User:Mr.BuriramCN/Transport by capital city/A

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Abu Dhabi[edit]

Abu Dhabi International Airport (AUH) is the city's main aviation hub and the second busiest airport in the UAE, serving 9.02 million passengers in 2008, up 30.2% from 2007.[1][1] Its terminal spaces are dominated by Etihad Airways which is the UAE's national carrier and the country's second largest airline.[2] A new terminal opened in 2009 with total capacity reaching 12 million passengers per annum by 2011.[3] Development work has also started on a new passenger terminal, to be situated between the two runways and known as the Midfield Terminal. The new mega-midfield terminal complex will be capable of handling an additional 20 million passengers a year initially and then later, as Abu Dhabi develops as a major Middle East transport hub, up to 50 million passengers a year, thus providing a major competition to Dubai International Airport.[4] The 5.9-million-square-metre (1,500-acre) terminal will initially include 42 gates, rising to more than 90 gates on completion of the airport.[5]

Public transport systems in Abu Dhabi include the Abu Dhabi public buses, taxis, ferries, and airplanes.[6] White-and-mustard metered taxis traverse most of the city in UAE. Currently newer silver-coloured taxis are coming in, while the old mustard-coloured ones are being phased out.[7] Abu Dhabi has about 8,000 old bronze/yellow/gold & white taxis, which will be phased out from 2008 to 2010.[8]

Abu Dhabi's older taxis are being phased out with newer silver taxis[9]

The first town bus entered service in about 1969 but this was all part of a very informal service. On 30 June 2008 the Department of Transport began public bus service in Abu Dhabi with four routes.[10] In an attempt to entice people to use the bus system, all routes were zero-fare until the end of 2008.[11] The four routes, which operate between 6 am and midnight every day, run at a frequency of 10 to 20 minutes.[11] Within the first week of service the bus network had seen high usage. Some of the buses, which have a maximum capacity of 45 passengers, only had room for standing left. Some bus drivers reported as many as 100 passengers on a bus at one time.[12] Although the new, zero-fare bus service has been a success, many taxi drivers are losing business. Taxi drivers have seen a considerable decrease in the demand for taxis while lines were forming for the buses.[13] The service steadily expanded and by the end of 2008, 230 buses were in service. In 2009, the Department of Transport plans to have 21 bus routes in the city, operated by 820 buses. A total of 1,360 buses are expected to be in operation by 2010.[12]

A massive expansion of public transport is anticipated within the framework of the government's Surface Transport Master Plan 2030.[14] The expansion is expected to see 130 km (81 mi) of metro and 340 km (210 mi) of tramways and/or bus rapid transit (BRT) routes.



Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport is the main airport serving Abuja and the surrounding capital region. It was named after Nigeria's first president, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe. The airport has international and domestic terminals.


Due to the slow pace of road reconstruction, inhabitants of Abuja face hours on hours in traffic trying to get to work each day. About 75 percent of residents reside in the outskirts of the main city where all economic activities are located. People coming from Kubwa and environs spend 1 hour due to ongoing construction across the city.


KIA Main entrance
KIA Main terminal building

Accra is served by Kotoka International Airport, which has both civil and military uses.[15] Located 6 miles (9.7 kilometres) from downtown Accra, the airport handles all of the city's scheduled passenger services. Accra is connected by railway line to Kumasi and Takoradi.[16]

Downtown Accra's streets were not organised in a grid plan, but rather created as needed. By contrast, the streets of planned housing estates, such as Dansoman Estates, Ringway Estates and Kanda Estates, do follow a grid system. Public transportation is the most popular means of getting around Accra.

Metro monorail[edit]

Feasibility studies for a $1.5 billion monorail project are to be completed in 2011, to be followed by the construction of rail tracks within the following five years. The privately funded project is to be undertaken by the Intercontinental Development Corporation (IDC).[17]


Accra has an extensive taxi network and numerous taxi ranks, but most taxis lack a meter system, so price negotiation is required between the passenger and driver. Metered taxis do operate in the city, but tend to be more expensive. Taxis in Ghana are painted in two colours: the four bumpers fenders are yellow/orange, and the rest of the car is in a colour of the operator's choice.


