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See also[edit]

Photograph of the My Lai massacre.

Unresisted killing of groups[edit]

(Would still require redirects from massacres, butchery, slaughter, killing)

Earliest source for etymology[edit]

Jeremiah 51:40 "I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter, like rams with he-goats." The slaughter referred to here is the annual celebration of Passover.

Etymology[edit]

(English) - origin, meanings. The meaning is derived from the Biblical source (above) of a ritual slaughter using a ritual knife during Passover. The word for a knife in Hebrew is sakeen (Hebrew - סַכִּין) with a prefix -מִ (from, of), vocalised mi-sakeen. The suggestion is a Latin borrowing as macellum "provisions store, butcher shop."; Old French macacre, macecle "slaughterhouse, butchery" reflecting originally non-atrocity based meaning.[1]

Other terms[edit]

(English) - massacre, butchery, slaughter, killing

Definition[edit]

A massacre is an event notable for a significant loss of life by use of force on defenseless victims (see etymology) in a short period of time, as opposed to genocide or ethnocide. A massacre may occur during a military conflict, a civil war or civilian ethnic cleansing occurring over a longer period. The notability varies depending on the scale of the even in perception of the society within which it was perpetrated. A killing of several individuals in a small community (small group)[2], or one that is not usually subjected to such events is likely to be as notable as large scale and long duration events in societies where such occurrences are experienced more often, and in larger populations.

Scope[edit]

Not serial killing

Massacres encompass all periods of human history and all societies. Perpetrators have been known to be civilians, para-military and military forces, organised and acting haphazardly, directed by higher political or military entity as a matter of policy, or perpetrated by individuals driven by mental disorders. The article is intended as a resource for comparative analysis of such events.

Perspectives[edit]

Perspectives presented in the list are those of the apprehended perpetrators, victims, and law enforcement personnel.

Causes[edit]

Others as the article is being edited (mental disorders, cults, etc.)

Event records in English language[edit]

Event records in non-English languages[edit]

Behaviour by perpetrators[edit]

Commonality in perpetrations[edit]

Events by type of perpetrators[edit]

Events by type of victims[edit]

Events by means of perpetration[edit]

Events by number of victims[edit]

Events by duration[edit]

Ratios of perpetrators to victims[edit]

Behaviour by survivors[edit]

Adults[edit]

Children[edit]

Effect on descendants[edit]

Analysis of the incidents[edit]

Date Location Name Deaths Description
1002, November 13 Kingdom of England St. Brice's Day massacre unknown Anglo-Saxon king Ethelred II ordered the killing of all Danes living in England.[3][4][5]
1066 Granada (Al-Andalus),Islamic Spain Granada massacre c.4,000[6]-5,000[7] A Muslim mob crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and killed most of the Jewish population of the city.[8][9]
1325 South Dakota Crow Creek Massacre c.500[10] Native Americans indigenous to South Dakota killed Central Plains villagers.[11][12][10]
1572 Paris, France St. Bartholomew's Day massacre c.3,000 over several days.[13] A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.[14][13][15][unreliable source?]
1622, March 22 Virginia, North America Jamestown Massacre 347[16] The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.[17][18][16][verification needed]
1641 Ireland Massacre of Scottish planters 2,000-12,000[19][20][21][22][23] Dispossessed native Gaelic Irish and Old English killed Scottish Protestant planters.[20][21][23][24]
1644, 28 May Bolton, England Bolton Massacre up to 1,600 Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.[25][26][27]
1692, February 13 Scotland Massacre of Glencoe[28] 38[29] Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.[29]
1770, March 5 Boston Boston Massacre 5[30] British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution.[31][32]
1771, July 17 Kugluktuk, Nunavut Bloody Falls Massacre 20[33] Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.[34][35][36]
1792 France September Massacres c. 1440 Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.[37]
1819 Manchester, England Peterloo Massacre 11 killed, over 500 injured[38] Armed cavalry charged a peaceful pro-democracy meeting of 60,000 people.[38]
1838, January Waterloo Creek, Australia Waterloo Creek massacre 100–300 Aboriginal Australians killed. [39] [citation needed]
1838, June 10 Myall Creek, Australia Myall Creek massacre 28 A white posse killed Aboriginal Australians. For the first time, the perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.[40]
1838, October 30 Caldwell County, Missouri, United States Haun's Mill massacre 19 About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators militiamen and volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one ally, some of them at point-blank range.[41][42]
1842 Afghanistan Massacre of Elphinstone's army 16,000 Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.[43][44][45]
1857, September 11 Mountain Meadows, Utah, United States Mountain Meadows massacre 100-140 Mormon militia and Paiute tribesmen killed unarmed members of the Fancher-Baker emigrant wagon train.[46][47]
1863, August 21 Kansas, USA Lawrence Massacre c.150[48][49] Pro-Confederate bushwhackers attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War.[50][51]
1864, 29 November Kiowa County, Colorado Sand Creek massacre c. 200[52] Colorado Territory militia destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.[53][54]
1876 Ottoman Empire Batak massacre 5,000 Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.[55]
1890, 29 December Wounded Knee, South Dakota Wounded Knee Massacre 178 500 U.S. 7th Cavalry arrived to escort Lakota Sioux people to Nebraska, but fighting broke out.[56][57]
1894-1896 Anatolia, Ottoman Empire Hamidian massacres 80,000 to 300,000

