User:Miss Bono/Sandbox/Vaillancourt Fountain

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Vaillancourt Fountain
Type El hormigón prefabricado
Dimensions 12 m (40 ft)

El 'Vaillancourt Fountain', a veces llamado 'Québec libre! ', es una gran fuente situada en Justin Herman Plaza de San Francisco, diseñado por el Quebequense artista Armand Vaillancourt en 1971 . Long considered controversial because of its stark, modernist design, there have been several unsuccessful proposals to demolish the fountain over the years. Considerado durante mucho tiempo controversial debido a su marcado, el diseño modernista, se han realizado varias propuestas fracasadas de demoler la fuente a través de los años. It was the site of a controversial free concert by U2 in 1987, when lead singer Bono spray painted grafitti on the fountain. Era el sitio de un concierto gratuito polémica por U2 en 1987, cuando el cantante Bono aerosol pintado grafitti en la fuente.

Location[edit]

The fountain is located in a highly visible spot on the downtown San Francisco waterfront, in Justin Herman Plaza, where Market Street meets The Embarcadero.

Situación[edit]

La fuente está situada en un lugar muy visible en el centro de San Francisco, frente al mar, en Justin Herman Plaza, donde Street Market cumple El Embarcadero. The Hyatt Regency Hotel is at the edge of the plaza, adjacent to the other four highrise towers of the Embarcadero Center. El Hyatt Regency Hotel que está en el borde de la plaza, junto a las otras cuatro torres de gran altura de la Centro Embarcadero. Across The Embarcadero is the Ferry Building, and the eastern end of the California Street cable car line is on the other side of the Hyatt Regency Hotel. Al otro lado de El Embarcadero es el Ferry Building, y el extremo oriental de la línea del coche de la calle de California cable es en el otro lado del Hyatt Regency Hotel. When the fountain was constructed, the two-level Embarcadero Freeway separated Justin Herman Plaza from the waterfront, creating a massive backdrop for the fountain. Cuando se construyó la fuente, la de dos niveles Embarcadero Autopista separados Justin Herman Plaza de la línea de costa, la creación de un fondo enorme de la fuente.

Design and construction[edit]

Armand Vaillancourt in 2009

The Vaillancourt Fountain was a product of the redevelopment of San Francisco that took place in the 1950s and 1960s.[1] Justin Herman, for whom the plaza was named, was a leading figure in this process and the executive director of the redevelopment agency in charge.[2] Modernist landscape architect Lawrence Halprin was selected for the redesign of Market Street from the Embarcadero to the Civic Center, the most visible two mile thoroughfare in San Francisco. == Diseño y construcción == thumb | derecha | Armand Vaillancourt en 2009 La Vaillancourt Fountain era un producto de la reurbanización de San Francisco que tuvo lugar en los años 1950 y 1960.[1] Justin Herman, para los que la plaza se llamaba, era una figura destacada en este proceso y el director ejecutivo de la agencia de reurbanización a cargo.[2] modernista arquitecto paisajista Lawrence Halprin fue seleccionado para el rediseño de la calle del mercado desde el Embarcadero de la Centro Cívico, el más visible dos millas vía en San Francisco. Halprin designed Justin Herman Plaza, but hired Armand Vaillancourt to design the fountain. Halprin diseñó Justin Herman Plaza, pero a sueldo Armand Vaillancourt para el diseño de la fuente. Vaillancourt, 38 years old at the time, had won the invitational fountain design competition that Halprin had judged.Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page).

