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Khalifa Rasul Abu Bakr
Caliph Abu Bakr's Empire at its greatest extent
Abu Bakr
Reign 8th june 63223rd August 634
Born 573, Makkah, Saudi arabia
Died 23rd August 634, Madinah, Saudi arabia
Buried Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Predecessor -
Successor Umar
edit

Abū Bakr (Arabic: ابو بكر الصديق‎) (c. 573August 23 634/13 AH)[1] was a senior companion of and the first Muslim ruler after Muhammad (632–634). Sunnis regard him as his rightful successor (caliph) and the first of four righteous Caliphs (Rashidun). The Shi'a believe he violated Muhammad's direct orders and orchestrated a coup d'état. Scholarly consensus amongst the Sunni lists him as the first Muslim Caliph.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] His caliphate lasted two years and three months in which suppressed apostasy among the Arab tribes, fought the prophet claimants al-Aswad al-`Ansi, Tulayha al-Asadi Musaylima. he opened up the lands of Syria and Iraq for the Muslims.[10]

Early life[edit]

Abu Bakr was born at Makkah some time in the year 573 A.D, in the Banu Taim branch of Quraish. Abu Bakr's father name was Uthman ibn Amar surnamed Abu Qahafa, and his mother was Salma surnamed Umm-ul-Khair. The birth name of Abu Bakr was Abdul Kaaba (servent of Kaaba), when converted to Islam in 610 A.D he was named Abdullah(servent of Allah) by Prophet Mohammad. Al-Suyuti relates through Ibn Sa`d’s report from Ayesha her description of Abu Bakr:

By all standards he was beautiful, and for his beauty he earned the surname of Atiq. He was born in a rich family. He spent his early childhood like other Arab childern of the time among the Bedouins who called themselves Ahl-i-Ba'eer- the people of the camel, he developed particular fondness for camels.

File:Wazir Khan Mosque Hadith.jpg
Wazir Khan Mosque, (16th century) Sayings of the companions of Muhammad on the northern wall of the arched gateway of the central prayer chamber.

In the early years he played with the young ones of the camels, and his love for the camels earned him the surname of Abu Bakr-the father of the foal of the camel.[11] It is said that he didn't worshiped idols since his youth. when 10 years old he went to Syria along with his father with the merchants caravan, Prophet Mohammad who was 12 years old that time was also with that caravan. Like other Arab childern of the time he was illiterate but have developed foundness with poetry. He used to attend the annual fair at Ukaz, and participate in poetical symposia. He had a very good memory. In 591 A.D at the age of 18, Abu Bakr went into trade and adopted the profession of a cloth merchant which was the family's business. In the comming years Abu Bakr traveled extensively with caravans. Business trips took him to Yemen, Syria, and elsewhere. These travels brought him wealth, added to his experience. His business flourished and he rose in the scale of social importance. Though his Father Uthman ibn Amar was still alive, he become to be recognized as chief of his tribe. Abu Bakr was assigned the office of awarding blood money in cases of murder. His office was something like the office of an Honorary Magistrate.[12] Abu Bakr was expert in genealogical lore. He knew intimately who was who in Makkah, and what was his ancestry.

During Prophet Mohammad's ear[edit]

When Muhammad married Khadija and shifted to her house, he became a neighbor of Abu Bakr who lived in the same locality. That was the quarter of Makkan aristocracy. Like the house of Khadija, the house of Abu Bakr was double storied and palatial in structure. As neighbors Prophet Muhammad and Abu Bakr came in contact with each other. Both of them were of the same age. Both of them were traders and good managers.

Conversion to Islam[edit]

On his return from a business trip from Yemen, he was informed by some of his friends that in his absence Muhammad had declared himself as the Messenger of God, and proclaimed a new religion. Abu Bakr accepted Islam.[13] He was fourth person to accept Islam, and was the first person outside the family of the Prophet Mohammad to become a Muslim. Abu Bakr was a rich merchant, and his business depended on the goodwill of the people around him, his conversion to the new faith made him unpopular with people around him, and that adversely affect his business. According to a sunni tradition, Prophet Mohammad once said:

After conversion to Islam[edit]

His birth name Abdul Kaaba was changed to Abdullah, because the former was indicative of paganism. His wife Qutaila did not accept Islam and he divorced her. His other wife Umm Ruman became a Muslim at his instance. All his children except ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr accepted Islam, and Abu Bakr separated from his son Abdur Rahman.

