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Charles Crist, Jr.
Gov charlie crist.jpg
44th Governor of Florida
Assumed office
January 2, 2007
Lieutenant Jeff Kottkamp
Preceded by Jeb Bush
35th Attorney General of Florida
In office
Governor Jeb Bush
Preceded by Richard E. Doran
Succeeded by Bill McCollum
Personal details
Born (1956-07-24) July 24, 1956 (age 60)
Altoona, Pennsylvania
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Amanda Morrow (1979-1980) (divorced)
Carole Rome (2008-present)
Residence St. Petersburg, Florida
Alma mater Florida State University, Cumberland School of Law
Profession Lawyer

Charles Joseph "Charlie" Crist, Jr. (born July 24, 1956) is an American politician of the Republican Party and the current Governor of Florida. Crist was Florida's attorney general when he won election as governor, thus becoming the first Florida cabinet official in 95 years to be elected governor (since Park Trammell). As governor, Crist has echoed his predecessor, Jeb Bush, by taking generally conservative positions on a broad range of social issues while diverging from Republican orthodoxy on fiscal management and environmental policy. He has been described as fostering better relationships with minority communities, particularly the African-American community, and lauded by environmental groups for his opposition to coastal oil drilling and his efforts to restore the Everglades using land purchased with public funds. His current term as governor expires in January 2011. Though eligible under Florida law to seek a consecutive term as governor in the 2010 election cycle, Crist announced May 12, 2009 that he will not run for re-election as governor in 2010, and instead will run for the US Senate in 2010.

Personal life[edit]

Crist was born in Altoona, Pennsylvania[1] to Dr. Charlie Crist Sr., an American physician of Greek Cypriot descent, and Nancy Lee, of Scotch-Irish American descent. Often mispronounced today as "Christ", his surname had originally been "Christodoulou".[2] Crist moved to St. Petersburg, Florida, as a child, where he attended Riviera Middle School[3] [4] and graduated from St. Petersburg High School in 1974. He is the second eldest child; he has three sisters, Margaret Crist Wood, Dr. Elizabeth Crist Hyden, Catherine Crist Kennedy . [5] He attended Wake Forest University for two years, where he played quarterback for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons football team. Crist earned his undergraduate degree from Florida State University where he was elected Vice President of the student body and was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity. He received his law degree from the Cumberland School of Law in Alabama.

In July 1979, Crist married Amanda Morrow. The couple had no children and divorced less than a year later.[6]

Crist became engaged to Carole Rome on July 3, 2008 and was married[7][8][9][10] on December 12, 2008, at the First Methodist Church of St. Petersburg, where Crist is a member.[11][12][13] Gay rights groups peacefully protested the passage of Amendment 2 gay marriage ban outside the church and reception.[14][15]

Early career[edit]

while in law school, Crist interned in the State Attorney's Office. After graduating, Crist failed the Florida bar exam twice, before passing it on the third attempt. [16] After being employed as the general counsel to the minor league division of the Baseball Commissioner's Office and as a staffer for U.S. Senator Connie Mack, he entered the private practice of law.

Crist has held elected office in Florida since 1992, except for 1999–2000 when he was the appointed Deputy Secretary of the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation following his defeat in a U.S. Senate race.

Crist was elected to the Florida Senate in 1992, representing parts of St. Petersburg.[17] He received the nickname "Chain Gang Charlie" on account of his support of chain gangs for state prison inmates.[1] He supported teacher salary increases. He co-sponsored laws that created charter schools, required felons to serve at least 85 percent of their sentences, and created a license plate to raise funds for the Everglades.[17]

Crist gained statewide name recognition in 1998 as the Republican challenger to the popular incumbent U.S. Senator, Democrat Bob Graham. He lost to Graham by 26 percent.[18] In 2000, Crist was elected Education Commissioner of Florida, and he served in this capacity until 2003. The office was converted to an appointive one in 2003 in accordance with a 1998 constitutional amendment.