Halprin was quoted as saying that if the fountain didn't prove to be among the "great works of civic art ... I am going to slit my throat".[3] The fountain is about 40 feet high, weighs approximately 700 tons, and is constructed out of precast concrete square tubes. |. Consultado el 01 de mayo 2013}}</ref> Halprin fue citado diciendo que si la fuente no resultó ser una de las "grandes obras de arte obras ... Voy a cortarme el cuello" [3] La fuente es de unos 40 metros de altura, pesa alrededor de 700 toneladas, y está construido a partir de de hormigón prefabricado tubos cuadrados. The fountain is positioned in a pool shaped like an irregular pentagon, and is designed to pump up to 30,000 gallons of water per minute.[1] The fountain's budget was US $310,000, and it was dedicated on April 22, 1971.[1] The Los Angeles Times reported that its actual cost was US $607,800.[4] Just before the dedication, the slogan "Quebec Libre" was painted on the fountain at night, and the graffiti was erased. La fuente está situada en una piscina con forma irregular pentágono, y está diseñada para bombear hasta 30.000 galones de agua por minuto. [1] El presupuesto de la fuente fue EE.UU. $ 310,000, y se dedica a la 22 de abril 1971.[1] El Los Angeles Times informó de que su costo real fue de EE.UU. $ 607.800.[4] Justo antes de la dedicación, el lema "Quebec Libre "fue pintada en la fuente por la noche, y el graffiti fue borrado. During the dedication, attended by Thomas Hoving, director of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, a rock band played, and Armand Vaillancourt himself painted "Quebec Libre" on the fountain in as many places as he could reach.[2][5] A redevelopment agency employee started to paint over the slogans during the ceremony, but Herman stopped him, saying it could be done later.[2] Vaillancourt said his actions were "a powerful performance" intended to illustrate the notion of power to the people.[2] "Quebec Libre" has been an alternate name for the fountain since.[6]

Critical reaction[edit]

Aerial photo of Vaillancourt Fountain
Vaillancourt Fountain and the Embarcadero Freeway in 1988

The fountain has been considered controversial since its construction, and criticism of it has continued over the years.Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page).

[6] [6][7][8][9][10][11] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11][12][13] [12] [13] Hoving, in his dedication speech, said of the fountain had some of the daring of Baroque sculpture and that "A work of art must be born in controversy."[2] Herman himself said it was "one of the greatest artistic achievements in North America."[2] Opponents of the work handed out leaflets at the dedication of the fountain describing it as a "loathsome monstrosity", a "howling obscenity", an "obscene practical joke", "idiotic rubble", and a "pestiferous eyesore".[2][10] Art critic Alfred Frankenstein of the San Francisco Chronicle responded that "its very outrageousness and extravagance are part of its challenge" and therefore, it "can't be all bad."[9] He added that the fountain was intended to be participated in rather than just observed.