Abu Bakr's missionary efforts brought many people to Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends to accept Islam. [15] He presented Islam to others in such a way that many of his friends opted for Islam. Those who accepted Islam at the instance of Abu Bakr were:

  1. Uthman bin Affan (who would became the 3rd Caliph )
  2. Zubayr ibn al-Awwam ( who would got fame in the Islamic conquest of Egypt )
  3. Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah
  4. Abdur Rahman bin Awf ( who would remained an important part of Rashidun Caliphate)
  5. Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas ( who would got fame during Islamic conquest of Persia)
  6. Umar ibb Masoan
  7. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah ( who remained commander in chief of Islamic armies in Syria )
  8. Abdullah bin Abdul Asad
  9. Abu Salma
  10. Khalid ibn Sa`id
  11. Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah

Abu Bakr's conversion proved to be a milestone in the Prophetic mission of Mohammad. Slavery was common in Makkah, many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man use to accept Islam, inspite of opposition he use to enjoy the protection of his tribe. For the slaves, there was no such protection and the converts were subjected to persecution. Abu Bakr felt for these helpless slaves who use to suffer from there masters, he purchased them and let them free. Abu Bakr purchased the freedom of eight slaves-four men and four women. The men were:

  1. Bilal
  2. Abu Fakih
  3. Ammar ibn Yasir
  4. Abu Fuhayra
  5. Lubaynah
  6. Al-Nahdiah
  7. Umm Ubays
  8. Zinnira.

Most of the slaves liberated by Abu Bakr were either women or old and frail men.[16] The father of Abu Bakr asked him to for why dont he liberate strong and young slaves who could be a source of strenght for him, Abu Bakr replied that he was freeing the slaves for the sake of God, and not for his own sake. According to Sunni tradition the following verses og Quran were revealed over this:

Persecution of the Quraish[edit]

For three years after Islam, Muslims kept a secret of their faith, and prayed in secret. It is said in 613 A.D Prophet Mohammad recived a revelation to call people to Islam openly. The first public address inviting the people to offer allegiance to the Prophet Mohammad was delivered by Abu Bakr, in a fit of fury the Quraish young men rushed at Abu Bakr, and beat him mercilessly till he lost consciousness.[17] Following this incidense Abu Bakr's mother converted to Islam. Abu Bakr recived many persecutions from Quraish.

Last years in Makkah[edit]

In 617 A.D, the Quraish enforced a boycott against the Banu Hashim, and Prophet Mohammad along with his supporters from Banu Hashim, were shut up in a pass away from Makkah. All social relations with the Banu Hashim were cut off and their state was that of a sort of imprisonment. Before it many weak Muslims were migrated to Abyssinia. Abu Bakr feeling distress from it, set out to Yemen to went Abyssinia from there, he met a friend of him by name Ad-Dughna out side Makkah who invited Abu Bakr to seek his protection against Quraish, he was chief of the Qarah tribe. Abu Bakr went back to Makkah, it was a bit relief for him, but soon due to the pressure of Quraish Ad-Dughna was forced to renounce his protection. Once again Quraish were free for the persecution of Abu Bakr. In the year 620 A.D Prophet Mohammad's wife and uncle died. Abu Bakr's daughter Ayesha was engaged to Prophet Mohammad, however it was decided that the actual marriage ceremony would be held later. In the years 620 A.D Abu Bakr was first person to testify the night Journey of Prophet Mohammad.[18] According to Sunni traditions, he was given titile al-Siddîq, meaning "the truthful," "the upright," or "the one who counts true," due to his immediate belief in the journey. During the Roman-Persian Wars, the sympathies of the Quraish of Makkah was with the Persians who were polytheists. The Muslims on the other hand had their sympathies for the Byzantines who were Christians who were the People of the book and belive in God. After the Persian victories over Byzantine, verses of Quran revealed of Surah rum with the prophesy that Byzantine (romans) will regain what they lost and persians will be defeated with in few years. Over this Abu Bakr had a wager with Ubaiy bin Khalf, it was decided that one who lost the wager will pay hundred camels. With decisive Byzantine victory in 627 A.D against Persians, Abu Bakr won the wager, though Ubaiy bin Khalf was not alive but his heirs honored the agreement and gave Abu Bakr hundred camels. Abu Bakr gave away all hundred camels as charity.

