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“The Fake Nazi Death Camp: Wikipedia’s Longest Hoax” conspiracy theory invented by a banned Wikipedian[edit]

By Richard Tylman


On October 3, 2019 the Haaretz News published a provocative opinion piece in translation from the Hebrew original; in its opening-line proclaiming to the world in large-print: “The Fake Nazi Death Camp: Wikipedia’s Longest Hoax, Exposed.” The qualifying subtitle alleged: “For over 15 years, false claims that thousands of Poles were gassed to death in Warsaw were presented as fact.” – The source and inspiration behind this article written by Omer Benjakob was an interview by email with Wikipedia user Icewhiz. According to WikiBlame, the first actual citation in Haaretz from the earliest versions of the Wikipedia article claiming "the number of the camp’s victims well above 212,000, mainly Poles..." was not in Wikipedia until December 2009. The phrase, first added by an IP sock from Hawaii, appeared 5 years after the article was created, but that is a small potato in comparison to what followed in Benjakob’s report. As it turns out – most of it is a conspiracy theory of its own but not about World War II but about the inner workings of the free encyclopedia itself, as perceived by a single disgruntled Wikipedian.


It is essential to follow the timeline of postwar history of Poland in order to understand how the alleged “Wikipedia hoax” conspiracy theory invented by User:Icewhiz came into being last October. The editing history of KL Warschau article in English goes back 15 years to 2004, with an entry submitted by late Krzysztof Machocki, spokesperson for the Polish Wikimedia – username Halibutt – a Polish Jewish contributor from Warsaw, with a lot at stake. The article “Warsaw concentration camp” submitted by Machocki at 3,629 bytes in 2004 did not have a reference section. These were the old days of Wikipedia with hardly any requirements. Even though Halibutt used to provide an occasional external link, this time he did not. Over 15 years later it would have been impossible to trace his off-wiki references back. Besides, the sources would have been outdated anyway in light of the further IPN research. The brick and mortar encyclopedias of yesteryear did not have reference sections, and Wikipedia was in its infancy – you get the drift.


Halibutt submitted “Warsaw concentration camp” to online encyclopedia on 12 October 2004; the actual reference section (more less accurately reflecting the content) was added over a year later in January 2006 by a different contributor, including webpages already discontinued but archived by Wayback (below):


  1. (in Polish) Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002, ISBN 8388822160
  2. (in Polish) Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002 [Wayback]
  3. (in Polish) Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003 [Wayback]


In his WP:LEDE to Warsaw concentration camp, in October 2004 Halibutt wrote: “According to various estimates some 200,000 people were killed there by the Germans during the war.” Only Halibutt (Rest in Peace) knew where his estimates originated from, but the book source claiming 200,000 victims is commonly known today as written by Maria Trzcińska, the author of Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy – KL Warschau.[1] Meanwhile, the communiqué published by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance IPN in May 2003 (also linked in 2006 by the other user) informed in Polish:

Results of the investigation do not allow for the definitive confirmation that in KL Warschau some 200,000 people were murdered. They do not confirm the definitive stance regarding the gas chambers in the vicinity of train station Warszawa Zachodnia (Warsaw West); they do not provide basis for the confirmation of the theses that the concentration camp included area known as the Lasek na Kole or the territory of train station Warszawa – Zachodnia. The above questions remain the subject of further analysis in the course of the IPN investigation.[3]

Some questions remain unanswered to this day. Where exactly did the false estimate of 200,000 inhabitants of Warsaw murdered at KL Warschau appear for the first time? Why such incredibly high number has not been rejected by the Polish historiography already decades earlier? Major errors in the estimation of Warsaw’s casualties in World War II were presented as historical facts already before the pro-Soviet military crackdown of 1981 in Poland. Some of them were as old as the years of sovietisation of all spheres of life in the People’s Republic. Judge Maria Trzcińska from GKBZH who at the age of 71 published a book about KL Warschau did not invent the 200,000 victims either. The assumption that she might have is a result of incomplete research (the hallmark of most Wikipedia entries). In her 2002 monograph Trzcińska has found an unlikely prop up for the information popularized by the Polish Great Universal Encyclopedia PWN (Encyklopedia powszechna) published to great acclaim in 1980. The relevant entry about the death toll in the Polish capital during World War II was explained by PWN in the following way, in Polish:

The cumulative losses among inhabitants of Warsaw in the years 1939-1944 are estimated at 850,000 totals, including 400,000 victims directly in the city and over 400,000 in the camps and in Nazi prisons . . . . As far as casualties outside Warsaw, the calculation is comparatively easy because it is based on the number of around 300,000 Warsaw Jews murdered at Treblinka and other mass execution sites, as well as ethnic Poles who perished in Nazi prisons and concentration camps outside Warsaw and outside the prewar borders of Poland.

