be used within 12 months[238]. This remedy should be used with caution[21], large doses can be narcotic[240] and quantities of 10g or more can cause an abortion[218]." (PFAF also advises that 5 to 10 grams can be fatal.)


  • Juglans (JUGLANDACEAE) "Walnut" - headaches?


  • Becium dhafarense Sebald (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Hodem" Abrasions, dry skin, insect bites, itching, sore eyes, sores.
  • Coleus (LAMIACEAE) Anodyne
  • Lavandula spp. (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Oustah kodous" "dhurm" "fx" "fahya" Analgesic, carminative. Abdominal colic, headache, rheumatism, gastrosis.
    • Lavandula dhofarensis A.G. Miller (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Heryem" ekulun" "hilbn" Nervine, vermifuge. Kidney problems, stomachache, worms.
  • Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet (LAMIACEAE) "Chinese Motherwort" "Yi Mu Cao" (MINT FAMILY) Dysmenorrhea
  • Lycopus (LAMIACEAE)
    • Lycopus americanus Muhl. (LAMIACEAE) "Water horehound" -- PFAF: "The whole plant is used as an astringent, hypoglycaemic, mild narcotic and mild sedative[4, 102, 222, 238]..."
    • Lycopus virginicus L. (LAMIACEAE) "Bugleweed" -- PFAF: "The whole plant is used as an astringent, hypoglycaemic, mild narcotic and mild sedative ... applied externally in the treatment of snakebites[257]."
  • Mentha (LAMIACEAE)
    • Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Horsemint" "Na'ana" "gha'gha" "habak" Dyspnea, chills, cough, fever, gastrosis.
    • Mentha piperita (LAMIACEAE) "Peppermint" +++ OTC

ACT: Analgesic; Antipruritic; Antispasmodic; Carminative IND: Colitis; Diverticulitis; Gingivitis; Heartburn; Indigestion; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Itch; Menstrual Cramps POS:1-2 g leaf/cup 3x/day; 1-2 enteric coated peppermint oil pills 3 x daily SEC: Not to be used in patinets with achlorhydria, biliary or gall-bladder obstruction. Menthol-containing ointments applied to an infants nostrils have produced immediate collapse. Rats receiving 100mg/day peppermint oil develop dose-related brain lesions. Because of it ability to relax GI smooth muscles, peppermint oil may sometimes worsen symptoms of hiatal hernia. "Peppermint tea should not be given to infants of very young children because the pungent fragrance can cause gagging." (Castleman, 1996) Coated pills opening too soon (in stomach) may cause gastralgia and heartburn.

  • Nepeta deflersiana Schweinf. (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Dharah" "hamida" Emollient. Burns, gastrosis.
  • Ocimum (LAMIACEAE) *** NW/OW coincidence ***
    • Ocimum gratissimum (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Fever Plant" EUGENOL,THYMOL
    • Ocimum basilicum (LAMIACEAE) Bites and stings (scorpion, snake, bee), Cold
    • Ocimum micranthum Willd. (Lamiaceae) "Albaca", "Iroro", "Pichana albaca", "Pichana blanca", "Wild basil". Used for fever and headache around Pucallpa (VDF). Said to be hallucinogenic (RVM). "Créoles" prepare a collyrium from the flowers; with the decoction they make a tea to treat flu. The maceration is used by the "Wayãpi" in antipyretic baths, and in massage to relieve colic (GMJ). Leaves are used to relieve gastric pains (RVM). "Tikuna" wash the head with leaf macerations for fever (SAR). Leaf juice dropped into eyes for conjunctivitis (SAR). Sometimes used as spice and perfume (SAR). Tapajos residents use the plant on bugbites and stings.
  • Rosmarinus officinalis (LAMIACEAE) "Rosemary" +++ OTC

ACT: Anticholinesterase, Antioxidant, Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; CNS-Stimulant IND: Alzheimer's; Arthritis; Drowsiness; Lethargy; Myalgia; Neuralgia; Rheumatism; POS: 3-1.2 ml Rosemary Spirit (?tincture?) SEC: Like any essential oil, that of rosemary can be toxic in large quantities, causing irritations to the intestines, kidneys, skin and stomach. Michael Castleman is apparently talking about the herb, not the more dangerous essential oil, when he says, "Like most other herbs, rosemary should be used in large amount only in consultation with your health care provider. If you are pregnant, you should avoid such amounts because they can cause uterine contractions." (Castleman, 1996)

  • Salvia (LAMIACEAE)
    • Salvia lavandulaefolia/Salvia officinalis (LAMIACEAE) "Sage" - "In the case of sage, extracts possess anti-oxidant, estrogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and specifically inhibit butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase. Acute administration has also been found to reliably improve mnemonic performance in healthy young and elderly cohorts, whilst a chronic regime has been shown to attenuate cognitive declines in sufferers from Alzheimer's disease." PMID 17168769
    • Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (LAMIACEAE) "Red Sage" "Dan Shen" (MINT FAMILY) Dysmenorrhea --- "The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) and late (e.g., high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein) proinflammatory cytokines. The recent discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis has prompted investigation for development of new experimental therapeutics. We found that many steroidal drugs (such as dexamethasone and cortisone) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin) failed to influence endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release even at superpharmacological concentrations (up to 10-25 microM). However, several steroid-like pigments (tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone) of a popular Chinese herb, Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), dose dependently attenuated endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release in macrophage/monocyte cultures. A water-soluble tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate derivative (TSNIIA-SS), which has been widely used as a Chinese medicine for patients with cardiovascular disorders, selectively abrogated endotoxin-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release in a glucocorticoid receptor-independent manner. Administration of TSNIIA-SS significantly protected mice against lethal endotoxemia and rescued mice from lethal sepsis even when the first dose was given 24 h after the onset of sepsis. The therapeutic effects were partly attributable to attenuation of systemic accumulation of HMGB1 (but not TNF and NO) and improvement of cardiovascular physiologic parameters (e.g., decrease in total peripheral vascular resistance and increase in cardiac stroke volume) in septic animals. Taken together, these data re-enforce the pathogenic role of HMGB1 in lethal sepsis, and support a therapeutic potential for TSNIIA-SS in the treatment of human sepsis." PMID 17339485 -- "...Cryptotanshinone is a major constituent of tanshinones, which are extracted from the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and has well-documented antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study confirmed the remarkable anti-inflammatory effect of cryptotanshinone in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Since the action of cryptotanshinone on COX-2 has not been previously described, in the present study, we further examined the effect of cryptotanshinone on cyclooxygenase activity in the exogenous arachidonic acid-stimulated insect sf-9 cells, which highly express human COX-2 or human COX-1, and on cyclooxygenases expression in human U937 promonocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus phorbolmyristate acetate (PMA). Cryptotanshinone reduced prostaglandin E2 synthesis and reactive oxygen species generation catalyzed by COX-2, without influencing COX-1 activity in cloned sf-9 cells. In PMA plus LPS-stimulated U937 cells, cryptotanshinone had negligible effects on the expression of COX-1 and COX-2, at either a mRNA or protein level. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of cryptotanshinone is directed against enzymatic activity of COX-2, not against the transcription or translation of the enzyme." PMID 16989810 -- ailanthoidol is a component that has now been produced synthetically; "The topical application of AT (0.5-2.5 mM; 200 microl) reduced the formation of hydrogen peroxide and inhibited the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the mouse skin when compared with that of the TPA-treated alone group. In addition, AT presented a suppression effect on the TPA-induced hyperplasia and leukocyte infiltration in the epidermis and edema of mouse ears. Furthermore, it showed that AT inhibited the TPA-induced expression of COX-2 protein and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in epidermis." PMID 16969515.
  • Scutellaria (LAMIACEAE)
    • Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb, which is natively distributed throughout Korea and southern China. This herb is known in traditional Chinese medicine as Ban-Zhi-Lian and in traditional Korean medicine as Banjiryun. SB has been used as an antiinflammatory and antitumor agent. Inhibited expression of COX-2 in HOC cells. PMID 17128438
    • Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI (LAMIACEAE) "Huang-Qin" 'Chinese skullcap', 'golden root' - widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicine historically used in anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. Inhibits COX-2 in prostate cancer cells (which cease replicating). PMID 17516867 -- "The active ingredients ... are polyhydroxyflavonoids, namely baicalein, oroxylin A and wogonin. [poorly soluble, antioxidant] ... In respect of their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition, wogonin was superior to all the other flavonoids, while oroxylin A was most potent in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Wogonin proved to be the most potent (82.9% inhibition, p<0.05) in its anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema. (5 mg/kg i.p. equals 20 mg/kg ibuprofen, and effect increases linearly at 10,20 mg/kg wogonin; note s.c. injection is much less effective) There was a correlation between the in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity and the in-vitro antioxidative activities"; "used since ancient times to treat allergic and inflammatory diseases by the mechanisms known as "cleansing heat", "drying moisture", and "removing toxins"" [citing Hsu, HY, "Oriental materia medica: a concise guide", Oriental Healing Arts Inst. Long Beach CA] generally known for unusually high flavonoid content with antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, sedative, anti-pyretic, antihypertensive, diuretic, hemostatic effects. PMID: 17031041
  • Stachys (LAMIACEAE) "Heal-all, self-heal, woundwort, betony, lamb's ears, and hedgenettle"
    • Stachys chrysantha and Stachys candida (LAMIACEAE) - Greek endemic; methanol extract contains seven flavonoids. "The release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with calcium ionophore was inhibited by a crude extract of S. chrysantha, with an IC50 value of 34.3 microg/ml. Xanthomicrol (IC50 = 29.2 microM) and chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-(3-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (IC50 = 11.1 microM) also inhibited the release of LTC4, although it showed less potency than the reference compound nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) (IC50 = 2 microM). However, most samples assayed showed a significant effect on thromboxane B2 (TXB2)-release from calcium ionophore-stimulated human platelets, with inhibition percentages slightly lower than the reference drug ibuprofen (IC50 = 7 microM). The IC50 values are: crude extract of S. candida 23.3 microg/ml; crude extract of S. chrysantha 23.1 microg/ml; xanthomicrol 28.8 microM; calcycopterin 2.66 microM and chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-(3-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside 8.8 microM. Our results indicate that the selective inhibition of TX-synthase enzyme may be the primary target of action of most of these samples, and one of the mechanisms through which thus exert their antiinflammatory effects." PMID 10706410.
    • Teucrium mascatense Boiss. (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Ja'ada" "ja'adah" Colic, diabetes, fever, stomach pain.
    • Teucrium polium L. (LAMIACEAE) (MINT FAMILY) "Ja'ada" "neghda" "neftah" "misk al jinn" "ja'ad" "ay'ad" Febrifuge, hepatic. Abcesses, abdominal pain, childbirth, insect bites, jaundice, malarial fever.
  • Zataria multiflora Boiss (LAMIACEAE) a folk medicinal plant, total extract was administered (400, 600, 900 p.p.m.) through drinking water to IBD mice induced by intrarectal administration of acetic acid... Biochemical evaluation of inflamed colon was done using assay of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration as indicators of free radical activity and cell lipid peroxidation. The activity of MPO and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) [and microscopic and macroscopic characters] increased in acetic acid-treated groups while recovered by pretreatment of animals with Z. multiflora (400-900 p.p.m.) and prednisolone.... The beneficial effect of Z. multiflora (900 p.p.m.) was comparable with that of prednisolone. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potentials of Z. multiflora might be the mechanisms by which this herbal extract protects animals against experimentally induced IBD... PMID 17342240 (free fulltext)


  • Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. (LAURACEAE) (LAUREL FAMILY) "Camphor tree" "Kafoor" Anti-convulsant, anthelmintic, carminative, insecticide, sedative. Toothache.
  • Laurus nobilis L. (LAURACEAE) "Bay tree" -- PFAF: "The bay tree has a long history of folk use in the treatment of many ailments, particularly as an aid to digestion and in the treatment of bronchitis and influenza[244]. It has also been used to treat various types of cancer[218]. The fruits and leaves are not usually administered internally, other than as a stimulant in veterinary practice, but were formerly employed in the treatment of hysteria, amenorrhoea, flatulent colic etc[4]. Another report says that the leaves are used mainly to treat upper respiratory tract disorders and to ease arthritic aches and pains[254]. It is settling to the stomach and has a tonic effect, stimulating the appetite and the secretion of digestive juices[254]. The leaves are antiseptic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic in large doses, emmenagogue, narcotic, parasiticide, stimulant and stomachic[4, 7, 21, 210, 218]. The fruit is antiseptic, aromatic, digestive, narcotic and stimulant[218]. An infusion has been used to improve the appetite and as an emmenagogue[4]. The fruit has also been used in making carminative medicines and was used in the past to promote abortion[4]. A fixed oil from the fruit is used externally to treat sprains, bruises etc, and is sometimes used as ear drops to relieve pain[4]. The essential oil from the leaves has narcotic, antibacterial and fungicidal properties[218]."
  • Persea (LAURACEAE) Anodyne
    • Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). "Palta", "Huira palta", "Avocado". Cultivated fruit tree. Fruit juice considered aphrodisiac, used against dandruff and alopecia (FEO). Leaves well known as stomachic, emmenagogue, and resolvent. Seed decoction is an antidiarrheic, also used as an abortive. Used to treat amebic dysentery, diabetes, and snakebite (SOU). Also well known as antidiabetic (RVM). It eliminates uric acid, is a reconstituent tonic, antianemic, diuretic, antiinflammatory for the liver, for renal calculus, to strengthen weak muscles, for dysentery, and it is a mild aphrodisiac (RVM). "Tikuna" drink a cup of avocado leaf tea before meals to clean the liver (SAR). "Ketchwa" crush seed with Brownea wood and Rudgea leaves and make a decoction, said to stop menstruation for 3-6 months (SAR). As contraceptive, the seed decoction is taken each month during menses (SAR). "Siona-Secoya" also use as contraceptive (SAR). Ecuadorian "Shuar" take crushed seed in aguardiente for snakebite (SAR). Monounsaturates like oleic-acid are the health food rage now; avocado proved highest among 1,200 species (JAD).


