User:Mrg3105/sandbox for deleted
- You may also be looking for Wikipedia:List of controversial issues.
Controversial articles, by their very nature, require far greater care to achieve a neutral point of view.
- 1 Describe the controversy
- 2 Be careful with attribution
- 3 Editing procedures
- 4 See also
- 5 Unresisted killing of groups
- 6 Earliest source for etymology
- 7 Etymology
- 8 Other terms
- 9 Definition
- 10 Scope
- 11 Perspectives
- 12 Causes
- 13 Event records in English language
- 14 Event records in non-English languages
- 15 Behaviour by perpetrators
- 16 Commonality in perpetrations
- 17 Events by type of perpetrators
- 18 Events by type of victims
- 19 Events by means of perpetration
- 20 Events by number of victims
- 21 Events by duration
- 22 Ratios of perpetrators to victims
- 23 Behaviour by survivors
- 24 Analysis of the incidents
- 25 Notes and references
- 26 See also
Describe the controversy
An article about a controversial person or group should accurately describe their views, no matter how misguided or repugnant. Remember to ask the question, "How can this controversy best be described?" It is not our job to edit Wikipedia so that it reflects our own idiosyncratic views and then defend those edits against all comers; it is our job to be fair to all sides of a controversy.
Please be clear that the Wikipedia neutrality policy certainly does not state, or imply, that we must "give equal validity" to minority views in a controversy.
See also Wikipedia:Neutral point of view.
Be careful with attribution
When writing an article on most topics in Wikipedia, simple declarations of fact and received opinion do not need to be sourced; indeed, it would be inadequate to force editors to provide a reliable source for every claim.
However, when dealing with potentially contentious topics, such as in the field of religion or current affairs, a lot more care has to be taken. The more at variance from commonly accepted notions an assertion is, the more rigorously it should be documented. Keep the following things in mind:
Be careful with weasel words
The term "weasel words" refers to expressions such as "is claimed", "is thought to be", and "is alleged." While these may be legitimate rhetorical devices, they should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that they are not used to insert hidden bias, since claimed implies that the claim may not be true and that there is some reason to doubt it. For example:
- ...is widely thought to be the work of... (good)
- ...who claimed they were forced from their homes... (bad--It's quite possible the people described were forced from their homes. )
When establishing events or actions, reference should be made to a reliable source. Ideally, this would be an independent scholarly work, but most of us don't have access to this kind of material. For most events since 1995, and some before, Web-based news reports can be cited to establish basic facts. These should be from the mainstream media (CNN, BBC, etc.) or independent organizations such as the UN, taking into account that they have their bias as well.
When characterizing people, events, or actions, assertions should likewise be attributed to an acceptable source. A regular news story from a mainstream media organization is best, but don't rely on the journalist to report the bias of its sources accurately. Alternatively, a text from conservative or liberal alternative media or a focus group may be cited, provided the source is accurately labeled in neutral terms. For example,
- The conservative American churchgroup...
- The liberal anti-war group...
- The right-wing pro-Israel advocacy group...
- The radical Islamic group...
- The indigenous rebel movement...
Identify the possible bias of the source (including organizational, financing, and/or personal ties with interested parties). If the status of the source itself is disputed, it is best to avoid such characterizations altogether; instead, a link to an article on the source, where those conflicting viewpoints are discussed, should be used (if possible). (One example is the much-disputed distinction between a terrorist and... a freedom fighter, but other disputes are certainly possible.) In the event that non-centrist points of view are presented, it is desirable to include assertions from multiple perspectives.
If you contribute to a controversial article then it can be handy to separate the non-controversial contributions from the controversial ones. First make the non-controversial edits and then the (suspected) controversial ones. If the controversial edit is reverted by another contributor then at least the non-controversial edits will be maintained.
Unresisted killing of groups
(Would still require redirects from massacres, butchery, slaughter, killing)
Earliest source for etymology
(English) - origin, meanings. The meaning is derived from the Biblical source (above) of a ritual slaughter using a ritual knife during Passover. The word for a knife in Hebrew is sakeen (Hebrew - סַכִּין) with a prefix -מִ (from, of), vocalised mi-sakeen. The suggestion is a Latin borrowing as macellum "provisions store, butcher shop."; Old French macacre, macecle "slaughterhouse, butchery" reflecting originally non-atrocity based meaning.