The number of 400,000 killed directly in the capital includes the following:

1. The September Campaign: 30,000
2. Warsaw Uprising: 150,000 (according to 2009 summary by Materski & Szarota, postwar estimates ranged from 50,000 to 700,000)
3. Palmiry massacre: 1,800
4. Senate Gardens: hundreds
5. Swedish Mounds (Górki Szwedzkie) in Żoliborz: around 100
6. Forests around Warsaw: several hundred

The grand total per above amounted to 200,000 not 400,000 victims; nevertheless the Universal Encyclopedia claimed over 400,000 casualties directly in the city. – No Polish scientist has explained the missing from PWN additional 200,000 casualties in Warsaw. The street executions confirmed by science took the lives of 3,384 people and the murders at Pawiak and in the Ghetto ruins could have cost 20,000 lives on top of that. That is all we know.


The investigation into war crimes committed at the little known (at first) KL Warschau was initiated by the Institute of National Remembrance in 1973 under Gierek. The very next year Trzcińska (43) joined the department specifically to investigate the street executions in Warsaw. Meanwhile, the investigation into a possible death camp at KL Warschau by the IPN was closed after 3 years; it was reopened in 1982 following the military crackdown on Solidarity and again in 2002. Apparently the venerable scandal had legs. No one at IPN works alone, but research by Trzcińska brings to mind the early days of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission once proclaiming that 3 million people had been gassed at Treblinka, not the 870,000 Jews proposed by Yad Vashem in 2010.


Did the estimated 850,000 Varsovians perished in World War II? The number was widely believed to be true already in 1960s. Clearly, the 200,000 casualties in the capital out of 850,000 totals remained unexplained for at least 50 years. In any case, here’s where the work by Trzcińska came to the fore: Trzcińska decided that the only possible place of mass extermination of such incredible number of Poles from the capital ought to be at least equally incredible… and focused her life’s work on the theory of Konzentrationslager Warschau, and the biggest gas chamber, the world has ever seen.


Krzysztof Machocki / Halibutt must have run into the fresh new monograph by Trzcińska before his own new submission from late August 2004. Trzcińska’s theory was not discredited until 2007, or three years after his new English article was uploaded. The article in Wikipedia was completely rewritten several times over the years, contrary to the claims from Haaretz that "it was completely rewritten this past August" 2019 exclusively. The timeline offered by Benjakob about the recent discovery of an alleged “hoax” is false. In March 2006, for the first time ever, the camp was described as an ‘extermination camp’ not by Halibutt, but by user Kocoum active in Wikipedia for 6 months only. In the same month an IP user from Kansas (Paven1) said it, like it was: there was no death camp! Paven1 was reverted by user MFago who last edited in 2008, but Paven1 put it back. There was and edit war. In July 2006 user Taw from Poland repeated: there's no evidence of a “gas chamber.” – In November 2006 user HanzoHattori removed the information that the gas chamber in a railway tunnel would have been "highly atypical and inefficient" and took ownership of this entry for a few months in 2007. HanzoHattori included several crematoriums in it. He had been indefinitely blocked in February 2008, but the story began to take on a life of its own. In the following years various users removed the word controversy from the copytext. Halibutt was nowhere to be found – he had nothing to do with this article anymore. Krzysztof Machocki passed away on 31 January 2018 after an illness. In the same year user Buidhe (formerly Catrìona) added the Infobox with a grossly inflated number of 400,000 inmates at the camp.


The conspiracy theory by Icewhiz, about the English Wikipedia running a “hoax” for 15 years, includes broader discourses of suspicion in the Haaretz narrative such as character assassinations, fictionalized linkage to unspecified Polish nationalists, and purported cabals quoted directly from the racist Encyclopedia Dramatica. Individuals who believe in conspiracy theories are more likely to engage in conspiratorial actions from behind a mask of anonymity. According to Haaretz, it was “an Israeli editor dubbed Icewhiz, who refuses to be identified by his real name.” Several long-term contributors to Wikipedia reminded Icewhiz repeatedly about the difference between a conspiracy theory and a hoax. A conspiracy theory is a theory of a “moon landing hoax”, but the moon landing is not a conspiracy theory; it is a fact disputed by the conspiracy theory as an alleged hoax. For over 15 years Wikipedia tried to bring facts to light. KL Warschau was not an extermination camp. It is a conspiracy theory exposed first by the Polish historians of the Institute of National Remembrance; not by an editor dubbed Icewhiz, nor anyone else from within Wikipedia.