  • Andira inermis L. (LEGUMINOSAE) Cabbagebark (E); Almendro (CR); Arenillo (P); Carne asado (CR); Cocu (P); Congo (C); Dividive (C); Pilon (P); Quira (P) . The poisonous seeds of this honey tree are anthelmintic, febrifugal, purgative, and vermifugal. The bark is used as a barbasco, narcotic, purgative, and vermifuge. Smoke from the wood is said to be injurious to the eyes. The wood is best suited for heavy construction.
  • Caesalpina sappan L. (Leguminosae) is distributed and cultivated in Southeast Asia and its heartwood, Sappan Lignum, has been traditionally used as a red dyestuff and an anti-inflammatory agent.1) In Japan, Sappan Lignum is listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia2) and is used as an ingredient of Kampo medicine to improve blood circulation. Brazilin, the main constituent of Sappan Lignum, has been reported to possess various activities including anti-inflammatory activity. [but there are others: Brazilin, brazilein (oxidative product of brazilin), and sappanchalcone] almost completely inhibited iNOS gene expression." [LPS-activated in J774.1 cell line; not closely related to antioxidant/reducing/free radical scavenging chemical activity] PMID 17202686 (free fulltext)
  • Entada abyssinica (LEGUMINOSAE) (LEGUME FAM.) "African dream herb" "Snuff box sea bean" Root for arthritis; roasted seed for conjunctivitis


  • Allium cepa (LILIACEAE) Stomach cramps; cold
  • Allium sativum L. (LILIACEAE) (LILY FAMILY) "Garlic" "Thm" Abdominal pain and colic, colds, cough, dandruff, diabetes, diarrhea, eye infections, flatulence, kidney problems, memory, tuberculosis, removing thorns, snakebites, treating wounds.
  • Aloe dhufarensis Lavranos (LILIACEAE) (LILY FAMILY) "Subr" "tuf" Disinfectant; headache, arthritis, dermatitis, diabetes, constipation, cough, colds.
  • Aloe tomentosa Defl. (LILIACEAE) (LILY FAMILY) "Hir" "sabbar" Dermatitis, inflamed eyes, broken bones.
  • Aloe vera Aloe vera L. (LILIACEAE) (LILY FAMILY) "Bitter Aloes" "Sabar" "saqal" Febrifuge, abortifacient, anodyne, purgative; fever, headache, inflamed eyes, constipation, amenorrhea, alopecia. -- ( Gel) ++ OTC; ACT: Anesthetic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Moisturizer; Tissue restorative

IND: Abrasions; Alcoholic Ulcers; Bugbites; Burns; Dermatitis --- also Stomach Cramps POS: Apply Topically; or 1 Tsp juice after meals; 25 mg in 1,185 mg soybean oil 3-6 capsules daily (Not an OTC dosage) SEC: Dermatitis; Diarrhea; Intestinal Cramps; Ulcers


  • Linum usitatissimum L. (LINACEAE) (FLAX FAMILY) "Flax""Hab e kattn" "sib muma" Analgesic, laxative. Arthritis, constipation, urinary disorders, venereal diseases, wounds.


  • Buddleja officinalis MAXIM (Loganiaceae) - "In [hexane fraction of methanolic extract] treated animals, cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS inductions were inhibited in ischemic hemispheres at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that BOME and BOHF both inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and the microglial activation inhibitory effects of B. officinalis extract may contribute to its neuroprotective effects in brain ischemia." PMID 16880613
  • Desfontainia spinosa Ruiz.&Pav. (LOGANACEAE) -- PFAF "The leaves are narcotic and have been used medicinally in Chile[192]. More research needs to be carried out into the medicinal virtues of this plant[192]. The sub-species D. spinosa hookeri is usually employed[192]."
  • Spigelia marilandica L. (LOGANIACEAE) "Indian Pink" -- PFAF: "narcotic" (unspecified)


  • Lawsonia inermis L. (LYTHRACEAE) (LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY) "Henna" "hinna" "hina" Anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, local anesthetic. Dandruff, fever, headaches, skin rash, mouth ulcers.


  • Acridocarpus orientalis A. Juss. (MALPHIGIACEAE) (ACEROLA FAMILY) "Qafas" Chronic headaches, myalgia, paralysis, tendonitis.


  • Malva parviflora L. (MALVACEAE) (MALLOW FAMILY) "Little mallow" "Khubaiza" "khubbayz" Demulcent. Fever, ulcers.
  • Tilia sp. (MALVACEAE) "Basswood" Infection, Sore, Wound


  • Paris (Melanthiaceae)
    • Paris polyphylla Sm. (MELANTHIACEAE) "Herb Paris" -- PFAF: "The roots are analgesic, antiphlogistic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antitussive, depurative, febrifuge and narcotic[4, 147, 176, 218]. They posses anthelmintic properties[243]. A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of poisonous snake bites, boils and ulcers, diphtheria and epidemic Japanese B encephalitis[147]. A paste of the roots is used as a poultice to treat cuts and wounds[272]. The juice of the roots has been used as an anthelmintic[272]. The roots have shown antibacterial action against Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, B. paratyphi, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci, Meningococci etc[176]. The whole plant is febrifuge[218]."
    • Paris quadrifolia L. (MELANTHIACEAE) "Herb Paris" -- PFAF: "The entire plant, harvested just as it is coming into flower, is antirheumatic and detergent[13, 61, 178]. In large doses the herb is narcotic, producing nausea, vomiting, vertigo etc[4]. It should be used with great caution, overdoses have proved fatal to children[4]. In small doses it is of benefit in the treatment of bronchitis, spasmodic coughs, rheumatism, colic etc[4]. The plant is also used in the treatment of headaches and neuralgia[61, 178]. The seeds and the berries have something of the nature of opium, they have been used as an aphrodisiac[4]. A tincture of the fresh plant is useful as an antidote to poisoning by mercurial sublimate and arsenic[4]. A cooling ointment made from the seeds and juice of the leaves is applied externally to wounds, tumours and inflammations[4]. The juice of the berries is used to treat eye inflammations[4]."
  • Veratrum viride Aiton. (MELANTHIACEAE) "Indian poke" -- PFAF: (Highly poisonous, but less so after the plant dies down in autumn) "Indian poke is a highly toxic plant that was widely employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it mainly externally in the treatment of wounds, pain etc[257]. It is rarely used in modern herbalism, though it is of potential interest because it contains steroidal and other alkaloids and chelidonic acid. Some of these alkaloids lower blood pressure and dilate the peripheral vessels - they have, for example, been used in conventional medicine to treat high blood pressure and rapid heart beat[207, 212, 254]. ..Even when applied externally to unbroken skin it has been known to cause side-effects... The root is analgesic, diaphoretic, emetic. expectorant, febrifuge, narcotic and sedative[4, 21, 257]. It has been used in the treatment of acute cases of pneumonia, peritonitis and threatened apoplexy[244]. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of chronic coughs and constipation[257]. A portion of the root has been chewed, or a decoction used, in the treatment of stomach pain[257]. The roots are harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use[254]. The root has been used to make a skin wash and compresses for bruises, sprains and fractures[257]. The powdered root has been applied as a healing agent to wounds[207] and as a delousing agent[254]. The stems have been scraped and the powder snuffed to induce sneezing[257]. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash to treat aches and pains[257]. The plant is used in homeopathic preparations to slow the heart rate[254]."


  • Carapa (MELIACEAE)
    • Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae). "Andiroba", "Requia", "Brazilian mahogany". An excellent wood for carpentry, comparable with the wood from Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla. The bitter bark infusion is believed febrifuge and vermifuge (SAR), also a tonic. Perhaps useful in herpes (RAR). Infusion used to wash dermatoses and sores (SAR). Seeds yield an oil, with the consistency of lard, used to coat wood to protect it from insects (SOU). Brazilians sell seed oil as antiinflammatory and antiarthritic (RVM). Also used in the soap industry. Fruit oil ingested for cough in Brazil (BDS). The "Wayãpi", the "Palikur", and the "Créoles" use it to remove ticks from their heads, also for Schongastia guianensis, which gets in the skin. Native Americans trust the oil as an emollient and antiinflammatory for skin rash (GMJ).
    • Carapa procera (MELIACEAE)(MAHOGANY FAMILY): Seed fat for burns, fungi, lice
  • Trichilia emetica "Barf Bark" (MELIACEAE)(MAHOGANY FAMILY) Bark antidermatitis, antiinflammatory, emetic


  • Chasmanthera dependens (MENISPERMACEAE) (MOONSEED FAMILY) Toot antivenereal; leaves for bruise, fractures
  • Chondrodendron tomentosum R.&P. (Menispermaceae). "Ampihuasca", "Curaré". Some natives, crush and cook the roots and stems, adding other plants and venomous animals, mixing until it becomes a light syrup; they call this decoction "ampi", or "curaré", which they use on the tip of their arrows and darts. The active ingredient in "curaré" is D-tubocurarine, actually used in medicine. Brazilians consider the root diuretic, emmenagogue, and febrifuge (SAR), using it internally for madness and dropsy, externally for bruises. Used for edema, fever, kidney stones, and orchitis (RAR).
  • Cissampelos pareira L. (Menispermaceae). "Imchich masha", "Barbasco". "Palikur" use the leaf poultice as an analgesic (GMJ). Seeds used for snakebite; diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, piscicide, POISON, for venereal disease (RAR). Contains tetrandrine, which is analgesic, antiinflammatory, and febrifuge.
  • Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (MENISPERMACEAE) "Hamr al majnn" Demulcent, digestive, emetic, febrifuge, purgative. Dermatosis, fever, rheumatism, venereal disease
  • Stephania
    • Stephania dinklagei (MENISPERMACEAE) (MOONSEED FAMILY) containing corydine (sedative) stephanine
    • Stephania tetrandra (MENISPERMACEAE) (MOONSEED FAMILY) - Chinese medical herb, contains alkaloid tetrandrine (C38H42O8N2) which "has been shown to elicit anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in pulmonary diseases, but the mechanism of action has yet to be investigated.... After bile-duct ligation, rats were given Tet (1 or 5 mg/kg) or silymarin (50 mg/kg, as a positive control) by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks. ... both Tet and silymarin treatment significantly reduced the fibrosis scores and hepatic collagen content of BDL rats... [and] decreased the number of alpha-SMA- and NFkappaB-positive cells in fibrotic livers... [and] attenuated the mRNA expression levels of TGF-beta1,alpha-SMA, collagen 1alpha2, iNOS, ICAM-1, VEGF, and VEGFR2 genes, and induced the mRNA expression of the metallothionein gene. This study suggests that the anti-fibrotic effects of Tet were related to the reduction of fibrosis-related gene transcription, the attenuation of NFkappaB-activated pathways, and the induction of metallothionein gene transcription in the livers of BDL rats." PMID 17218962. -- "Tetrandrine (0.5-5.0 micromol/L) concentration-dependently inhibited NFkappaB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-alpha, including IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, Tet also inhibited TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA secretion and collagen deposition in HSC-T6 cells." PMID 17201889
  • Tinospora caffra (MENISPERMACEAE) (MOONSEED FAMILY): Fever; tonic -- see Wiki entry, e.g. "Tinospora has long been used in India as a medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as gilae-ka-sat or as palo."


  • Acacia (MIMOSACEAE)
    • Acacia gerrardii Benth. (MIMOSACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Karat" "Qarat" Burns, fever, sore gums, loose teeth, toothache.
    • Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. (MIMOSACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Babul" "Karat" "qarat" "tulh" Demulcent. Boils, cataracts, colds, diabetes, diarrhea, swellings, toothache.
    • Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. (MIMOSACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Gum arabic" "Temmar" Antiseptic, tonic. Chest pains, hemoptysis, menorrhagia, whooping cough, wounds.



  • Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Monimiaceae) "Isula huayo", "Picho huayo", "Asna huayo". Fruit used in fiestas, the leaf infusion believed aphrodisiac. Leaf decoction used in baths for mycosis. "Créoles" use the leaf tea as an abortive, oxytocic, and antipyretic; the alcoholic leaf maceration as vulnerary, and the salty leaf decoction as hypotensive. "Wayãpi" use the decoction of leaves and bark as a refreshment and antipyretic (GMJ). The tea of the leaves and flowers is used as a carminative, in dyspepsia, and painful spasms (RVM). Don Segundo informed one class that the aroma of this plant, applied to the skin to prevent hunted animals from smelling the hunter (by masking his body odor), was not only effective, but rendered the hunter all but irresistible to females. One of my taxonomic associates claims to have confirmed this empirically (JAD). "Tikuna" eat the fruits for dyspepsia (SAR). Elsewhere considered anodyne, insecticidal and stomachic; used folklorically for colds, colic, cramps, dermatosis, fever, headache, mange, rheumatism, snakebite and wounds (DAW). Tapajos natives make solar tea from the leaves for bathing headache (BDS).


  • Chlorophora excelsa (MORACEAE) (MULBERRY FAMILY) "African Oak" Latex for tooth extraction
  • Ficus carica L. (MORACEAE) (MULBERRY FAMILY) "Fig" "Teen" "balas 'arabi" Emetic, diuretic, laxative, nervine, poultice. Blisters, bruised fingers and toes, cough, depression, freckles, kidney stones, laxative, leprosy, nervous tension, remove thorns, warts.
  • Ficus cordata ssp. salicifolia (Vahl) C.C. Berg (MORACEAE) (MULBERRY FAMILY) "Lithab" Bruised fingers and toes, indigestion, warts.
  • Maclura tinctoria (L.) Gaud. (Moraceae). "Insira", "Insira amarilla". Fruits edible. Wood occasionally used in carpentry. Cotton soaked in the latex is used to relieve toothaches. An olive green dye is derived from the plant. Because it contains phloroglucin and gallic acid, it is probably antiseptic and astringent. Moringin is also antiseptic (AYA). This species also works as diuretic and anti-venereal. Highly recommended for urinary infections like blennorrhea. Colombians soak latex in 'cotton' of Ochroma pyramidale or Ceiba samauma, using it as a filling. Latex removes teeth, whether carious or healthy, without pain and bleeding (NIC). Used by the "Chami" for lumber.Considered analgesic, diuretic, purgative; used for cough, gout, pharyngitis, rheumatism, sore throat, syphilis (RAR).
  • Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE) (MULBERRY FAMILY) "Black mulberry" "'Ud al-tt" "tt" Tonic. Dysmenorrhea.


  • Moringa peregrina (Forsskal) Fiori (MORINGACEAE) (HORSERADISH TREE FAMILY) "Shu'" Analgesic, febrifuge, laxative. Abdominal pain, back pain, bone fractures, burns, constipation, fever, headache, lacerations, myalgia, parturition.


  • Comptonia peregrina (MYRICACEAE) "Sweet Fern" Boils, Dermatosis, Poison Ivy, Rheumatism, Sore, Tonic
  • Myrica (MYRICACEAE)
    • Myrica cerifera L. (MYRICACEAE) "Wax Myrtle" -- PFAF: "... It is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, jaundice, fevers, colds, influenza, catarrh, excessive menstruation, vaginal discharge etc[4, 238, 254]. Externally, it is applied to indolent ulcers, sore throats, spongy gums, sores, itching skin conditions, dandruff etc[4, 238, 254]. The wax is astringent and slightly narcotic[4]. It is regarded as a sure cure for dysentery and is also used to treat internal ulcers[4]. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers and externally as a wash for itchy skin[222]."
    • Myrica pensylvanica (MYRICACEAE) "Bayberry" Arthritis, Mouthwash, Pain, Rheumatism, Stomatitis
  • Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MYRISTICACEAE) (NUTMEG FAMILY) "Mace" "Nutmeg" "Joz e Qu'wa" "qoust" "Bisbasa" Carminative, digestive, narcotic (in high doses), tonic. Digestion, stomach cramps.
  • Myrtus communis L. (MYRTACEAE) (MYRTLE FAMILY) "Myrtle" "Ys" "hads" Astringent, antiseptic, stimulant. Blisters, abdominal colic, coughs, diarrhea, fevers, headache, insecticide, nosebleeds, stings, ulcers.


  • Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warb. (Myristicaceae). "Cumala blanca hoja parda". Wood for lumber, plywood. "Bora" and "Huitoto" use the cambium as a hallucinogen. The decoction of the aerial rootlets that appear on the base of the trunk is used for cough. "Palikur" prepare a bark emollient used for swellings and erysipelas; used as an oral antiseptic to treat canker sores and abscesses. For swelling, it is mixed with bark of Humiria balsamifera, the decoction used for external baths (GMJ). Tea of leaves, sap, and bark, mixed with Physalis angulata, is used for upset stomach, intestinal colic, erysipelas, and inflammations (RVM). Leaves contain the antitubercular compound galbacin, the antiaggregant veraguensin, and the antischistosomal surinamensis (JBH).


  • Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (MYRTACEAE) (MYRTLE FAMILY) "Clove" "Qurunful" "Zrr" Carminative, digestive. Cough, digestion, dysmenorrhea, toothache.


  • Jasminum grandiflorum L. (OLEACEAE) (OLIVE FAMILY) "Royal jasmine""Yasmn" "anbr" Digestive, emollient. Abdominal pain, burns, colic, dysentery.


ACT: Antiaggregant; Antiinflammatory; Nutritive (Essential Oil Deficiencies) IND: Arthritis; Dermatitis; Eczema; Hyperactivity; Mastalgia; Menstrual Distress; PMS POS: 3-12 500-mg capsules EPO/day; two 1300 mg capsules/day SEC: The literature looks clean. I've heard from two separate personal cases of women taking it satisfactorily for PMS that it caused migraine-like headaches which they did not experience before taking EPO. Anecdotal but credible. As my best source of tryptophan which leads to cerebral serotonin, it can alter brain levels of serotonin which is involved in some migraine cases. Enteralgia, headache, and nausea may occur in a small percentage of subjects.


  • Eulophia petersii (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f. (ORCHIDACEAE) (ORCHID FAMILY) "Miseb" "iseb" Eczema, ringworm, skin rashes, sores.


    • Paeonia lactiflora Pallas (PAEONIACEAE, formerly RANUNCULACEAE)(PEONY, formerly BUTTERCUP FAMILY) "Chinese Peony" "Bai Shao" Headache

-- "Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of the traditionally used Chinese herb Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardiovascular protective activities. ... In tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) ... paeonol concentration-dependently inhibited the production of ICAM-1; it inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 translocation into the nucleus and the phosphorylation of inhibitory factor kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha). It also blocked the TNF-alpha-induced phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are involved in regulating ICAM-1 production by TNF-alpha. Paeonol inhibited U937 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs stimulated by TNF-alpha, suggesting that it may inhibit the binding of monocytes to endothelium by regulating the production of critical adhesion molecules by TNF-alpha. The inhibitory effect of paeonol on ICAM-1 production might be mediated by inhibiting p38, ERK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, which are involved in TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 production. Thus, paeonol may be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis." PMID 17276892.-- Methyl gallate (MG) is a medicinal herbal product that is isolated from Paeonia lactiflora that inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dependent phases of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 values of 17.0 microM. This compound also found inhibited the COX-2-dependent conversion of the exogenous arachidonic acid to PGD2 in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 values of 19.0 microM, using a COX enzyme assay kit. However, at concentrations up to 80 microM, MG did not inhibit COX-2 protein expression in BMMC, indicating that MG inhibits COX-2 activity directly. Furthermore, MG consistently inhibited the production of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in a dose dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 5.3 microM. These results demonstrate that MG has a dual cyclooxygenase-2/5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity, which might provide the basis for novel anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID 17121182 -- "Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by metatarsal footpad injection with complete Freund's adjuvant in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The secondary inflammatory reaction was evaluated by hind paw swelling, polyarthritis index. Activity of interleukin-1 (IL-1) was detected by Con A-induced thymocytes proliferation of C57BL/6J mice assay. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in synoviocytes were assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). PGE(2) receptors, EP2 and EP4, were analyzed by Western blot analysis. The level of IL-6 was measured by ELISA. Intragastric administration of TGP (50,100 mg/kg) significantly decreased secondary inflammatory reaction in AA rats. Suppressing the activity of IL-1 and TNFalpha, decreased PGE(2) and increased cAMP levels in synoviocytes of AA rats were observed after administration of TGP. In the immunoblot analysis, TGP could up-regulate the expression of EP2 and EP4. These results showed TGP significantly inhibited the progression of AA, and the inhibitory effects might be associated with its ability to mediate the level of cAMP and inhibit the production of IL-1, TNFalpha, IL-6 and PGE(2) from activated synoviocytes." PMID: 17000070

    • Paeonia officinalis Retz. (PAEONIACEAE) (PAEONY FAMILY) "'Ud al-salb" Aphrodisiac, nervine, tonic. Neuroses.
    • Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (PAEONIACEAE, formerly RANUNCULACEAE/BUTTERCUP FAMILY) "Tree Peony" "Mu Dan Pi" Inflammation -- root cortex called "Moutan cortex" is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines, an analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory agent. Used in female diseases (menstruation disorder and uteritis). Inhibits IL-8 secretion; MCP-1 secretion; protects against LPS/D-galactosamine induced sepsis; reduces iNOS and nitric oxide in mouse peritoneal macrophages; blocks NF-kB activation at 0.5 g/l. PMID 17473434.


  • Argemone mexicana L. (PAPAVERACEAE) "Mexican pricklepoppy" "Tashmezg" Prickly poppy (E); Cardosanto (C). The narcotic weeda are demulcent, emetic, expectorant, laxative, and are used for cancer, itch, and scabies, and applied externally for headache. The seed-oil is used for illumination and soap-making. -- Demulcent, diuretic, ophthalmic, hepatic, laxative, narcotic. Constipation, dysentery, jaundice, skin rash, sore eyes, ulcers.
  • Bocconia (PAPAVERACEAE) Analgesic Anodyne
  • Chelidonium majus L. (PAPAVERACEAE) (Greater celandine) - PFAF: "...mild sedative, antispasmodic and detoxifying herb, relaxing the muscles of the bronchial tubes, intestines and other organs[254]. ... The leaves and the sap are acrid, alterative, anodyne, antispasmodic, caustic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, hydrogogue, narcotic, purgative... used in the treatment of bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, jaundice, gallstones and gallbladder pains[254]. ... The plant has anticancer properties and is analgesic[4, 218]. It is an important component of a stomach ulcer drug[218].... [and] contains the alkaloid chelidonine, which is similar to the alkaloid papaverine found in poppies. This alkaloid has antispasmodic and sedative effects on the bile ducts and bronchi."
  • Meconopsis (Papaveraceae)
    • Meconopsis aculeata (PAPAVERACEAE) -- PFAF: "The root contains narcotic principles[211, 240]. The entire plant is used in Tibetan medicine, where it is considered to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency[241]. Analgesic and febrifuge, it is used to help heal broken bones, to treat inflammation from fractures and pain in the upper bodily region, especially around the ribs[241]."
    • Meconopsis napaulensis (PAPAVERACEAE) -- PFAF: "The root is used as a narcotic[240]."
  • Papaver (PAPAVERACEAE)-- see opium for further information


ACT: Analgesic; Antispasmodic; Monoamine-Oxidase Inhibitor; Sedative; Tranquilizer IND: Addiction; Anxiety; Depression; Hyperactivity; Insomnia POS: 1-3 g herb 3x/day SEC: Large doses may result in CNS depression (LRNP, May 1989). The same precautions suggested for MAO inhibitors might be indicated here. -- PFAF: "Maypops is a valuable sedative and tranquillising herb with a long history of use in North America[254]. It is frequently used in the treatment of insomnia, epilepsy, hysteria etc[254]. The leaves and stems are antispasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, hypnotic, narcotic, sedative, vasodilator and are also used in the treatment of women's complaints[4, 7, 21, 46, 61, 165, 192, 207, 238]. The plant is harvested after some of the berries have matured and is then dried for later use[4]. It is used in the treatment of insomnia, nervous tension, irritability, neuralgia, irritable bowel syndrome, pre-menstrual tension and vaginal discharges[4, 21, 165, 192, 207]. An extract of the plant depresses the motor nerves of the spinal cord[213], it is also slightly sedative, slightly reduces blood pressure and increases respiratory rate[222]. The plant contains alkaloids and flavonoids that are an effective non-addictive sedative that does not cause drowsiness[238]... A poultice of the roots is applied to boils, cuts, earaches, inflammation etc[222]."

    • Passiflora quadrangularis L. (Passifloraceae) "Tumbo", "Giant granadilla". Cultivated. Fruits edible; stems are considered POISON; the leaves, roots and flowers abortifacient. "Chami" make an infusion to treat fractures and bruises (RVM). Elsewhere considered calmant, CNS-depressant, cardiodepressant, decongestant, depurative, emollient, narcotic, sedative; used for arthritis, diabetes, hoarseness, hypertension, inflammation, liver ailments, neuralgia, sorethroat, and uvulitis (DAW). Contains noradrenalin (JBH).