Florida attorney general[edit]

In 2002, Crist was elected Attorney General. Supporters of his candidacy included America's Most Wanted host John Walsh, who publicly filed Crist's gubernatorial candidacy paperwork, citing his work with the Center for Missing and Exploited Children. During his tenure as Attorney General, Crist was lauded by civil rights and consumer groups for expanding the powers of his office to prosecute civil rights and fraud cases.[1] He received acclaim for his work to combat spam e-mails, freeze utility rates, end telecom deception, and protect the environment.[19] He was strongly criticized by some advocates of government intervention in the Terri Schiavo case when he abandoned further official attempts to keep Schiavo on life support.[20] [1] He was also criticized for not using his powers to investigate Schiavo's missing Department of Children and Families file. [21]

Canadian anti-consumer-fraud activist and author Les Henderson criticized Crist's handling of the Lou Pearlman-Wilhelmina Scouting Network affair in his September 2006 book Under Investigation. Henderson's book presents documentary evidence that Assistant Attorney General Jacqueline Dowd was forced to resign by Crist's office when she refused to stop investigating the scam, and that she had been intending to file charges under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.[22][23] A lawsuit stemming from the alleged Ponzi scheme and investment scandal alleges that Crist delayed or interfered with investigations into Pearlman in return for campaign donations and the use of private jets, residences, and skyboxes.[24]

2006 gubernatorial campaign[edit]

During the fall of 2006, Crist consistently led Democratic opponent Jim Davis in statewide opinion polling and so opted to skip a politically risky appearance with President George W. Bush. Crist had reasoned that the Pensacola area was already firmly in his camp, and instead decided to appear in a more closely contested area with Arizona Sen. John McCain. Davis accused Crist of trying to avoid being associated with the unpopular President, whose job-approval rating stood at 34 percent nationally and merely 29 percent within Florida.[25]

Crist also led his opponents in fundraising throughout the campaign, but his activities were occasionally controversial. One of Crist's backers was real estate mogul Donald Trump, whose guests at a Crist fundraiser included a former Ukrainian official in the country illegally, as well as the owner of a company under investigation by Crist's office. Crist later returned the donations from the companies under investigation, while the Ukrainian official's fee was paid by another guest. Further controversy set in, however, when ethics complaints were filed against Crist and his chief of staff for failing to investigate a major donor, personnel firm Convergys, that has been plagued by lawsuits and prison sentences for its role in the inadequate protection of state employees' social security numbers.

The Rev. O'Neal Dozier, a member of Crist's team and the Worldwide Christian Church, also generated controversy after being dismissed from his position on the Broward Judicial Nominating Commission for calling Islam a "cult" and a "dangerous religion" and opposing the construction of a mosque on the grounds that "we don't want our area to be a breeding ground for terrorists".[26] Crist initially declined to take action about Dozier and said that he was "happy" with the help he got.[27] However, he later told his staff to remove Dozier from all campaign committees, saying "While Charlie Crist respects Rev. Dozier's right to express his political and religious beliefs, he does not agree with Rev. Dozier's recent statements and writings concerning Islam".[28][29]

Crist's platform as a gubernatorial candidate included a "pro-life and pro-family" approach to abortion.[30][31]; $3,000 subsidies to adoptive parents and $5,000 subsidies to foster parents; advocation of parent choice and strict, standardized testing in education; prescription drug tracking for assurance of safety and proper health care; less expensive homeowners insurance; report cards for insurance companies; abolition of Citizens Insurance; support for right to die including respect for living wills; legal protection in eminent domain cases; lawsuit reform through elimination of joint and several liability; property tax flexibility; support for Florida's Defense of Marriage Act; cautious support for the death penalty[32]; gun owner rights (endorsed by the National Rifle Association as an "A+" candidate)[33]; efforts to stop the "clear pattern of growth" in hate crimes; support for closed borders with promotion of legal immigration; opposition to further statewide expansion of legal gambling; and support for environmental protections such as a ban on off shore oil drilling near Florida's coastline.

Record as governor[edit]

Governor Crist in Brazil, 2007.

Crist, one of the more popular Florida governors[34], has taken generally conservative positions on many social policy issues while also receiving criticism from time to time from Florida Republicans for his fiscal approach, for urging bipartisan cooperation - particularly with President Barack Obama, and for the rigor (or lack thereof) of his official schedule.[35][36][37][38][39][40] [41]