See also: Selected Readings on KL Warschau (English and Polish) available online at no charge

  1. Maria Trzcińska, Obóz zagłady w centrum Warszawy - Konzentrationslager Warschau, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom 2002 (2007); 187 pp; ISBN 83-88822-16-0 https://www.scribd.com/document/285780281/Maria-Trzci%C5%84ska-Oboz-Zag%C5%82ady-w-Centrum-Warszawy-Konzentrationslager-Warschau
  2. Informacja o ustaleniach dotyczących Konzentrationslager Warschau; “15 stycznia 2002 r. śledztwo w sprawie zbrodni ludobójstwa w obozie KL Warschau zostało podjęte na nowo.” - Institute of National Remembrance, June 2002: https://web.archive.org/web/20060905000553/http://www.ipn.gov.pl/aktual_2707_klw.html
  3. Informacja o śledztwie w sprawie KL Warschau; “200 tysięcy ludzi, brak dostatecznych przesłanek.” - Institute of National Remembrance, May 2003: https://web.archive.org/web/20061022125114/http://www.ipn.gov.pl/sled_klw_090503.html
  4. Treblinka at Yad Vashem, 2010; archived by Wayback: https://web.archive.org/web/20100824080821/https://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/this_month/resources/treblinka.asp
  5. Review and Herald: Volume 144, Part 1, 1967: “where 850,000 perished”: https://books.google.ca/books?id=16nkAAAAMAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=850%2C000+perished
  6. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Sep. 1, 1976: “six million Poles lost their lives (over 850,000 in Warsaw)”: https://books.google.ca/books?id=uVBXDKYR3M0C&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=850%2C000+in+Warsaw
  7. The Warsaw Uprising online:
https://web.archive.org/web/20060406070932/http://www.1944.pl/index.php?a=site_text&id=12129&se_id=12294
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Warsaw_Uprising&diff=next&oldid=4072284
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Contributions/Halibutt&dir=prev&offset=20040825011943&limit=500&target=Halibutt
  1. Warsaw concentration camp:
https://web.archive.org/web/20191003201543/https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-the-fake-nazi-death-camp-wikipedia-s-longest-hoax-exposed-1.7942233
https://web.archive.org/web/20060905000553/http://www.ipn.gov.pl/aktual_2707_klw.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Warsaw_concentration_camp&oldid=5424595
https://web.archive.org/web/20060406070932/http://www.1944.pl/index.php?a=site_text&id=12129&se_id=12294
https://web.archive.org/web/20190501153108/https://www.lrb.co.uk/v41/n09/christian-davies/under-the-railway-line
  1. Michał KurKiewicz, IPN Zagłada po Zagładzie: Bogusław Kopka, Konzentrationslager Warschau. Historia i następstwa, IPN, Warszawa 2007, ss. 71: https://ipn.gov.pl/download/1/18182/1-9576.pdf
  2. Anthony M. Tung (excerpts) WARSAW: THE HERITAGE OF WAR: https://web.archive.org/web/20060622053127/http://www.anthonymtung.com/excerpts.htm
  3. Referat o KL Warschau pt. Historyk, polityk, czy smrodziel? http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:QA9WMfD45VMJ:kl-warschau.blogspot.com/+&cd=12&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=firefox-b-d
  4. Nationalist claims made online with excerpt from the PWN encyclopedia: http://www.info-pc.home.pl/whatfor/baza/kl_warschau.htm
  5. User Kocoum. General statistics. Pages edited: https://xtools.wmflabs.org/ec/en.wikipedia.org/Kocoum
  6. London Review of Books, Vol. 41 No. 9, 9 May 2019, pages 29-30. "Under the Railway Line." Christian Davies on the battle for Poland’s history: https://www.lrb.co.uk/v41/n09/christian-davies/under-the-railway-line
  7. Estimates of the number of civilians killed in the capital during the Warsaw Rising ‘44:
Roman Goldman (1945) no less than 50,000
Rzeczpospolita (1944) 500,000 to 700,000
Władysław Gomułka (1945) 100,000 dead
Stanisław Podlewski (1947) 200,000 dead
Czesław Łuczak (1979) over 180,000 civilians including 15,000 partisans
Jerzy Kłoczowski (1988) 180,000 to 200,000 Poles
Krzysztof Komorowski (1999) 100,000 to 150,000 civilians

According to 2009 summary by Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota, POLSKA 1939-1945: https://web.archive.org/web/20120323161233/http://niniwa2.cba.pl/polska_1939_1945.htm the cumulative losses in the Warsaw Uprising by Czesław Łuczak comprise over 180,000 civilians including 15,000 partisans. According to Rzeczpospolita (1944) mentioned along with Łuczak: 500,000 to 700,000. Source: https://web.archive.org/web/20120323161233/http://niniwa2.cba.pl/polska_1939_1945.htm According to Jerzy Kłoczowski (Wyborcza), there were 180,000 to 200,000 Poles killed in the Warsaw Uprising: http://wyborcza.pl/1,76842,1601810.html According to Krzysztof Komorowski (Powstanie Warszawskie [in] Armia Krajowa. Szkice z dziejów Sil Zbrojnych..., p. 317) – 100,000 to 150,000 Varsovians died. Roman Goldman, Bój Warszawy, July 1945; claimed no less than 50,000. Stanisław Podlewski, "Dziś i Jutro" – claimed 200,000 killed. See: Armia Krajowa: szkice z dziejów Sił Zbrojnych: https://books.google.ca/books?id=oKCAAAAAIAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=Sternschnuppe


With their mothers’ milk [edit]

Vendre un canard à moitié ?

