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Overview[edit]

3M™ Petrifilm™ Plates are manufactured by the 3M Food Safety Department, part of the Health Care Business Group at 3M Corporation.

Petrifilm Plates are sample-ready-culture- growth medium system which contains nutrients, a cold water-soluble gelling agent, indicator dye(s) to facilitate colony enumeration, and in some cases, selective agents. They are used for the enumeration of bacteria, yeasts and molds in the food and beverage industries.

Petrifilm™ Plates are designed to be as accurate as conventional plating methods, yet more compact and efficient with approximate 10cm x 7.5cm dimension. They are comprised of a top and bottom film and some plates include a foam barrier. Each Petrifilm™ Plate has a 1cm x 1cm yellow grid printed on the bottom film to assist in enumeration. A plastic “spreader” is used to evenly spread the inoculum. The inoculated area for the majority of Petrifilm™ Plates is approximately 20cm2.

Plates are sample-ready, eliminating the time-consuming, cumbersome steps of preparing agar dishes. Some plates further eliminate the need for a subsequent confirmation step as required with traditional agar methods.

3M’s standardized formula improves consistency across users. Each lot of 3M Petrifilm™ Plates is manufactured within an ISO 9001 certified manufacturing facility reducing the need for additional user lot qualifications.

3M Petrifilm™ Plates are designed to be as compact and efficient as possible. The shelf-stable, thin design takes up 85% less space than agar dishes, freeing incubator and storage space and reducing biohazardous waste.

3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate methods are recognized as AOAC™ INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis (3M™ Petrifilm™ Environmental Listeria Plate and Rapid Yeast and Mold Plates are AOAC-RI Method). The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate Reader is a tool that automates the reading, recording and storage of test data, reduces the potential for human error and provides results in four seconds.

1) Inoculate - 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plates are easy to inoculate. Lift the top film and add sample 2) Incubate - The space saving design maximizes incubator space 3) Enumerate – Interpret the count and confirm. 3M Petrifilm™ Plates can also be read in 4 seconds using the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate Reader.

3M™ Petrifilm™ Plates have been making microbiology testing easier, faster and more accurate for decades.

Sustainability[edit]

Sustainability is critical, and Petrifilm™ Plates shelf-stable, thin design takes up 85% less space than agar dishes, freeing incubator and storage space and reducing biohazardous waste.

In 2011, 3M Food Safety, launched an initiative to further reduce waste when using Petrifilm™ Plates by eliminating the printed Instructions For Use booklet that had been included in every box and case.

Food Safety[edit]

Various hazards, biological, chemical and physical can enter the food chain at any point. Food Safety is the scientific discipline describing growing, handling, preparation and storage in ways to prevent hazards to prevent foodborne illness.

3M Food Safety Department is a leader of innovative solutions that help the food and beverage industries optimize the quality and safety of their products to enable consumer protection. 3M Food Safety partners with industry professionals to find new ways to keep food safe through smart innovation. 3M Food Safety products are at work in more than 60 countries around the globe.

Petrifilm™ Plate Uses[edit]

Petrifilm™ Plates are sample ready testing systems for food microbiology that is typically used in the Food and Beverage Industry. Petrifilm™ Plates are used by Laboratory Technicians working in Regulatory Agencies, Academia for education and research, Research and Development, Agriculture, Food Manufacturing and Processing, Distribution, and Food Preparation. Reference Laboratories use Petrifilm™ Plates to analyze food, beverage and environmental samples as part of their client’s Quality Control Program.

Current heightened focus on food safety and increasingly stringent quality requirements drive laboratories to utilize fast, reliable and consistently accurate test methods. Petrifilm™ Plates are sample ready-made culture growth medium system, eliminating the time-consuming, cumbersome steps of preparing agar dishes. The Petrifilm™ E.coli/Coliform Count, Petrifilm™ Coliform Count, Petrifilm™ Staph Express Count Plates and Petrifilm™ Salmonella Express Count Plates eliminate the need for subsequent confirmation step required with traditional agar methods. Compared to the variability associated with agar preparation, the standardized formula improves consistency across laboratory technicians. Each lot of 3M Petrifilm™ Plates goes through rigorous quality testing at the ISO 9001 certified manufacturing facility, reducing the need for lot qualifications in operations making agar. Space is at a premium in the laboratory environment, and Petrifilm™ Plates are designed to be compact and efficient. The shelf-stable, thin design takes up 85% less space than agar dishes, freeing incubator and storage space.