Migration to Madinah[edit]

In 622 A.D on the invitation of Muslims of Madinah, Prophet Mohammad ordered Muslims to migrate to Madinah. The migration begun in batches. Abu Bakr acompained Prophet Mohammad in his migration for Madinah. Due to danger of Quraish they did not take the road to Madinah. They moved in the opposite direction, and took refuge in a cave in Mount Thaur some five miles south of Makkah. `Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr the son of Abu Bakr would listen to the plans and talks of the Quraish, and at night he would carry the news to the fugitives in the cave. Asma bint Abu Bakr the daughter of Abu Bakr brought them meals every day.[19] Aamir a servant of Abu Bakr would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night where they were milked. The Quraish sent search parties in all directions. One party came dangerously close to the entrance to the cave, but were unable to get any success. Over this the following verses of Quran were revealed:

Staying at the cave for three days and three nights Abu Bakr and Prophet Mohammad proceed to Madinah. Staying for some time at Quba, the suburb of Madinah, they reached Madinah finally.

Life in Madinah[edit]

In Madinah Prophet Mohammad decided to contruct a mosque. A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was payed by Abu Bakr. Muslims conteucted a masque named Al-Masjid al-Nabawi at that site, Abu Bakr also took part in construction. Abu Bakr was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari as a brother in faith. Abu Bakr's relationship with his brother-in-Islam was most cordial which was further strengthened when Abu Bakr married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah. Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari use to live at sukh in the suburb of Madinah. Abu Bakr also sattled there. After Abu Bakr's family arrived in Madinah he brought an other house near the Prophet Mohammad's house.[20] The climate of Makkah was dry, but the climate of Madina was damp. That adversely affected the health of the emigrants. On arrival at Madina most of the emigrants fell sick. Abu Bakr also suffered from fever for several days. During his sickness he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family. At Makkah, Abu Bakr was a trader in cloth. He started the same business at Madinah. He was a wholesaler. He had his store at Sukh, and from there cloth was supplied to the market at Madinah. Soon his business flourished at Madinah. Early in 623 A.D Ayesha, Abu Bakr's daughter who was already engaged to Prophet Mohammad was handed over to Prophet Mohmmad in a simple marrige ceremony. This further strengthen the relation between Abu Bakr and Prophet Mohammad. In 624 A.D Abu Bakr particepated in the first Battle between muslims and Quraish of Mecca i.e Battle of Badr. In 625 A.C he participated in The Battle of Uhud. Before the battle begun Abu Bakr's son ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr who was still non-Muslim and was fighting from the side of Quraish, came forward and threw the challenge for a duel. Abu Bakr accepted the challenge but was stoped by Prophet Mohammad. His son later converted to Islam and gained fame in Muslim conquest of Syria as a fierce warrior. In the second phase of Battle when Khalid ibn Walid’s Cavalry attacked (who was still non-MUslim) Muslims from behind changing the victory of Muslims in to defeat many muslim warriors routed from the battle field but Abu Bakr remained guarding Prophet Mohammad from the attacks of Quraish Soldiers during one such attack two discs from Prophet Mohammad’s shield had penetrated into his cheeks. Abu Bakr went forward with the intention of extracting these discs but Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah said requested to leave the matter to him,Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah lost his two incisor during the process. Abu Bakr along with other campanions led the Holy Prophet to a place of safety. Later this year Abu Bakr was a part of campaign again the hostile Jews tribe of Banu Nadir.

Later In 627 A.C he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza.[21] In 628 A.C he participated in Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and was made one of the witness over the pact.[22] In the year 628 A.C he was a part of Muslim’s campaign to Khaybar. In 629 A.C Prophet Mohammad sent Amr ibn al-Aas to Zaat-ul-Sallasal from where he called for reinforcement and Prophet Mohammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah commanding an army under him were serves Abu Bakr and Umar they attacked and defeated the enemy.[23] In 630 A.D when Muslims armies rushed for the Conquest of Mecca Abu Bakr was a part of that army. Before the conquest of Makkah his father Uthman ibn Amar converted to Islam. In 630 A.C he was part of Battle of Hunayn and Siege of Ta'if. he was part of Muslim's army went for the campaign of Tabouk under the command of Prophet Mohammad, he also reported to give all his wealth for the preparation of this expedition. In 631 A.D, Prophet Mohammad sent from Madinah a delegation of three hundred Muslims to perform the Hajj according to the new Islamic way. Abu Bakr was appointed as the leader of the delegates. Abu Bakr had thus the honor of being the first Amir-ul-Haj in the history of Islam. In the year 632 A.D Abu Bakr followed Prophet Mohammad to Makkah for the farewell Hajj.