Staking out a conservative position on social issues, Crist has supported capital punishment[42][43][44] and gun rights; in 2008 he signed into law a provision that prevents employers from prohibiting employees' bringing firearms to the workplace, as long as the weapons are secure and individuals maintain a concealed carry license. [45] [46] [47] On the other hand, Crist has received some criticism both for his approach to fiscal policy and state spending. In January 2009, when the state was facing the repercussions of the nationwide recession, Crist angered some political allies for vetoing proposed budget cuts to popular programs despite what some thought was a prior agreement in favor of the cuts.[48] In the same vein, while Republican governors in some other states were rejecting portions of the federal stimulus package Crist spoke in favor of it and for Florida receiving its full measure.[35] In July 2008, as his office and the legislature grappled with a budget deficit estimated at $2.3 billion, Crist and his fiancee made a 12 day trip to Europe that ultimately cost taxpayers over $430,000 (not including $30,000 paid by business executives). Crist, who characterised the trip as focused on trade and economic cooperation, cited an agreement closed with Spanish firm Renovalia for energy investment in Florida. While the deal had been shepherded in part by the firms American attorney, a brother of US Senator Mel Martinez, according to Martinez the negotiations had stalled until Crist's intervention in Spain.[49] [50][51][52][53]

Crist has supported separate efforts to ban gay marriage in Florida, and later signed a bill to that effect, and has also endorsed a prior (and in some respects unique to Florida[54]) ban on adoption by prospective gay parents - arguing that a "traditional family provides the best environment for children." [55] [56][57][58][59][60] [61] [62] At the same time, he has appointed the majority of the members of the Florida Supreme Court, including conservative and pro-life judges Charles T. Canady (credited with coining the term "partial-birth abortion" while crafting the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995)[63] and Ricky Polston (whose automobile license place reads "Choose Life").[64] [65]

On other issues, however, Crist has departed from traditional Republican policy positions - particularly on environmental policy, an issue that resonates in the home of the Everglades and a huge coastline of popular beaches and nature parks. In July 2007, Crist hosted his first climate change summit in Florida. Crist announced plans to sign executive orders that would impose strict air pollution standards in the state, with aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent of the 1990 levels by 2050. Crist's orders would set new emissions targets for power companies, automobiles and trucks, toughen conservation goals for state agencies, and require state-owned vehicles to use alternative fuels.[66] In his gubernatorial campaign, Crist opposed offshore oil drilling a position he shared with California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Crist reversed that position in the summer of 2008, when oil reached peak prices, saying "I mean, let's face it, the price of gas has gone through the roof, and Florida families are suffering, and my heart bleeds for them." [67] [68] Later that month, in June 2008, Crist gave a keynote address at the "Serve to Preserve" Global Climate Change Summit he hosted in Florida. [69] At this same June 2008 conference, Schwarzenegger also gave an address and rebuked politicians who suggested drilling in the Gulf of Mexico as a solution to gas prices, and he stated: "Anyone who tells you this will lower our gas prices anytime soon is blowing smoke."[70][71] Crist continues to oppose offshore drilling close to the Florida coast, but has advocated research into drilling as far as ten miles offshore.[72] [73] Continuing in a role of environmental advocacy, in June 2008 Crist proposed that the State of Florida buy 187,000 acres of land for conservation, in a landmark deal with the sugar industry. Crist described the deal "as monumental as our nation's first national park."[74] Despite a competing offer floated in November 2008 for private acquisition of the land and a decrease in proposed financing from $1.75B to $1.34B, the South Florida Water Board voted 6-1 in favor of a final, downsized deal. The agreement, which still faces legal and financing challenges, would give the state 73,000 acres of sugar and citrus plantations for Everglades restoration projects.[75][76][77]

In other noteworthy steps as governor, Crist was the first Republican governor to accept the state's National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) invitation to a convention, and has even been described as the states' "first black governor." Crist endorsed legislation requiring paper records of all ballots cast during an election, stemming from criticisms from those who believed votes were being undercounted in black communities by computerized voting machines.[78][79] He has also tackled the states' regulation of the insurance industry, particularly for property (in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina) and health insurance. While new property insurance legislation has proved controversial, particularly the creation of the Citizen's Property Insurance Corp and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (both of which have been described as risky and underfunded), the health insurance reform efforts have been well received - standing next to former football star Dan Marino, Crist signed a law expanding health coverage statewide for autism disorders and he has also signed legislation expanding low-income coverage and creating public-private insurance options in the state.[80] [81] [82][83] [84] [85] [86] [87][88][89] [90][91][92]

Political activity[edit]

2008 presidential election[edit]

Senator John McCain played a major role in Crist's 2006 campaign for governor, McCain endorsed Crist and traveled the state of Florida campaigning with him. The day before the Florida general election, Crist chose to hold a campaign event with McCain in Jacksonville, Florida rather than attend a Pensacola, Florida rally with President George W. Bush. A few short months later,the Republican Presidential primary debates were held in St. Petersburg, Florida, Crist physically embraced McCain, and was observed as offering a more tepid welcome to the other presidential candidates visiting Crist's hometown for the debate. Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani had hoped to secure Crist's endorsement because he also campaigned for Crist's run for Florida Governor and Giuliani had placed all of his hopes on winning Florida. [93] [94] [95] [96]