Petrifilm™ Plates are used for testing of raw agricultural inputs, raw materials, in process, and finished product samples in the food, feed and beverage chain.

Petrifilm™ Plates are a convenient and reliable way to detect environmental microbial contamination. The construction of 3M Petrifilm™ Plates allows them to be used for direct contact or swab contact monitoring procedures, for surfaces of sanitary importance to validate and verify cleaning and sanitation programs.

Petrifilm™ Plates are a convenient and reliable way to detect air microbial contamination. The construction of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plates allows them to be hydrated and placed for passive sampling procedures, for areas of sanitary importance as part of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs).

Air Sampling Plates are hydrated with 1mL of appropriate sterile diluents for a minimum of 1 hour prior to use. Open to expose 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate for 15 minutes or less, close and incubate.

Surface Contact Plates are hydrated with 1mL of appropriate sterile diluents for a minimum of 1 hour prior to use. Open 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate and allow the circular gel portion of the top film to contact the surface being tested. Close and incubate.

Swabbing (Sponge or Swab) Sample the surface using the sponge or swab. Dispense one mL of sample onto 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate, close and incubate.

Pathogen Testing 3M™ Petrifilm™ Salmonella Express System was introduced in 2013 and is the first Petrifilm™ Plate specifically designed to detect Salmonella in food, beverage and environmental samples.


Petrifilm™ Plates have been used within the following Industries:

Organisms[edit]

Petrifilm™ Plates are typically used to detect indicator organisms in food and beverages, and the environment in which they are manufactured/prepared. For detecting pathogenic bacteria, Petrifilm™ Salmonella Express System provides qualitative detection and biochemical confirmation of Salmonella in enriched food and food process environmental samples.

Total Aerobic Count Total Viable Count Aerobic Plate Count (APC) is a Quality Indicator Test intended to determine the level of microorganisms in a sample that will grow aerobically within a general temperature range. (reference to AOAC & APHA). Typical counting ranges for an APC is 25-250 CFU.

3M™ Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) Plate is a sample ready-made culture growth medium system that contains Standard Methods nutrients, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent and an indicator that facilitates colony enumeration. 3M Petrifilm™ AC Plates are used for enumeration of aerobic bacteria. A red indicator dye in the plate colors the colonies. All red colonies regardless of their size or color intensity should be counted following the 48 hour incubation. Incubation time and temperatures varies by method. The most common approved methods: AOAC Official Method 986.33 and 909.10 (mild and dairy products) Incubate 48+ 3 hours at 32°C+1°C. AOAC Official Method 990.12 Incubate 48+ 3 hours at 35°C+1°C. AFNOR Validated Method 3M 01/1-09/89 Incubate 72+ 3 hours at 30°C+1°C.

Coliform Bacteria Coliform is a working term used to describe a group of enteric bacteria that are Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria that will ferment lactose to product acid and gas within 48 hours at 35°C. Testing for and enumeration of coliform bacteria is typically used as a quality indicator to indicate sanitary conditions within a process.

3M™ Petrifilm™ Coliform Count (CC) Plate is a sample ready-made culture growth medium system that contains Violet Red Bile (VRB) nutrients, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, and a tetrazolium indicator that facilitates colony enumeration.

AOAC International and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) define coliforms as gram-negative rods, which produce acid and gas from lactose fermentation Coliform colonies growing on the 3M Petrifilm™ Coliform Count Plate produce acid, which causes the pH indicator to deepen the gel color; gas trapped around red colonies indicates coliforms.

ISO defines coliforms by their ability to grow in method-specific, selective media. ISO method 4832, enumerating coliforms by colony-count technique, defines coliforms as acid producers on VRB with lactose (VRBL) agar. On 3M Petrifilm™ Coliform Count Plates these acid-producing coliforms are indicated by red colonies with or without gas production.

ISO Method 4831, enumerating coliforms by the most probably number (MPN) method, defines coliforms by their ability to grow and produce gas from lactose in a selective broth. On 3M Petrifilm™ Coliform Count Plates these coliforms are indicated by red colonies associated with gas. AFNOR Certification has validated 3M Petrifilm™ Coliform Count Plate in comparison to ISO method 4831and IS method 4832 for enumeration of total coliforms. AFNOR Certification has also validated 3M Petrifilm™ Coliform Count Plate in comparison to NF V08-060, for enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms.