  • Harpagophytum procumbens "Devil's Claw" (PEDALIACEAE)(SESAME FAMILY) GI and rheumatic ailments -- "a traditional South African herbal remedy used for rheumatic conditions... To date, 14 clinical trials have assessed its efficacy/ effectiveness in OA. ... from 1966 to 2006 ... : eight observational studies; 2 comparator trials (1 open, the other randomized to assess clinical effectiveness); and 4 double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy. Many of the published trials lacked certain important methodological quality criteria. However, the data from the higher quality studies suggest that Devil's Claw appeared effective in the reduction of the main clinical symptom of pain. The assessment of safety is limited by the small populations generally evaluated in the clinical studies. From the current data, Devil's Claw appears to be associated with minor risk (relative to NSAIDs), but further long-term assessment is required." PMID 17212570
  • Sesamum indicum "Sesame" (PEDALIACEAE) Cold


  • Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae). "Chanviro", "Micura", "Mocosa", "Mucura", "Sacha ajo". Reportedly abortive, antispasmodic, antirheumatic, antipyretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorific; mostly used in magic rituals call "limpias" ("cleansing"). The curanderos bathe the patients in the liquid left from the infusion to cleanse them from the "salt" (bad luck); other people bathe with it on the first hour of the new year. Colombians chew the plant in order to coat their teeth and protect them from cavities (GAB). Also used in ritual amulets. Preclinical tests show depressive effects on the central nervous system (CNS), with anticonvulsive effects (RVM). "Créoles" use it to get rid of bad spirits; the roots are antispasmodic and antipyretic; the leaf decoction, sudorific and cough suppressant. "Palikur" use to protect their children against bad luck, and in baths for the vitamin deficiency called "coqueluche" (GMJ). "Tikuna" bathe feverish patients in the leaf infusion and wash headache with the decoction. For bronchitis and pneumonia, a drop of kerosene and lemon juice is added to a teaspoon of macerated leaves (SAR). Rutter mentions beriberi, cramps, nerves, paralysis, rheumatism, scabies, scorpion sting, spider bites, toothache, venereal diseases, and vision, calling the herb abortifacient, analgesic, contraceptive, diuretic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, and insecticide (RAR). Independently, two different sources, one Venezuelan, one Colombian, related anecdotes about "curing" pancreatic cancer with Petiveria (JAD). Tramil all but endorses inhalation of the aroma for migraine and sinusitis, and using as a mouthwash for toothache (TRA).
  • Phytolacca americana L. (PHYTOLACCACEAE) "Pokeweed" -- PFAF: "Pokeweed has a long history of medicinal use, being employed traditionally in the treatment of diseases related to a compromised immune system. ... It contains potent anti-inflammatory agents, antiviral proteins and substances that affect cell division[238]. These compounds are toxic to many disease-causing organisms, including the water snails that cause schistosomiasis[238].... The root is alterative, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, expectorant, hypnotic, narcotic and purgative[4, 21, 46, 61, 165, 192, 238]. The dried root is used as an anodyne and anti-inflammatory[213]. The root is taken internally in the treatment of auto-immune diseases (especially rheumatoid arthritis), tonsillitis, mumps, glandular fever and other complaints involving swollen glands, chronic catarrh, bronchitis etc[238]. The fresh root is used as a poultice on bruises, rheumatic pains etc, whilst a wash made from the roots is applied to swellings and sprains[222]. The root is best harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use[238]. The fruit has a similar but milder action to the roots[238].The juice is used in the treatment of cancer, haemorrhoids and tremors[213]. A poultice made from the fruit is applied to sore breasts[222]. A tea made from the fruit is used in the treatment of rheumatism, dysentery etc[222]..."


  • Abies balsamea (PINACEAE) "Balsam Fir" "Fir" Asthma, Cold, Colic, Cough, Congestion, Cuts, Flu, Sores, Sore Throat, Tuberculosis, Ulcer
  • Larix laricina (PINACEAE) "Hackmatack" Cold, Flu, Infections, Tuberculosis, Wounds


  • Peperomia duclouxii (Piperaceae) - one of six lignans showed antiinflammatory activity as assayed by induction of ICAM-1 by IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha. PMID: 17358082
  • Piper (PIPERACEAE)
    • Piper angustifolium R.&P. (Piperaceae). "Cordoncillo", "Matico". Leaves applied externally as antiseptic vulnerary; the tea consumed for bronchitis, dysentery, gonorrhea, inflammation, and malaria (FEO, RAR). Infusion washed onto rheumatic areas around Pucallpa (VDF).
    • Piper methysticum (PIPERACEAE) "Kava"++

ACT: Analgesic, Anticonvulsant; Antidepressant; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic; Muscle Relaxant; Sedative IND: Anxiety; Depression; Headache; Insomnia; Menstrual Cramps; Prostatitis; Stress POS: 1 tsp cup/nite; 35 mg STX (70% kavalactone) 3x/day; 1-2 455 mg capsules 2-3x/day; 1-2 530 mg STX capsules 1-2 x/day SEC: Commission E reports counter indications: esophageal and gastrointestinal stenoses; adverse effects: allergic reactions (rarely). Other sources report counter indications: intestinal obstruction. Many reports suggest a yellowing of the skin in chronic users. "Chronic ingestion may lead to 'kawism' characterized by dry, flaking, discolored skin and reddened eyes." Persistent rumors suggest that overdoses can cause intoxication.. Commission E warns against the concomitant use of kava with barbituates, antidepressant medications, and CNS agents. Lactating or pregnant women should not use kava.

    • Piper nigrum (PIPERACEAE) Earache
    • Piper peltatum L. (Piperaceae). "Santa María". Leaves used as table cloths, to wrap food (RVM), and rubbed on the body as a tick repellent (DAW). Leaf decoction used as a diuretic, antipyretic, and emetic. The leaves passed over fire are applied directly on the head to relieve and reduce the swelling caused by trauma and hernias. Leaf poulticed onto sores (DAT). Believed anodyne, antiblennorrhagic, antiinflammatory, diuretic, lenitive, pediculicidal, piscicidal, resolvent, sudorific, vermifuge (JAD, RVM). "Créoles" use it as an antineuralgic, the leaf infusion as a sudorific (GMJ). Elsewhere used for abscesses, burns, colds, erysipelas, headache, hepatitis, leishmaniasis, swellings, toothache and urethritis (DAW).


  • Plantago major L. (PLANTAGINACEAE) (PLANTAIN FAMILY) "Plantain" "Common plantain" "Warak sabun masasah" "lisn al kalb" "barhanj" Gastrosis, Sore, Infection, Sore, Ulcer, Wound, Infection, Sore, Wound; Febrifuge. Abscess, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, tonic, ulcers.
  • Platycodi Radix (?) - Saponins in Platycodi Radix (platycosides) exhibit potent biological activities in mammalian systems, including several beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-obesity activities. In this study, we developed a new HPLC separation coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) for the simultaneous quantitative determination of ten major saponins in Platycodi Radix. PMID 17007864


  • Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. (POACEAE) (GRASS FAMILY) "Cogongrass" "Halfa" Rheumatism.
  • Stipa viridula Trin. (POACEAE) "Green needlegrass" -- PFAF: "The plant has a narcotic effect on the spinal cord and brain[192]."


  • Polygala japonica Houtt (Polygalaceae), a traditional Chinese herb, has been used as expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antidepressant agent. PMID 17158014


  • Calligonum comosum L'Herit (POLYGONACEAE) (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY) "'Abl" "'art" Toothache.
  • Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. "Giant Knotweed" "Hu Zhang" (POLYGONACEAE)(BUCKWHEAT FAMILY) Arthritis
    • Rumex vesicarius L. (POLYGONACEAE) (BUCKWHEAT FAMILY) "Hamid" "Humaid" "humayd" Antidote, vermifuge. Diarrhea, scorpion stings.


  • Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae). "Verdolaga", "Purslane". Crushed plant used for fever, stings, and swellings. Containing noradenaline, purslane might logically be rubbed onto beestings and/or placed under the tongue, especially of allergic people (JAD). "Créoles" prepare an antidiabetic, digestive, and emollient tea. Used by the Palikur as a hypotensive (GMJ) (but contains hypertensive compounds JAD). Elsewhere considered alexeritic, alterative, aperient, astringent, bactericidal, cardiotonic, demulcent, detergent, diuretic, emmolient, fungicidal, hemostat, refrigerant, sedative, vermifugal and viricidal; used folklorically for anthrax, bladder ailments, blenorrhagia, boils, bugbites, burns, colds, colic, dermatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, earache, eczema, edema, enterorrhagia, erysipeals, fever, gonorrhea, gravel, hematuria, hepatitis, herpes, hyperglycemia, hypotension, inflammation, insomnia, leucorrhea, nausea, nephritis, palpitations, piles, pleuritis, pruritis, snakebite, sores, splentitis, strangury, swellings, toothache, tumors,, warts and wounds DAW. A rather promising chemopreventive (="cancer-preventive") herb, loaded with antioxidants (JAD). Seeds of P. peruviana I.M. Johnston are considered emmenagogue and vermifuge. The shoot decoction, considered diuretic and cholagogue, is used for headache. Shoots are chopped and applied in pork fat to hemorrhoids (FEO).
  • Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce (MIMOSACEAE) (LEGUME FAMILY) "Ghf" Analgesic, antiseptic. Cataracts, dyspepsia, earache, rheumatism, scorpion stings, toothache, pain in bone fractures, wounds


  • Prunus laurocerasus L. (PRUNACEAE) "Cherry laurel" -- PFAF: "The fresh leaves are antispasmodic, narcotic and sedative[4, 7]. They are of value in the treatment of coughs, whooping cough, asthma, dyspepsia and indigestion[4, 238]. Externally, a cold infusion of the leaves is used as a wash for eye infections[238]. ... all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being[238]."


ACT: Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Expectorant; Nervine; Sedative IND: Arthritis, Dysmenorrhea; High Blood Pressure; Menopause; Menstrual Problems; PMS; Whooping Cough POS: 300-2,000 mg dry root; 40 mg herb in 40-60% ethanol; one 550 mg capsule 3x/day SEC: I got a nasty letter from some Germans apparently with an economic interest in cohosh, asking where I got the cautionary remarks from by 1985 CRC book. They must really be irritated by what follows Commission E reports occasional gastric complaints. Not to be used for more than 6 months. (AEHD) With prolonged use, may irritate the uterus, cause dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headaches, joint pains, and lowered heart rate. Can contribute to abnormal blood clotting and liver problems. Can encourage breast tumors. Should not be used by anyone with any type of heart disease or by anyone advised not to take oral contraceptives. Can cause premature labor. Should be used only under medical supervision. (TMA, 1996)

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Astringent; Digestive IND: Dermatitis; Earache; Eczema; Gastritis; Gingivitis; Laryngitis; Ringworm; Sore Throat POS: 2-4 ml (20-40 drops) tincture; 150-350 mg root 3x/day; 1-2 540 mg capsules 3x/day; one 470 mg STX 2x/day SEC: "goldenseal should not be taken for long periods of time" (Barney, 1996). The LRNP (June '87) is a bit stronger. Large doses of the plant may irritate the mouth and throat, and cause diarrhea, nausea, parathesia, and vomiting. "CNS stimulation and respiratory failure induced by the plant can be fatal." In higher doses hydrastine can cause convulsions, exaggerated reflexes, hypertension, and death from respiratory failure. (LRNP, but quoting an old old book). "No recent reports of the literature" (SF). May alter intestinal flora.


  • Ochradenus baccatus Del. (RESEDACEAE) (RESEDA FAMILY) "Gurdee" "qirdi" "qurdi" Stomach ache, stomach pains.
  • Reseda luteola L. (RESEDACEAE) "Weld" -- PFAF "Narcotic (mild)."


  • Ziziphus (RHAMNACEAE)
    • Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (RHAMNACEAE) "Jujube" -- PFAF: "...The dried fruits contain saponins, triterpenoids and alkaloids[279]. They are anodyne, anticancer, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic[4, 176, 218]. They are considered to purify the blood and aid digestion[240]. They are used internally in the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, pharyngitis, bronchitis, anaemia, irritability and hysteria[176, 238, 279]. The seed contains a number of medically active compounds including saponins, triterpenes, flavonoids and alkaloids[279]. It is hypnotic, narcotic, sedative, stomachic and tonic[147, 176, 218]. It is used internally in the treatment of palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night sweats and excessive perspiration[176, 238]. The root is used in the treatment of dyspepsia[218]. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of fevers[4, 240]. The root is made into a powder and applied to old wounds and ulcers[240]. The leaves are astringent and febrifuge[4, 218]. They are said to promote the growth of hair[218]. They are used to form a plaster in the treatment of strangury[240]. The plant is a folk remedy for anaemia, hypertonia, nephritis and nervous diseases[218]. The plant is widely used in China as a treatment for burns[218]."
    • Ziziphus spina-cristi (L.) Desf. (RHAMNACEAE) (BUCKTHORN FAMILY) "Christ-thorn" "Sidr" "sedr (tree)" "nabaq" "nabiq (fruit)" Analgesic, cleanser, tonic. Blisters, bruises, chest pains, dandruff, fractures, headache, mouth and gum problems, respiratory problems, rheumatism.



  • Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae). "Huito", "Huitol", "Jagua", "Genipap". Fresh fruit eaten for bronchitis; also used to make spiritous drinks. Cooking with brown sugar and aguardiente makes a nice dessert. Green fruit used to dye clothes, also used to paint and decorate their faces. Wood used in carpentry. Some people affirm that the fruit decoction is abortifacient. Don Antonio Montero claims that the strained fruit juice is good for cancer of the uterus. "Achuales" from Pastaza use the green pericarp to extract decayed teeth. "Achuales" and peasants near Iquitos cook the fruit and seeds; this decoction is use on baths for female genital inflammations. It also reduces swelling of the respiratory mucous membranes. "Kayapo" eat the fruit and use it to decorate their bodies. "Créoles" prepare a cathartic and antidiarrheic decoction; the same decoction is used in poultice to treat ulcers (GMJ). Haitians use for anemia, aphrodisia, blenorrhagia, diarrhea, gonorrhea, hepatoses, and tumors (DAW). Brazilians express the fruit juice, let stand overnight, and drink a small cup each day for 2 or 3 days for jaundice (BDC). Contains: genipin, mannitol, tannin, methyl-ethers, caterine, hydantoin, and tannic acid (RVM).
  • Mitragyna (RUBIACEAE)
  • Uncaria (RUBIACEAE)
    • Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel. (Rubiaceae) "Uña de gato", "Cat's claw", "Paraguayo", "Garabato", "Uña de gavilán", "Hawk's claw". In Piura, the bark decoction, considered antiinflammatory, antirheumatic, and contraceptive, is used in treating gastric ulcers and tumors (FEO). Considered a remedy for cancer of the female's urinary tract; also used for gastritis, rheumatism and cirrhosis. The "Boras" use it for gonorrhea (RVM). Colombian and Guianan Indians use it for dysentery (SAR). Nicole Maxwell culimates her latest edition with an illustrated anecdote about this plant, now exported by the tons to Europe, for various cancers. Nicole even states that it turns grey hair black, including some of her own (NIC). See following entry. "Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin is an herbal medicine from tropical areas of South and Central America. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of an ethanolic extract of U. guianensis leaves, containing alkaloids, flavonoids and phenol carboxylic acids, as revealed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Oral pre-treatment with U. guianensis inhibited zymosan-induced paw oedema (500 mg/paw) and pleural exudation (100 mg/kg) within 4 h (25-200 mg/kg). U. guianensis (100 mg/kg) inhibited total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers in the pleural cavity 4 h after zymosan stimulation. Pre-treatment with U. guianensis (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited total leukocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment into the pleural cavity 24 h after LPS (250 ng/cavity, i.t.). Pre-treatment with U. guianensis inhibited paw oedema (25-200 mg/kg) induced by ovalbumin (OVA) within 1 h, and neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment into the mice pleural cavity 24 h after OVA (100 mg/kg). In vitro data revealed that U. guianensis impaired LPS-induced nitric oxide and CXCL8 generation by murine peritoneal macrophages, as well as OVA-induced interleukin-5 synthesis by previously sensitized spleen cells. These results demonstrate that U. guianensis leaves provide effective anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities." PMID 16835713
    • Uncaria tomentosa (Aubl.) Gmel. (Rubiaceae). "Uña de gato", "Cat's claw", "Paraguayo", "Garabato", "Uña de gavilán", "Hawk's claw". Widely used in Peru for antiinflammatory, contraceptive, and cytostatic activities, the plant has yielded an antiinflammatory antiedemic glycoside (JNP54{2}:453. 1991). In Piura, the bark decoction, considered antiinflammatory, antirheumatic, and contraceptive, is used in treating gastric ulcers and tumors (FEO). In her latest edition, Nicole Maxwell (1990) has added much information which may reflect the potential of the cat's claw. She informs us that Sidney McDaniel submitted samples to the NIH cancer screen. -- CAT'S CLAW ++

ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antiviral; Immunostimulant IND: Arthritis; Gout; Immune Dysfunction; Indigestion; Inflammation; POS: 20-60 mg STX; 1 Tsp Decoction; 1-2 500 mg capsules 3x/day; two 505 mg STX capsules/day SEC: Too new to have much toxicity data, I think it as innocuous as coffee. But only time will tell. Foster cautions that, like other immunostimulants, including his favorite echinacea, cat's calw should be avoided in such immune disorders as HIV, multiple sclerosis, and tuberculosis. Not shown safe in children and lactating or pregnant women.


  • Citrus aurantifolia (L.) Swingle (RUTACEAE) (CITRUS FAMILY) "Lime" "Loomi" Cataracts, colds, fever, chest pains, earache, insect bites, jaundice, removing thorns, snakebites, stomachache, toothache.
  • Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) Fiori (RUTACEAE) (CITRUS FAMILY) "Tafer al tays" "kirkhan" "shajarat al baud" Abortifacient, analgesic, sedative, stimulant. Chest pains, dysmenorrhea, flatulence, gastrosis, hysteria, puerperium, rheumatism.
  • Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (RUTACEAE) (CITRUS FAMILY) "Amur Corktree" "Huang Bai" Infections; Inflammation -- used 2:1 with Coptis chinensis in RAH13 mixture (see below) PMID 17450506
    • Ruta chalepensis L. (RUTACEAE) (CITRUS FAMILY) "Sadab" "sadhb" "shadhab" "shathb" Analgesic, antirheumatic, aphrodisiac. Abdominal colic, headache, mental problems, rheumatism, snakebite, stomachache, wounds.
  • Zanthoxylum (RUTACEAE) Analgesic Anodyne


ACT: Analgesic; Antitinflammatory; Antipyretic; Astringent IND: Arthritis; Fever; Gout; Headache; Pain; Rheumatism; Toothache POS: 1-2 g bark (20-40 mg salicin), 1-3x/day; 2-3 380 mg/capsules every 3 hrs SEC: Commission E reports for oral use of bark, counter indications, adverse effects, and interactions: on theoretical grounds similar to those of the salicylates.

    • Salix discolor (SALICACEAE) "Pussy Willow" Bruises, Cancer, Cold, Nephrosis


  • Salvadora persica Garc. (SALVADORACEAE) (SALVADORA FAMILY) "Rak" "arak" "barr (fruit)" "miswak (twigs)" Laxative. Blisters, constipation, dysmenorrhea, scorpion stings, swelllings, ulcers.


  • Comandra pallida A.DC. (SANTALACEAE) (Pale bastard toadflax). PFAF: "The plant is narcotic[257]. A decoction has been used in the treatment of headaches and externally as a foot bath to treat corns[257]. The plant has been used to treat sore eyes and sores on the body and also as a mouth wash for canker sores[257]."
  • Santalum lanceolatum R.Br. (SANTALACEAE) -- PFAF: "Antirheumatic, narcotic, purgative[152]. It is also used in the treatment of boils, sores etc"
  • Viscum album L. (SANTALACEAE) "Mistletoe" -- PFAF: "Externally, the plant has been used to treat arthritis, rheumatism, chilblains, leg ulcers and varicose veins[238]." Internally, "narcotic, nervine, stimulant, tonic..." (otherwise unspecified).


  • Acer sp. (SAPINDACEAE) "White Maple" "Striped Maple" Cold, Congestion, Conjunctivitis, Swelling
  • Paullinia cupana HBK. (Sapindaceae). "Guaraná", "Cupana". Cultivated. Seed decoction an astringent, bitter, nervine tonic (FEO). From the seeds is prepared commercial guarana. Considered a preventive for arteriosclerosis, and an effective cardiovascular drug; also used to treat chronic diarrhea. Considered analgesic (MJB), aphrodisiac, astringent, febrifuge, intoxicant, piscicide, stimulant, and tonic; used for diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, migraine, neuralgia (DAW, RAR). Seeds contains >5% caffeine, cf tea with 2.2%, and toasted coffee with 0.8%, green coffee with 2.2% , and cacao with l.l% (RVM). Traces of theobromine and theophyllline also occur (Int. J. Pharmacogn. 31(3):174. 1993).
  • Aesculus (SAPINDACEAE)
    • Aesculus hippocastanum L. (SAPINDACEAE) (Horse Chestnut) - From PFAF: "...Alterative, analgesic, haemostatic and vulnerary[165, 218]. The bark is anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, narcotic, tonic and vasoconstrictive[4, 7, 222]. ... The plant is taken in small doses internally for the treatment of a wide range of venous diseases, including hardening of the arteries, varicose veins, phlebitis, leg ulcers, haemorrhoids and frostbite[238, 254]. It is also made into a lotion or gel for external application[254]. A tea made from the bark is used in the treatment of malaria and dysentery, externally in the treatment of lupus and skin ulcers[4, 222]. A tea made from the leaves is tonic and is used in the treatment of fevers and whooping cough[222, 240, 254]. The pericarp is peripherally vasoconstrictive[7]. The seeds are decongestant, expectorant and tonic[7, 21]. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia and haemorrhoids[4]. They are said to be narcotic and that 10 grains of the nut are equal to 3 grains of opium[213]. An oil extracted from the seeds has been used externally as a treatment for rheumatism[254]. A compound of the powdered roots is analgesic and has been used to treat chest pains[257]."
    • Aesculus indica L. (SAPINDACEAE) (Indian horse chestnut) - From PFAF: "The seed is astringent, acrid and narcotic[272]. An oil from the seed is applied externally in the treatment of skin disease and rheumatism[240, 243, 272]. The juice of the bark is also used to treat rheumatism[272]. A paste made from the oil cake is applied to the forehead to relieve headaches[272]. The seed is given to horses suffering from colic[240, 243]..."
  • Aletris farinosa L. (Unicorn root) - From PFAF: "...used in the treatment of diarrhoea, rheumatism and jaundice[222]. The root is bitter, diuretic, narcotic and tonic[1, 21, 46, 213]. Only use the dried rootstock[21], in large doses the fresh root is somewhat narcotic, emetic and cathartic[4]. ... The root contains diosgenin, which has both anti-inflammatory and oestrogenic properties[222]. A tea of the leaves has been used in the treatment of colic, stomach disorders, dysentery and bloody dysentery[213, 257]."
  • Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. (SAPINDACEAE) (GUARANA FAMILY) "Hopshrub" "Shhs" Toothache.


  • Verbascum thapsus L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE) "Great mullein" -- PFAF:"Great mullein is a commonly used domestic herbal remedy, valued for its efficacy in the treatment of pectoral complaints[4]. It acts by reducing the formation of mucus and stimulating the coughing up of phlegm, and is a specific treatment for tracheitis and bronchitis[254]. The leaves and the flowers are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and vulnerary[4, 7, 13, 21, 46, 53, 165, 222]. An infusion is taken internally in the treatment of a wide range of chest complaints and also to treat diarrhoea[4, 238]... Externally, a poultice of the leaves is a good healer of wounds and is also applied to ulcers, tumours and piles[4, 222, 254]... An infusion of the flowers in olive oil is used as earache drops, or as a local application in the treatment of piles and other mucous membrane inflammations[4, 222, 238]. This infusion is also strongly bactericidal[4]. A decoction of the roots is said to alleviate toothache and also relieve cramps and convulsions[4]. The juice of the plant and powder made from the dried roots is said to quickly remove rough warts when rubbed on them[4]. It is not thought to be so useful for smooth warts[4]. The seeds are slightly narcotic and also contain saponins[4]. A poultice made from the seeds and leaves is used to draw out splinters[4]. A decoction of the seeds is used to soothe chilblains and chapped skin[7]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh leaves[4]. It is used in the treatment of long-standing headaches accompanied with oppression of the ear[4]."


ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Diuretic; Steroid-Precursor Starter material for progesterone, testosterone and other steroids IND: Psoriasis; Steroids used for arthritis, dysmenorrhea, menopause PMS POS: 1-4 g powdered root; two 455mg capsules 2-3x/day. I'd feel safe with 10-30 g dry root in 3 cups tea or sarsaparilla per day. SEC: Commission E reports for the root that gastric and renal toxicity as well as drug interactions are possible.