In May 2007 Crist signed a bill to move up the date of Florida's 2008 presidential primary election to January 29, 2008. Such adustments of state primary dates, intended to increase the prominence of an individual states' role in the nominating process of the major political process and known as front-loading, is a violation of the primary rules of both major parties. The change prompted the Democratic National Committee to strip Florida (and Michigan, which made a similar change) of its superdelegates and 50 percent of its regular delegates to the Democratic nominating convention, and the Republican National Committee said it would strip 50% of all of the state's delegates.[97] Crist joined Michigan governor Jennifer Granholm in demanding that their state's delegates be seated at each party's convention. [98][99] Ultimately, the Democratic National Committee decided to seat all of their delegates while granting each delegate a half vote[100], and the Republican National Committee came to a similar conclusion.[101][102]

On January 26, 2008, Crist publicly endorsed Senator John McCain in the Republican primary race, saying, "He's a great friend and will do a great job for the United States."[103] McCain later won the primary by five percentage points, despite being outspent by opponent Mitt Romney. Many credited Crist's endorsement for the win[104], which gave McCain a leg up going into Super Tuesday. In May 2008, Crist, along with Louisiana governor Bobby Jindal, and former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney, attended a Memorial Day weekend at Senator John McCain's Sedona, Arizona home. Although the McCain campaign denied the gathering was an opportunity to consider a vice presidential candidate, several press outlets reported that the invited guests were indeed being considered for the number two spot on the Republican ticket.[105] [106] Three months later, in August 2008, Alaska governor Sarah Palin was chosen by McCain for the position. [107]

On October 12, 2008 Crist contradicted McCain campaign statements with regard to voter registration for the presidential general election held on November 4, 2008. The McCain camp stated there was widespread voter registration fraud occurring in various states, including Florida, and that a group known as ACORN may be responsible; Crist stated that he believed such reports were "exaggerated" and that he did not have a problem with the voter registration group known as ACORN as it operates in the state of Florida. [108] [109] These contradictions led the press to question if there were problems between the McCain campaign and the Republican leadership in Florida. Some members of the press directly asked Crist if he would be campaigning with McCain in Florida. On October 14, 2008, Crist indicated that his primary responsibilities lay with the people of Florida, saying, "When I have time to help out my friend [McCain] I'm eager and anxious to do so."[110] The Governor did go on to participate in several campaign rallies several days later.[111] On October 19, 2008 there were press reports of widespread rifts between the McCain camp and Florida Republican party leadership, rather than animosity specifically between Crist and McCain. [112]

Florida is a state that offers early voting to its constituents. On October 28, 2008 Crist extended early voting hours of operation and declared that a "state of emergency exists" due to record turnout of voters and resultant hours long waits at locations throughout the state.[113] Some Republican operatives were disappointed with the decision, including one anonymous source who said "He just blew Florida for John McCain." [114] Some election officials in certain counties viewed the extension of hours as an infringement, while other election officials heartily endorsed it. [115] Various media outlets and observers speculated that Crist made the decision out of vindictiveness toward McCain for snubbing him for the vice presidential position, or to position himself for re-election in 2010. Other journalists and photo-journalists documented the lines of elderly and minority voters waiting in line for hours in bad weather. Crist emphatically stated that it was "not a political decision. It's a people decision."[116][117]

On October 29 and October 31, 2008 Crist made several appearances on MSNBC's Morning Joe in which he told former Florida congressman Joe Scarborough that the race was tightening in Florida.[118] [119] On October 31, 2008 Crist appeared in a McCain-Palin web ad endorsing the senator.[120] [121] However, Crist abruptly left a poorly-attended McCain rally in Tampa on the last day of the race and Crist was a no show at previously scheduled interviews that were to take place after the rally, according to Ed Henry, reporter for CNN. [122]

Republican Governors Association meeting in Miami[edit]