3M Petrifilm™ Coliform Count Plates are used for detection and enumeration of coliform bacteria. Incubation time and temperatures varies by method. The most common approved methods: AOAC Official Method of Analysis 986.33 and 909.10 (milk and dairy products) Incubate 24+ 2 hours at 32°C+1°C. AOAC Official Method of Analysis 991.14 (foods) Incubate 24+ 2 hours at 35°C+1°C.

NMKL Method 147.1993 Incubate 24+ 2 hours at 37°C+1°C. AFNOR Validated Method 3M 01/2-09/89A and B (all food types except shellfish): Incubate 24+ 2 hours at 30°C+1°C.

3M™ Petrifilm™ E.coli / Coliform Count (EC/CC) Plate is a sample ready-made culture growth medium system that contains Violet Red Bile (VRB) nutrients, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, an indicator of glucuronidase activity, and a tetrazolium indicator that facilitates colony enumeration. Most E. coli (about 97%) produce beta-glucuronidase which produces a blue precipitate associated with the colony. The top film traps gas produced by the lactose fermenting coliforms and E. coli. About 95% of E. coli produce gas, indicated by blue to red-blue colonies associated with entrapped gas on the Petrifilm™ EC plate (within approximately one colony diameter). The interpretation of E. coli colonies on the Petrifilm™ EC Plate varies by method.

3M Petrifilm™ E.coli / Coliform Count Plates are used for detection and enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria. Incubation time and temperatures varies by method. The most common approved methods: AOAC Official Method 991.14 for coliforms (Foods): incubate 24h ± 2h at 35°C ± 1°C for E.coli: incubate 48h ± 2h at 35°C ± 1°C AOAC Official Method 998.08 for E.coli (Meat, Poultry and Seafood): incubate 24h ± 2h at 35°C ± 1°C NMKL method (147.1993) for coliforms: incubate 24h ± 2h at 37°C for E.coli: incubate 48h ± 2h at 37°C

3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Coliform Count (RCC) Plate is a sample ready-made culture growth medium system that contains Violet Red Bile (VRB) nutrients, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, a pH indicator to detect acid and a tetrazolium indicator that facilitates colony enumeration.

Coliform colonies growing on the 3M Petrifilm™ Rapid Coliform Count Plate produce acid, the pH indicator in the plate changes from red-orange to yellow, providing a presumptive indication of coliforms. Gas trapped around coliform colonies indicates confirmed coliforms

Coliform enumeration by acid zones (6-14 hours): Yellow acid zones may begin to appear as early as 6 hours. Coliform colony enumeration (8-24 hours): Red colonies with or without gas may begin to appear as soon as 8 hours and continue to grow throughout incubation.

3M Petrifilm™ Rapid Coliform Count Plates are used for detection and enumeration of coliform bacteria. Incubation time and temperatures varies by method. The most common approved methods:

AOAC Official Method 2000.15 for coliforms: incubate 24h ± 2h at 35°C ± 1°C for AFNOR Validated Method 3M 01/5-03/97A 14 hour result (as compared to VRBL 30°C method) (Incubate at 30°C for processed pork products.) AFNOR Validated Method 3M 01/5-03/97B 24 hour result (as compared to VRBL 30°C method) (Incubate at 30°C for processed pork products.) AFNOR Validate Method 3M 01/5-03/97C 24 hour result (as compared to MPN)

3M™ Petrifilm™ High Sensitivity Coliform Count (HSCC) Plate is a sample ready-made culture growth medium system that contains Modified Violet Red Bile (VRB) nutrients, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, and a tetrazolium indicator that facilitates colony enumeration.

3M™ Petrifilm™ High Sensitivity Coliform Count (HSCC) Plate are used for the enumeration of low levels of coliforms in the food and beverage industries. A 5mL sample is plated onto one plate. This allows a 1-coliform-per-gram sensitivity if a 1:5 dilution of product made. A 2-coliform-per-gram sensitivity is achieved if a 1:10 dilution is used.