Death of Prophet Mohammad[edit]

A short time after returning from the farewell pilgrimage, the Prophet Mohammad fell sick. When the fever became violent, Prophet Mohammad directed Abu Bakr to lead the prayers in the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi during his illness. On 8th June 632 A.D Prophet Mohammad died. The news reached Abu Bakr while he was in his home at Sukh. Muslims gathered in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, there were suppressed sobs and sighs. Many campanions were in state of disbelive that Prophet Mohammad was not dead. Abu Bakr came in the mosque and addressed the people, he said:

Abu Bakr then recited the following verses of Quran:

Election of Abu Bakr as a Caliph[edit]

after Prophet Muhammad's death, previously dormant tensions between the Meccan immigrants, the Muhajirun, and the Medinahn converts, the Ansar, threatened to break out and split the Ummah. The Ansar, the leaders of the tribes of Medinah, met in a hall or house called saqifah, to discuss whom they would support as their new leader. When Abu Bakr was informed of the meeting, he, Umar,Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah and a few others rushed to prevent the Ansar from making a premature decision. Accounts of this meeting vary greatly. All agree that during the meeting Umar declared that Abu Bakr should be the new leader, and declared his allegiance to Abu Bakr, followed by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah and Abu Bakr became the first Muslim caliph with the title Khalifa-tul-Rasool(Successor of messenger of Allah).

After the meeting at Saqifah, the Muslims who were not present were asked to submit to Abu Bakr, to give their pledge of allegiance. Most accounts agree that Ali ibn Abi Talib and his supporters initially refused to submit. After a period of time, whose duration is disputed, the dissidents gave their bay'ah. Whether or not the process involved violence and intimidation, and whether or not Ali willingly swore allegiance to Abu Bakr have remained enduring controversies.
The Shi'a believe that Prophet Muhammad divinely ordained his cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, in accordance with God's command, making Ali and his descendants Prophet Muhammad's true successors. The largest denomination in Islam, the Sunnis, hold that Abu Bakr and all caliphs should be chosen by community consensus, that this method of choosing or electing leaders (Shura) is endorsed by the Qur'an.
(See also Hadiths of Ali's succession)
(See also Hadiths of Abu Bakr's succession)

Reign as a Caliph[edit]

After assuming the office of Caliphate Abu Bakr's first address was as follow:

Abu Bakr's Caliphate lasted for two years three months. During which he crush the rebillion in Arab tribes through out Arabia in successful campaign against Apostasy. He lunched campaign against the Sassanid Persian Empire and Eastern Roman Empire and thus set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. He got little time to pay attention to the administration of state, though the state affairs remian alright during his Caliphate. On the advise of Umar and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah he agreed to have a salery from state treasury and abolish his business of cloth trade.

Ridda Wars[edit]

Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state. The chief cause of the apostasy was lack of true faith. Most of the tribes, converted in the ninth and tenth years of the Hijra, had taken to Islam for political reasons. The apostasy had become so general that it affected every tribe in Arabia with the exception of the people in Makkah and Madinah and the tribe of Thaqeef at Taif. In some cases the entire tribe apostatised. In other cases part of the tribe apostatised while part continued to follow the true faith; and among those who remained Muslims, many had to pay with their lives for their faith. Some withheld the zakat, the alms tax, though they did not otherwise challenge Islam. Many tribal leaders made claims to prophethood, most prominent was Musaylima. The tribes claimed that they had submitted to Prophet Mohammad and that with Prophet Mohammad's death, their allegiance was ended. Abu Bakr insisted that they had not just submitted to a leader but joined the Muslim religious community, of which he was the new head. Apostasy is a capital offense under traditional interpretations of Islamic law, and Abu Bakr declared war on the rebels. This was the start of the Ridda wars (Arabic for the Wars of Apostasy). The apostasy of central Arabia was led by self-proclaimed prophet Musaylima, while the other centers were to the south and east in Bahrain, Oman, Mahra and Yemen. Abu Bakr planned his strategy accordingly. He formed the Muslim army into 11 corps. The strongest corps, and this was the main punch of the Muslims army, was the corps of Khalid ibn Walid. This was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel forces. Other corps were given areas of secondary importance in which to bring the less dangerous apostate tribes. Abu Bakr's plan was first to clear the area of West and Central Arabia (the area nearest Madinah), then tackle Malik ibn Nuwayrah, and finally concentrate against the most dangerous enemy Musaylima. After series of sucessfull campaigns Khalid ibn Walid finally defeated Musaylima in the Battle of Yamama.[24] The Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the eleventh year of the Hijri. The year 12 Hijri dawned, on March 18, 633, with Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at Madinah.