Ordered by Abdul Hamid II, Ottoman forces killed Armenians.[58][59][60]

1919, April 13 India Amritsar massacre 379[61][62] British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer fired at unarmed civilians.[61][62]
1920 Dublin, Ireland Croke Park Massacre 15 Auxiliary police (Black and Tans) of the Royal Irish Constabulary fired at Gaelic Football spectators at Croke Park.[63][64]
1928, August-September Coniston, Australia Coniston massacre 31-110 Police-led posses killed Aboriginal Australians. [65]
1929, February 14 Chicago Saint Valentine's Day massacre 7[66] Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.[67]
1937-1938 China Nanking massacre (Rape of Nanking) 42,000–400,000, median: 260,000[68] The Japanese Imperial Army pillaged Nanking for six weeks[69]
1940 Soviet Union Katyn massacre 21,857[70][71]-25,700[72] Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.[73][74]
1941 Soviet Union NKVD prisoner massacres c.100,000[75] The Soviet NKVD executed tens of thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.[76][77]
1941, 29–30 September Ukraine Babi Yar massacre more than 30,000[78] Nazis killed the Jewish population of Kiev.[78][79][80][81][82]
1942 Laha Airfield, Ambon Island Laha massacre ~300[83] The Japanese killed surendered Australian soldiers.[83][84]
1942, 10 June Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Lidice massacre 340[85] Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.[86][85][87]
1944 Italy Marzabotto massacre c.700-1,800[88] The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.[88][89]
1944, December the Battle of the Bulge, Belgium Malmedy massacre 88 German soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).[90]
1953, March Nairobi, Kenya Mau Mau 150 150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.[91]
1962 Novocherkassk, Soviet Union Novocherkassk massacre 23-70[92] killed, over 40 wounded[93] The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.[94]
1968 South Vietnam My Lai massacre 504[95] US soldiers killed 504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.[95][96]
1968 Mexico City, Mexico Tlatelolco massacre 25-350[97] [98] Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 350 (according to human rights activists) students on the eve of the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre. [98][99]
1970 Kent State University, Ohio, USA Kent State massacre 4 29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.[100][101][102]
1975, July 31 Northern Ireland Miami Showband massacre 5 Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.[103][104][105][106][107]
1976 Northern Ireland Kingsmill massacre 10[108] Irish republicans shot ten Irish Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in South Armagh, Northern Ireland by .[108][109]
1982 Iraq Dujail Massacre 148[110] Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to carry out a reprisal attack against the town, which resulted in 148 of the town's men being killed.[111][110]
1982 Lebanon Sabra and Chatila massacre 700-3,500[112] Refugees are killed by a Lebanese Forces militia in refugee camps surrounded by Israeli Defence Forces. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.[113][114][115]
14 August 1985 Peru Accomarca massacre 47[116], 69[117] or 74[118] An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.[117]
1987, August 19 Hungerford, England Hungerford massacre 17 A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.[119]
1991 Croatia Vukovar massacre 264 Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.[120] [121] [122] [123]
1991, December Croatia Voćin massacre 32 Croatian civilians killed by Serb paramilitary units during the Croatian War of Independence[124].
1991, November 18 Croatia Škabrnja massacre 86 Serb paramilitaries, supported by the JNA, captured the village of Škabrnja and killed 25 Prisoners of war and 61 civilians over the next several days.[125].
1993, 30 October Greysteel, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland Greysteel massacre 8 Ulster Freedom Fighters opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol.[126][127][128][129][130][131][132]
1993 Brazil Yanomami Massacre c.16[133]-73[134] Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.
1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina Srebrenica massacre c.8,000[135] Units of the Army of Republika Srpska killed male Bosniaks; the largest mass killing in Europe since World War II.[135][136]