By far the most common form of transport in Accra, trotros (motor vehicles repurposed for passenger transport) are the biggest, most efficient and cost-effective way of getting around the city. The buses are typically minibuses or vans, with the most popular being Nissan Urvan 15-seaters and Mercedes Benz Sprinter or D 309 vans. Trotros are typically decorated with flags and stickers of various countries or (local and international) soccer teams, and with witty sayings, wisecracks, local proverbs (in English or local languages) or Bible verses printed on the bus's rear. Trotros stop at any bus stop or gathering of people, and can also be found at truck and taxi stations, such as the Neoplan station.[18]


In 2003, the Metro Mass Transit Service, was inaugurated in Accra as a more comfortable and cheaper alternative to the trotro. Recently, plans have been afoot to develop a more advanced rapid transit bus system for the city and its metropolitan area. This project is aimed at creating an "integrated, efficient, cost-effective and sustainable transportation system responsive to the needs of society, and supporting growth".[19][20]

Accra Taxi
Taxi rank in Accra
Accra Trotro

Addis Ababa[edit]

Public transportation is through public buses from Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise or blue and white share taxis. The taxis are usually minibuses that can seat at most twelve people. Two people are responsible for each taxi, the driver and a weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi's destination.

The construction of the Addis Ababa Ring Road was initiated in 1998 to implement the city master plan and enhance peripheral development. The Ring Road was divided into three major phases that connect all the five main gates in and out of Addis Ababa with all other Regions (Jimma, Debre Zeit, Asmara, Gojjam and Ambo). For this project, China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) was the partner of Addis Ababa City Roads Authority (AACRA).[21] The Ring Road has greatly helped to decongest and alleviate city car traffic.

Intercity bus service is provided by the Selam Bus Line Share Company.

The city is served by Addis Ababa Bole International Airport, where a new terminal opened in 2003. The old Lideta Airport in the western "Old Airport" district is used mostly by small craft and military planes and helicopters.[dubious ] Addis Ababa also has had a railway connection with Djibouti City, with a picturesque French style railway station, but the railway no longer operates pending the construction of a new modern rail line to be built in the near future.

A light rail system is planned; in September 2010, Ethiopian Railway Corp reached a funding agreement with Export and Import Bank of China. Plans include a 30 km network with two lines; an east-west line from Ayat to the Torhailoch ringroad, and from Menelik Square to Mercato Bus Station, Meskel Square and Akaki.[22]


Public transport of Algiers
  • ETUSA (urban and suburban bus transportation for Algiers) operates bus service in Algiers and the surrounding suburbs. 54 lines are currently operating, with service from 5:30 a.m. to 12:45 a.m.
  • SNTF (national railroad company) operates commuter-rail lines connecting the capital to the surrounding suburbs.
  • Algiers Metro, opened November 1, 2011.
  • Algiers tramway, opened on May 8, 2011.
  • Houari Boumediene Airport is located 20 km (12 mi) from the city. The airport serves domestics, many European cities, West Africa, the Middle East, Asia and North America. On July 5, 2006, a new international air terminal was opened for service. The terminal is managed by Aéroports de Paris.

4 urban ropeways:

  • El Madania – Belouizdad
  • Notre Dame d’Afrique – Bologhine
  • Memorial des Martyres/Riad el Feth – Jardin d’essais
  • Palais de la culture – Oued Kniss


The city's largest airport, Queen Alia International Airport, situated about 30 km (18.64 mi) south of Amman, is the major international airport in Jordan and the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. The airport has three terminals, two passenger and one cargo, and in 2010 handled between 5.8 million passengers despite the airport's capacity to only handle 3.5 million visitors. The airport expanding was recently done and modified, including a new added terminal costing $700M, that allow the airport to handle over 12 million passengers. Amman Civil Airport is a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the military.[23]

The recently constructed Abdoun Bridge spans Wadi Abdoun, and connects the 4th Circle to Âbdoun Circle. It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks. It is the first curved suspended bridge to be built.