This is a goodbye essay from one of Wikipedia's faithful supporters, grateful for the opportunity of working together over the years.


As a long-time contributor to Wikipedia with an account registered on 9 April 2006, and over 2 thousand pages created, I quit on 17 May 2018. It was caused by a 6-month topic ban from the most significant area of my global contributions spanning over a dozen years, which was: the history of Poland during World War II including the Holocaust in Poland. I have been penalized for alleged violation of NPA, without warning, while speaking out against the grotesque removal of information from Wikipedia about the rescue of Jews during the Holocaust. The assault on the Holocaust-related series of articles about Poland was a recent development in English Wikipedia fueled by the worsening of Polish-Israeli relations down to its lowest point ever. If it wasn’t for the efforts of a small group of committed editors, the many accounts of saving Jews from Nazi ghettos in World War II authenticated by Yad Vashem would have vanished from dozens of articles during my TBAN, which expired in late November that year.


Those of you who are not familiar with the History of the Jews in Poland would find the following timeline of the gradual escalation of the most recent Jewish-Polish and German sociopolitical conflict enlightening. The controversy began with the “Polish death camps.” The camps were Nazi German – there is no doubt! But many non-Polish media and notable figures in the West continued to use such phrases implying that the gassing of Jews might have been a responsibility of the Poles. Discouraging the use of these terms (since 1989) did not work. Polish Foreign Minister Rotfeld had suggested that there are instances of “bad will” and that “attempts are made to distort history and conceal the truth.” Subsequently, Warsaw passed a law (since annulled) that made it illegal to accuse the Polish state of complicity in Nazi German war crimes. The bill sparked an outcry from Israel; the Foreign Minister Katz (quoting Shamir) stated: “Poles suckle anti-Semitism with their mothers’ milk.” Poland withdrew from economic conference in Tel Aviv and canceled a visit by the Israeli officials. Israeli man spit on the Polish ambassador. And the story goes on. Meanwhile, the campaign to damage Poland’s international image with the use of hostile disinformation and provocative commentaries from the press is only just beginning in Wikipedia.


Following my topic ban from the History of Poland during World War II and the Holocaust in Poland, I’ve seen fanatics use my silence to delete my contributions and slander me. One of the more repulsive attacks on my reputation was a smear job about a blurry World War II photo from Białystok, which I downloaded to Wikimedia Commons. I do not read Yiddish, and the image from the collections of Stowarzyszenie Szukamy Polski (In Search of Poland Society © 2004) was misidentified at source. My contributions to the Final Solution and dozens of Holocaust articles from previous years devoted to memorializing Jewish suffering and heroism during World War II was intentionally overlooked.


Several attacks on my integrity looked like some mental health issue. Users exhibiting signs of paranoia are a dirty secret of the Wikipedia process. There are no remedies: contributors are ‘supposed’ to be healthy in the name of everyone’s online freedom of expression. “Comment of content, not on the contributor” states the policy guideline. And so, even if aforementioned content has already been identified a hundred times as paranoid, it keeps on coming like a universal constant, sanctified by the rules. The bitter irony of these attacks in my absence was the fact that back in 2010 I had become a target of another, the most ghastly attack on my real life identity for contributing to the same subjects in Wikipedia already. The campaign was too dirty to be mentioned, but I can quote the reactions of notable Wikipedians who saw the proof of it with their own eyes.

: Doesn't matter. I don't care if he overreacts a bit. Poeticbent is clearly the victim here, of an extremely nasty and persistent dirt campaign. He deserves the full solidarity and support of all Wikipedia editors as far as this problem is concerned. Exacerbating the issue by calling for sanctions against him is highly inappropriate. [[User:Future Perfect at Sunrise|Fut.Perf.]] [[User talk:Future Perfect at Sunrise|☼]] 07:23, 1 May 2010 (UTC)


