User:Nameneko

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Starting a list of municipalities of Japan here for a list and here as a final draft of sorts.

Japanese railway information and related stuff has been moved to Japanese rail project

Variants of the Latin alphabet[edit]

Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. The basic Lain alphabet as defined by the ISO in ISO/IEC 646 since 1972 is the same as the modern English alphabet. It is as follows:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

This article uses this as a base of comparison for the variations of the Latin alphabet. The alphabet as defined in the language is color-coded in a chart, with additional notes and a list variant letters that are commonly used in the language. These do not include characters used in loanwords. This article is by no means comprehensive; it merely serves to compare a number of common variations of the Latin alphabet.

KEY
Common to alphabet and basic Latin alphabet
Letter used for historic words or loanwords
Variant/Digraph considered a separate letter
Not in alphabet (May be used in loanwords)

Albanian[edit]

A B C Ç D Dh E Ë F G Gj H I J K L Ll M N Nj O P Q R Rr S Sh T Th U V W X Xh Y Z Zh

Azerbaijani[edit]

The Azerbaijani language is also written in the Cyrillic alphabet and in Perso-Arabic script.
A B C Ç D E Ə F G Ğ H X I İ J K Q L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V W Y Z

Basque[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Berber Languages[edit]

The Berber languages are also written in the Arabic alphabet and the Tifinagh alphabet.
  • In the Tuareg languages, the Latin alphabet used differs slightly, such as using Ə instead of E.
A Ɛ B C Č D E F G Ǧ H I J K L M N O P Q Ɣ R S T U V W X Y Z

Bosnian[edit]

Bosnian uses Gaj's Latin alphabet, also used as the Croatian alphabet and the Serbian Latin alphabet.
  • The digraphs DŽ, LJ, and NJ are considered single letters in Bosnian and are collated separate from their first characters. Therefore, njegov appears after novine in a dictionary.
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P Q R S Š T U V W X Y Z Ž

Catalan[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Croatian[edit]

Croatian uses Gaj's Latin alphabet, also used as the Bosnian alphabet and the Serbian Latin alphabet.
  • The digraphs DŽ, LJ, and NJ are considered single letters in Croatian and are collated separate from their first characters. Therefore, njegov appears after novine in a dictionary.
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P Q R S Š T U V W X Y Z Ž

Czech[edit]

A Á B C Č D Ď E É Ě F G H Ch I Í J K L M N Ň O Ó P Q R Ř S Š T Ť U Ú Ů V W X Y Ý Z Ž

Danish[edit]

The Danish alphabet is identical to the Norwegian alphabet.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å

Dutch[edit]

  • The digraph IJ is only sometimes considered a separate letter. It usually represents the diphthong [ɛi]. Although Unicode codes for an upper and lower case character (IJ and ij), its use as a single character is not encouraged.[2]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X IJ Y Z

Esperanto[edit]

A B C Ĉ D E F G Ĝ H Ĥ I J Ĵ K L M N O P Q R S Ŝ T U Ŭ V W X Y Z

Estonian[edit]

  • In the Estonian alphabet, the letter Z is positioned between S and T (or Š and Ž).
  • The letters S-caron (Š) and Z-caron (Ž), although variant letters, are only used in loanwords and foreign proper names.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š Z Ž T U V W Õ Ä Ö Ü X Y

Filipino[edit]

  • In 1976, the letters C, CH, F, J, LL, Ñ, Q, RR, V, X, and Z were added to accommodate Spanish and English loanwords. CH, LL, and RR were removed in 1987.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ Ng O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

French[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

German[edit]

  • The letter C does not appear alone in native words; it is used in the sequences SCH, CH, and CK. It is only used by itself for loanwords.
  • The eszett (ß) has no capital letter and has been replaced by the sequence SS is a number of German-speaking regions.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Guaraní[edit]

  • The letters B, C, and D are not considered standalone letters. They are only found in the digraphs MB, CH, and ND, respectively.
  • The letters L and RR are used predominantly in Spanish loanwords.
  • The puso (') is a letter indicating a glottal stop. It is ordered at the end of the alphabet.
A Ã B C Ch D E F G H I Ĩ J K L M Mb N Nd Ng Nt Ñ O Õ P Q R Rr S T U Ũ V W X Y Z '

Hausa[edit]

The Hausa language is also written in Ajami script.
A B Ɓ C D Ɗ E F G H I J K Ƙ L M N O P Q R S Sh T Ts U V W X Y Ƴ Z

Hawaiian[edit]

  • In the Hawaiian alphabet, vowels are ordered before consonants. The order of the consonants is consistent with standard, Latin alphabetical order.
  • The ʻokina (ʻ) is a letter indicating a glottal stop. It is ordered at the end of the alphabet.
  • Although most, common consonants in the basic Latin alphabet are not in the Hawaiian alphabet, when they are used in loanwords, they are ordered after the ʻokina, i.e. a dictionary would be sorted: ...P, W, ʻ, B, C, D, F...[3]
A E I O U B C D F G H J K L M N P Q R S T V W X Y Z ʻ
  • Variants

Hungarian[edit]