Shia view[edit]

The Shi'a Muslims belive that, although there were some people that took the opportunity to proclaim themselves as prophets, the majority of people who battled against Abu Bakr were people who expected Ali to be the next Caliph,[citation needed] since they claimed to have heard Prophet Muhammad express this wish at the Hadith of the two weighty things. According to Shi'a views Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to kill, loot and slaughter the particians of Ali.[25] and Thus claim that Abu Bakr violated Prophet Muhammad's direct orders and orchestrated a coup d'état.

The Qur'an[edit]

Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving it in written form. It is said that after the hard-won victory over Musailimah in the Battle of Yamama fought in 632 A.D, Umar ibn al-Khattab (the later Caliph Umar), saw that many of the Muslims who had memorized the Qur'an from the lips of Muhammad had died in battle. Abu Bakr made a commite which included the memorizers of Quran, including Umar and Zayd ibn Thabit to oversee the collection of the revelations. The record, when completed, were collected in the form of a book. After the death of Abu Bakr that Quran goes to Umar and after his death it was deposited with Hafsa bint Umar, daughter of Umar, and one of the wives of Muhammad. Later it became the basis of Uthman ibn Affan's definitive text of the Qur'an. However, other historians give Uthman the principal credit for collecting and preserving the Qur'an. Shi'as strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr or Umar were instrumental in the collection or preservation of the Qur'an, rather that they refused to accept Ali's Qur'an.[26]

Military expansion[edit]

Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest. Whether or not he intended a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. Abu Bakr began with Iraq, the richest province of Persian empire. He sent his most brillent general Khalid ibn Walid to invade the Sassanid Persian empire.

Invasion of Sasannid Persian Empire[edit]

After the wars of apostasy, a tribal chief of north eastern Arabia along with Persian frontier Misnah ibn Haris raided the Persian towns in Iraq. With the success in raids a considerable amount of booty was collected. Misnah ibn Haris went to Madinah to inform Caliph Abu Bakr about his success, Abu bakr appoinyed him commander of his people and he begun to raid Iraq even deeper. Using the mobility of his Light cavalry he could easy raid any town near desert and with in moments could disappear again in to the desert, Sassanid army was unable to chase them in desert. Misnah’s this act made Abu Bakr to think about the expansion of the Islamic empire.[27] Abu Bakr started with the invasion of Iraq. The problems faced by Abu Bakr were that the the Arabs feared the Persians with a deep, unreasoning fear which ran in the tribal consciousness as a racial complex and was the result of centuries of Persian power and glory. In return the Persian regarded the Arab with contempt. It was important not to suffer a defeat, for that would confirm and strengthen this instinctive fear. To make certain of victory, Abu Bakr decided on two measures that the invading army would consist entirely of volunteers; and he put in command of the army his best general Khalid ibn Walid. After defeating the self-proclaimed prophet Musailima in the Battle of Yamama Khalid was still at Yammama district when Abu Bakr sent him orders to invade the Sassanid Persian Empire. Making Hira the objective of Khalid, Abu Bakr sent reinforcement and ordered the tribal chiefs of north eastern Arabia Misnah ibn Haris, Mazhur bin Adi, Harmala and Sulma to operate under the command of Khalid along with there men. In about third week of March 633 A.D ( first week of Muharram 12th Hijrah) Khalid set out from yammama with an army of 10,000 (strong).[28] The tribal chiefs with there warriors’ 2000 each joined Khalid; Thus Khalid entered the Persian Empire with 18,000 troops.