[2] An early comment by architecture critic Allan Temko, often repeated over the years, describes "technological excrescences" that had been "deposited by a giant concrete dog with square intestines".[9] Another pithy remark that gained press attention, from critic Lloyd Skinner, was that the fountain was "Stonehenge, unhinged, with plumbing troubles".[2] Artists have been critical of the work as well. | Consultado el 01 de mayo 2013}}</ref> Hoving, en su discurso de entrega, dijo la fuente tenía algo de la audacia de escultura barroca y que "Una obra de arte tiene que nacer en la controversia." [2] Herman mismo dijo que era "uno de los mayores logros artísticos de América del Norte".[2] Los opositores a la obra repartieron volantes en la inauguración de la fuente describiéndolo como un "monstruo repugnante", una "obscenidad aullido", una "broma de mal gusto obsceno", "escombros idiota", y un "pestilente monstruosidad".[10][2] El crítico de arte Alfred Frankenstein del San Francisco Chronicle respondió que "su misma extravagancia y el despilfarro son parte de su desafío", y por lo tanto, "no puede ser tan malo." [9] Añadió que la fuente fue diseñado para ser participado en vez de simplemente observar.[2] Un comentario crítico de arquitectura de principios del Allan Temko, repite con frecuencia en los últimos años, describe "excrecencias tecnológicos" que habían sido " depositados por un perro gigante de hormigón con los intestinos cuadrados ".[9] Otra observación concisa que ganó atención de la prensa, del crítico Lloyd Skinner, fue que la fuente era" Stonehenge, desquiciado, con los problemas de plomería. "<nombre de ref = UPI-Dedic /> Los artistas han sido críticos de la obra también. Sculptor Benny Bufano called it "a jumble of nothing", artist Willard Cox likened it to "dynamited debris", and sculptor Humphrey Diaquist said it had been created by "a figure of deranged talent".[2] At the time of its dedication, the San Francisco chapter of the National Safety Council said that the fountain "may be a safety hazard".Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page). The fountain has been called the "least revered modernist work of art" in San Francisco.[6] Due to its size, it has been said that it "dominates the landscape" of the north side of Justin Herman Plaza.[14] La fuente ha sido llamada la "obra modernista menos reverenciado del arte" en San Francisco [6] Debido a su tamaño, se ha dicho que " domina el paisaje "de la parte norte de Justin Herman Plaza [14] It has also been said that the design intent was "to mock and mirror the clumsy, double-decked roadway",[13] referring to the elevated Embarcadero Freeway which separated the fountain from the waterfront at the time of construction. | Doi = | id = | isbn = 9781560447061 | mr = | zbl = | jfm =}}</ref> También se ha dicho que la intención del diseño es "para burlarse y reflejar el torpe, carretera de dos pisos", < Nombre ref = DMN /> se refiere a la elevación de Embarcadero Autopista, que separa la fuente de la línea de costa en el momento de la construcción.