1996, March 13 Scotland Dunblane massacre 18 A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.[137][138][139]
1996 Lebanon Qana massacre 106[140] Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately five hundred Lebanese civilians. UN concluded that the Israeli forces had deliberately targeted the shelter.[141][142]
2000, 27 July West Bengal, India Nanoor massacre 11 Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.[143][144][145]
2004, September 1 Beslan, Russian Federation Beslan School Massacre 334 civilians killed Armed Chechen separatists[146] took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.[147][148][149]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Old French macacre is written with c cedille, which gives c the s sound before the vowel a as in mesaqqer
  2. ^ Most researchers define a small group as having at least three and no more than twelve or fifteen members. A group needs to have at least three members, otherwise it would simply be a dyad. [1]
  3. ^ Staff. Saint Brices Day massacre, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 26 December 2007
  4. ^ Sue Cameron England’s massacre of the immigrants, Financial Times 30 October 2007
  5. ^ Staff. Ethelred II The Unready, website of Channel 4 Accessed 26 December 2007
  6. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  7. ^ The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries
  8. ^ 1066 December 30, Granada (Spain)
  9. ^ Medieval Sourcebook: Abraham Ibd Daud: On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 11Cent
  10. ^ a b Staff. The Crow Creek Massacre www.nebraskastudies.org
  11. ^ Heather Pringle, Crow Creek's Revenge, Science, 27 March, 1998
  12. ^ Staff, Crow Creek Massacre, University of South Dakota
  13. ^ a b Staff. Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Columbia Encyclopedia, Questia Online Library
  14. ^ Staff, Massacre of Saint Bartholomews Day (French history), Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
  15. ^ userid=oberhot Paris and the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: August 24, 1572, Eckerd College web page cites Cole, R. A Travelers History of Paris; Guizot, France, vol. 3 (245 – 306); and http://paris.org web site for the Plan de Brau
  16. ^ a b Crandall Shifflett (1998). Robert Beverley's Description of the 1622 Indian Attack Virtual Jamestown cites Robert Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia: A Selection (Indianapolis & New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, 1971), 21-22.
  17. ^ Staff Jamestown Colony :: Dissolution of the Virginia Company (1622-24), Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
  18. ^ James Langton. It's hardly Pocahontas: new exhibits portray Jamestown colonists as killers and rapists, Daily Telegraph, 17 March 2007
  19. ^ Ohlmeyer, Jane and John Kenyon, The Civil Wars, p. 278, 'William Petty's figure of 37,000 Protestants massacred... is far too high, perhaps by a factor of ten, certainly more recent research suggests that a much more realistic figure is roughly 4,000 deaths.'
  20. ^ a b John Ranelagh (1995). A short history of Ireland, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521469449. p. 61
  21. ^ a b John Marshal (2006). "John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052165114X, Page 58, footnote 10, "Modern historians estimate the number massacred in Ireland in 1641 at between 2,000 and 12,000."
  22. ^ Staff. The Plantation of Ulster: 1641 rebellion, BBC Paragraph 3. Accessed 17 February 2008.
  23. ^ a b Staff, Secrets of Lough Kernan BBC, Legacies UK history local to you, website of the BBC, Paragraph 2. Accessed 17 December 2007
  24. ^ Royle, Trevor (2004), Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660, London: Abacus, ISBN 0-349-11564-8  pp.138,139
  25. ^ Bolton history
  26. ^ Lonely Planet
  27. ^ John Tincey, Marston Moor 1644: The Beginning Of The End: Osprey Publishing (March 11, 2003) ISBN 1841763349 p 33 "the `massacre at Bolton' became a staple of Parliamentarian propaganda"
  28. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Cites "a1715 BP. G. BURNET Hist. Own Time (1734) II. 156 The Massacre in Glencoe, made still a great noise." and "1957 ‘H. MACDIARMID’ Battle Continues 1 Franco has made no more horrible shambles Than this poem of Campbell's, The foulest outrage his breed has to show Since the massacre of Glencoe!"
