User:PalaceGuard008/Republic of China

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Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Mínguó[a]
A red flag, with a small blue rectangle in the top left hand corner on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays.
A blue circular emblem on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays.
National Emblem
Anthem: 《中華民國國歌》
National Anthem of the Republic of China
National Flag Anthem
A map depicting the location of the Republic of China in East Asia, on an orthographic projection of the globe.
Location of the Republic of China
  Claimed territory, historical actual control varied
  Territory under actual control today
Capital Taipei[1] (present)
Nanjing, Beijing, Chongqing and other cities briefly (historical)
25°02′N 121°38′E / 25.033°N 121.633°E / 25.033; 121.633
Official languages Standard Chinese[2]
Official scripts Traditional Chinese
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
Ma Ying-jeou
• Premier
Jiang Yi-huah
Legislature Legislative Yuan
Establishment Xinhai Revolution
10 October 1911
1 January 1912
25 December 1947
• Total

36,193 km2 (13,974 sq mi) (present)[3]

11,077,380 (historical and claimed)
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+8)
Date format
Drives on the right
Calling code +886
ISO 3166 code CN
Internet TLD
PalaceGuard008/Republic of China
Traditional Chinese 中華民國
Simplified Chinese 中华民国
Postal Chunghwa Minkuo

The Republic of China is a state in East Asia, which today is commonly referred to as Taiwan. Founded in 1912 upon the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China government was the widely recognised government of China with a varying degree of actual control over mainland China. In 1945, as one of the Allied powers, the Republic of China took control of the island of Taiwan, which had been ceded by Qing Dynasty China to Japan in 1895. In 1949, the Republic of China government relocated to Taiwan as it lost increasing parts of mainland China to the Communist Party of China, who established the People's Republic of China in that year. Within a few years, the territory over which the Republic of China retained effective control was restricted to Taiwan, which makes up over 99% of its territory,[b] as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands. Consequently, the Republic of China as it exists today is commonly referred to as "Taiwan".

The Republic of China was founded in 1912. After an initial interim period under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen, revered as the "Father of the Nation", power was taken by a regime based in Beijing initially headed by Yuan Shikai, now called the Beiyang Government. Initial attempts to establish a constitutional democracy descended into a period of armed strife between competing factions, until the Kuomintang succeeded in the Northern Expedition to remove the Beiyang Government and establish a unified one-party government in 1928. Following the end of World War II in 1945 and amidst a civil war with the Communist Party, the Kuomintang-controlled government led by Chiang Kai-shek adopted a Constitution in 1947. However, the Republic of China remained a one-party state even as the government moved to Taiwan. Democratisation reforms in the 1980s and 1990s culminated in the first direct election of the President in 1996, and the Republic of China is today regarded as a multi-party liberal democracy.

The Republic of China government was widely recognised as the government of China. Beginning in 1949-1950, however, countries began to switch recognition to the People's Republic of China. By the 1970s, most countries recognised the People's Republic of China as the government of China, and recognition of the Republic of China was withdrawn by the United Nations in 1971. Today, the Republic of China maintains diplomatic relations with a relatively small number of countries. The Republic of China formally maintains its claim to represent all of its historical territory,[5] but this claim enjoys a relatively low degree of international recognition. The claim is strongly disputed within Taiwan; some people in Taiwan even dispute the legitimacy of the Republic of China's rule over Taiwan itself.


  • Summary of history, with links to the main history article and to various regimes


  • Summary of constitutional history and evolution of government institutions since 1947, link to articles on government today
  • List of presidents


  • Brief explanation of evolution of territory, explanation of concept of "Free" and non-Free Areas.

International status[edit]

  • Summary of evolution, explanation of present situation, participation in other organisations


  1. ^ See Names of the Republic of China.
  2. ^ The island of Taiwan covers an area of 36,008 km2 (13,902.8 sq mi), while the total area under the jurisdiction of the ROC (Free Area) covers around 36,193 km2 (13,974.2 sq mi).[3]


  1. ^ "Yearbook 2004". Yearbook. Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004. Taipei is the capital of the ROC 
  2. ^ "Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 5 April 1975. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  3. ^ a b "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". MOI Statistical Information Service. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  4. ^ "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010. 
  5. ^ "'1 country, 2 areas' in line with ROC Constitution: MAC deputy". China Post. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-05. 

External links[edit]

Overviews and data[edit]

Government agencies[edit]