:: Ditto about support for Poeticbent. I don't know anything about any dirt campaign, as I haven't read through Poeticbent's history, nor have I been following the Tylman article discussions. But I did just look up the blog page that Poeticbent linked, in his fury. In my opinion the blog page is libelous. One cannot rule out that a WP squabble has spilled out into dirty tricks the blogosphere, and therefore WP cannot just pretend it has nothing to do with it. My opinion is that Poeticbent gets our full support, along with a warning that his legitimate grievance should have been taken up through proper WP channels rather than with this outburst of rage. Then, WP should contact law enforcement authorities and explain the situation. That said, I expect such a nasty trick as this was sent anonymously from an internet cafe and we may never find the perpetrator. Still, the blog site that hosted the information may be liable. In any case, WP legal team need to jump on this immediately and fully investigate it. I think we all deserve a statement from them. – [[User:Chumchum7|Chumchum7]] ([[User talk:Chumchum7|talk]]) 07:59, 1 May 2010 (UTC)

Meanwhile, the police detective who familiarized himself with my case at the VPD headquarters in my district advised me to WP:VANISH because he would not be able to help outside the jurisdiction. – I stopped contributing as User:Poeticbent entirely and began creating legitimate multiple accounts for privacy reasons. I never used these accounts to disrupt or undermine consensus, but regrettably, I have become overconfident and in the following months submitted two dozen articles to WP:DYK including the epic “Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland” in June 2011. I was reported to WP:RfCU two months later in a “fishing expedition.” I admitted openly and on my own initiative to creating accounts mentioned in the investigation of someone else’s bid. My accounts were blocked with no evidence of disruption on the condition of my return to editing as User:Poeticbent only, with the authorization from ArbCom. I felt the need to look further into the past in search of answers concerning my family's history including the history of war-crimes in Eastern Poland. With time, I gained the reputation of the most accomplished Holocaust writer in English Wikipedia. My personal quest continued, nevertheless these were the opinions of my peers:

He's a prolific content creator and probably our most active contributor in this area in terms of the number of articles created and amount of text added. . . . I respect his commitment to Wikipedia's Holocaust articles. [[User:AmericanLemming|AmericanLemming]] 05:01, 18 April 2017 (UTC)


You [User:Poeticbent] are Wikipedia's most prolific content creator in this area. [[User:Piotrus|Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus]] 12:24, 29 June 2018 (UTC)

All along, writing for Wikipedia about the Second World War was a part of my personal journey. My father performed forced labor in Nazi Germany. My mother was deported from Kowel to forced labour in Siberia. They both met in Kraków and settled there.


Map of the Holocaust produced and uploaded to Commons by Richard Tylman (as User:Poeticbent), released into the Public Domain


I was born and raised one-hour drive from Auschwitz and visited the Museum at the age of 9 for the first time. I defected from Poland two days ahead of the military crackdown of 1981. – I felt the urge to learn more about what had happened in the course of the war and during the Holocaust in the Second Republic. I needed to be informed on all sides of the issues because no healthy debate can be reduced to a frozen truth written from the inside of an ethnocentric bubble. Although I wrote poetry about my family history, the advent of Wikipedia changed the landscape of information entirely. I learned from my studies that those who use their minds to buffer themselves from the death-related anxiety often buffer themselves from the radiance of life as well. Healing is a long and difficult process. I focused on the memory of the Righteous in Wikipedia to remind others that humans are inherently good and not innately selfish – the ultimate source of evil is the ‘plot mentality’ in social relations; this is the very logic of genocide. Meanwhile, as soon as I left Wikipedia in May 2018, the many Righteous Among the Nations honoured and epitomized by Yad Vashem were removed from my articles about the Nazi ghettos in occupied Poland on false premises; my Ukrainian Righteous were not.


I have little trust in Wikipedia's ability to resolve the grief between the Jewish and Polish Wikipedians by using administrative means; it is not going to be possible given the totality of the antisemitic and polonophobic tropes already published in so-called WP:RS literature. Once created with the best of intentions, the WP:RS guidelines have become a bottomless pit used for trashing and salting out facts not yet peddled by commercial monoliths. The insistence on using only timeworn resources not only prevents newly established facts from being investigated, but also undermines evidence. Research must span a gamut of materials.


The administration can silence editors like me, and allow our adversaries to continue on, because this is all they ‘can’ do. When presented with the mainspace evidence of prejudice, bigotry, and delusional paranoia, they can penalize the dissenters for getting upset about it. They cannot drive out hate. Unlike in academia (or in politics), in Wikipedia, one cannot call the anonymous liar out because that's an “attack,” while the liar’s intentional deception is only a breach of our “verifiability” guideline. In the world of anonymity there are no alternatives for maneuvering. Bowled over, editors who believe in integrity and truthfulness can excuse themselves from further participation. Nothing's going to change just because one guy you came to admire is leaving.