3M Petrifilm™ High Sensitivity Coliform Count Plates are used for detection and enumeration of coliform bacteria. Incubation time and temperatures varies by method. The most common approved methods:

AOAC Official Method 996.02 Coliform Count: in Dairy Products incubate 24h ± 2h at 32°C ± 1°C. All foods except Dairy Products: Incubate 24h ± 2h at 35°C ± 1°C

AFNOR Validated Method 3M 01/7-03/99 Incubate 24h at 30°C ± 1°C or 35°C ± 1°C, or 37°C ± 1°C for total coliforms. Incubate 24h ± 2h at 44°C ± 1°C for thermotolerant coliforms. Incubator humidification is required at this elevated temperature.

Yeast and Molds (Fungus)

Yeasts and Molds (Fungus) are a large and diverse group of microscopic yeasts and molds that includes several hundred species. The groups of organisms have diverse environmental requirements which make detection and enumeration challenging.

3M™ Petrifilm™ Yeast and Mold (YM) Count Plate is a sample ready-made culture growth medium system that contains a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, nutrients and an indicator dye to provide contrast and facilitate counting. 3M Petrifilm™ YM Count Plates are used for detection and enumeration of Yeast and Mold. Incubation time and temperatures varies by method. The most common approved methods:

AOAC Official Method 997.02 for Yeast and Mold Counts (Foods): incubate 5 days at 20-25°C Canada MFHPB-32 for Yeast and Mold Counts (Food Products and Ingredients) Canada MFLP-41A for Yeast and Mold Counts (Environmental Sampling)

Petrifilm™ – The science[edit]

Sample Preparation[edit]

Weigh and dilute sample in an appropriate diluents. pH adjust and blend or homogenize the sample. Place the Petrifilm™ Plate on a flat, level surface.

Plating[edit]

To inoculate, lift the top film and pipette 1mL of sample suspension onto the bottom film. Depending on the plate, the top film is either dropped or slowly rolled. Place the appropriate plastic spreader on the plate and press gently onto the center of the spreader to distribute the sample evenly. Spread the inoculums over the entire Petrifilm™ Plate growth area before the gel is formed, taking care to not slide the spreader across the film. Remove the spreader and leave the plate undisturbed for at least one minute to permit the gel to form.

Incubation[edit]

Incubate plates in a horizontal position with the clear top film side up in stacks of no more than 20 plates. Several incubation times and temperatures can be used depending on current local reference methods. See List below

Interpretation[edit]

Petrifilm™ Plates can be counted using a standard colony counter or other illuminated magnifier. The circular growth area is approximately 20cm2. Estimates can be made on plates containing counts above the maximum recommended Colony Forming Units (CFU). Each Petrifilm™ Plate has a 1cm x 1cm yellow grid printed on the bottom film to assist in estimation for high CFU. High concentrations and overcrowded plates should be interpreted as Too Numerous To Count (TNTC). When an actual count is required, plate the sample at a higher dilution. Where necessary, colonies may be isolated for further identification Lift the top film and pick the colony from the gel and test using standard procedures. If Petrifilm™ Plates cannot be counted within one hour of removal from the incubator, they may be stored for later enumeration by freezing in a sealable container for one week at -15°C or below.

Petrifilm™ Plate Reader[edit]

The 3M Petrifilm™ Plate Reader is an accessory capable of precisely counting colonies on Aerobic Count, Coliform Count, and E. coli/Coliform Count Petrifilm. Numerous studies have shown the 3M Petrifilm Plate Reader to be as precise as manual counting. The 3M Petrifilm Plate Reader is capable of counting colonies on Petrifilm plates in less than 4 seconds.


3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate Certificates, Recognitions and Validations[edit]

AFNOR[edit]
All foods Aerobic Count Plates NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/1-09/89 (as compared to ISO 4833 method)
All foods (except raw shellfish) Coliform Count Plates

24 hour total coliform result

NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/2-09/89A

(as compared to ISO 4832 VRBL method)

NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/2-09/89B (as compared to ISO 4831 MPN method)

All foods Coliform Count Plates

24 hour thermotolerant coliform result

NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/2-09/89C

(as compared to V08-060 VRBL at 44°C method)

All foods Coliform Count Plates

24 hour thermotolerant coliform result

NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/2-09/89C

(as compared to V08-060 VRBL at 44°C method)

All foods Select E. coli Count Plates NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/8-06/01

(as compared to ISO 16649-2 E. coli method)

All foods Rapid Coliform Count Plates

14 hour result (Incubate at 30°C for processed pork products || NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/5-03/97A (as compared to ISO 4832 VRBL 30°C method)