After entering Iraq (Mesopotamia) with his army of 18,000, Khalid won decisive victories in four consecutive battles: Battle of Chains, fought in April 633 CE; Battle of River, fought in the 3rd week of April 633 CE; Battle of Walaja, fought in May 633 CE (where he successfully used a double envelopment manoeuvre), and Battle of Ullais, fought in the mid of May, 633 CE.[29] By now the Persian court was down and out. In the last week of May 633 CE, the capital city of Iraq Hira fell to the Muslims after resistance in the Battle of Hira.[30] Thereafter the Siege of Al-Anbar during June-July 633 A.D resulted in surrender of the city after strong resistance. Khalid then moved towards the south, and conquered the city of Ein ul Tamr after the Battle of ein-ul-tamr in the last week of July, 633 CE. By now, almost the whole of Iraq was under Islamic control.[31] Khalid got a call of help from northern Arabia at daumat-ul-jandal, where another Muslim Arab general, Ayaz bin Ghanam, was trapped among the rebel tribes. Khalid went to Daumat-ul-jandal and defeated the rebels in the Battle of Daumat-ul-jandal in the last week of August, 633 CE.[32] Returning from Arabia, he got news of the assembling of a large Persian army. Within a few weeks, he decided to defeat them all separately to avoid the risk of defeat to a large unified Persian army. Four divisions of Persian and Christian Arab auxiliaries were present at Hanafiz, Zumiel, Sanni and Muzieh.[33] Khalid divided his army in three units, and decided to attack these auxiliaries one by one from three different sides at night, starting from the Battle of Muzieh, then the Battle of Sanni, and finally the Battle of Zumail.[34] In November 633 CE, Khalid defeated those armies in his series of three sided attacks at night. These devastating defeats ended Persian control over Iraq. In December 633 CE, Khalid reached the border city of Firaz, where he defeated the combined forces of the Sassanid Persians, Byzantine Romans and Christian Arabs in the Battle of Firaz.

Caliph Abu Bakr's empire at its peak in August 634 A.D.

This was the last battle in his conquest of Iraq.[35][36]

Invasion of Eastern Roman Empire[edit]

Caliph Abu Bakr congratulated Khalid ibn Walid over his victories and gave him a new task to enter the Byzantine province of Syria and command Islamic armies there. The Byzantine province of Syria in those days consisted of modern day Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Lebanon and Southern Turkey.[37] Passing through the Syrian Desert, Khalid with his half army of 9000 warriors entered Syria in June 634 A.D and commanded the 23000 Muslim army present there under the command of 4 generals, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan, Sharjeel bin Hosanna and Amr ibn al-A'as. After only one day of his arrival, Khalid set out for conquest of Syria. He reached the town of Sawa, and defiant forces present there resisted a bit but later in the evening surrendered the city and agreed to pay tribute. He moved to Aarak city in the same day, and this city too surrendered and agreed to pay tribute.[38] The next day Khalid moved to Tarmad city, which surrendered as well. He moved further and cities of Sakhna and Qadma also surrendered and agree to pay tribute. The next day city of Qarteen and Hawwareen were captured after small battle of Qarteen and battle of Hawareen. After dealing with all these cities, Khalid moved towards Damascus, after three days journey he reached a mountain pass, 20 miles from Damascus which is now known as Sanita-al-Uqab(Uqab pass) after the name of Khalid's army standard. From here he moved away from Damascus towards rest of the Islamic armies which were still near the Syrian-Arabia border. At Maraj-al-Rahab, Khalid defeated a Ghassanid army of Christian Arabs in a short Battle of Marj-al-Rahit. By now he was moving away from Damascus, the stronghold of Byzantines, and towards the city of Basra. Khalid reached Basra after 3 days at a time when Sharjeel bin Hassana's 4000 army was fighting the 12000 Roman army.[39] As soon as Khalid reached there with his 9000 warriors, the Roman army retreated and fortified themselves in the castle. After few days they came out and were defeated in the Battle of Basra and again retreated to castle and surrendered the city. 130 Muslims died, and by now it was almost mid of July 634 A.D. Muslims soon heard of gathering of 90,000 Roman army at Ajnadayn, after which all the divisions of Muslim army joined Khalid at Ajnadayn on 24 July 634, and the Muslim army became 32,000 in number. Khalid defeated Roman there on 30 July 634 A.D in Battle of Ajnadayn. After one week Khalid moved to Damascus, and on his way there he defeated another Roman army in the battle of Yakosa in mid-August 634 A.D. Tomur, the son-in-law of Emperor Heraclius, sent another army to stop Khalid but they too were defeated in the battle of Maraj-al-Safar on 19 August 634 A.D. The next day Khalid finally reached Damascus and besieged the city for 30 days, having defeated the Roman reinforcement sent by emperor Heraclius at battle of Sanita-al-Uqab 20 miles from Damascus. Khalid's forces withstood 3 Roman attacks that tried to break the siege, and finally attacked and conquered the city on 18 September 634 A.D after Conquest of Damascus.[40] The Byzantine army was given a deadline of 3 days to go as far as they can, with their families and treasure, or simply agree to stay in Damascus and pay tribute. After the three days deadline was over, the Muslim cavalry under Khalid's command attacked the Roman army by catching up to them using an unknown shortcut at battle of Maraj-al-Debaj. Abu Bakr died during the siege of Damascus and Umar became the new Caliph. He dismissed his cousin Khalid ibn Walid from the command and appointed Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah the new commander in chief of Islamic army in Syria. Abu Ubaidah got the letter of his appointment and Khalid's dispossal during the siege, but he delayed to unvail the news untill the city was conquered.