(English) - massacre, butchery, slaughter, killing
A massacre is an event notable for a significant loss of life by use of force on defenseless victims (see etymology) in a short period of time, as opposed to genocide or ethnocide. A massacre may occur during a military conflict, a civil war or civilian ethnic cleansing occurring over a longer period. The notability varies depending on the scale of the even in perception of the society within which it was perpetrated. A killing of several individuals in a small community (small group), or one that is not usually subjected to such events is likely to be as notable as large scale and long duration events in societies where such occurrences are experienced more often, and in larger populations.
Not serial killing
Massacres encompass all periods of human history and all societies. Perpetrators have been known to be civilians, para-military and military forces, organised and acting haphazardly, directed by higher political or military entity as a matter of policy, or perpetrated by individuals driven by mental disorders. The article is intended as a resource for comparative analysis of such events.
Perspectives presented in the list are those of the apprehended perpetrators, victims, and law enforcement personnel.
Others as the article is being edited (mental disorders, cults, etc.)
Event records in English language
Event records in non-English languages
Behaviour by perpetrators
Commonality in perpetrations
Events by type of perpetrators
Events by type of victims
Events by means of perpetration
Events by number of victims
Events by duration
Ratios of perpetrators to victims
Behaviour by survivors
Effect on descendants
Analysis of the incidents
|1002, November 13||Kingdom of England||St. Brice's Day massacre||unknown||Anglo-Saxon king Ethelred II ordered the killing of all Danes living in England.|
|1066||Granada (Al-Andalus),Islamic Spain||Granada massacre||c.4,000-5,000||A Muslim mob crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and killed most of the Jewish population of the city.|
|1325||South Dakota||Crow Creek Massacre||c.500||Native Americans indigenous to South Dakota killed Central Plains villagers.|
|1572||Paris, France||St. Bartholomew's Day massacre||c.3,000 over several days.||A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.[unreliable source?]|
|1622, March 22||Virginia, North America||Jamestown Massacre||347||The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.[verification needed]|
|1641||Ireland||Massacre of Scottish planters||2,000-12,000||Dispossessed native Gaelic Irish and Old English killed Scottish Protestant planters.|
|1644, 28 May||Bolton, England||Bolton Massacre||up to 1,600||Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.|
|1692, February 13||Scotland||Massacre of Glencoe||38||Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.|
|1770, March 5||Boston||Boston Massacre||5||British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution.|
|1771, July 17||Kugluktuk, Nunavut||Bloody Falls Massacre||20||Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.|
|1792||France||September Massacres||c. 1440||Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.|
|1819||Manchester, England||Peterloo Massacre||11 killed, over 500 injured||Armed cavalry charged a peaceful pro-democracy meeting of 60,000 people.|
|1838, January||Waterloo Creek, Australia||Waterloo Creek massacre||100–300||Aboriginal Australians killed.  |
|1838, June 10||Myall Creek, Australia||Myall Creek massacre||28||A white posse killed Aboriginal Australians. For the first time, the perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.|
|1838, October 30||Caldwell County, Missouri, United States||Haun's Mill massacre||19||About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators militiamen and volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one ally, some of them at point-blank range.|
|1842||Afghanistan||Massacre of Elphinstone's army||16,000||Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.|
|1857, September 11||Mountain Meadows, Utah, United States||Mountain Meadows massacre||100-140||Mormon militia and Paiute tribesmen killed unarmed members of the Fancher-Baker emigrant wagon train.|
|1863, August 21||Kansas, USA||Lawrence Massacre||c.150||Pro-Confederate bushwhackers attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War.|
|1864, 29 November||Kiowa County, Colorado||Sand Creek massacre||c. 200||Colorado Territory militia destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.|
|1876||Ottoman Empire||Batak massacre||5,000||Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.|
|1890, 29 December||Wounded Knee, South Dakota||Wounded Knee Massacre||178||500 U.S. 7th Cavalry arrived to escort Lakota Sioux people to Nebraska, but fighting broke out.|
|1894-1896||Anatolia, Ottoman Empire||Hamidian massacres||80,000 to 300,000|
|1919, April 13||India||Amritsar massacre||379||British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer fired at unarmed civilians.|