All foods Rapid Coliform Count Plates

24 hour result (Incubate at 30°C for processed pork products)

NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/5-03/97B

(as compared to ISO 4832 VRBL 30°C method)

All foods (except processed pork products) Rapid Coliform Count Plates

24 hour result (Incubate at 30°C for seafood products)

NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/5-03/97C

(as compared to ISO 4831 MPN method)

All foods Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/6-09/97

(as compared to ISO 21528 part 2 VRBG method

All foods High-Sensitivity Coliform Count Plates NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/7-03/99

(as compared to ISO 4831 MPN method)

All foods Staph Express Count System NF Validation Certificate Number 3M 01/9-04/03

(as compared to EN ISO 6888-1 method)

AOAC® INTERNATIONAL Official Method of Analysis[edit]
Raw and pasteurized milk Aerobic Count, Coliform Count Plates Method 986.33
Dairy products Aerobic Count, Coliform Count Plates Method 989.10
Dairy products High-Sensitivity Coliform Count Plates Method 996.02
Foods Aerobic Count Plates Method 990.12
Foods Coliform Count, E. coli/Coliform Count Plates Method 991.14
Foods Yeast and Mold Count Plates Method 997.02
Foods Rapid Coliform Count Plates Method 2000.15
Poultry, meats and seafood E. coli/Coliform Count Plates Method 998.08
Selected foods Rapid S. aureus Count System Method 2001.05
Selected foods Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates Method 2003.01
Selected processed and prepared foods Staph Express Count System Method 2003.07
Selected dairy foods Staph Express Count System Method 2003.08
Selected poultry, meats and seafood Staph Express Count System Method 2003.11
AOAC® INTERNATIONAL Research Institute[edit]
Environmental sampling Petrifilm Environmental Listeria Plate Certificate Number 030601
Bottled water Petrifilm Aqua Coliform Count Plate Certificate Number 091101
Salmonella Petrifilm Salmonella Express System Certificate Number 061301
Yeast and Mold Petrifilm Rapid Yeast and Mold Count Plate Certificate Number 061301

Certificate Number 121301

INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FEDERATION (FIL/IDF)[edit]
Dairy products Bulletins 285/1993 and 350/2000
United States[edit]
Foods Aerobic Count Plates, Coliform Count Plates, E. coli/Coliform

Count Plates, Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates, High- Sensitivity Coliform Count Plates, Lactic Acid Bacteria Method, Rapid Coliform Count Plates, Yeast and Mold Count Plates

Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination

of Foods, 4th Edition 2001

Dairy Aerobic Count Plates, Coliform Count Plates,

Enterobacteriaceae Count Plates, E. coli/Coliform Count Plates, High-Sensitivity Coliform Count Plates, Rapid Coliform Count Plates, Yeast and Mold Count Plates

Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products,

17th Edition 2004

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Agricultural Marketing Service
Laboratory Methods and Procedures Aerobic Count Plates Dairy Grading Branch DA Instruction
USDA FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service)
Beef, swine, sheep, goats, horses, mules

and other equine carcass sampling

E. coli/Coliform Count Plates (Code of Federal Regulations) 9 CFR Part 310.25
Poultry, ducks, geese

and guinea carcass sampling

E. coli/Coliform Count Plates (Code of Federal Regulations) 9 CFR Part 381.94
Examination of fresh, refrigerated

and frozen prepared meat, poultry and pasteurized egg products

Aerobic Count Plates, E. coli/Coliform Count Plates Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, Chapter 3.01,

Quantitative Analysis of Bacteria in Foods as Sanitary Indicators. January 20, 2011

US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration)
All foods Aerobic Count Plates, Coliform Count Plates, E. coli/Coliform

Count Plates

FDA/BAM (Bacteriological Analytical Manual), 8th Edition

Rev. A/1988, Chapter 4, Section VI and Appendix 1, Table 4

Milk Aerobic Count Plates, Coliform Count Plates,

High-Sensitivity Coliform Count Plates

FDA Milk Laboratory Evaluation Form 2400a, Revision 3/01

Petrifilm™ Product List[edit]

  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Coliform Count (CC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ E. coli / Coliform Count (EC/CC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Yeast and Mold Count (YM) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Coliform Count (RCC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ High Sensitivity Coliform Count (HSCC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Enterobacteriaceae Count (EB) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Staph Express Count (STX) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ High Sensitivity Coliform Count (CC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Environmental Listeria (EL) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast & Mold Count (RYM) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aqua Heterotrophic Count (AQHC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aqua Coliform Count (AQCC) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aqua Enterobacteriaceae Count (AQEB) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aqua Yeast & Mold Count (AQYM) Plate
  • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) Plate Use for Growing Lactic Acid Bacteria
  • Aerobic Procedure for Lactic Acid Bacteria with 3M™ Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) Plates for Monitoring Food and the Environment


References[edit]

The following is a compilation of selected studies from researchers all over the world, who have used 3M Petrifilm Plates to test food products from fruit juices and dairy products to meat, seafood, poultry and processed foods.