On November 12-14, 2008 Crist hosted the Republican Governors Association (RGA) annual meeting in Miami, FL. After the resounding Democratic Party win of the 2008 election, where the presidency, along with several house and senate seats were won by Democrats [123], there was widespread speculation about the tone of the Republican Governors meeting. Republican Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin was a featured participant and speaker. She offered her first press conference since joining the McCain ticket at the post-election RGA meeting and received the majority of media coverage, which led to several Republican Governors making anonymous comments to CNN reporter Dana Bash about their disapproval of how Palin's participation in the conference was handled.[124] [125] Crist spoke about this at length in an interview with Joe Scarborough; during this same interview Crist also made reference to two recent mechanical problems and emergency landings that took place while he was aboard the airplane used to transport him around Florida for state business. [126] [127]

Crist's speech at the RGA conference entitled "Listen to the Voters and Serve" included his sentiments on how the GOP should evolve:

Crist also held a joint interview with Governor Mark Sanford of South Carolina and they openly discussed the split in the Republican Party (GOP) over the issue of where to direct the party's next efforts to gain more voters. [129]

"Outrage" film[edit]

In April 2009, Crist became one of the subjects in Kirby Dick's documentary Outrage, a Tribeca Film Festival feature about politicians who the film claims are "closeted" and vote against gay rights. This led many in the press to speculate about the veracity of the claims in the documentary and also publicly debate Crist's right to privacy. Some viewed Crist as a victim of "outing" and/or being unfairly maligned. Other mainstream media outlets looked at the movie solely from a political and tactical perspective and reported that the documentary is likely to be referenced in upcoming elections. Political analysts also debated what the appropriate tactical response from Crist should be in light of upcoming gubernatorial and senate races in Florida.[130][131][132] [133] [134][135][136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143]

2010 Senate candidate[edit]

Crist announced May 12, 2009 that he will not run for re-election as governor in 2010, and instead will run for the US Senate in 2010.[144] [145] [146] Some opponents in the senate race include fellow Republican Marco Rubio [147] [148] and Democrat Kendrick Meek[149][150][151] During the 2008 election, Crist was also mentioned as a potential 2012 presidential candidate.[152][153][154]

Electoral history[edit]

Florida Gubernatorial Election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Charlie Crist 2,519,845 52.2
Democratic Jim Davis 2,178,289 45.1