  • Although separate letters, when alphabetized, the letter pairs O-Ó, Ö-Ő, U-Ú, and Ü-Ű are grouped together, so the word folyó would appear before folyosó.
  • In alphabetization, the multiple-letter consonants are treated as separate letters, so that cukor (under C) would appear before csak (under CS).
A Á B C Cs D Dz Dsz E É F G Gy H I Í J K L Ly M N Ny O Ó Ö Ő P Q R S Sz T Ty U Ú Ü Ű V W X Y Z Zs

Italian[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Karakalpak[edit]

A A' B C D E F G G' H I İ J K L M N N' O O' P Q R S Sh T U U' V W X Y Z

Norwegian[edit]

The Norwegian alphabet is identical to the Danish alphabet.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å

Polish[edit]

A Ą B C Ć D E Ę F G H I J K L Ł M N Ń O Ó P Q R S Ś T U V W X Y Z Ź Ż

Portuguese[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Romanian[edit]

A Ă Â B C D E F G H I Î J K L M N O P Q R S Ş T Ţ U V W X Y Z

Rotokas[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Serbian[edit]

The Serbian language is also written in the Cyrillic alphabet.
Serbian uses Gaj's Latin alphabet, also used as the Bosnian alphabet and the Croatian alphabet.
  • The digraphs DŽ, LJ, and NJ are considered single letters in Serbian and are collated separate from their first characters. Therefore, njegov appears after novine in a dictionary.
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P Q R S Š T U V W X Y Z Ž

Somali[edit]

  • The Somali alphabet follows an Arabic-based order.
' B T J X Kh D R S Sh Dh C G F Q K L M N W H Y A E I O U P V Z

Spanish[edit]

  • Since 1994, the letters CH and LL have not been collated as separate letters, but are still considered separate letters. So whereas CH was once alphabetized between C and D, it is now alphabetized between the sequences Cg and Ci.[4]
A B C Ch D E F G H I J K L Ll M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Turkish[edit]

A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P Q R S Ş T U Ü V W X Y Z

Turkmen[edit]

The Turkmen language is also written in the Arabic alphabet.
A B C Ç D E Ä F G H I J Ž K L M N Ň O Ö P Q R S Ş T U Ü V W X Y Ý Z

Uzbek[edit]

The Uzbek language is also written in the Cyrillic alphabet.
  • The letter C is not considered a standalone letter. It is only found in the digraph CH.
  • Collation sequence from Russian Wikipedia.[5]
A B C Ch D E F G G‘ H I J K L M N O O‘ P Q R S Sh T U V W X Y Z

Vietnamese[edit]

A Ă Â B C D Đ E Ê F G H I J K L M N O Ô Ơ P Q R S T U Ư V W X Y Z
  • Variants
    • Acute accent: Á, Ắ, Ấ, É, Ế, Í, Ó, Ố, Ớ, Ú, Ứ, Ý
    • Dot: Ạ, Ặ, Ậ, Ẹ, Ệ, Ị, Ọ, Ộ, Ợ, Ụ, Ự, Ỵ
    • Grave accent: À, Ằ, Ầ, È, Ề, Ì, Ò, Ồ, Ờ, Ù, Ừ, Ỳ
    • Hook: Ả, Ẳ, Ẩ, Ẻ, Ể, Ỉ, Ỏ, Ổ, Ở, Ủ, Ử, Ỷ
    • Tilde: Ã, Ẵ, Ẫ, Ẽ, Ễ, Ĩ, Õ, Ỗ, Ỡ, Ũ, Ữ, Ỹ

Welsh[edit]

  • The digraphs CH, DD, FF, NG, LL, PH, RH, and TH are single letters in Welsh. Therefore, the town of Llanelli in Wales is considered to have only six letters (LL occurs twice). The letters are collated as separate letters, so a dictionary would be in the order: ...C, CH, D, DD, E, F, FF, G, NG, H...
A B C Ch D Dd E F Ff G Ng H I J K L Ll M N O P Ph Q R Rh S T Th U V W X Y Z

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alfabet català." [Catalan Alphabet] Viquipèdia: L’enciclopèdia lliure. 26 June 2008, 00:20 UTC. [1]
  2. ^ European rules for the use of the IJ in public records
  3. ^ Huaʻōlelo, Kōmike, et al. Māmaka Kaiao. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2003.
  4. ^ "No obstante, en el X Congreso de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, celebrado en 1994, se acordó adoptar para los diccionarios académicos, a petición de varios organismos internacionales, el orden alfabético latino universal, en el que la ch y la ll no se consideran letras independientes. En consecuencia, estas dos letras pasan a alfabetizarse en los lugares que les corresponden dentro de la C (entre -cg- y -ci-) y dentro de la L (entre -lk- y -lm-), respectivamente." Real Academia Española. Explanation at http://www.spanishpronto.com/ (in Spanish and English)
  5. ^ "Uzbekskaâ pis'mennost'." [Uzbek writing systems] Vikipediû: Svobodnuû ènciklopediâ. 16 May 2008, 16:22 UTC. письменность&oldid=8913678