  • Abgrall, B., and J. J. Cleret. 1990. J. Food Protection 53(3):213-216. “Evaluation of Petrifilm SM for the Enumeration of the Aerobic Flora of Fish”.
  • Arguzon, J.A.; Vizmanos, M.F.C.; Baylon, M.A.B.B.; Padilla, M.A. 2000. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 37(1) p. 16-18 “Dry medium culture plate (Petrifilm sup TM AC) as an alternative to standard plate count in enumerating aerobic bacteria in chilled broiler carcasses”.
  • Amaro-Berzunza S(a); Cabrero-Mendoza A(a); Gonzalez de Alba L(a); Toro-Vazquez J(a); Paloalto-Macias R(a). 2001. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology; 101 572-573 “Determination of coliforms by Petrifilm EC, MPN and plate count media with VRBA methods in Mexican fresh cheese”.
  • Betts, G. D., R. P. Betts, and R. Taylor. 1994. Campden Food and Drink Research Association. Technical Memorandum No. 703. “Evaluation of 3M Petrifilm for Aerobic Plate Count, Yeast and Mould Count and Escherichia coli Count”.
  • Betts R. 2000. Food Science & Technology - File 53:Foodline® “Commercially available alternative methods for microbiological control in the fruit juice industry”.
  • Bülte, M., S. Heckötter, W. Schott, R. Kirschfeldt and J. Jöckel. 1998. Fleischwirtschaft 78 (6) 690-691. “Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Einsatzfähigkeit des Petrifilm™ - Verfahrens bei Lebensmitteln - 1. Ergebnisse bei Lebensmitteln tierischen Ursprungs”.
  • Curiale, M. S., P. Fahey, T. L. Fox, and J. S. McAllister. 1989. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 72(2):312-318. “Dry Rehydratable Films for Enumeration of Coliforms and Aerobic Bacteria in Dairy Products: Collaborative Study”.
  • Curiale, M.S., V. Gangar, A. D‘Onorio, S. Gambrel-Lenarz and S. McAllister. 1997. J.Assoc. Off. Nal. chem. Vol. 80 n°3:505-516. “High Sensitivity Dry Rehydratable Film Method for Enumeration of Coliforms in Dairy Products-Collaborative study”.
  • Curiale, M. S., T. Sons, J. S. McAllister, B. Halsey, and T. L. Fox. 1990. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73(2):242-248. “Dry Rehydratable Film for Enumeration of Total Aerobic Bacteria in Foods: Collaborative Study”.
  • Curiale, M. S., T. Sons, D. McIver, J. S. McAllister, B. Halsey, D. Roblee, and T. L. Fox. 1991. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 74(4): 635-648. “Dry Rehydratable Film for Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Foods: Collaborative Study”.
  • Food Science & Technology. 2000. Food Science & Technology - File 53:Foodline® “Microbiology: rapid methods and automation”.
  • Gangar, V. and M. S. Curiale. 1999. Journal of AOAC International 82 (1). 73-78. “Dry Rehydratable Film Method for Enumerating Confirmed Escherichia coli in Poultry, Meats, and Seafood: Collaborative Study”.
  • Götze, H. and J. Baumgart. 1990. Lebensmittel Technik March 121-122. “New Test System”.
  • Heckötter, S., M. Bülte, W. Schott, R. Kirschfeldt and J. Jöckel. 1998. Fleischwirtschaft 78 (7) 770-771. “Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Einsatzfähigkeit des Petrifilm™ - Verfahrens bei Lebensmitteln - 2. Ergebnisse bei Lebensmitteln pflanzlichen sowie gemischten (pfanzlichen und tierischen) Ursprungs”.
  • Imai, K.; Teramoto, T.; Okamoto, I.; Asamoto, K.; Miyamoto, H.; Matsuyoshi, Y. 2005. Nihon Bokin Bobai Gakkai Shi - Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, “Evaluation of the use of the 3M Petrifilm AC plate for the 24-hour incubation of food samples”. ■ ■Kinneberg K. M.; Lindberg K. G. 2002. Food Science & Technology - File 53: Foodline® “Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in food (3M Petrifilm rapid coliform count plate): collaborative study”.
  • Knight, M. T., M. C. Newman, M. J. Benzinger, Jr. K. L. Neufang, J. R. Agi, J. S. McAllister and M. Ramos. 1997. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 80(4): 806-823. “Comparison of the Petrifilm Dry Rehydratable Film and Conventional Culture Method - Enumeration of Yeasts and Molds in Foods: Collaborative Study”.
  • Lodi R., P. Malaspina and R. Todesco. 1991. Industria del Latte 27(2):57-69 “Isolamento di Lieviti e Muffe da prodotti lattiero-caseari con diversi terreni selettivi”.
  • Mach, P. A. and G. P. Sandberg. 1995. J. Food Protection 58(Supplement): 26. “A New Petrifilm™ Method for Enterobacteriaceae Testing”.
  • McPhee S., A. R. Bennett and R. P. Betts. 1996. Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association, R&D Report N°32. “Evaluation of 3M Petrifilm Count Plates for enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae and Coliforms from food samples”.1015-201-EU 12/09