|1920||Dublin, Ireland||Croke Park Massacre||15||Auxiliary police (Black and Tans) of the Royal Irish Constabulary fired at Gaelic Football spectators at Croke Park.|
|1928, August-September||Coniston, Australia||Coniston massacre||31-110||Police-led posses killed Aboriginal Australians. |
|1929, February 14||Chicago||Saint Valentine's Day massacre||7||Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.|
|1937-1938||China||Nanking massacre (Rape of Nanking)||42,000–400,000, median: 260,000||The Japanese Imperial Army pillaged Nanking for six weeks|
|1940||Soviet Union||Katyn massacre||21,857-25,700||Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.|
|1941||Soviet Union||NKVD prisoner massacres||c.100,000||The Soviet NKVD executed tens of thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.|
|1941, 29–30 September||Ukraine||Babi Yar massacre||more than 30,000||Nazis killed the Jewish population of Kiev.|
|1942||Laha Airfield, Ambon Island||Laha massacre||~300||The Japanese killed surendered Australian soldiers.|
|1942, 10 June||Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia||Lidice massacre||340||Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.|
|1944||Italy||Marzabotto massacre||c.700-1,800||The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.|
|1944, December||the Battle of the Bulge, Belgium||Malmedy massacre||88||German soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).|
|1953, March||Nairobi, Kenya||Mau Mau||150||150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.|
|1962||Novocherkassk, Soviet Union||Novocherkassk massacre||23-70 killed, over 40 wounded||The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.|
|1968||South Vietnam||My Lai massacre||504||US soldiers killed 504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.|
|1968||Mexico City, Mexico||Tlatelolco massacre||25-350 ||Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 350 (according to human rights activists) students on the eve of the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre. |
|1970||Kent State University, Ohio, USA||Kent State massacre||4||29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.|
|1975, July 31||Northern Ireland||Miami Showband massacre||5||Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.|
|1976||Northern Ireland||Kingsmill massacre||10||Irish republicans shot ten Irish Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in South Armagh, Northern Ireland by .|
|1982||Iraq||Dujail Massacre||148||Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to carry out a reprisal attack against the town, which resulted in 148 of the town's men being killed.|
|1982||Lebanon||Sabra and Chatila massacre||700-3,500||Refugees are killed by a Lebanese Forces militia in refugee camps surrounded by Israeli Defence Forces. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.|
|14 August 1985||Peru||Accomarca massacre||47, 69 or 74||An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.|
|1987, August 19||Hungerford, England||Hungerford massacre||17||A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.|
|1991||Croatia||Vukovar massacre||264||Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.   |
|1991, December||Croatia||Voćin massacre||32||Croatian civilians killed by Serb paramilitary units during the Croatian War of Independence.|
|1991, November 18||Croatia||Škabrnja massacre||86||Serb paramilitaries, supported by the JNA, captured the village of Škabrnja and killed 25 Prisoners of war and 61 civilians over the next several days..|
|1993, 30 October||Greysteel, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland||Greysteel massacre||8||Ulster Freedom Fighters opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol.|
|1993||Brazil||Yanomami Massacre||c.16-73||Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.|
|1995||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Srebrenica massacre||c.8,000||Units of the Army of Republika Srpska killed male Bosniaks; the largest mass killing in Europe since World War II.|
|1996, March 13||Scotland||Dunblane massacre||18||A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.|
|1996||Lebanon||Qana massacre||106||Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately five hundred Lebanese civilians. UN concluded that the Israeli forces had deliberately targeted the shelter.|
|2000, 27 July||West Bengal, India||Nanoor massacre||11||Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.|
|2004, September 1||Beslan, Russian Federation||Beslan School Massacre||334 civilians killed||Armed Chechen separatists took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.|
Notes and references
- Old French macacre is written with c cedille, which gives c the s sound before the vowel a as in mesaqqer
- Most researchers define a small group as having at least three and no more than twelve or fifteen members. A group needs to have at least three members, otherwise it would simply be a dyad. 