Death[edit]

On 8th of August 634 A.D, Abu Bakr fell sick, and out of this sickness he never recovered. There are two accounts about the sickness of Abu Bakr. One account is that the 8th of August 634 was a cold day, when Abu Bakr took a bath and caught a chill. Another account is that about a year ago, along with some other companions Harith bin Kaladah, and Attab bin Usaid he had eaten some food which was poisoned, and which was to have its effect after a year. Abu Bakr developed high fever, and was confined to bed. His illness prolonged, and when his condition worsened, he felt that his end was near. Realizing that his end was drawing near, Abu Bakr felt that he should nominate his successor so that the issue should not be a cause of dissension among the Muslims after his death.[41]

The hole second from the right gives view of Abu Bakr's grave.

He appointed Umar as his successor after discussing with some companions, among them some favoured the nomination and other disliked it due to the tough nature of Umar.

Abu Bakr thus dictated the testament to Uthman ibn Affan in the following terms:

.

Abu Bakr next asked Ayesha as to how many pieces of cloth were used for the coffin of Prophet Mohammad. Ayesha said that three pieces had been used in the coffin of Prophet Mohammad . Abu Bakr thereupon desired that for his coffin as well, three pieces should be used. On monday 23rd of August 634 A.D Abu Bakr died. The funeral prayer was led by Umar. He was buried the same night by the side of the grave of the Prophet Mohammad in Masjid-e-Nabawi.

Family[edit]

Abu Bakr's father name was Uthman ibn Amir aka Abu Quafah, his mother name Salma was grand father name was Amir ibn Amr In history name of his only one brother is mention which is Quafah ibn Uthman.

Legacy[edit]

Abu Bakr became the Caliph on the 8th of June 632 C.E. and he died on 23rd August 634 C.E. Though the period of his caliphate covers two years, two months and fifteen days only, but his achivements were remarkable. His glorious trimph in Ridda Wars and succesful invasions of the two most powerful empires of the time the Sassanid Persian Empire and Eastern Roman Empire. Abu Bakr had the distinction of being the first Caliph in the history of Islam. He was the first Caliph to nominate a successor. He was the only Caliph in the history of Islam who refunded to the state treasury at the time of his death the entire amount of the allowance that he had drawn during the period of his caliphate. He was the first Muslim ruler to establish Baitul Mal. He was the first Muslim ruler to establish crown pasture. He was the first Muslim ruler to establish 'Ijtihad'. He have distinction of purchasing the land for Masjid-e-Nabawi. Accodring to Sunni Muslims, in the matter of virtue, Abu Bakr excelled all other companions of the Mohammad. Both Abu Bakr and Uthman ibn Affan had relinquished drinking wine even in the time before Islam. He was the foremost genealogist of the Quraysh and the best of them at interpreting dreams after Muhammad according to Ibn Sirin.

Sunni view[edit]

According to the Sunni account of Abu Bar, he was father in law of Prophet Mohammad and his daughter Ayesha was the most beloved wife of Prophet Mohammad. Sunni Muslims also consider Abu Bakr as one of the ten Sahaba (companions) for whom Muhammad had testified that they were destined for Paradise. He is regarded as Khalifa Rasulullah The successor of Messanger of Allah, and first of the Rightly guided caliphs.