  29. ^ a b Glencoe, engraved by W. Miller after J.M.W. Turner, Edinburgh University library
  30. ^ Zobel, The Boston Massacre, W.W.Norton and Co.(1970), 199-200.
  31. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9015838/Boston-Massacre]
  32. ^ [2]
  33. ^ Kenn Harper A Day in Arctic History: July 17, 1771 — Slaughter at Bloody Falls, Nunatsiaq News, 29 July 2005
  34. ^ Robin McGrath. Samuel Hearne And The Inuit Oral Tradition, University of New Brunswick, libraries Accessed [[23 December], 2007
  35. ^ Staff, Samuel Hearne and David Thompson, trekking in the footsteps, HighBeam Research, (From: Manitoba History Society| Date: 6/1/2005| Author: Binning, Alexander)
  36. ^ Bloody Falls, The Canadian Encyclopedia
  37. ^ Dwyer, Phillip and McPhee, Peter (2002). The French Revolution and Napoleon: A Sourcebook. Routledge. pp. p. 66. ISBN 978-0415199070. 
  38. ^ a b "New plaque for massacre memorial", BBC, 17 August 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  39. ^ "Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience", Bruce Elder, Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2003
  40. ^ "Myall Creek Massacre", Parliament of New South Wales Hansard, June 8, 2000
  41. ^ Historical Record, Jenson, Vol. 7 & 8, p 671.
  42. ^ History of the Church, Vol. III, pp 182–186.
  43. ^ Afghan and Northwest Border Wars 1834 to 1897
  44. ^ Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838-42
  45. ^ Massacre of Elphinstone's army
  46. ^ Morrill 1876; Lee 1877, p. 214.
  47. ^ Lee 1877, p. 214.
  48. ^ William Quantrill and the Lawrence Massacre
  49. ^ Lawrence (Kansas, United States)
  50. ^ The Bloodiest Man In American History
  51. ^ Erastus D. Ladd's Description of the Lawrence Massacre, by Russell E. Bidlack, Summer 1963
  52. ^ [3]
  53. ^ "Inquiry into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864." The Wynkoop Family Research Library. Rootsweb.com: Freepages. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  54. ^ Hoig, Stan. (1977). The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1147-6
  55. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: Bulgaria, History
  56. ^ National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee National Park Service. Retrieved on 19 February 2008.
  57. ^ The Wounded Knee Massacre
  58. ^ Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 42.
  59. ^ Brief History of the Armenian Genocide
  60. ^ Constitutional Rights Foundation
  61. ^ a b Staff. Radio 4: This Sceptred Isle: Empire: Amritsar, Episode 83 - 07/06/06, BBC,
  62. ^ a b Massacre-of-Amritsar, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 15 February 2008
  63. ^ David Leeson, "Death in the Afternoon: The Croke Park Massacre, 21 November 1920," Canadian Journal of History, vol. 38, no. 1 (April 2003)
  64. ^ T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
  65. ^ "Coniston massacre remembered 75 years on", ABC, September 24, 2003
  66. ^ [4]
  67. ^ [5]
  68. ^ Matthew White Nanking Massacre, Accessed 17 December 2007. Cites eight sources directly and another ten indirectly. Lowest estimate Spence, The Search for Modern China: 42,000. Highest estimate Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997), citing James Yin & Shi Young: 400,000
  69. ^ Justin Harmon Student-Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre, Princeton University, November 12, 1997
  70. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books, 2003. ISBN 1-893554-72-4 p. 22
  71. ^ Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online
  72. ^ Beria's March 1940 proposal to shoot 25,700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus bearing Stalin's signature (among others). proposal online
  73. ^ Fischer, Benjamin B., "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
  74. ^ Staff, Katyn Massacre, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
  75. ^ Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
  76. ^ (in English) Richard Rhodes (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9. 
  77. ^ Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
  78. ^ a b Staff. The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site, Access 17 December 2007