Currently under construction are dedicated lanes for bus services which will operate as part of the new urban rapid transit network. The Bus Rapid Transit project is expected to be completed by 2012. The BRT service entails premium, high-capacity buses running on exclusive and completely segregated lanes that can carry more than 120 passengers and run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors.[24] The system includes high-quality stations and stops; express buses that can carry more than 120 passengers and will run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors; terminals and park-n-ride facilities, and an integrated fare collection system allowing passengers to pay the fare at stations before embarking on the bus.[25] The BRT is planned to run along three major corridors. The first corridor connects Sweileh with Mahatta via Sport City with major service to the University of Jordan. The second corridor connects Sport City with downtown at Ras El-Ain. The third corridor connects Customs Square with Mahatta.[26]

There are also plans to construct a three-line metro system in Amman. The first phase consists of two lines, the red and green lines, connecting East, Central, and West Amman with an interchange station (linking the two lines) at Amman Plaza with connections to the Northern and Southern suburbs. The second phase consists of the yellow line, connecting North and South Amman with an interchange to the red and green lines at the Abdali and City Hall stations.

There are eight circles, or roundabouts, that span and connect West Amman. However, the city lacks an operable rail or metro system which causes severe congestion, especially in old Amman. To add to the congestion, all the Kingdom's highways pass through Amman, further increasing traffic in the capital.

By land, the city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighboring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque, the Parliament and Palace of Justice) and the newly built Rağadan Central Bus Station (near the Roman Amphitheatre in downtown). The city can suffer from considerable traffic congestion at peak hours, especially during the summer months when affluent holidaymakers from the Persian Gulf region spend the summer in Amman to take advantage of its comparatively mild weather.


A tram on Damrak with Centraal Station in the background

In the city centre, driving a car is discouraged. Parking fees are expensive, and many streets are closed to cars or are one-way.[27] The local government sponsors carsharing and carpooling initiatives such as Autodelen and[28]

Regional buses, and some suburban buses, are operated by Connexxion and Arriva. Currently, there are sixteen tram lines, and four metro lines, with a fifth line, the North/South line, under construction, all operated by GVB. Three free ferries carry pedestrians and cyclists across the IJ to Amsterdam-Noord, and two fare-charging ferries run east and west along the harbour. There are also water taxis, a water bus, a boat sharing operation, electric rental boats (Boaty) and canal cruises, that transport people along Amsterdam's waterways.

The A10 ringroad surrounding the city connects Amsterdam with the Dutch national network of freeways. Interchanges on the A10 allow cars to enter the city by transferring to one of the 18 city roads, numbered S101 through to S118. These city roads are regional roads without grade separation, and sometimes without a central reservation. Most are accessible by cyclists. The S100 Centrumring is a smaller ringroad circumnavigating the city's centre.

Amsterdam was intended in 1932 to be the hub, a kind of Kilometre Zero, of the highway system of the Netherlands,[29] with freeways numbered One to Eight planned to originate from the city.[29] The outbreak of the Second World War and shifting priorities led to the current situation, where only roads A1, A2, and A4 originate from Amsterdam according to the original plan. The A3 road to Rotterdam was cancelled in 1970 in order to conserve the Groene Hart. Road A8, leading north to Zaandam and the A10 Ringroad were opened between 1968 and 1974.[30] Besides the A1, A2, A4 and A8, several freeways, such as the A7 and A6, carry traffic mainly bound for Amsterdam.

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's 4th busiest airport and the world's 16th busiest for passenger traffic.