1987 U2 free concert[edit]

On the first leg of The Joshua Tree Tour by the rock band U2 in 1987, they performed concerts at the Cow Palace just south of San Francisco on April 24 and April 25, 1987. == 1987 == U2 concierto gratuito en el partido de ida de la The Joshua Tree Tour por la banda de rock U2 en 1987, realizaron conciertos en el Cow Palace, al sur de San Francisco de 24 de abril y el 25 de abril de 1987. On the third leg of the tour, concerts had been announced for November 14 and 15, 1987, across the San Francisco Bay, at the Oakland Coliseum. En la tercera etapa de la gira, los conciertos se habían anunciado para el 14 y 15 de noviembre de 1987, a través de la Bahía de San Francisco, en el Oakland Coliseum. On the morning of November 11, 1987, local radio stations announced that U2 would hold a free concert that day in Justin Herman Plaza, with the stage set up in front of the Vaillancourt Fountain. En la mañana del 11 de noviembre de 1987, las estaciones de radio locales anunciaron que U2 sería un concierto gratuito que el día en Justin Herman Plaza, con el escenario montado frente a la Fuente Vaillancourt. Within a few hours, a crowd estimated at 20,000 people gathered in the plaza.[15] The concert was jokingly called "Save the Yuppies", in reference to the 1987 stock market crash that had taken place three weeks earlier.[16] The band closed their nine-song performance with their hit "Pride (In the Name of Love)".[17] During an elongation of the instrumental portion in the middle, Bono, lead singer of the band, climbed onto the sculpture and spray painted graffiti on it, reading "Rock N Roll Stops The Traffic".[17] Mayor Dianne Feinstein, who had been waging a city-wide campaign against graffiti that had resulted in over 300 citations during the year, was angry and criticized Bono for defacing a San Francisco landmark.[18][19]Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page). Mayor Dianne Feinstein, que había estado librando una ciudad en toda la campaña contra el graffiti que había dado lugar a más de 300 citas durante el año, se enojó y criticó Bono para desfigurar a San Francisco histórico.[18] [19][20] She said, "I am disappointed that a rock star who is supposed to be a role model for young people chose to vandalize the work of another artist. The unfortunate incident marred an otherwise wonderful rock concert."[21] Bono was issued a citation for misdemeanor malicious mischief.[19] U2 manager Paul McGuinness said, "This is clearly not an act of vandalism. This act was clearly in the spirit of the artwork itself."[19] The numerous callers to Ronn Owens' radio talk show on KGO-AM were evenly split, with younger listeners defending the singer's action and older ones not.[18] Bono soon apologized[18] and the group covered the cost of removal of the graffiti.[22] Three days earlier, on November 8, the Remembrance Day bombing had occurred in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. |. Consultado el 01 de mayo 2013}}</ref> Ella dijo: "Estoy decepcionado de que una estrella de rock que se supone que es un modelo a seguir para los jóvenes decidieron destrozar el trabajo de otro artista El desafortunado incidente estropeó un contrario maravilloso concierto de rock "[23] Bono se emitió una citación por delito menor daño malicioso [19] gerente de U2 Paul McGuinness dijo: "Esto no es claramente un acto de vandalismo. Este acto estaba claramente en el espíritu del arte." [19] Las numerosas personas que llaman Ronn Owens 'talk show de radio en KGO-AM. fueron divididos en partes iguales, con los oyentes más jóvenes que defienden la actuación del cantante y los más viejos no [18] Bono pronto se disculpó <nombre de ref = sfc -side /> y el grupo cubrieron el costo de la eliminación de los graffiti [24] Tres días antes, el 8 de noviembre, el bombardeos Día del Recuerdo se había producido en Enniskillen, Condado de Fermanagh, Irlanda del Norte. The Provisional Irish Republican Army had detonated a bomb that killed 11 people and injured 63 others. El Ejército Republicano Irlandés Provisional había detonado una bomba que mató a 11 personas e hirió a otras 63. During the band's performance of "Sunday Bloody Sunday", a banner was unfurled that read "SF Loves U2", meaning "San Francisco Loves U2". Durante la presentación de la banda de "Sunday Bloody Sunday", una bandera fue desplegada que decía "SF Loves U2", que significa "San Francisco Loves U2". Bono misunderstood "SF" as a reference to Sinn Féin, the political arm of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Bono malentendido "SF" como una referencia a Sinn Féin, el brazo político del Ejército Republicano Irlandés Provisional. Bono then made an impassioned statement denouncing terrorism in Ireland, rejecting any romanticism of The Troubles.[15] Armand Vaillancourt flew from Quebec to California after the incident, and spoke in favor of Bono's actions at U2's Oakland performance several days later.Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page). Vaillancourt said, "Good for him. I want to shake his hand. People get excited about such a little thing."[20] The sculptor spray-painted a slogan of his own on the band's stage, "Stop the Madness".[19] The episode received further attention when it was featured in U2's 1988 Paramount Pictures documentary film Rattle and Hum.[17] There, footage of it was shown over, and interspered into, the band's opening number, "All Along the Watchtower", a song by Bob Dylan that had been a big hit for Jimi Hendrix.[25] This has led some people to misidentify the song being played when the spray painting occurred.[15] In any case, the fountain and plaza ended up on one U2 fan site's list of recommended group-related places in the US to visit.[25]