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  2. ^ Medved, Michael (28 May 2008). "The GOP Veep List: Pros and Cons". Retrieved 2008-10-15.  Unknown parameter |link= ignored (help)
  3. ^ "PUBLIC EDUCATION: Like herding FCATs, Crist's challenge is elusive: Make accountability appealing." St. Petersburg Times (Florida). February 25, 2007
  4. ^ "Crist's politics getting greener; Not all support focus on global warming." Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Florida). April 22, 2007
  5. ^ Charlie Crist: A fuzzy line divides personal and political lives
  6. ^ Bousquet, Steve (August 27, 2006). "Charlie Crist: A fuzzy line divides personal and political lives". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 
  7. ^ "Crist–Rome Wedding Photos". St. Petersburg Times. December 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
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  11. ^ "Governor Crist and Carole Rome set wedding date". WFOR-TV. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 
  12. ^ Dolinski, Catherine (2008-11-13). "Crist's December Wedding Will Follow Tradition". The Tampa Tribune. p. 6. 
  13. ^ Park, Mary Jane (December 12, 2008). "Guest list for Crist wedding is hush-hush". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  14. ^ Dolinski, Catherine (December 1, 2008). "Gay Rights Protest Planned For Gov. Crist's Wedding". The Tampa Tribune. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  15. ^ "Crist says he has 'no jitters' about wedding". Associated Press. December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  16. ^ Hegarty, Stephen (September 1, 2001). "Candidate failed 2 bar exams;Florida's top educator, who hopes to be its top legal officer, says failing taught him "never give up.". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  17. ^ a b Morris, Allen, and Joan Perry Morris, compilers. The Florida Handbook 2007–2008 31st Biennial Edition. Page 31. Peninsula Publishing. Tallahassee. 2007. ISBN 978-0-9765846-1-2 Softcover ISBN 978-0-9765846-2-9 Hardcover
  18. ^ "1998 U.S. Senate results". Federal Elections Commission. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  19. ^ Victory Smiles at Charlie Crist article appearing in The International Coordinating Committee "Justice for Cyprus" (PSEKA)
  20. ^ Miami Herald "Schiavo's Father Blames Crist"
  21. ^ Charlie Crist Ballotpedia profile
  22. ^ Kreuger, Jill (February 19, 2004). "Dowd leaves attorney general's office". Orlando Business Journal. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  23. ^ Follick, Joe (October 3, 2006). "Book: Crist tried to 'whitewash' probe". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  24. ^ Huntley, Helen (March 6, 2007). "Lawsuit faults Crist in giant Ponzi scheme". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
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  27. ^ "Religious Tolerance is Booed loudly". The Miami Herald. 13 July 2006. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Crist dumps preacher who ranted on Islam". The Miami Herald. 23 September 2006. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Pastor appointed by Bush won't apologize for remarks on Islam". Associated Press). July 11, 2006. [dead link]
  30. ^ "Gallagher Takes Off the Gloves; Crist Retaliates". The Tampa Tribune. August 21, 2006. [dead link]
  31. ^ "Crist would sign abortion ban, discusses adoption proposal". Naples Daily News. March 23, 2006. [dead link]
  32. ^ Execution Puts Crist To Test Tampa Bay Online (, December 15, 2006
  33. ^ NRA candidate scores
  34. ^ "CNN Poll Crist Approval High Across the Board"
  35. ^ a b Forbes Associated Press "Fla. gov touts stimulus package benefit at meeting"
  36. ^ Morning Joe "Crist: Stimulus will help Florida"
  37. ^ MSNBC Hardball "GOP Gov Support Obama Stimulus"
  38. ^ Miami Herald "GOP seethes over Charlie Crist's stimulus-plan support"
  39. ^ St. Petersburg Times "Gov. Charlie Crist takes heat from Republicans for supporting stimulus package"
  40. ^ Sun Sentinel "Gov. Charlie Crist's schedule shows many blank days",0,3288424.story
  41. ^ Politico The Scorecard "Going after Charlie Crist"
  42. ^ Tallahassee Democrat
  43. ^ Charlie Crist on Crime
  44. ^ | 11/02/2005 | Crist: Hands off death penalty law
  45. ^ Crist signs bring your gun to work bill article in Palm Beach Post
  46. ^ Florida lawmakers pass "take your guns to work" law -Reuters
  47. ^ Florida lawmakers pass take-your-guns-to-work law in National Post
  48. ^ Miami Herald "Gov. Charlie Crist's budget cut vetoes irk Republicans"
  49. ^ Miami Herald "Florida's budget deficit jumps by $150 million to $2.3 billion"
  50. ^ WJHG "Governor's Trade Trip Draws Heat"
  51. ^ Sun Sentinel "Governor Crist and entourage traveled in style across Europe as businesses and taxpayers footed the bill",0,5721620.story
  52. ^ ""Governor Crist and entourage traveled in style across Europe as businesses and taxpayers footed the bill"". Sun Sentinel. July 2008. Taxpayers covered the airfare, lodging and meals for the state employees who went on the trip. The other participants paid their own way and a fee of up to $1,500 each for additional costs, including the governor's expenses. In all, about 65 Florida business executives accompanied Crist, including real estate agents, aviation industry representatives, lawyers, lobbyists and two people with ties to the sugar industry. 