Amsterdam is served by ten stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways).[31] Five are intercity stops: Sloterdijk, Zuid, Amstel, Bijlmer ArenA and Amsterdam Centraal. The stations for local services are: Lelylaan, RAI, Holendrecht, Muiderpoort and Science Park. Amsterdam Centraal is also an international railway station. From the station there are regular services to destinations such as Austria, Belarus, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Switzerland. Among these trains are international trains of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen and the Thalys(Amsterdam-Brussels-Paris-Cologne), CityNightLine, and InterCityExpress.[32]

Eurolines has coaches from Amsterdam Amstel railway station to destinations all over Europe.

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (IATA: AMSICAO: EHAM) is less than 20 minutes by train from Amsterdam Central Station. It is the biggest airport in the Netherlands, the fourth largest in Europe, and the twelfth largest in the world in terms of passengers. It handles about 50 million passengers per year and is the home base of four airlines, KLM,, Martinair and Arkefly. Schiphol was, in 2010, the fourth busiest airport in the world measured by international passengers.[33][34]

Andorra la Vella[edit]

As a result of its population size and highly mountainous terrain, Andorra la Vella has no airport of its own, but is three hours' drive from the nearest airports at Toulouse (Tolosa), Girona, Perpignan and Barcelona.[35] It also has no train station, although there are bus shuttle services linking the capital to train stations at L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre (France) and Lleida in Spain. There are also a shuttle bus from Barcelona, Girona and Reus' airports to Andorra la Vella.[36]


Kızılay station of the Ankara Metro
Ankara Central Station in 2012. The station was built in 1937.

Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is Ankara's main airport. Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal (Turkish: Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmesi, AŞTİ) is an important part of the bus network which covers every neighbourhood in the city.

The Ankara Central Station is a major rail hub in Turkey. The Turkish State Railways operates passenger train service from Ankara to other major cities, such as: İstanbul, Eskişehir, Balıkesir, Kütahya, İzmir, Kayseri, Adana, Kars, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Karabük, Zonguldak and Sivas. Commuter rail also runs between the stations of Sincan and Kayaş. In 2009, the new Yüksek Hızlı Tren high-speed rail service began operation between Ankara and Eskişehir. On 23 August 2011, another Yüksek Hızlı Tren high-speed rail line commercially started its service between Ankara and Konya.

The Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO)[37] operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transportation. Ankara is currently served by suburban rail and two subway lines with about 300,000 total daily commuters, and three additional subway lines are under construction.


Apia Harbour is by far the largest and busiest harbour in Samoa. International shipping with containers, LPG gas, and fuels all dock here. Ferries to Tokelau and American Samoa depart from here.

Apia is served by a good road network, which is generally kept reasonably well maintained. Most of the main roads are sealed; the unsealed roads have lower use. Vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road since 7 September 2009.[38] Speed limits are 25 mph (40 km/h) near the centre of town and 35 mph (56 km/h) in the rest of the country with a 15 mph (24 km/h) limit in special circumstances.

The Samoan government started the second phase of a major upgrading of arterial routes around the Apia Urban Area in 2012, with incremental widening of major roads around the city.[39]

The country has no trains or trams, but is served with an extensive and privatised bus and taxi system. People commonly walk around the town, or even for some distances outside it. There are few bicycles and motorcycles, but traffic congestion due to a huge increase in vehicle ownership has necessitated a major upgrade in road infrastructure.[40]

Fagali'i Airport, the small airstrip in Fagali'i, which was used for internal flights and some international flights to Pago Pago in American Samoa has now been reopened.[41] The main international airport, Faleolo International Airport, is a 40-minute drive west of the city. Samoa's major domestic airlines, Polynesian Airlines and Samoa Air, service this airport.


The city is served by Ashgabat Airport. Turkmenistan Airlines has its headquarters in the city.[42] Ashgabat air traffic it to and from the major cities of the Turkmenistan, as well as Asia, Europe and the CIS. To Ashgabat fly foreign companies: Belavia, Lufthansa, Turkish Airlines, S7 Airlines, flydubai, China Southern Airlines and Uzbekistan Airways.