bibliography International selection of publications

  • Matthews, K. R. 2003. Microbial safety of minimally processed foods - p.151-163 “Rapid methods for microbial detection in minimally processed foods”.
  • Moeller-Hübert G., Baumgart J. April 1991. Sonderdruck aus Lebensmitteltechnik. “Nachweis von Hefen und Schimmelpilzen Petrifilm YM, ein neues Untersuchungssystem”.
  • Moore, G.; Griffith, C. 2002. Food Microbiology; 19 (1) 65-73 “A comparison of surface sampling methods for detecting coliforms on food contact surfaces”.
  • Ottaviani F. and G. Arvati. 1988. Il latte 13:299-303. “Valutazione di nuovi sistemi rapidi per la determinazione delle cariche totali e dei coliformi totali nel latte e nei prodotti di latte”.
  • Ottaviani F., G. Arvati, and D. Bresciani. 1988. Industrie Alimentari 27:725-728. “Discrepanze analitiche nel conteggio dei batteri Coliformi in alcuni semilavorati alimentari”.
  • Park Y. H.; Seo K. S.; Ahn J. S.; Yoo H. S.; Kim S. P. 2001. Journal of food protection United States 64; (11); p1841-3 “Evaluation of the Petrifilm plate method for the enumeration of aerobic microorganisms and coliforms in retailed meat samples”.
  • Piton., C. and R. Grappin. 1991. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 74(1):92-103. “A Model for Statistical Evaluation of Precision Parameters of Microbiological Methods: Application to Dry Rehydratable Film Methods and IDF Reference Methods for Enumeration of Total Aerobic Mesophilic Flora and Coliforms in Raw Milk”.
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Quality of pasteurized milk influences the performance of ready-to-use systems for enumeration of aerobic microorganisms Beloti, V., et. al. International Dairy Journal. 2002; 12(5): 413-418. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958694602000213

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Evaluation of Petrifilm method for enumerating aerobic bacteria in Crottin goat cheese de Sousa, G.B., et. al. Revista Argentina de Microbiologia. 2005; 37(4): 214-216. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16502643

Comparison of 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count System with the bacteriological analytical manual direct-plating method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially contaminated hard cheese Fedio, W.M., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 2008; 91(5): 1138-1141. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980130

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Enumeration of starter cultures during yogurt production using Petrifilm AC plates associated with acidified MRS and M17 broths Goncalves, M.M., et. al. Journal of Dairy Research. 2009; 76(2): 229-233. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19281634

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Evaluation of the effect of probiotic cultures on two different yogurt brands over a known population of Staphylococcus aureus and the production of thermonuclease [Evaluación del efecto de cultivos probióicos presentes en yogurt sobre Staphylococcus aureus y la producción de termonucleasa] Salvatierra M., et. al. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion. 2004; 54(3): 298-302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15807205

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Performance of two ready-to-use systems for enumeration of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms in frozen goat milk Tavolaro, P., et. al. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2005; 36(3): 295-300. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2008/XS/XS0810.xml;XS2005090317