  53. ^ South Florida Sun Sentinel "Governor Crist and entourage traveled in style across Europe as businesses and taxpayers footed the bill",0,5721620.story
  54. ^ Associated Press "Miami judge rules against Florida gay adoption ban"
  55. ^ WKRG "Gay Adoption Ban"
  56. ^ "New challenge to Florida gay adoption ban". The Anniston Star. October 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  57. ^ Bousquet, Steve (29 July 2006). "Crist: Gay civil unions 'fine'". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  58. ^ "Ballot Measures—Florida Amendment 2: Ban on Gay Marriage". CNN. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  59. ^ Saint Petersburg Times "Crist backs off ban on same-sex marriage"
  60. ^ Hafenback, Josh (September 10, 2008). "Florida Gov. Charlie Crist won't campaign for anti-gay-marriage amendment". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  61. ^ "Yes2Marriage endorsements". Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  62. ^ Saint Petersburg Times "Crist backs off ban on same-sex marriage"
  63. ^ Florida Bar Website "Crist appoints Canady to the Supreme Court"
  64. ^ Sun Sentinel "Governor Charlie Crist picks conservative for Florida Supreme Court",0,3116202.story
  65. ^ Miami Herald "Wells submits resignation, as expected, giving Crist the 4th court vacancy"
  66. ^ Florida To Introduce Tough Greenhouse Gas Targets
  67. ^ "Florida's Crist has new view of offshore drilling ban"
  68. ^ "In Switch, Florida's Crist Eyes Offshore Drilling" NPR
  69. ^ 2008 "Serve to Preserve" Florida Summit on Global Climate Website
  70. ^ "Arnold’s Subtle Digs at McCain and Crist over Offshore Drilling"
  71. ^ Huffington Post "Arnold Schwarzenegger Calls Out John McCain And Charlie Crist On Offshore Drilling"
  72. ^ Bay News 9 "One on One with Charlie Crist"
  73. ^ Bay News 9 "One on One with Charlie Crist"
  74. ^ Guardian UK "Florida to buy 187,000 farmland acres to preserve Everglades"
  75. ^ Miami Herald "Crist praises water managers for support of Big Sugar land buy"
  76. ^ Miami Herald "Crist has competition: U.S. Sugar has offer from another suitor"
  77. ^ AP "Fla. revises deal with US Sugar to save Everglades" By Jessica Gresko The Associated Press November 11, 2008
  78. ^ AP, 23 August 2007 Crist earns kudos from black caucus
  79. ^ Brendan Farrington (October 11, 2007). "Gov. Crist lauded by African-Americans, called 'first black governor'" ([dead link]). South Florida Sun-Sentinel. 
  80. ^ Insurance Journal "Fla. Gov. Crist Persuades Cabinet to Block Insurers' Exit"
  81. ^
  82. ^ "Governor Crist Launches Shop and Compare Website" and
  83. ^ Wall Street Journal "Florida's Unnatural Disaster Charlie Crist, taxpayers and the next hurricane."
  84. ^ Associated Press "Crist: Florida 'better off' without State Farm"
  85. ^ NPR "State Farm Abandons Florida's Homeowners Market"
  86. ^ Miami Herald "Crist to State Farm: Good riddance"
  87. ^ Saint Petersburg Times "Crist to State Farm: Bu-bye!"
  88. ^ CBS 4 "Crist To Sign Citizens Rate Hike Legislation"
  89. ^ New York Times "New Florida Law Allows Low-Cost Health Policies"
  90. ^ WKRG "Crist Signs Autism Health Insurance Coverage Bill"
  91. ^ "Governor Crist Signs Legislation to Expand Services and Coverage for Autism"
  92. ^ Miami Herald "Crist unveils new low-cost health insurance"
  93. ^ Seattle Times "We'll win Florida Guiliani says"
  94. ^ MSNBC "Giuliani pins his hopes on Florida"
  95. ^ Farrington, Brendan (January 30, 2008). "Gov Crist could benefit from McCain win". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  96. ^ The Boston Globe "Calling McCain a true american hero fla governor endorses"
  97. ^ AP and Fox News "Florida Governor Signs Bill to Move Up Presidential Primary to January",2933,274254,00.html
  98. ^ "'Seat our delegates,' Florida's Crist, Michigan's Granholm tell Democrats, GOP"
  99. ^ Politico "Florida Gov. wants all delegates seated"
  100. ^ CNN " Florida, Michigan get all delegates, but each gets half vote"
  101. ^ New York Times "G.O.P. Plans Early-Primary Penalties"
  102. ^ Miami Herald "All 114 FL delegates get seats on GOP convention floor"