I did not log in to Wikipedia even once for over one year. I could not possibly continue, because accepting the limitations of my WP:TBAN would inadvertently mean justifying the injustice. I did not read notifications about my user name being mentioned by others. – Logging in as User:Poeticbent would have exposed me to common baiting and badgering strategies of my adversaries. Wikipedia’s anonymity might lead to its ultimate undoing during the course of the social media revolution, because the Generation Facebook is accustomed to acquiring information from the actual real accountable humans.


I would like to take this opportunity to thank my friends for their continued support; you know who you are; we've had an incredible decade working together. Thank you. – A final note. I suppose there must be something inside of me that works like a trigger for the internet trolls hiding behind anonymity. In all likelihood, their ‘gravedancing’ and vengeance are not reactions to what I might have achieved there... but the reactions to who I am as a man. This is not a happy thought, except that I cannot become someone else.


This is User:Poeticbent signing off.


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Wikipedia's frontiers [edit]

The other way around

Back in 2006 R.I.P. Aaron Swartz, a fellow Wikipedian, attempted to challenge the results of research presented by Jimbo Wales at Stanford – part of his standard talk. Wales revealed that over 50 per cent of the total number of edits in Wikipedia were made by the shocking 0.7% of users; while 73.4 per cent of all contributions, came from just 2% of them ... 1,400 people in all. The remaining edits came from "people who [were] contributing … a minor change of a fact or a minor spelling fix."[1] Skeptical yet curious, Swartz asked himself: "So did the Gang of 500 actually write Wikipedia?" He performed his own quantitative research, analyzing not the number of edits (pride and joy of long-established users); but rather, the actual letters per individual volunteer added into the current body of selected articles amounting to their actual content value.[1] The results were even more shocking. Study by Swartz has shown that, while the "insiders account for the vast majority of the edits," it was the occasional contributors who provided nearly all of the content value there.[2] Swartz has alluded to the possibility that "newbie masses" may be the real life-blood of Wikipedia, not the "experts".

Some time earlier Larry Sanger suggested that Wikipedia should stick to its core group of hard working insiders.[3][4][5] Swartz proclaimed exactly the opposite: "Wikipedians must jettison their elitism" and embrace the newbie masses with respect. He quoted Seth Anthony confirming his revelations. "The average content-adder – as Anthony commented – has less than 200 edits: much less, in many cases."[3]

So did the newbie masses actually write Wikipedia? The fact is ... we're not supposed to know who the logged-in content-adders are. We can only speculate about their motives as if they were actual flesh and blood ... which they aren't. For once, the level of intellectual aggression in Wikipedia due to the presence of anonymity is exceedingly high. Some of the most common and most disturbing forms of behaviour include angry, vengeful, overstimulated reactions to criticism, assaultive language and poor impulse control; good enough reasons to be wary. The attempts to prohibit trolling failed at the onset of Wikipedia likely because in an Internet world trolling is good for traffic, and traffic is the real life-blood of Wikipedia.

Wikipedia size & users (live)
English articles: 5,972,858
Average revisions: 18.81
Total wiki pages: 49,048,308
Total admins: 1,150
Total active users: 137,455
Total accounts created: 37,668,655
UTC time: 00:57 on 2019-Nov-22

The standard method of functioning; the Modus operandi of many entrenched "regulars" hasn't changed in years ... it has actually gotten worse. The utopian ideals of Wikipedia community constructed early on through options for instantaneous change, inadvertently solidified binary assumptions as well as the preexisting stereotypes, and – at the present time – often aggravate a combat mentality. By 2009 already, active accounts began to turn dormant by about 20,000 a month.[6] In real life – wrote Danah Boyd then of MIT Media Lab – individual people constantly manipulate their own identities in order to perform functions incompatible by nature. They assume a party-time persona or the workplace persona or others, without being ‘inaccurate’ about their own true selves. "It is not uncommon for individuals to have multiple email addresses or phone numbers as a way of controlling access to them. Most people are not interested in consolidating all of their physical or virtual identities into one."[7] In Wikipedia ... such behaviour is considered unacceptable.

The success of Wikipedia affects the mind with a sense of overwhelming grandeur. We are on the forefront of today's hottest web-based technologies. In his 2009 book The Wikipedia Revolution, Andrew Lih compared Wikipedia to an insect colony – commanded by stigmergy – built not by the will of anybody in particular and certainly not by consensus; but, by the participative instincts of humanity fuelled by Wikipedia's unlimited "undo's" coupled with article-histories revealing all "diffs" forever. Identifying the various types of database-providers cannot be reduced to simple dichotomies. Yet, the increasingly outdated policy/guidelines keep reducing all nuances of comparison into goodthink and crimethink, good old "insiders" and the evil-doers trying to stick it to the man.[8] The multiple personalities of an online identity constitute one of the more remarkable shifts in online social norms.[7] Wikipedia’s mopping crew has very few tools (and even fewer adequate ones) to address this phenomenon. Even though our sockpuppet policy permits the use of multiple accounts for various reasons; in practice, contributors are routinely penalized with no allegations of disruption.[9] Free to vanish entirely, they are prohibited from trying to evade those who have harassed and smeared them in the past. No wonder, the number of registered accounts exceeds the number of active users at a ratio of 130 to 1 (insert). It is a symptom of an illness of anxiety almost impossible to compare with other similar projects.