  79. ^ Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal. 2: 1–16. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  80. ^ "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage:Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  81. ^ Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. p. 112. The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union.  Text " publisher-Harvard University Press " ignored (help);
  82. ^ Jill Dougherty and Jim Bittermann (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  83. ^ a b Saff Fall of Ambon: Massacred at Laha, Australia's War 1939-145 An Australian government website.
  84. ^ Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
  85. ^ a b Katerina Zachovalova. War Crime To War Game, Time,September 17
  86. ^ David Vaughan. The Lidice massacre - atrocity and courage website of Czech Radio, 11 June 2002
  87. ^ Lidice memorial
  88. ^ a b Staff, Italy convicts Nazis of massacre BBC, 13 January 2007
  89. ^ Richard Owen. Ten convicted for 1944 massacre, The Times, 15 January 2007
  90. ^ The Malmedy Massacre Revisited - Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin et Emile Jamar - Website du C.R.I.B.A. (Centre de Recherches et d'Informations sur la Bataille des Ardennes) [6]
  91. ^ Times dispatch (March 28, 1953), Mau Mau Massacres 150 Natives In Night Raid Near Kenya Capital, New York Times 
  92. ^ Alessandra Stanley, Russian General Campaigns On Old-Time Soviet Values The New York Times, 13 October 1995
  93. ^ Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 p. 228
  94. ^ Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 p. 226
  95. ^ a b Staff. Murder in the name of war - My Lai, BBC, 20 July 1998
  96. ^ Staff. The My Lai Massacre, PBS Online, 29 March 2005
  97. ^ Former Mexican president sheds light on 1968 massacre, CNN, 4 February 1998
  98. ^ a b Mexican Court Issues Warrant for Former President
  99. ^ Mexico Digs at Last for Truth About 1968 Massacre
  100. ^ "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (2005-05-04). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  101. ^ Rep. Tim Ryan (2007-05-04). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  102. ^ John Lang (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  103. ^ Donna Carton (11 December 2005). "Miami Showband massacre files to stay under wraps". Sunday Mirror. Retrieved 2008-02-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  104. ^ "Miami Showband massacre remembered". BreakingNews.ie. 30 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  105. ^ "Miami Showband Memorial Unveiled". 4NI.co.uk. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  106. ^ "Ahern unveils Miami Showband memorial". The Irish Times. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  107. ^ Dillon, Martin (1991). The Dirty War. Arrow Books. pp. p. 174. ISBN 978-0099845201. 
  108. ^ a b Staff. 1976: Ten dead in Northern Ireland ambush, BBC, On this days series (5 January) (Accessed 23 December 2007)
  109. ^ Sam Knight and agencies, Ulster lukewarm about unsolved murders probe, The Times, 20 January 2006
  110. ^ a b Rory Carroll. Saddam trial to open with village massacre, the Guardian, June 7, 2005
  111. ^ Staff. Documents Link Saddam To Massacre, Al Jazeera, March 3, 2006 cites source as Reuters
  112. ^ Ahmad Al-Tal. The Massacre of Sabra and Chatila in 1982, Jerusalemites. Accessed January 31, 2008 [unreliable source?]
  113. ^ Robert Fisk Another war on terror. Another proxy army. Another mysterious massacre. And now, after 19 years, perhaps the truth at last..., The Independent 28 November, 2001
  114. ^ Cilina Nasser. Sharon role in massacre remembered, Al Jazeera, 5 March 2006
  115. ^ Amal Hamdan Remembering Sabra and Shatila, Al Jazeera, 16 September, 2003
  116. ^ [7]
  117. ^ a b [8]
  118. ^ [9]
  119. ^ "'Ryan shot at me, then at my mother'". The Daily Telegraph. 7 December 2004. Retrieved 2008-02-19.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  120. ^ Croatia massacre trial under way", BBC News, 11 October 2005
  121. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2988304.stm Vukovar massacre: What happened]", BBC News, 13 June 2003
  122. ^ ICTY Indictment
  123. ^ New York Times: Serbian Court Finds 14 Guilty in '91 Massacre of Croatians
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  149. ^ [14]

See also[edit]

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