User:Pamri/Economy of India old

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India has had robust economic growth since 1991 when the government reversed its socialist-inspired policy of a large public sector with extensive controls on the private sector and began to liberalize the economy. Liberalization has proceeded in fits and starts since then, mainly due to political pressures, but the economy has responded well by posting strong growth in many sectors. A certain amount of dissatisfaction is expressed in the face of these changes in the Indian economy- some of which are that a quarter of the population is still too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet, electricity shortages still continue in many regions and the manufacturing sector has slowed down at the expense of soft skills.

With a GDP of 568 billion (B$) ($3.096 trillion (T$) at PPP) India has the world's 12th largest economy (and the 4th largest when adjusted for PPP). However, the large population means that per capita income is quite low. In 2003 the World Bank ranked India 143rd in PPP per capita income and 160th in real terms, among 208 countries and territories.


About 60% of the population depends directly on agriculture. Industry and services sectors are growing in importance and account for 25% and 51% of GDP, respectively, while agriculture contributes about 25.6% of GDP. More than 25% of the population live below the poverty line, but a large and growing middle class of 300 million has disposable income for consumer goods.

Economic Reforms[edit]

India embarked on a series of economic reforms in 1991 in reaction to a severe foreign exchange crisis. Those reforms have included liberalized foreign investment and exchange regimes, significant reductions in tariffs and other trade barriers, reform and modernization of the financial sector, and significant adjustments in government monetary and fiscal policies.

The reform process has had some very beneficial effects on the Indian economy, including higher growth rates, lower inflation, and significant increases in foreign investment. Foreign portfolio and direct investment flows have risen significantly since reforms began in 1991 and have contributed to healthy foreign currency reserves (140 B$ in March 2005) and a moderate current account deficit of about 1% (2002-03). India's economic growth is constrained, however, by inadequate infrastructure, cumbersome bureaucratic procedures, and high real interest rates. India will have to address these constraints in formulating its economic policies and by pursuing the second generation reforms to maintain recent trends in economic growth.


Significant liberalization of her investment regime since 1991 has made India an attractive place for foreign direct and portfolio investment. The U.S. is India's largest investment partner.

Since 1991, Indian economy has gone from strength to strength. It has recorded a growth rate of above 5%. India's economy grew at an unexpectedly robust 8.4 percent in the year through the third quarter of 2004, making it one of the fastest growing in the world.


Figures in crore rupees for April-Sep 04. Note: 1 crore=10 million. 43 rupees=1 $ as of January 5, 2004.

  • Excise duty: 36,622
  • Customs: 25,205
  • Income tax: 25,175
  • Corporation tax: 20,337

Other Statistics[edit]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

  • lowest 10%: 3.5%
  • highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)


  • production: 547.2 TWh (2002)
  • consumption: 510.1 TWh (2002)
  • exports: 0.35 TWh (2002)
  • imports: 1.54 TWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:

  • fossil fuels: 81.7%
  • hydro: 14.5%
  • other: 0.3% (2001)
  • nuclear: 3.4%

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


Business magazines and newspapers in India[edit]

Stock Exhanges[edit]