- Staff. Saint Brices Day massacre, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 26 December 2007
- Sue Cameron England’s massacre of the immigrants, Financial Times 30 October 2007
- Staff. Ethelred II The Unready, website of Channel 4 Accessed 26 December 2007
- Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
- The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
- 1066 December 30, Granada (Spain)
- Medieval Sourcebook: Abraham Ibd Daud: On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 11Cent
- Staff. The Crow Creek Massacre www.nebraskastudies.org
- Heather Pringle, Crow Creek's Revenge, Science, 27 March, 1998
- Staff, Crow Creek Massacre, University of South Dakota
- Staff. Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Columbia Encyclopedia, Questia Online Library
- Staff, Massacre of Saint Bartholomews Day (French history), Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
- userid=oberhot Paris and the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: August 24, 1572, Eckerd College web page cites Cole, R. A Travelers History of Paris; Guizot, France, vol. 3 (245 – 306); and http://paris.org web site for the Plan de Brau
- Crandall Shifflett (1998). Robert Beverley's Description of the 1622 Indian Attack Virtual Jamestown cites Robert Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia: A Selection (Indianapolis & New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, 1971), 21-22.
- Staff Jamestown Colony :: Dissolution of the Virginia Company (1622-24), Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
- James Langton. It's hardly Pocahontas: new exhibits portray Jamestown colonists as killers and rapists, Daily Telegraph, 17 March 2007
- Ohlmeyer, Jane and John Kenyon, The Civil Wars, p. 278, 'William Petty's figure of 37,000 Protestants massacred... is far too high, perhaps by a factor of ten, certainly more recent research suggests that a much more realistic figure is roughly 4,000 deaths.'
- John Ranelagh (1995). A short history of Ireland, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521469449. p. 61
- John Marshal (2006). "John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052165114X, Page 58, footnote 10, "Modern historians estimate the number massacred in Ireland in 1641 at between 2,000 and 12,000."
- Staff. The Plantation of Ulster: 1641 rebellion, BBC Paragraph 3. Accessed 17 February 2008.
- Staff, Secrets of Lough Kernan BBC, Legacies UK history local to you, website of the BBC, Paragraph 2. Accessed 17 December 2007
- Royle, Trevor (2004), Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660, London: Abacus, ISBN 0-349-11564-8 pp.138,139
- Bolton history
- Lonely Planet
- John Tincey, Marston Moor 1644: The Beginning Of The End: Osprey Publishing (March 11, 2003) ISBN 1841763349 p 33 "the `massacre at Bolton' became a staple of Parliamentarian propaganda"
- Oxford English Dictionary Cites "a1715 BP. G. BURNET Hist. Own Time (1734) II. 156 The Massacre in Glencoe, made still a great noise." and "1957 ‘H. MACDIARMID’ Battle Continues 1 Franco has made no more horrible shambles Than this poem of Campbell's, The foulest outrage his breed has to show Since the massacre of Glencoe!"
- Glencoe, engraved by W. Miller after J.M.W. Turner, Edinburgh University library
- Zobel, The Boston Massacre, W.W.Norton and Co.(1970), 199-200.
- Kenn Harper A Day in Arctic History: July 17, 1771 — Slaughter at Bloody Falls, Nunatsiaq News, 29 July 2005
- Robin McGrath. Samuel Hearne And The Inuit Oral Tradition, University of New Brunswick, libraries Accessed [[23 December], 2007
- Staff, Samuel Hearne and David Thompson, trekking in the footsteps, HighBeam Research, (From: Manitoba History Society| Date: 6/1/2005| Author: Binning, Alexander)
- Bloody Falls, The Canadian Encyclopedia
- Dwyer, Phillip and McPhee, Peter (2002). The French Revolution and Napoleon: A Sourcebook. Routledge. pp. p. 66. ISBN 978-0415199070.