Through the city from east to west is a railroad Turkmenbashi - Mary - Türkmenabat. Also from Ashgabat to the north-east departs new Trans Karakum railway (Ashgabat-Karakum-Dashoguz), on which the movement is open from February 2006. In May 2009, completed the reconstruction of the Ashgabat railway station.

In Ashgabat there are two bus stations, one located near the Teke Bazaar, the second at the old airport. There are daily buses to Archman, Dashoguz and Turkmenabat. Government is constructing a new international bus station.[43]

Public transport in the city consists mainly of buses. More than 60 bus lines cover a total range of over 2,230 kilometres (1,386 miles) with 700 buses running on urban routes. Currently the city primarily uses Mercedes-Benz and Hyunda busesi.[44] Bus timetables and detailed schematic map of the route are at every stop. Distances between stops are about 300–500 meters. From October 19, 1964 to December 31, 2011 the city also had the Ashgabat trolleybus system. At the beginning of the twentieth century narrow-gauge railway operated by steam-power, connecting the city with the suburbs Firyuza.


Public bus transportation in downtown Asmara.

Taxis that run in the city of Asmara start at 07:00 and end at 21:00, and can get very crowded at peak times. The fare for a shared taxi is 5-10 Nakfa per seat. A contracted taxi can charge between 20 and 300 Nakfa so the price should be negotiated before entering the taxi. Contracted taxis also run outside Asmara to various other cities, towns and villages including; Massawa, Keren, Mendefera, Dekemhare, Adi Quala, Ghinda and Nefasit. Long distance buses in Eritrea are not crowded because it is illegal for passengers to stand in the aisle. There are organized breakfast and/or lunch stops on longer trips. When traveling to remote places, like Assab, Nakfa, Tesseney or Senafe, reservations should be made for the return trip in advance, to prevent being stranded.[citation needed]

There is a railway station in Asmara that connects the city with Massawa: the Eritrean Railway, built by the Italians between 1887 and 1932, has been recently restructured. Indeed the line has now been restored from Massawa all the way through to Asmara, but as of 2006 no scheduled services traverse the whole length of the line. The area is served by Asmara International Airport.

Charter trains for tourists now do, and regular train services exist in certain areas where there is demand. While the surviving equipment is sufficient for such a limited service, the purchase or building of more is necessary to provide a serious form of transportation over the length of the line.

The Eritrean Railroad Authority has requested funding to continue the Italian-era plan to extend the route from Asmara to Tesseney and provide an opportunity for Sudan to efficiently use the Port of Massawa.


Astana International Airport was, like the plan for the whole new city, designed by the late Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. The Astana Metro is a planned underground construction in Astana.

Astana Railway Station is an important hub for northern Kazakhstan, served by Qazaqstan Temir Zholy trains to most major cities in Kazakhstan, including Talgo expresses to Almaty. International trains leave for Russia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, most of them with a once a week frequency. Since the summer of 2008, the schedule systems show also a direct weekly train to Urumqi (in China's Xinjiang).[45]


Main access roads
Asunción's new buses

Because the Paraguay River runs right next to Asunción the city is served by a river terminal in the downtown area. This port is strategically located inside a bay and it is where most freight enters and leaves the country. There is a lesser terminal in the Sajonia neighbourhood, and a shuttle port in Ita Enramada, almost opposite the Argentine city of Clorinda, Formosa.

Public transportation is used heavily and is served through buses that reach all the regions of the city and surrounding dormitory communities. The main long-distance bus terminal is on the Avenida República Argentina and its bus services connect all of the Departments of Paraguay, as well as international routes to nearby countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.

Silvio Pettirossi International Airport is Paraguay's main national and international gateway, located at Luque, suburb of the capital Asunción.