  • Atropa (SOLANACEAE)
    • Atropa acuminata Royle. ex Lindley.(SOLANACEAE) - Indian belladonna. PFAF: "very similar uses to the related deadly nightshade (A. bella-donna)... All parts of the plant are analgesic, antidote, antispasmodic, diuretic, hallucinogenic, mydriatic, narcotic and sedative"
    • Atropa bella-donna L. (SOLANACEAE) If you're looking this up, you're on the wrong side of the bar.
  • Brugmansia: (SOLANACEAE) "Angel's Trumpet" listed for headaches may be any spp. of this or Datura.
  • Capsicum spp. (SOLANACEAE) "Cayenne" ++ OTC

ACT: Analgesic; Carminative; Circulatory Stimulant; Diaphoretic; Spasmolytic IND: Arthritis (Pain); Herpes Zoster; Indigestion; Pain; Tennis Elbow; Varicose Veins POS: Topical STX usually contain 0.25-0.75% capsaicin; 0.5-1 tsp dry fruit/cup water; 2-3 155 mg capsules 3x/day; 1 STX 450 mg capsule 3x/day SEC: Commission E reports counter indications of damaged skin, hypersensitivity and adverse effects of irritant properties; rarely allergic reactions. Not to be used for more than 2 days.

  • Caralluma aucheriana (Decne.) N.E. Br. (Apocynaceae)? (ASCLEPIADACEAE) (MILKWEED FAMILY) "Dij" Emollient, hepatic. Burns, sunburn, itchy skin, liver problems.
  • Datura (SOLANACEAE) Anodyne
    • Datura inoxia Mill. (SOLANACEAE) "Downy Thorn Apple" -- PFAF: "All parts of the plant are anodyne, antispasmodic, hallucinogenic, hypnotic and narcotic[192, 240]. It has been used in the past as a pain killer and also in the treatment of insanity, fevers with catarrh, diarrhoea and skin diseases[240]. The plant contains several alkaloids, the most active of which is scopolamine[240]. This is a potent cholinergic-blocking hallucinogen, which has been used to calm schizoid patients[213]. The leaves contain 0.52% scopolamine, the calices 1.08%, the stems 0.3%, the roots 0.39%, the fruits 0.77%, the capsules 0.33%, the seeds 0.44% and the whole plant 0.52 - 0.62%[240]. Any use of this plant should be with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner since the toxic dose is very close to the medicinal dose."
    • Datura metel L. (SOLANACEAE) (POTATO FAMILY) "Downy thorn-apple" "Hindu datura" "Benj" "murhn" "mang" Analgesic, sedative. Asthma, epilepsy.
  • Datura quercifolia Kunth. (SOLANACEAE) "Oak Leaf Datura" -- PFAF: Fruit can be eaten "ground up and mixed with clay[161] ( the clay probably has a neutralizing effect on the toxins). ... A stupefying beverage is made from the leaves and roots[161]. The whole plant is narcotic[200]. It has been used in the past to deaden pain, treat insomnia etc." Like all Datura, most hazardous.
    • Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae) "Chamico", "Jimsonweed". Chopped leaves are applied to dermatitis, the decoction used as an antiseptic in vaginitis (FEO). PFAF: "The thornapple is a bitter narcotic plant that relieves pain and encourages healing[238]. It has a long history of use as a herbal medicine, though it is very poisonous and should be used with extreme caution. The leaves, flowering tops and seeds are anodyne, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, hallucinogenic, hypnotic, mydriatic and narcotic[1, 4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 46, 165, 238, 240]. The seeds are the most active medicinally[4]. The plant is used internally in the treatment of asthma and Parkinson's disease, excess causes giddiness, dry mouth, hallucinations and coma[238]. Externally, it is used as a poultice or wash in the treatment of fistulas, abscesses wounds and severe neuralgia[238, 257]... The leaves have been smoked as an antispasmodic in the treatment for asthma, though this practice is extremely dangerous[213, 222]. The seeds are used in Tibetan medicine, they are said to have a bitter and acrid taste with a cooling and very poisonous potency[241]. Analgesic, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory, they are used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal pain due to worm infestation, toothache and fever from inflammations[241]. The juice of the fruit is applied to the scalp to treat dandruff[243]."
  • Hyoscyamus (SOLANACEAE) (Familiar anaesthetics; POISONOUS) PFAF provides interesting detail.
    • Hyoscyamus albus L. (SOLANACEAE) "White henbane" -- L. PFAF: "Henbane has a very long history of use as a medicinal herb, and has been widely cultivated to meet the demand for its use[4]. It is used extensively as a sedative and pain killer and is specifically used for pain affecting the urinary tract, especially when due to kidney stones[254]. Its sedative and antispasmodic effect makes it a valuable treatment for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, relieving tremor and rigidity during the early stages of the disease[254]. This species is generally considered the best for internal use, whilst the black henbane (H. niger) is the form most used externally[4]. All parts of the plant, but especially the leaves and the seeds, can be used - they are anodyne, antispasmodic, mildly diuretic, hallucinogenic, hypnotic, mydriatic, narcotic and sedative[4, 9, 13, 21, 100, 165, 192, 218]. The plant is used internally in the treatment of asthma, whooping cough, motion sickness, Meniere's syndrome, tremor in senility or paralysis and as a pre-operative medication[238]. Henbane reduces mucous secretions, as well as saliva and other digestive juices[254]. Externally, it is used as an oil to relieve painful conditions such as neuralgia, dental and rheumatic pains[238, 254].... The seed is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, epilepsy, myalgia and toothache[218]."
    • Hyoscyamus niger L. (SOLANACEAE) "black henbane" = "henbane" PFAF: as above, but also, "The seeds are used in Tibetan medicine, they are said to have a bitter, acrid taste with a neutral and poisonous potency[241]. Anthelmintic, antitumor and febrifuge, they are used in the treatment of stomach/intestinal pain due to worm infestation, toothache, inflammation of the pulmonary region and tumours[241]."
  • Mandragora officinalis L. (SOLANACEAE) "Mandrake" -- Already listed.
  • Nicotiana (SOLANACEAE)
    • Nicotiana rustica L. (SOLANACEAE) "Wild tobacco" -- PFAF: "All parts of the plant contain nicotine which is a strong narcotic[192]. The leaves are antispasmodic, cathartic, emetic, narcotic and sedative[240, 257]. They are used externally as a poultice and a wash in the treatment of rheumatic swelling, skin diseases and scorpion stings[240]."
  • Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae). "Tabaco", "Tobacco". Cultivated. The black tobacco "mapacho or siricaipe", is smoked during the ayahuasca, witchcraft, healing, and cleansing rituals; the pitch left from the smoke is picked up on a piece of paper and applied on the skin to kill worms. Powdered tobacco is mixed with aguardiente and given to dogs to make them better hunters. "Créoles" mixed the dried leaves with Scoparia dulcis leaves, while the "Wayãpi" use the pitch, to suffocate the larvae of the worm "macaco", Dermatobia hominis (Euterebrides), parasites which live in the skin of humans and dogs. "Palikur" poultice it onto migraine headaches; it is also used as a cholagogue to treat liver diseases. One drop of tobacco juice makes a strong collyrium (GMJ). "Bora" and "Witoto" poultice fresh leaves onto boils and infected wounds (SAR). "Jivaro" take tobacco juice for chills, indisposition and snakebite (SAR). "Tukanoan" rub the leaf decoction onto bruise and sprains (SAR). Many Indian groups used it for lung ailments (SAR). In Piura the leaf decoction is applied externally for parasites and rheumatism. -- also "drowning, earache" -- PFAF: "The leaves are antispasmodic, discutient, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, irritant, narcotic, sedative and sialagogue[4, 192, 213]. They are used externally in the treatment of rheumatic swelling, skin diseases and scorpion stings[240].... Wet tobacco leaves can be applied to stings in order to relieve the pain[213]. They are also a certain cure for painful piles[4]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the dried leaves[232]. It is used in the treatment of nausea and travel sickness[232]."
  • Scopolia carniolica Jacq. (SOLANACEAE) "Scopolia" -- PFAF: "The dried root is hypnotic, mydriatic and narcotic[4, 46, 61]. It causes a sleep that resembles normal sleep[4]. The medicinal activity of this plant resembles belladonna (Atropa belladonna) but it is more narcotic[46]. It is used internally in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, stomach ache and manic-depressive states[238]. .. The root is harvested in the autumn and normally processed for extraction of the alkaloids which are used in the pharmaceutical industry[238]."
  • Solanum (SOLANACEAE)
    • Solanum dulcamara L.(SOLANACEAE) "Bittersweet" -- PFAF: "Bittersweet is a poisonous plant that has a long history of use in the treatment of skin diseases, warts, tumours, felons etc[238]... All parts of the plant are alterative, anodyne, depurative, mildly diuretic, emetic, expectorant, hepatic, mildly narcotic and purgative[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 165]. The dried stem, usually collected in the autumn and preferably from the ends of branches 2 - 3 years old, is the part that is most valued medicinally, though the leaves are also used[4]. The plant is chiefly used as an alterative when taken internally in the treatment of a range of skin diseases, it is also used in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis and jaundice[4, 218, 238]. Externally, the plant is used to treat skin eruptions, ulcers, rheumatism and cellulite[238] ... A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh, green, still pliant stems and leaves, harvested as the plant begins to flower[232]. This is used in treating a variety of complaints including backaches, cough, diarrhoea, eye inflammations and joint pains[232]."
    • Solanum incanum L. (POTATO FAMILY) SOLANINE -- (SOLANACEAE) (POTATO FAMILY) "Bitter Apple" "'Ain al baqar" "'arsam" "'arsan" "hadaq" "mazg" "mazj" "helkem" "nuqum" Bruised fingers, dyspepsia, earache, flatulence, hemorrhoids, toothache, ulcers, weeping wounds.
    • Solanum mammosum L. (SOLANACEAE). "Vaca chucho", "Tinctona", "Breast berry". Used as an ornamental; fruit said to be POISONOUS. "Boras" use it to treat the sores of leishmaniasis, a worm infection (DAT). "Chocó" (JAD) and the "Chami" use the fruit to kill cockroaches (CAA). "Cuna" use fruit macerated in hot water for growths on the breast (doctrine of signatures?). In Tolima and Santander seeds are used as insecticides (FOR). Guatemalans use fruits as medicine and ornament during pilgrimages. In Costa Rica, the leaf decoction is used for kidney and bladder infections. The decoction of the fruit with all its juice is used for asthma; plant also used for sinusitis, arthritis and rheumatism (POV). "Kofán" use as a pacifier for small children (SAR).
    • Solanum nigrum L. "Black nightshade" (POTATO FAMILY) SOLANINE, SOLASODINE --(SOLANACEAE) (POTATO FAMILY) "Black nightshade" "'Anab al deeb" "mejaje" "'enab el deeb" "'anamnam" Expectorant. Bruised fingers, burns, cholecocystitis, fever, gonorrhea, nephrosis, stomachache, skin ulcers. -- PFAF: "The whole plant is antiperiodic, antiphlogistic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, narcotic, purgative and sedative[4, 21, 145, 147, 192, 218]. It is harvested in the autumn when both flowers and fruit are upon the plant, and is dried for later use[4]. Use with caution[21], see notes above on toxicity. The leaves, stems and roots are used externally as a poultice, wash etc in the treatment of cancerous sores, boils, leucoderma and wounds[218, 257]. Extracts of the plant are analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator[218]. The plant has been used in the manufacture of locally analgesic ointments and the juice of the fruit has been used as an analgesic for toothaches[7]."
    • Solanum scabrum Mill. (SOLANACEAE) "Garden huckleberry" -- PFAF: "The whole plant is antiperiodic, antiphlogistic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, narcotic, purgative and sedative[4, 21, 145, 147, 192, 218]. ... The leaves, stems and roots are used in the treatment of cancerous sores, leucoderma and wounds[218]. Extracts of the plant are analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator[218]. The plant has been used in the manufacture of locally analgesic ointments and the juice of the fruit has been used as an analgesic for toothaches[7]."
  • Sophora segundiflora (Ortega)Lag. ex DC. (SOLANACEAE) -- PFAF "Hallucinogenic, narcotic[82, 161, 192]. An infusion of the seeds is used[192, 200], half a seed is enough to produce intoxication[192]. An infusion of the ground up seed has also been applied to ears in the treatment of earaches[213, 257]. The seeds contain the highly poisonous alkaloid ... sophorine... - this substance is related to nicotine and acts violently in the human system[213]." (the PFAF original contains an apparent error).
  • Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (SOLANACEAE) (POTATO FAMILY) (Ashwaghanda in India) "Bbu" "suml far" "haml balbul" "'ebab" "gengeneh" "'ubab" Sedative. Burns, infertility, scorpion stings, snakebites, sunburn, swellings, wounds. -- PFAF: "Ashwagandha is one of the most widespread tranquillisers used in India, where it holds a position of importance similar to ginseng in China[238]. It acts mainly on the reproductive and nervous systems, having a rejuvenative effect on the body, and is used to improve vitality and aid recovery after chronic illness[238, 254]... The whole plant, but especially the leaves and the root bark, are abortifacient, adaptogen, antibiotic, aphrodisiac, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, strongly sedative and tonic[169, 192, 238, 240]. Internally, it is used to tone the uterus after a miscarriage and also in treating post-partum difficulties[192]. It is also used to treat nervous exhaustion, debility, insomnia, wasting diseases, failure to thrive in children, impotence, infertility, multiple sclerosis etc[238]. Externally it has been applied as a poultice to boils, swellings and other painful parts[192, 240]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. Some caution is advised in the use of this plant since it is toxic[K]. The fruit is diuretic[240]. The seed is diuretic and hypnotic[240]." -- crude ethanol extract inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12p40 in normal individuals and rheumatoid arthritis patients; suppresses LPS induced nitric oxide in mouse macrophage cell line; affects I-kB phosphorylation/NF-kB, AP-1 translocation. withanolide partially responsible but "may yield potentially useful compounds" from other constituents (Jun 2007) PMID 17562568


  • Tamarix aphylla (L.) G. Karsten (TAMARICACEAE) (TAMARIX FAMILY) "Athel tamarisk" "Athal" "tarfa" "terfa" "terfel" Childbirth, fever, headache, sores, wounds.