Reprinted by Wikipediocracy by permission from the author, as The other way around June 5, 2013. Thank you!

Instead of an introduction[edit]

S
ince the spring of 2006 I've written a number of articles for Wikipedia (see below) getting the chance to find out what would happen to them and also, how articles I contributed to were treated. I made a few conclusions, most of them negative. During the summer of 2007 I expanded the article on Kraków (my birthplace), with one hundred citations and two dozen new "daughter" articles (eight featured as DYKs). I nominated it for a Featured Article, as part of a concentrated effort to promote the City. However, the hostility exhibited by – get this – Polish and other European reviewers with issues of self-importance was almost vitriolic. Users who were familiar with Kraków gave vent to unreasonable demands inspired by their overexposure to the subject while deliberately disregarding accepted standards of good writing. Moreover, the subsequent deterioration of the article was so rapid, that I was forced to wash my hands of it altogether. I decided, enough was enough. I firmly believe in the conclusions drawn from a one-time experience without the need for being repetitive about it.

There are similarities between the methodological framework of Wikipedia and that of an earlier chat-room craze from several years ago. Both "open source formats" rely entirely on input from users who are hidden from scrutiny and whose participation is moderated by admins empowered with the ability to block them. The question is whether this portal can ever live up to its premise, with such high level of hostility aimed at the exceedingly small group of writers supplying actual "content value".[10]

Lolrollback.jpg
The most damning part of open source format is that, by design, our goal-oriented community is forced to accept otherwise unacceptable revisionist viewpoints providing that they're verifiable. Partisan groups turn to Wikipedia to endorse their prejudices. Content disputes escalate. The socio-political coverage of countries, where adults do not easily access English Wikipedia, is left to young fanatics who perpetuate chauvinism. Controversial subjects are despoiled with opinionated agendas imposed by self-appointed wardens in contempt of policy guidelines. Scholarly literature is replaced with biased propaganda. Google books are intentionally obfuscated to avoid politically inconvenient facts. Many controversial articles contradict the opinions expressed in leading encyclopedias and quieten the viewpoints of rational thinkers. – Their quasi stability is maintained with one-liners, signed by the same unrelenting monikers. The worst disruptors cause disciplinary sanctions against the not-so-calm voices of reason who oppose them. It is particularly heart-rending to observe European cities being battered by geopolitical irredentism, notable persons claimed and reclaimed, and the overwhelming majority of articles about the history of conflict inciting even more hatred. All this is done in the name of equality among anonymous editors some of whom would've never been allowed to contribute anything anywhere else outside of here. By the way, users with confrontational viewpoints are far more resilient than those editors who take interest in developing content. They get entertained by adverse reactions to their partisanship, and thrive on real-time Internet game playing with the peculiar quasi-encyclopedic twist.

The result is such that the interested parties are unable to withdraw without the sense of failure given that some countries and societies are under attack continuously. The illusion of the actual encyclopedia is the reason why concerned editors are forced to guard some articles permanently. Incidentally this is also why participating in the development of Wikipedia seems so addictive. There's the need to constantly guard ones own good name and check on every single edit related to it, from minute to minute.

There are corners of Wikipedia Main Space unbeknownst to the community of experienced editors physically unable to control the millions of constantly revised articles. Lower traffic entries stay vandalized for months. The quality of writing, away from public scrutiny is often atrocious, and the knowledge of formatting nonexistent. In the last few years Wikipedia has largely replaced the free webpage builders such as Geocities, Tripod and Angelfire; with editing access far more relaxed. Obscure articles are a travesty of special interest web tributes, which (in the old days at least) used to be fitted with Java applets for the uninformed. Some of these articles are so bad, that it is better to ignore them and turn away.