Athens metropolitan railway network (Metro, Suburban, Tram), including future expansions
A trolleybus and a bus in central Athens

Athens is serviced by a variety of transportation means, forming the largest mass transit system of Greece. The Athens Mass Transit System consists of a large bus fleet, a trolleybus fleet that mainly serves Athens's city center, the city's Metro, a commuter rail service[46] and a tram network, connecting the southern suburbs to the city centre.[47]

Bus transport[edit]

Ethel (Greek: ΕΘΕΛ) (Etaireia Thermikon Leoforeion), or Thermal Bus Company, is the main operator of buses in Athens. Its network consists of about 300 bus lines which span the Athens Metropolitan Area,[48] with an operating staff of 5,327, and a fleet of 1,839 buses.[49] Of those 1,839 buses 416 run on compressed natural gas,[49] making up the largest fleet of natural gas-powered buses in Europe.[50]

Besides being served by a fleet of natural-gas and diesel buses, the Athens Urban Area is also served by trolleybuses — or electric buses, as they are referred to in the name of the operating company. The network is operated by Electric Buses of the Athens and Piraeus Region, or ILPAP (Greek: ΗΛΠΑΠ) and consists of 22 lines with an operating staff of 1,137.[51] All of the 366 trolleybuses are equipped to enable them to run on diesel in case of power failure.[51]

Athens Metro[edit]

The Athens Metro is more commonly known in Greece as the Attiko Metro (Greek: Αττικό Mετρό) and provides public transport throughout the Athens Urban Area. While its main purpose is transport, it also houses Greek artifacts found during construction of the system.[52] The Athens Metro has an operating staff of 387 and runs two of the three metro lines; namely the Red (line 2) and Blue (line 3) lines, which were constructed largely during the 1990s, with the initial sections opened in January 2000. All routes run entirely underground and a fleet of 42 trains consisting of 252 cars operate within the network,[53] with a daily occupancy of 550,000 passengers.[53]

The Red Line (line 2) runs from Anthoupoli to Elliniko and covers a distance of 17.5 km (10.9 mi).[53] Extensions are under construction at each end of the line, westwards to Piraeus, and southwards to the Old Hellinikon Airport East Terminal (the future Metropolitan Park). The spring 2007 extension from Monastiraki westwards, to Egaleo, connected some of the main night life hubs of the city, namely the ones of Gazi (Kerameikos station) with Psirri (Monastiraki station) and the city centre (Syntagma station).

The Blue Line (line 3) runs from the western suburbs, namely the Egaleo station, through the central Monastiraki and Syntagma stations to Doukissis Plakentias avenue in the northeastern suburb of Halandri, covering a distance of 16 km (10 mi),[53] then ascending to ground level and reaching Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, using the Suburban Railway infrastructure and extending its length to 39 km (24 mi).[53]

Electric railway (ISAP)[edit]

An ISAP train (Green Line) passes by the Stoa of Attalos in central Athens

Not run by the Athens Metro company, is the ISAP (Greek: ΗΣΑΠ), the Electric Railway Company line, which for many years served as Athens's primary urban rail transport. This is today the Green Line (line 1) of the Athens Metro network as shown on maps, and unlike the red and blue lines, ISAP has many above-ground sections on its route. This was the original metro line from Piraeus to Kifisia; serving 22 stations,[54] with a network length of 25.6 km (15.9 mi),[54] an operating staff of 730 and a fleet of 44 trains and 243 cars.[54] ISAP's occupancy rate is 600,000 passengers daily.[54]

The Green Line (line 1) now serves 24 stations, and forms the oldest line of the Athens metro network and for the most part runs at ground level,[55] connecting the port of Piraeus with the northern suburb of Kifissia. The line is set to be extended to Agios Stefanos, a suburb located 23 km (14 mi)[citation needed] to the north of Athens, reaching to 36 km (22 mi).[citation needed]

The Athens Metropolitan Railway system is managed by three companies; namely ISAP (line 1),[56] Attiko Metro (lines 2 & 3), while its commuter rail, the Proastiakós is considered as line 4.