- "New plaque for massacre memorial", BBC, 17 August 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- "Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience", Bruce Elder, Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2003
- "Myall Creek Massacre", Parliament of New South Wales Hansard, June 8, 2000
- Historical Record, Jenson, Vol. 7 & 8, p 671.
- History of the Church, Vol. III, pp 182–186.
- Afghan and Northwest Border Wars 1834 to 1897
- Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838-42
- Massacre of Elphinstone's army
- Morrill 1876; Lee 1877, p. 214.
- Lee 1877, p. 214.
- William Quantrill and the Lawrence Massacre
- Lawrence (Kansas, United States)
- The Bloodiest Man In American History
- Erastus D. Ladd's Description of the Lawrence Massacre, by Russell E. Bidlack, Summer 1963
- "Inquiry into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864." The Wynkoop Family Research Library. Rootsweb.com: Freepages. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
- Hoig, Stan. (1977). The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1147-6
- 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: Bulgaria, History
- National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee National Park Service. Retrieved on 19 February 2008.
- The Wounded Knee Massacre
- Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 42.
- Brief History of the Armenian Genocide
- Constitutional Rights Foundation
- Staff. Radio 4: This Sceptred Isle: Empire: Amritsar, Episode 83 - 07/06/06, BBC,
- Massacre-of-Amritsar, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 15 February 2008
- David Leeson, "Death in the Afternoon: The Croke Park Massacre, 21 November 1920," Canadian Journal of History, vol. 38, no. 1 (April 2003)
- T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
- "Coniston massacre remembered 75 years on", ABC, September 24, 2003
- Matthew White Nanking Massacre, Accessed 17 December 2007. Cites eight sources directly and another ten indirectly. Lowest estimate Spence, The Search for Modern China: 42,000. Highest estimate Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997), citing James Yin & Shi Young: 400,000
- Justin Harmon Student-Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre, Princeton University, November 12, 1997
- John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books, 2003. ISBN 1-893554-72-4 p. 22
- Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online
- Beria's March 1940 proposal to shoot 25,700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus bearing Stalin's signature (among others). proposal online
- Fischer, Benjamin B., "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
- Staff, Katyn Massacre, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
- Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
- (in English) Richard Rhodes (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9.
- Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
- Staff. The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site, Access 17 December 2007
- Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal. 2: 1–16. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage:Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. p. 112.
The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union.Text " publisher-Harvard University Press " ignored (help);
- Jill Dougherty and Jim Bittermann (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Saff Fall of Ambon: Massacred at Laha, Australia's War 1939-145 An Australian government website.
- Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
- Katerina Zachovalova. War Crime To War Game, Time,September 17
- David Vaughan. The Lidice massacre - atrocity and courage website of Czech Radio, 11 June 2002
- Lidice memorial
- Staff, Italy convicts Nazis of massacre BBC, 13 January 2007
- Richard Owen. Ten convicted for 1944 massacre, The Times, 15 January 2007
- The Malmedy Massacre Revisited - Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin et Emile Jamar - Website du C.R.I.B.A. (Centre de Recherches et d'Informations sur la Bataille des Ardennes) 
- Times dispatch (March 28, 1953), Mau Mau Massacres 150 Natives In Night Raid Near Kenya Capital, New York Times
- Alessandra Stanley, Russian General Campaigns On Old-Time Soviet Values The New York Times, 13 October 1995
- Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 p. 228
- Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 p. 226
- Staff. Murder in the name of war - My Lai, BBC, 20 July 1998
- Staff. The My Lai Massacre, PBS Online, 29 March 2005
- Former Mexican president sheds light on 1968 massacre, CNN, 4 February 1998
- Mexican Court Issues Warrant for Former President
- Mexico Digs at Last for Truth About 1968 Massacre
- "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (2005-05-04). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Rep. Tim Ryan (2007-05-04). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- John Lang (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Donna Carton (11 December 2005). "Miami Showband massacre files to stay under wraps". Sunday Mirror. Retrieved 2008-02-05. Check date values in:
- "Miami Showband massacre remembered". BreakingNews.ie. 30 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-05. Check date values in:
- "Miami Showband Memorial Unveiled". 4NI.co.uk. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-05. Check date values in:
- "Ahern unveils Miami Showband memorial". The Irish Times. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-05. Check date values in:
- Dillon, Martin (1991). The Dirty War. Arrow Books. pp. p. 174. ISBN 978-0099845201.