  103. ^ "McCain scores Crist's endorsement". Miami Herald. January 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  104. ^ Ray, Whitney (January 27, 2008). "Crist’s Endorsement Helped McCain Defeat Romney". Capitol News Service. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  105. ^ "McCain to host possible VPs at home". CBS News. May 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  106. ^ Nagourney, Adam (May 22, 2008). "McCain looks to fill ticket and 3 hopefuls step up". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  107. ^ Cooper, Michael (August 29, 2008). "Alaskan Is McCain’s Choice; First Woman on G.O.P. Ticket". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-13.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  108. ^ Deslatte, Aaron (October 12, 2008). "ACORN's voter signups bother McCain, but not Crist". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  109. ^ "GOP May be exaggerating voter fraud". Associated Press. October 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  110. ^ Kallestad, Brett (January 26, 2008). "Crist says Fla. is his top priority, then McCain". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  111. ^ Smith, Adam (October 19, 2008). "Sunnily,Gov Crist stumps for McCain". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  112. ^ Stratton, Jim (October 19, 2008). "Some GOP insiders say McCain has botched campaign to win Florida". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  113. ^ Flaherty, Mary Pat (October 28, 2008). "Crist Extends Early Voting Hours in Fla.". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  114. ^ Smith, Ben (October 28, 2008). "Crist Extends Voting Hours". The Politico. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  115. ^ Rabin, Charles (October 29, 2008). "Florida's Early Voting Hours Are Extended". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 2008-11-22.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  116. ^ Maguire, Kirstin (October 28, 2008). "Florida declares emergency, Extends voting hours". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 2008-11-22.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  117. ^ Charlie Crist (October 28, 2008). Crist press conference audio on extending voting hours in Florida (.MP3). St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  118. ^ Charlie Crist, Joe Scarborough (October 28, 2008). Morning Joe Interviews Crist on October 31,2008. MSNBC. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  119. ^ [Morning Joe with Crist]
  120. ^ Newsweek "Spread the Tax Hooey New GOP ads recycle old, debunked claims about Obama's tax plan"
  121. ^ YouTube "Crist you tube ad for John McCain"
  122. ^ CNN "McCain draws small Florida crowd on race’s final day"
  123. ^ CBS News "Barack Obama Wins Presidency"
  124. ^ CNN "Awkward Staging of Palin's First Press Conference"
  125. ^ Herald Tribune "On Crist's turf, it's Palin's show"
  126. ^ MSNBC "Morning Joe Interview with Crist on Republican Governors 2008 Meeting in Miami"
  127. ^ FOX News "Governor Crist's plane forced to make emergency landing",2933,450755,00.html
  128. ^ A Message from Charlie "Listen to the Voters and Serve" By Charlie Crist
  129. ^ Bloomberg News "Governors Crist, Sanford Split Over Republican Path to Success"
  130. ^ Salon "Re-outing Charlie Crist"
  131. ^ Variety "Outrage, a review"
  132. ^ The Huffington Post
  133. ^ Kris Kitto. "As 'Outrage' documentary debuts, outing is deflating". The Hill. 
  134. ^ Sun Sentinel "Documentary film goes after closeted gay politicians, makes claims about Charlie Crist "
  135. ^ Los Angeles Times "Kirby Dick's 'Outrage' comes at pivotal moment in gay rights fight'Outrage'",0,6665296.story
  136. ^ NPR "Kirby Dick: In The Political Closet, Dark Shadows"
  137. ^ NPR WHYY "Kirby Dick Interview"
  138. ^ The Village Voice "Kirby Dick's Outrage Outs Closeted Pols and the Media that Protect Them"
  139. ^ The Washington Post "Documentary's Camera Aims To Shed Light On D.C.'s Closet"
  140. ^ Washington Post "'Outrage' Drags Politics' Conservative Wingtips Out of the Closet"
  141. ^ Advocate "Kirby Dick Is Outraged!"
  142. ^ San Francisco Chronicle "Documentary purports to rip GOP's closet doors"
  143. ^ New York Times "Secret Lives in the Age of Gay Rights"
  144. ^ Miami Herald "Gov. Charlie Crist announces bid for U.S. Senate"
  145. ^ YouTube "CharlieCristFL channel"
  146. ^ Huffington Post Hotwire- Associated Press "Gov. Crist to run for US Senate seat in Florida"
  147. ^ Politico "Rubio running for Senate, gunning for Crist"
  148. ^ Miami Herald "Is Republican Party united behind Charlie Crist?"
  149. ^ Miami Herald "Kendrick Meek raises $1.5 million for Senate bid"
  150. ^ Herald Tribune "National GOP pushing Crist to run for Senate"
  151. ^ Washington Post "Florida Gov. Crist Considers Senate Race"
  152. ^ Martin, Jonathan (November 10, 2008). "GOP Gears Up For 2012". The Politico. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  153. ^ GOP Faithful Like Palin, Romney, Huckabee in 2012 - Gallup Poll
  154. ^ Gov Crist Is Man To Beat In Florida Quinnipiac University Poll Finds Sen Martinez Gets Mixed Grades From Voters

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by
Richard Doran
Florida Attorney General
2003 – 2007
Succeeded by
Bill McCollum
Political offices
Preceded by
Jeb Bush
Governor of Florida
2007 – present

Category:1956 births [[:Category:Living people Category:American Methodists Category:American people of Cypriot descent Category:Federal Emergency Management Agency critics Category:Florida Attorneys General Category:Florida Commissioners of Education Category:Florida Republicans Category:Florida State University alumni Category:Governors of Florida Category:Greek American politicians Category:American people of Greek descent Category:People from Altoona, Pennsylvania Category:American people of Scots-Irish descent Category:Seminole Caucus