  • Taxus bacchata L. (Taxaceae) "Yew" -- PFAF: (Highly toxic causing cardiac paralysis, but:) "All parts of the plant, except the fleshy fruit, are antispasmodic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, narcotic and purgative[7, 21]. The leaves have been used internally in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hiccup, indigestion, rheumatism and epilepsy[240, 257]. Externally, the leaves have been used in a steam bath as a treatment for rheumatism[257]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the young shoots and the berries[4]. It is used in the treatment of many diseases including cystitis, eruptions, headaches, heart and kidney problems, rheumatism etc[4]."


  • Typha domingensis Pers. (TYPHACEAE) (CATTAIL FAMILY) "Totora" "Barda" "nataf" Coolant, soothing agent. Burns.


  • Ulmus davidiana Nakai. / Ulmis davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) - Used to heal inflammatory diseases in Korean herbal medicine. UDN glycoprotein (116-kDa). Blocks NF-kB, AP-1 binding in EMSA/Western blot analysis, iNOS, COX-2, MMP-9 activity. PMID 17459574. -- Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) has long been known to have anti-inflammatory and protective effects on damaged tissue, inflammation and bone among other functions. To treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a herbal medicine, Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) extract (UD) is being used in traditional oriental medicine. UD at concentrations ranged from 30 to 100 microg/ml inhibited prostaglandin E2 production in MC3T3-E1. [also stimulates osteoblast proliferation] PMID 17030479 -- "Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) (UD) long has been known to have anti-inflammatory and protective effects on damaged tissue, inflammation, and bone among other functions" [bone mineralization study] PMID 16948504



  • Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew. (Urticaceae). "Ishanga blanca", "White nettle". Commonly used to relieve rheumatic pains, and to whip children when they misbehave. Used by the "Créoles" as a diuretic (GMJ). Elsewhere used for burns, constipation, dysentery, rickets, and wounds (DAW).
  • Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud. (Urticaceae). "Ishanga Moe", "Mara mara","Stinging nettle". The stinging hairs on the leaves are used to relieve rheumatic pains. "Chami" cook and eat the leaves and stems after removing the thorns (CAA). Around Pucallpa, applied to the body for persistent fever (VDF). Elsewhere considered diuretic, rubefacient and vesicant; used for amenorrhea, arthritis, chills, fever, gonorrhea, leucorrhea, malaria, rheumatism and venereal diseases (DAW). One M.D. speculated that the acetylcholine, choline and histamine injected with the stings, would stimulate the production of mast cells which might in turn result in antiinflammatory (and antiarthritic) activity, away from the sting.
  • Urtica dioica (URTICACEAE) "nettle" +++ OTC

ACT: Antiasthmatic; Astringent; CNS-Depressant; Diuretic; Histaminic; Hypotensive; Nutritive; Tonic IND: Arthritis; Asthma; Diarrhea; Hayfever; Nephrosis; Osteoporosis; Prostatitis; Rheumatism POS: 8-10 g dry herb/day; 4-6 g root/day; 1-2 480 mg capsules 2-3x/day; 1-2 480 STX capsules 1-2 x/day SEC: Occasional mild GI-complaints after root ingestion. The urtication can be painful and long-lasting, in some inducing a black-and-blue reaction. No fatalities are reported in the US. -- For comprehensive review ("some anti-inflammatory properties", "clinical evidence beyond doubt is lacking") see PMID 17493795


  • Lantana petitiana A. Rich (VERBENACEAE) (VERBENA FAMILY) "Sa'af" Abdominal colic.
  • Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich). Vahl. (Verbenaceae). "Ocollucuy sacha", "Sacha verbena". The stems and leaves are soaked in some water, squeezed and mixed, the greenish extract drunk, one glass a day, for three consecutive months for diabetes (AYA). UHV natives use the plant in medicine for their dogs (RAF). "Créoles" use the leaf tea as a cholagogue purgative for dysentery. "Wayãpi" and "Palikur" use the plant decoction in baths to relieve colds and headaches (GMJ). Venezuelans have used it for tumors, Dominicans as a panacea, and Trinidadians as a collyrium and depurative in chest colds, dysentery, fever, heart attacks, ophthalmia and worms (DAW).



ACT: Antiinflammatory; Antilymphomic; Antitumor IND: Arthritis, Lymph Gland Dysfunction; Rheumatism POS: 1,200 mg curcumin; one 445 mg STX capsule 2-3 x/day SEC: While in moderate doses, turmeric is said to inhibit cancers, lymphomas and ulcers, overdoses of curcuminoids may possibly be cytotoxic and ulcerogenic and may lead to dimunition of red and white corpuscles. Still Comm. E approves 1.5-3 g/day, not nearly enough to provide 1,200 mg curcumin. Commission E also reports counterindications: biliary obstruction, adverse effects: GI-irritation from continued use. -- Curcumin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (occurring as the yellow pigment found in the rhizomes... has emerged as the newest "nutraceutical" agent... [prevents 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modification of proteins] PMID 17116380.

  • Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Zingiberaceae) "Ginger" "Jengibre", "Kión". Cultivated. Macerated rhizomes in aguardiente for arthritis and rheumatism; believed to invigorate males. Rhizome decoction used for diarrhea, and, with a pinch of cinnamon, stomachaches. Also used as an antiflatulent and spice. "Palikur" poultice the rhizomes onto migraine headaches (GMJ). Used also for bronchitis and rheumatic pains (RVM). Tramil reports that oral doses of 50-100 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract have antiinflammatory activity comparable to aspirin, and not so promising analgesic activity. The extract is active against gram negative and positive bacteria. Gingerol and shogoal show molluscicidal activity (TRA). Furanogermenone, at oral doses of 500 mg/kg helps prevent gastric ulcer. Shogoal is intensely antitussive, compared to dihydrocodeine (TRA). One gram of powdered ginger can prevent seasickness (JAD). Tramil all but recommends it for colds, coughs, flu, stomachache and vomiting (TRA). Rio Tapajos women drink the tea while in labor, giving the "baby the strength to come out" (BDS). They also take the tea for colic, menstrual cramps, sore throat. --- GINGER +++ OTC

ACT: Antiemetic; Antiinflammatory; Carminative; Spasmolytic IND: Arthritis; Cramps; Dizziness; Indigestion; Morning & Motion Sickness; Nausea POS: 3-10 g fresh ginger; or 2-4 g dry ginger/day; three 550 mg capsules 3 x day (NH); one 480mg STX 2x/day SEC: Perhaps erring on the side of caution, Reichert cautions that ginger may raise the bloodpressure, may amplify blood-thinning drug's activities, and might be counter indicated in pregnancy. The Lawrence Review says overdoses may cause cardiac arrhythmias and CNS-depression. Due to ginger's strong antiaggregant activity, "experts recommend it not be used by people with blood-clotting disorders. Many ... chemotherapy patients experience periods when their blood platelet counts drop dramatically....Doctors will warn patients to avoid aspirin when their platelet counts are low ... We feel that patients should also avoid ginger when their platelet count drops, while continuing use of ginger for patients with normal platelet counts." (Block, 1996) Less conservatively, Commission E reports rhizome should not be used for vomiting in pregnancy. --- Ginger is known for its ethno-botanical applications as an anti-inflammatory agent. 6-gingerol is one of the active ingredients of ginger that imparts ginger with its anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-gingerol is because of inhibition of macrophage activation, more specifically by an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antigen presentation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated macrophages... we measured the liberation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-12 by murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to several doses of 6-gingerol in the presence of LPS stimulation [which it inhibited] .... but had no effect on the LPS-induced [surface] expression of B7.1, B7.2, and MHC II. The APC function of LPS stimulated macrophages was also unaffected by 6-gingerol treatment... 6-gingerol... may be useful to treat inflammation without interfering with the antigen presenting function of macrophages. PMID 17291534


  • Fagonia indica Burm. f. (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) (CALTROPS FAMILY) "Sheka'a" Abdominal colic, dyspepsia, eye problems, fever, kidney stones, liver pain, malaria, spleen pain, venereal diseases.
  • Fagonia schweinfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) (CALTROPS FAMILY) "Otot" "derma" "lekob" Ear infections, infections, venereal diseases.
  • Peganum harmala L. (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) (CALTROPS FAMILY) "African rue" "Harmal" "khiyys" Analgesic, anthelmintic, narcotic. Gastrosis, kidney stones, rheumatism, worms. -- PFAF: "... seed has narcotic properties, inducing a sense of euphoria and releasing inhibitions[169]... The fruit and seed are digestive, diuretic, hallucinogenic, narcotic and uterine stimulant[192, 238]. They are taken internally in the treatment of stomach complaints, urinary and sexual disorders, epilepsy, menstrual problems, mental and nervous illnesses[238]. The seed has also been used as an anthelmintic in order to rid the body of tapeworms[240]... The seeds contain the substance 'harmine' which is being used in research into mental disease, encephalitis and inflammation of the brain[192]. Small quantities stimulate the brain and are said to be therapeutic, but in excess harmine depresses the central nervous system[192]. A crude preparation of the seed is more effective than an extract because of the presence of related indoles[192]. Consumption of the seed in quantity induces a sense of euphoria and releases inhibitions. It has been used in the past as a truth drug[169, 187]. The oil obtained from the seed is said to be aphrodisiac[192]. The oil is also said to have galactogogue, ophthalmic, soporific and vermifuge properties[192]. The seed is used externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids and baldness[238]. The whole plant is said to be abortifacient, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue and galactogogue[240]. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism[240]. The root has been used as a parasiticide in order to kill body lice[240]. It is also used internally in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous conditions[254]."
  • Zygophyllum propinquum Decne. (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) (CALTROPS FAMILY) "Harm" Anodyne, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, diuretic. Asthma, cough, rheumatism, worms.

In process[edit]

  • Rhizoma coptidis (???) Chinese medicine - "Control data demonstrates significant translocation of NFkappaB into the nucleus after stimulation with TNF-alpha. This translocation can be inhibited, and hence anti-inflammatory effects inferred, by RCE but not by berberine." PMID 16939707.
  • Evodiae ? - "Fructus Evodiae is a widely used herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory and analgetic activities in China. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Fructus Evodiae water extract (FE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats ... results suggested that FE prevented ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions by strengthening the mucosal barrier integrity and increasing gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO) synthesis." PMID 17163591
  • Etada Anodyne ?is this Entada abyssinica?