- Staff. 1976: Ten dead in Northern Ireland ambush, BBC, On this days series (5 January) (Accessed 23 December 2007)
- Sam Knight and agencies, Ulster lukewarm about unsolved murders probe, The Times, 20 January 2006
- Rory Carroll. Saddam trial to open with village massacre, the Guardian, June 7, 2005
- Staff. Documents Link Saddam To Massacre, Al Jazeera, March 3, 2006 cites source as Reuters
- Ahmad Al-Tal. The Massacre of Sabra and Chatila in 1982, Jerusalemites. Accessed January 31, 2008 [unreliable source?]
- Robert Fisk Another war on terror. Another proxy army. Another mysterious massacre. And now, after 19 years, perhaps the truth at last..., The Independent 28 November, 2001
- Cilina Nasser. Sharon role in massacre remembered, Al Jazeera, 5 March 2006
- Amal Hamdan Remembering Sabra and Shatila, Al Jazeera, 16 September, 2003
- "'Ryan shot at me, then at my mother'". The Daily Telegraph. 7 December 2004. Retrieved 2008-02-19. Check date values in:
- Croatia massacre trial under way", BBC News, 11 October 2005
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2988304.stm Vukovar massacre: What happened]", BBC News, 13 June 2003
- ICTY Indictment
- New York Times: Serbian Court Finds 14 Guilty in '91 Massacre of Croatians
- http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2007/pr1162e.htm Summary of judgement: the case of Milan Martić]
- Ian Starrett (2003-10-30). "Greysteel massacre turned trick or treat into a night of horror". The News Letter (Belfast, Northern Ireland). Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "'I feared my brother had been killed'- horror of Greysteel massacre recalled". Derry Journal. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "Victims' relatives criticise MLA". The Irish News. 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "The leaders of one tribe now represent the hopes of another". Irish Examiner. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- Sales, Rosemary (1997). Women Divided: Gender, Religion and Politics in Northern Ireland. Routledge. pp. p. 192. ISBN 978-0415137652.
- Lister, David and Jordan, Hugh (2004). Mad Dog: The Rise And Fall of Johnny Adair and 'C Company'. Mainstream Publishing. pp. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-84018-890-5.
- McDonand, Henry and Cusack, Jim (2004). UDA: Inside The Heart of Loyalist Terror. Penguin Books. pp. p. 251. ISBN 978-1844880201.
- Tom Hennigan, Tribe flees to escape contact with world, The Times, May 18, 2005
- James Brooke, Brazil's Outrage Intensifies As Toll in Massacre Hits 73, The New York Times, August 23, 1993
- Udo Ludwig and Ansgar Mertin, Srebrenica Massacre Survivors Sue Netherlands, United Nations Der Spiegel, June 5, 2007.
- Marlise Simons, Court Declares Bosnia Killings Were Genocide New York Times, February 26, 2007. A copy of the ICJ judgement can be found here
- Sarah Lyall (17 October 1996). "Britain May Forbid Private Ownership Of Most Handguns". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-06. Check date values in:
- "British Push For Stricter Gun Control Laws". TIME. 18 March 1996. Retrieved 2008-02-06. Check date values in:
- "Scottish town mourns loss of little ones". CNN. 14 March 1996. Retrieved 2008-02-06. Check date values in:
- United Nations Security Council Document 337. S/1996/337 page 6. 7 May 1996. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- [Jerusalem Times][], [Al-Jazeera][]
- "CPM brings terror charge against Trinamul". The Statesman, 23 April 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- "Editorial: Attack in Nanoor". Editorial. The Statesman, 20 May 2005. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- "CPM ticket for Nanoor massacre accused". The Statesman, 18 April 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- "Woman injured in 2004 Russian siege dies". The Boston Globe. December 8, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-09. Check date values in:
- "Putin meets angry Beslan mothers". BBC News. September 2, 2005. Retrieved 2006-07-28. Check date values in:
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