Proposals to demolish[edit]

Following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the elevated Embarcadeo Freeway was so badly damaged that it was torn down, and was replaced by a boulevard at ground level. | Doi = | id = | isbn = 9780313365232 | mr = | zbl = | jfm =}}</ref> Vaillancourt dijo: "... Me alegro por él quiero darle la mano La gente se emociona acerca de una cosa tan pequeña" [20] El escultor pintado con aerosol un eslogan de su propio en el escenario de la banda, "Stop the Madness" [19] El episodio recibió más atención cuando apareció en la U2 1988 Paramount Pictures documental Rattle and Hum < Nombre ref = sf-mg /> Allí, imágenes de la misma se muestra más y interspered a, número de apertura de la banda, "All Along the Watchtower", una canción de Bob Dylan que había sido un gran éxito para Jimi Hendrix.[25] Esto ha llevado a algunas personas no identificar la canción que se está reproduciendo cuando se produjo la pintura a pistola.[15] En cualquier caso, la fuente y la plaza terminó arriba en la lista uno de sitio de fans de U2 recomendadas lugares relacionados con el grupo en los EE.UU. para visitar [25] == Propuestas para demoler == Tras el 1989 terremoto de Loma Prieta, la elevada autopista Embarcadeo estaba tan dañada que fue derribado , y fue reemplazado por un bulevar a nivel del suelo. An architect hired by the city also proposed demolition of the fountain,[13] but no decision was made. Un arquitecto contratado por la ciudad también propuso la demolición de la fuente,[13] pero se tomó ninguna decisión. In 2004, San Francisco Supervisor Aaron Peskin renewed the call to demolish the fountain.[7] During the debate, the water was turned off. En 2004, San Francisco Supervisor Aaron Peskin renovó el llamado a demoler la fuente. Name=dismantle/> Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Cite error: The named reference Fountains was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "$600,000 Fountain In California Dedicated". The Times-News. Hendersonville, North Carolina. United Press International. April 22, 1971. p. 8.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "UPI-dedic" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ a b King, John (October 27, 2009). "Lawrence Halprin - landscape architect - dies". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 4, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Halprin2" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference LAT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Whoop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b c d e Rough Guides (2011). The Rough Guide to California. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780917583193.  Text " url " ignored (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Rough" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b c Herel, Suzanne (March 16, 2004). "Councilman wants to dismantle fountain". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 30, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "dismantle" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  8. ^ a b Herel, Suzanne (March 17, 2004). "Justin Herman Plaza fountain's creator vows to fight Peskin's demolition proposal/ Some say piece looks awkward, draws transients". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "fight" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b c d e f King, John (May 1, 2009). "A taste of Temko - his take on 6 SF buildings". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Temko" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c d "Criticism in the Chronicle through history". San Francisco Chronicle. August 23, 1998. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Frankenstein" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  11. ^ a b Friedman, Jan (2005). Eccentric California. Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 38. ISBN 9781405389044.  Text " url " ignored (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Eccentric" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  12. ^ a b "Obituaries: Lawrence Halprin". The Telegraph. London. December 10, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Halprin" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  13. ^ a b c d e San Francisco Chronicle (October 18, 1992). "Debate spouts in San Francisco over controversial fountain Artwork impeding redesign of park". Dallas Morning News. ISBN 9781841621265.  Text " url " ignored (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DMN" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  14. ^ a b Gans, Liz; Newby, Rick (1999). Walking San Francisco. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press. p. 83.  Text " url " ignored (help); Text ". Consultado el 01 de mayo 2013" ignored (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Walking" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  15. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Biography was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ "Spotlight: Music". Reading Eagle. November 12, 1987. p. 37. 
  17. ^ a b c Selvin, Joel (1996). San Francisco: The Musical History Tour. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. p. 93. ISBN 0-8118-1007-0. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Keane, Thomas G. (November 17, 1987). "U2 Star May Have to Scrub Buses". San Francisco Chronicle.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "sfc-side" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Bono cited for malicious mischief". The Bryan Times. Bryan, Ohio. United Press International. November 17, 1987. p. 5.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Bryan" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  20. ^ a b c "Artista alaba de Bono de graffiti". 17 de noviembre 1987. p. 10D.  Unknown parameter |Periódico= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |último= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url <span class= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |lugar= ignored (|location= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= (help);
  21. ^ "Bono upsets Feinstein by spraying graffiti". Ocala Star-Banner. Ocala, Florida. November 14, 1987. p. 2A. 
  22. ^ "Bono". People. December 28, 1987. 
  23. ^ "Bono molesta Feinstein por pulverización grafitis". 14 de noviembre 1987.  Unknown parameter |. url= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |. page= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |lugar= ignored (|location= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |diario= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  24. ^ "Bono". 28 de diciembre 1987.  Unknown parameter |.. url= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Revista= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ a b c d Guadiana, Jessica (July 28, 2011). "U2 Lists: Top 10 Places U2 Fans Must Visit In The USA". atU2.com. Retrieved May 8, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "atu2" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).

External links[edit]

Referencias[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference fight was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Vaillancourt Fountain hace un chapoteo nuevo". 03 de agosto 2004.  Text " Consultado el 30 de abril , 2013" ignored (help); Unknown parameter |prensa= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)

Enlaces externos[edit]

Category:1971 sculptures Category:Fountains in the United States Category:Graffiti in the United States Category:Outdoor sculptures in San Francisco Category:U2