Bakumondo-to - a Kampo medicine. Consists of Ophiopogonis tuber, Pinelliae tuber, Zizyphi fructus, Glycyrrhizae radix, Ginseng radix, and Oryzae fructus. Airway inflammation study showed "has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory, secretory-modulating, and metabolic regulatory actions. All of its actions are based on the restoration of normal molecular and cellular functions through DNA transcriptional regulation." Reviewed in PMID 17287592 (Free fulltext) DRF/AY/4012 ... induced a dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammatory models (carrageenin and egg-albumin induced rat hind paw edema). It also elicited promising anti-inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory models (cotton pellet granuloma and Freund's adjuvant induced polyarthritis in rats). Further, the product inhibited the increased level of serum lysosomal enzyme activity viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and the lipid peroxidation in liver. In Freund's adjuvant induced polyarthritis, herbal product reduced the increased level of hydroxy proline, hexosamine and total protein content in edematous tissue. The product also exhibited mild to moderate analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing in mice. PMID:17373374

  • Chunghyul-dan - "has anti-hyperlipidemic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and anti-atherogenic effects. " [ improved arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity] PMID 16883627.
  • Dysmo-off - evaluated against diclofenac in dysmenorrhea. PMID 17135158
  • Gingyo-san (GGS): "mice were challenged with intratracheal LPS before treatment with GGS or vehicle. In lung morphology, GGS reduced the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the airways, decreased pulmonary edema, reduced nitrosative stress, and improved lung morphology. ELISA or RT-PCR detected the expression of cytokines in BALF and lung tissue. The mechanism of these benefits by treatment with GGS including attenuating expression TNFalpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, iNOS, and activation of nuclear factor (NF-kappaB and AP-1) in BALF and lung tissue. Particularly, GGS also enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and limited the acute lung inflammation." PMID 17276022
  • Gigukjiwhangwhangami (GJWGM) is an oriental medicine, which consist of 13 different

herbs. GJWGM can be hot water-extracted from the herb medicines. Other studies have reported that each herb medicine has a different effect. Some examples includes; Radix rehmanniae preparat has an anti-inflammatory activity in the CNS through the suppression of TNF- a secretion in LPS-stimulated astrocytes; Rhizoma dioscorea has an effect in rheumatoid arthritis through the inhibition of the production of TNF- a and IL-1 b as well as down-regulating the expression of cyclooxygenase-2; Poria cocos has an antiinflammation activity in arachidonic acid-induced ear inflammation in mice; and Fructus lycii has beneficial effects in the treatment of the immunodeficient diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. GJWGM is composed on the basis of the theory of Korean medicine to maximize its efficacy. ... We showed that GJWGM inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- a, interleukin (IL)-1 a, IL-6, and IL-8 induced by LPS in dose dependent manner (p 0.05). Maximal inhibition rate of TNF- a, IL-1 b, IL-6 and IL-8 production by GJWGM was about 54.34%, 41.37%, 44.04%, and 54.46%, respectively. GJWGM inhibited the TNF- aand IL-8 mRNA expression. In addition, we showed that the inhibitory mechanism of GJWGM is through the suppression of NF- kB pathway" PMID 17077523 (Free fulltext)

  • goshuyuto Kampo medicine; used "for prevention of migraine" PMID 17030300
  • HemoHIM - new herbal preparation. mixture of water extract and ethanol-insoluble polysaccharides from Angelica root, Cnidii rhizome, Paeonia root. [presumed translations were made here - should revert] Tested by carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and found to have a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID 17486680.
  • Hochuekkitio - "improves systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" PMID 17302677.
  • Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) - Classic Chinese herbal formula, "commonly used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of joint pain and other symptoms of arthritis ... Compared to the control, HLXL at the two lower dosages (0.575 g/kg and 1.15 g/kg) were effective in the later stage (day 5) of inflammatory hyperalgesia and edema, while the two higher dosages (2.3 g/kg and 4.6 g/kg) alleviated early stage hind paw inflammation and hyperalgesia and facilitated recovery from paw edema and hyperalgesia during the late stage. HLXL at 2.30 g/kg significantly suppressed Fos expression in laminae I-II, III-IV and V-VI ipsilaterally and in III-IV contralaterally. No significant signs of toxicity or adverse effects were observed. The data suggest that HLXL dosage-dependently attenuates CFA-induced inflammation and hyperalgesia, at least in part by inhibiting noxious transmission at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord." PMID 17080548
  • Iberogast - see STW 5
  • unnamed Kampo medicine = It is a spray-/freeze-dried extract from seven medicinal herbs (Bupleurum falcatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Panax ginseng, Pinellia ternate, Scutellaria baicalensis, Zizyphus jujube and Zingiber officinale). Many clinical and experimental studies demonstrated that SST has a variety of therapeutic effects ranging from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant immunomodulating to hepatoprotective, especially on chronic hepatitis. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis of pharmacologically active ingredients in SST indicated that the major fractions of SST contain compounds of flavonoid-like structures (e.g. baicalin, baicalein, liquiritin) and triterpene saponins (GL, saikosaponins b1 & b2, ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1) [55] (Figure 4). Comparative experiments showed that the liver concentrations of the active constituents of SST extract in the liver-injured rats increased significantly after the animals received SST extract, as compared with the groups receiving the respective purified constituents. Thus, administration of SST extract was more useful than that of its active ingredients individually [56]. PMID 17490493
  • Orengedokuto = a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, alleviates enteropathy from other antiinflammatory drugs i.e. COX inhibitors. (80% vs 15% lethality, indomethacin in mice) PMID 17329845.

Ephedra sinica STAPF, Citrus unshiu MARKOVICH, [[Lindera strichnifolia ]]VILLARS, Zingiber officinale ROSCOE, [[Cnidium officinale]] MAKINO, Angelica dahurica BENTHAM et HOOKER, Bombyx mori LINNE, Citrus aurantum LINNE, [[Playtcodon grandiflorum]] A. DE CANDOLLE, Zizyphus jujuba MILLER, and Glycyrrhiza glabra LINNE; used in stroke; affects cytokine production from LPS- and PHA- stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from stroke patients (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 down; TGF-beta1 up) PMID 17541150 (note that this shares three herbs with the "Kampo medicine" above)

  • Qingxie-dan = see Chunghyul-dan
  • RAH13 Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (Rutaceae) cortex and Coptis chinensis Franch. (Ranunculaceae) rhizome, 2:1 ratio, combined ethanol extract. Based on traditional Asian medicine and in vitro expression data. Acute (Croton oil ear edema test, acetic acid-induced capillary permeability test) and chronic (cotton pellet test and delayed-type hypersensitivity test) inflammation was prevented at 200 mg/kg with effects as potent as 100 g/l celecoxib or 1 mg/kg dexamethasone. PMID 17450506.
  • San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang - primary ingredient baicalin - anti-inflammatory, affecting Helicobacter pylori induced iNOS, IL-8, NF-kB translocation, COX-2 enhancement. PMID 17537603.
  • Sairei-to - "The conventional approach for management of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF), an inflammatory process of retroperitoneal fibro-adipose tissue, leading to the compression and obstruction of the ureters and other adjacent organs is ureterolysis with omental wrapping, and an effective alternative to surgery is immunosupressive medication such as oral corticosteroids. Sairei-to (TJ-114) is a traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment of RF in Japan. It has both anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Here we report two cases of RF successfully treated with Sairei-to." PMID 16910587
  • "Sasim, a prescription composed of seven herbal mixtures, has been widely used for the treatment of cerebral infarction as an oriental medicine in Korea." Strongly suppressed secretion of TNFalpha/IL-1beta/IL-6 in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated THP-1 differentiated macrophage-like cells (T/M) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cerebral infarct patients at 24h after stimulation. (Suppression at the transcriptional level) PMID 17349756.
  • senkyuchachosan - Kampo medicine used "as a painkiller" in migraine. PMID 17030300
  • STW 5 - chemical constituents reviewed; multiple targets; overadditive vs. additive effect. PMID 16926095.
  • Triphala - Ayurvedic medicine for arthritis; inhibits changes in lysosomal enzymes, tissue marker enzymes, glycoproteins, and paw thickness to near normal conditions after Freund's complete adjuvant paw injection at 1 g/kg dosage. PMID 17533629.
  • Xipayi mouth rinse - "can inhibit the secretion of IL-6 from HGF induced by LPS, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect of xipayi mouth rinse to treat and prevent periodontal diseases" PMID 16859116
  • Xia-Bai-San -"Mice were challenged with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (100 microg) 30 min before administering XBS (1 mg/kg oral administration). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained after 4 and 24 h ... XBS down-regulated the LPS-induced expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, and MCP-1. Furthermore, it also enhanced the production of IL-10, which had increased 24 h after LPS challenge. In addition, total leukocyte counts, nitric oxide production, iNOS expression, and BALF's proteins had significantly decreased 24 h after LPS challenge. XBS was also believes to have reduced the acute inflammation by attenuating the activation of NF-kappaB." PMID 16846845.
  • Yin-Chiao-San - a Kampo medicine, is widely used for patients with pulmonary disease - reduced TNF-alpha induction in a lung study which mostly demonstrated bleomycin-induced antifibrotic effects. PMID 17177325
  • Zyflamend - "The authors have been studying Zyflamend, a novel herbal anti-inflammatory mixture" PMID 17351029 -- "Zyflamend produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of cloned COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX enzyme activities, with inhibition of 5-HETE production being greater than that of PGE(2) formation. Applied to intact PC3 cells, Zyflamend was found to be most potent against 12-LOX, followed by 5-LOX and then COX activities." [altering pRb, replication, apoptosis in PC3 prostate cancer cells that have aberrant eicosanoid metabolism] PMID 17218785

General reviews[edit]

  • PMID 17472460 - The medical ethnobotanical knowledge propagated over generations in the coastal regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon, is one that has built on several ancient cultures and civilizations of these regions. Recent interest in medical ethnobotany and the use of medicinal herbs in treating or preventing ailments has rejuvenated interest in folk medicine practices, especially those transcendent across generations. According to Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine practices, herbal remedies that treat many inflammation-related ailments were typically based on plant bioactive water extracts or decoctions. Studies have shown that active anti-inflammatory ingredients in water extracts include many natural chemicals such as phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, and carbohydrates. The intent of this manuscript is twofold: first, to review the literature that describes anti-inflammatory bioactivities in plant extracts of different plant genera; and second, to evaluate indigenous folk remedies used by folk doctors to treat inflammatory ailments in this region of the world. For this aim, the reported literature of five plant genera assumed to possess anti-inflammatory bioactivities and typically prescribed by folk doctors to treat inflammation-related ailments is reviewed.
  • PMID 17444576 - review of 15 systematic reviews. "The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing >50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract."
  • PMID 17378773 In addition, we have previously demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract, a Chinese herb with antioxidant activity, could significantly suppress inflammatory cytokine-stimulated endothelial adhesiveness to human monocytic cells by attenuating intracellular ROS formation, redox-senstive transcription factor activation, and VCAM-1 as well as ICAM-1 expression in human aortic endothelial cells. The similar anti-atherosclerosis effects have been also shown in other Chinese herbs or dietary supplements with antioxidant activity such as magnolol and salvianolic acid B either in vitro or in vivo. Thus, oxidative stress is critical to endothelial adhesiveness in atherogenesis.
  • PMID 17331820 - review of treatment of liver diseases with incidental antiinflammatory data.
  • PMID 17222587 - "There is an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), especially herbal therapy, among patients with liver disease. The most commonly used herbal agent is silymarin. In animal models, many of the commonly used agents have shown anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. Although many human studies have shown improvements in subjective symptoms (well being) and liver biochemistry, there are no convincing data to suggest a definite histologic and/or virologic improvement with most of these agents. Poorly designed studies, heterogeneous patient populations, lack of standardized preparations, and poorly defined nonobjective end points may partly explain the conflicting reports in the literature. Hepatotoxicity and drug interactions are common with many herbal medications, and therefore physicians need to be cognizant of known or occult use of CAM by their patients. Only well-designed, randomized, controlled trials will be able to ascertain whether CAM has any role in the management of patients with acute or chronic liver diseases. Until such time, the use of CAM cannot be recommended as a therapy for patients with liver disease."
  • PMID 17200980 - "Glycoconjugates are a class of complex molecules that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and in some marine organisms. This class of compounds has a wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunoenhancing actions... "
  • PMID 17112189 - "also review the use of natural supplements, which may be a safer, and often as effective, alternative treatment for pain relief"
  • PMID 17059008 - Quercetin decreases IL-6 in vascular smooth muscle cells (chemical in many herbs)
  • PMID 17022438 - Health benefits of herbs and spices; cites level II evidence for ginger as an alternative to NSAIDs in arthritis, but not as effective as ibuprofen.
  • PMID 16934952 - Mexican migrant ethnophrarmacology. "Comparisons of Mexican explanations for the actions of five medicines (Matricaria recutita L. [Asteraceae], Mentha spp. L. [Lamiaceae], Ruta spp. L. [Rutaceae], Ocimum basilicum L. [Lamiaceae] and paracetemol) with the pharmacological literature show several similarities and confirm that migrant women use these medicines effectively. Mexican migrant women use medicinal plants in combination with commercially produced medicines, but most have a strong preference for the herbal remedies that they make themselves"
  • PMID 16909442 - "...Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn., Lantana camara Linn. and Morinda citrifolia Linn. were selected ... samples were extracted with different solvents for evaluation of their inhibitory activity on NO* produced in vitro from sodium nitroprusside, and in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages, ex vivo. ... Notable NO* scavenging activity was exhibited in vitro by some extracts of V. madraspatana, R. cordifolia and L. camara (IC(50) < 0.2 mg/mL). Most of them showed marked inhibition (60%-80%), ex vivo, at a dose of 80 microg/mL without appreciable cytotoxic effect on the cultured macrophages. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that the modulatory effect of the samples had occurred through suppression of iNOS protein."
  • PMID 16835873 - "... traditional Chinese medicine's treatment of dysmenorrhea through the use of combination-herbal-formula therapeutics... are effective for dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects... likely decrease prostaglandin levels, modulate nitric oxide, increase plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels, block calcium-channels and improve microcirculation. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic relief but has increasing adverse effects with long-term use."

Main search for my PubMed additions: (antiinflammatory OR anti-inflammatory) AND (herb OR herbal)


PMID: 17028363 - warning - aristolochic acids still in use, and the cause of most reported nephropathy.



Proinflammatory cytokines[edit]

Antiinflammatory cytokines[edit]


Nitric oxide[edit]

  • NO production
  • iNOS activity, expression


  • Total cell count (cell replication)
  • Nitric oxide production
  • Protein level in lavage fluid