User:Mysterious johnson/sandbox

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Globalisation - Following the Standardisation or Adaptation approach?[edit]


  • Through his seminal text in the Harvard Business Review, Levitt (1983) popularised the extremist theory of standardisation expressing that the world is converging into the emergence of a single homogenous consumer with increased similarities leading to a standardised institution of trade, manufacturing and product offering. The substantiality of this oft quoted theory has been countered by various theories of relative degrees of adaptability, largely initiated by Wind and Douglas in 1987.
  • As early as 1983, Levitt highlighted the effects of globalisation which marks the movement from local to global facilitated by technology and diffusion of their aspiration through communication. Today, close to three decades later, the rapid increase in globalisation and expansion of brands into new and developing markets makes it even more crucial to understand similarities and differences in consumer perception of brands as shared perceived symbols or distinct cultural interpretations.

India in a Global World[edit]

The standardised approach[edit]

or degrees of Adaptation[edit]