Suburban Rail

Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos)[edit]

The Athens commuter rail service, referred to as the "Proastiakós", connects Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport to the city of Corinth, 80 km (50 mi)[57] west of Athens, via Larissa station, the city's central rail station and the port of Piraeus. The service is sometimes considered the fourth line of the Athens Metro. The length of Athens's commuter rail network extends to 120 km (75 mi),[57] and is expected to stretch to 281 km (175 mi) by 2010.[57] The Proastiakos will be extended to Xylokastro west of Athens and Chalkida.[57]

A modern Athens Tram station and vehicles


Athens Tram SA operates a fleet of 35 vehicles,[58] which serve 48 stations,[58] employ 345 people with an average daily occupancy of 65,000 passengers.[58] The tram network spans a total length of 27 km (17 mi) and covers ten Athenian suburbs.[58] The network runs from Syntagma Square to the southwestern suburb of Palaio Faliro, where the line splits in two branches; the first runs along the Athens coastline toward the southern suburb of Voula, while the other heads toward the Piraeus district of Neo Faliro. The network covers the majority of the Saronic coastline.[59] Further extensions are planned towards the major commercial port of Piraeus.[58] The expansion to Piraeus will include 12 new stations, increase the overall length of tram route by 5.4 km (3 mi), and increase the overall transportation network.[60]

Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport check in area

Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport[edit]

Athens is served by the Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport (AIA) located near the town of Spata, in the eastern Messoghia plain, some 35 km (22 mi) east of Athens.[61] The airport, awarded the "European Airport of the Year 2004" Award,[62] is intended as an expandable hub for air travel in southeastern Europe and was constructed in 51 months, costing 2.2 billion euros. It employs a staff of 14,000.[62]

The airport is served by the metro, the suburban rail, buses to Piraeus port, Athens' city centre and it suburbs, and also taxis. Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport accommodates 65 landings and take-offs per hour,[61] with its 24 passenger boarding bridges,[61] 144 check-in counters and broader 150,000 m2 (1,614,587 sq ft) main terminal;[61] and a commercial area of 7,000 m2 (75,347 sq ft) which includes cafes, duty-free shops,[62] and a small museum.

In 2007, the airport handled 16,538,390 passengers, an increase of 9.7% over the previous year of 2006.[63] Of those 16,538,390 passengers, 5,955,387 passed through the airport for domestic flights,[63] and 10,583,003 passengers travelled through for international flights.[63] Beyond the dimensions of its passenger capacity, AIA handled 205,294 total flights in 2007, or approximately 562 flights per day.[64]

Railways and ferry connections[edit]

Athens is the hub of the country's national railway system (OSE), connecting the capital with major cities across Greece and abroad (Istanbul, Sofia, and Bucharest). Due to financial difficulties, all international rail services were suspended indefinitely in 2011. The port of Piraeus connects Athens to the numerous Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, with ferries departing during the summer; while also serving the cruise ships that arrive annually.


Interchange at the Attiki Odos airport entrance

Two main motorways of Greece begin in Athens, namely the A1/E75, which crosses through Athens's Urban Area from Piraeus, heading north towards Greece's second largest city, Thessaloniki; and the A8/E94 heading west, towards Patras, which incorporated the GR-8A. Before their completion much of the road traffic used the GR-1 and the GR-8.

Athens' Metropolitan Area is served by the motorway network of the Attiki Odos toll-motorway (code: A6). Its main section extends from the western industrial suburb of Elefsina to Athens International Airport; while two beltways, namely the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) and the Hymettus Beltway (A64) serve parts of western and eastern Athens respectively. The span of the Attiki Odos in all its length is 65 km (40 mi),[65] making it the largest metropolitan motorway network in all of Greece.


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