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Comparison of Petrifilm method to conventional methods for enumerating aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli and yeasts and molds in foods Jordano, R., et. al. Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica. 1995; 42(3): 255-259. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8548198

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Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus count plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study Silbernagel, K.M., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 2001; 84(5): 1431-1443. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11601462

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A comparison of ready-to-use systems for evaluating the microbiological quality of acidic fruit juices using non-pasteurized orange juice as an experimental model Ramazotti-Ferrati, A., et. al. International Microbiology. 2005; 8(1): 49-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15906261

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Evaluation of Petrifilm methods for enumeration of aerobic flora and coliforms in a wide range of foods Blackburn, C.D.W., et. al. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 1996; 22(2): 137-140. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8936373

Microbiological validation of a film system for monitoring total anaerobic bacterial pollution on surfaces and operator’s overalls in controlled areas [CONVALIDA MICROBIOLOGICA DI UN SISTEMA A FILM PER IL MONITORAGGIO DELLA FLORA BATTERICA AEROBICA TOTALE SU SUPERFICI ED INDUMENTI DI LAVORO IN AREE CONTROLLATE] Dal maso, G., et. al. Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico. 1993; 132(1): 23-28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8476553

Evaluation of dryfilm method for isolation of microorganisms from foods Ha, S.-D. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1996; 24(2): 178-184. http://astp.jst.go.jp/modules/search/DocumentDetail/0257-2389%2B%2540%2B1598-642x%2B%2540%2B1598-642x%2B%2540%2B_24_

Manual squeezing as an alternative to mechanical stomaching in preparing beef carcass sponge samples for microbiological analysis Ingham, S.C., et. al. Journal of Food Protection. 2009; 72(2): 428-430. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350993

Comparison of the Baird-Parker agar and 3M™ Petrifilm™ Staph Express Count Plate methods for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in naturally and artificially contaminated foods Ingham, S.C., et. al. Journal of Food Protection. 2003; 66(11): 2151-2155. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14627298

Comparison of Petrifilm method to conventional methods for enumerating aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli and yeasts and molds in foods Jordano, R., et. al. Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica. 1995; 42(3): 255-259. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8548198

Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Coliform Count Plate): collaborative study Kinneberg, K.M., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 2002; 85(1): 56-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11878620

Comparison of the Petrifilm dry rehydratable film and conventional culture methods for enumeration of yeasts and molds in foods: collaborative study Knight, M.T., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 1997; 80(4): 806-811. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9241844

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Evaluation of Petrifilm system for enumeration of aerobic flora, coliforms and E. coli. Results of a ring test [Valutazione dei sistemi di analisi microbiologica Petrifilm conta aerobica totale, coliformi ed E. Coli. Risultati di uno studio interlaboratorio] Senini, L., et. al. Industrie Alimentari. 1999; 38(385): 1117-1120. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2001%2FIT%2FIT01004.xml%3BIT2001060826

Efficacy of Petrifilm for the enumeration of the aerobic flora-coliforms and E. coli in typical Italian products [Valutazione dei sistemi di analisi microbiologica petrifilm per la conta aerobica totale, coliformi ed E. coli in prodotti alimentari Italiani] Senini, L., et. al. Industrie Alimentari. 1997; 36(365): 1498-1502. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1998%2FIT%2FIT98016.xml%3BIT1998061489

3M™ Petrifilm™ Enterobacteriaceae Count plate method for enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in selected foods: collaborative study Silbernagel, K.M., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 2003; 86(4): 802-814. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14509441

Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study Silbernagel, K.M., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 2001; 84(5): 1431-1443. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11601462

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Volunteer monitoring of E. coli in streams of the upper Midwestern United States: A comparison of methods Stepenuck, K.F., et. al. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2011; 174(4-Jan): 625-633. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20454848

Enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus using CHROMagar and Petrifilm plates [Quantitative Bestimmung von Staphylococcus aureus mittels CHROMagar™ und Petrifilm] Wichmann-Schauer, H., et. al. Fleischwirtschaft. 2004; 84(6): 120-123. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15862414

Comparative evaluation of the association among enumeration methods and production of enterotoxins in food-derived Staphylococcus aureus Zhang, C., et. al. Journal of AOAC International. 2012; 95(1): 105-110. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22468348

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