Shia view[edit]

Shia have a very unfavorable view of Abu Bakr. They believe he and Umar conspired to take over power over the Muslim nation after the death of Muhammad – a coup d'état against Ali. Shi'a do not view Abu Bakr's being with Muhammad in the cave as a meritorious act.

Abu Bakr returned to Medinah after the news of Muhammad's death reached him. At that point, Umar stopped threatening people with death if they spread the news of Muhammad's death. While Abu Bakr was in the house where Muhammad's body was kept, accompanied with the rest of Banu Hashim, Umar informed him of the meeting of Saqifah.

Shi'a believe that Abu Bakr leaving the house without informing anyone of the meeting, proves that he went there in bad faith.

Shi'a criticize Abu Bakr for the dispute between him and Mohammad's daughter Fatimah that ended with Fatimah becoming angry with Abu Bakr and refusing to talk with him for the rest of her life, she died six months later.

Shia belive that Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn Walid to crush those who were in favour of Ali's caliphate.

Shi'as strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr or Umar were instrumental in the collection or preservation of the Qur'an, rather that they refused to accept Ali's Qur'an.[42]

Non-Muslims view[edit]

Edward Gibbon wrotes about Abu Bakr as:

Willaim Muir states that:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Abu Bakr Siddiq". anwary-islam.com. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  2. ^ "The Rightly-Guided Caliphs". University of Southern California. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  3. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600". University of Calgary. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  4. ^ "The Caliphate". Washington State University. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  5. ^ "Abu Bakr". Princeton University. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  6. ^ "Abu Bakr". Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  7. ^ "Abu Bakr". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  8. ^ "Religion & Ethics - Islam". BBC. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  9. ^ "Through a Glass Darkly: On the Misunderstanding of Islam and America and 9/11". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  10. ^ http://www.sunnah.org/publication/khulafa_rashideen/caliph1.htm
  11. ^ War And Peace in the Law of Islam By Majid Khadduri. Translated by Muhammad Yaqub Khan Published 1951 Ahmadiyyah Anjuman Ishaat Islam Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 23 Oct 2006
  12. ^ The Middle East Journal By Middle East Institute (Washington, D.C.), By Middle East Institute (Washington, D.C.) Published 1991
  13. ^ E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 By M. Th. Houtsma, E. van Donzel, Published by BRILL
  14. ^ Sirah ibn Hasham vol:1 page 98
  15. ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions By Wendy Doniger Published by Merriam-Webster
  16. ^ The Mohammadan Dynasties. Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historical Introductions By Stanley Lane-Poole Published by Adamant Media Corporation
  17. ^ Abu Bakr By Atta Mohy-ud-Din Published 1968 S. Chand Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 6 Jan 2006.
  18. ^ Islam By Anne Geldart, Published by Harcourt Heinemann.
  19. ^ Islamic culture. By Islamic Cultural Board Published 1927 [s.n.Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 27 Mar 2006.
  20. ^ Hazrat Abu Bakr, the First Caliph of Islam By Muhammad Habibur Rahman Khan Sherwani, Published 1963 Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 14 Nov 2006.
  21. ^ Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi,page no:62
  22. ^ Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi,page no:62
  23. ^ Sahih-al-Bhukari book of Maghazi ,Ghazwa Saif-al-Jara
  24. ^ Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 518
  25. ^ Aqa Mahdi Puya tafsir of verse 4:94 on al-Islam.org [1]
  26. ^ "The Quran compiled by Imam Ali (AS)". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  27. ^ Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 554.
  28. ^ Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 554.
  29. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter20page1.htm
  30. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter21page1.htm
  31. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter22page1.htm
  32. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter23page1.htm
  33. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter24page1.htm
  34. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter25page1.htm
  35. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter19page1.htm
  36. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter26page1.htm
  37. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter27page1.htm
  38. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter28page1.htm
  39. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter29page1.htm
  40. ^ http://www.swordofallah.com/html/bookchapter30page1.htm
  41. ^ Sidiq-i-Akbar Hazrat Abu Bakr : by by Masudul Hasan. Publisher: Lahore : Ferozsons, 1976.OCLC: 3478821
  42. ^ http://al-islam.org/encyclopedia/chapter8/4.html
  43. ^ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  44. ^ Life of Muhammad

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Sunni:

Non-Muslim:

Unclassified:

Mohammad adil/sandbox10
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish
 Died: August 23 634
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Muhammad
Rashidun Caliph
632634
Succeeded by
Umar