User:PalaceGuard008/Republic of China
The Republic of China is a state in East Asia, which today is commonly referred to as Taiwan. Founded in 1912 upon the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China government was the widely recognised government of China with a varying degree of actual control over mainland China. In 1945, as one of the Allied powers, the Republic of China took control of the island of Taiwan, which had been ceded by Qing Dynasty China to Japan in 1895. In 1949, the Republic of China government relocated to Taiwan as it lost increasing parts of mainland China to the Communist Party of China, who established the People's Republic of China in that year. Within a few years, the territory over which the Republic of China retained effective control was restricted to Taiwan, which makes up over 99% of its territory,[b] as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands. Consequently, the Republic of China as it exists today is commonly referred to as "Taiwan".
The Republic of China was founded in 1912. After an initial interim period under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen, revered as the "Father of the Nation", power was taken by a regime based in Beijing initially headed by Yuan Shikai, now called the Beiyang Government. Initial attempts to establish a constitutional democracy descended into a period of armed strife between competing factions, until the Kuomintang succeeded in the Northern Expedition to remove the Beiyang Government and establish a unified one-party government in 1928. Following the end of World War II in 1945 and amidst a civil war with the Communist Party, the Kuomintang-controlled government led by Chiang Kai-shek adopted a Constitution in 1947. However, the Republic of China remained a one-party state even as the government moved to Taiwan. Democratisation reforms in the 1980s and 1990s culminated in the first direct election of the President in 1996, and the Republic of China is today regarded as a multi-party liberal democracy.
The Republic of China government was widely recognised as the government of China. Beginning in 1949-1950, however, countries began to switch recognition to the People's Republic of China. By the 1970s, most countries recognised the People's Republic of China as the government of China, and recognition of the Republic of China was withdrawn by the United Nations in 1971. Today, the Republic of China maintains diplomatic relations with a relatively small number of countries. The Republic of China formally maintains its claim to represent all of its historical territory, but this claim enjoys a relatively low degree of international recognition. The claim is strongly disputed within Taiwan; some people in Taiwan even dispute the legitimacy of the Republic of China's rule over Taiwan itself.
- Summary of history, with links to the main history article and to various regimes
- Summary of constitutional history and evolution of government institutions since 1947, link to articles on government today
- List of presidents
- Brief explanation of evolution of territory, explanation of concept of "Free" and non-Free Areas.
- Summary of evolution, explanation of present situation, participation in other organisations
- "Yearbook 2004". Yearbook. Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004.
Taipei is the capital of the ROC
- "Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 5 April 1975. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". MOI Statistical Information Service. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010.
- "'1 country, 2 areas' in line with ROC Constitution: MAC deputy". China Post. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-05.