There is a positive side to Wikipedia as well. Even though vandalism, ignorance and bad faith edits resemble doodling in elementary-level textbooks, users who cause damage intentionally or otherwise, have to read what they change, and so they learn more, even if only by proxy. School children turn to Wikipedia in overwhelming numbers lured by search engine algorithms and self-empowering secrecy surrounding their age and aptitude. Students who choose to contribute, get a chance to work on improving their cognitive skills, regardless of the condition of affected articles.[11]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Aaron Swartz (September 4, 2006). "Who Writes Wikipedia?". Raw Thought. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  2. ^ Aaron Swartz (September 5, 2006). "False Outliers". Raw Thought. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  3. ^ a b Aaron Swartz. "Who Writes Wikipedia? — Responses". Raw Thought. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  4. ^ Jordan Frank (March 27, 2007). "Re-Emergent Collaboration? Wikipedia, the Sequel". Traction Software. Retrieved March 8, 2012. Larry Sanger, Citizendium initiative
  5. ^ Jordan Frank (September 25, 2006). "Best Practice and the Wikipedia Big Brain". Traction Software. Retrieved March 8, 2012. Andrew McAfee compares Wikipedia to an ant colony
  6. ^ Jack Schofield (2009). "Have you stopped editing Wikipedia? And if so, is it doomed?". Guardian News and Media. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
  7. ^ a b danah boyd, New York University (2001). "Sexing the Internet: Reflections on the Role of Identification in Online Communities" (PDF). Sociable Media. MIT Media Lab. Retrieved March 12, 2012. Presented at ‘Sexualities, Medias, Technologies,’ University of Surrey, 21-22 June 2001.
  8. ^ Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University (2007). "Whose Space? Differences Among Users and Non-Users of Social Network Sites". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 14. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  9. ^ "Do you need anonymity over the internet?". Questions Opinions Debates. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  10. ^ "An ongoing study by University of Minnesota researchers has revealed that only one-tenth of 1 percent of Wikipedia editors account for nearly half the content value of the free online encyclopedia, as measured by readership." Robyn White, Rhonda Zurn, Mark Cassutt, Report on Wikipedia Authorship and Vandalism, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis / St. Paul, November 5, 2007.
  11. ^ "The vast majority of Wikipedia contributors and editors are under the age of 25. Many of the administrators (senior editors) are in their teens. This has been established by a survey conducted in 2003 and in various recent interviews with Jimmy Wales." Sam Vaknin, Can Teenagers write an Encyclopedia?, September 26, 2007, by former United Press International Senior Business Correspondent.
    ^ "Search and Internet behavior data provide alarming insight into this powerful but volatile resource — alarming because one of the core groups of Wikipedia users are school children." Bill Tancer, Look Who's Using Wikipedia, Time Magazine in partnership with CNN, March 1, 2007, by general manager of global research at Hitwise.

Stars[edit]

Exceptional newcomer(1).jpg The Exceptional Newcomer Award
I award you, [Poeticbent], 'The Exceptional Newcomer Award'. The title says it all.
Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus | talk  15:50, 22 December 2006 (UTC)

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BoNM-Poland.png        The Polish Barnstar of National Merit,
 2nd Class
In lieu of a Kraków-specific award, [Poeticbent], please accept The Polish Barnstar of National Merit, 2nd Class, for your outstanding and continued expansion of Poland-related articles in general, and Kraków-related articles in particular.
 Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus | talk  20:34, 21 April 2007 (UTC)

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DYK medal.png       The DYK Medal
Awarded to Poeticbent for meritorious contributions to Polish articles on Did you know...
Blnguyen
(bananabucket) 08:49, 6 August 2007 (UTC)

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BoNM - Poland.png      The Polish Barnstar of National Merit,
1st Class
I, Tymek (talk), as of 18:18, 4 January 2008 (UTC), am awarding you, Poeticbent, this Barnstar in appreciation of you excellent work. Keep up the good job!

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BoNM - Poland.png      The Polish Barnstar of National Merit,
1st Class
I, Partisan1 (talk), as of 12:00, 3 March 2009 (UTC), am awarding you, Poeticbent, this Barnstar in appreciation of you excellent work. Keep up the good job!

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Peace Barnstar 6.png The Barnstar of Peace
In much appreciation of your spotting a War and attempting to bring about Peace today, you are, with much pleasure, awarded this Barnstar for your even-handedness and fairness! --Ludvikus (talk) 19:37, 12 May 2008 (UTC)

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Christian Barnstar.png The Christianity Barnstar
In praise of your excellent article on the life of Anna Borkowska. Ecoleetage (talk) 13:23, 5 August 2008 (UTC)
"Thank you for bringing her deeply moving and truly inspirational story to Wikipedia."

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Dyk25.svg The 25 DYK Medal
Congratulations on your steady stream of well-researched Polish-related articles, in which more than 25 have appeared on the Main Page. You have done the community of the DYK and Polish editors proud! Well done! - Cheers, Mailer Diablo 03:00, 27 October 2008 (UTC)

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The Purple Star The Purple Star
I, Piotrus, award Poeticbent this Purple Star, for wheathering many unjustified criticisms including mud-slinging during ArbCom, regular vandalism and slander of his real life persona as a notable Wikipedian.
Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| talk 20:33, 10 February 2009 (UTC)

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Dyk50.png The 50 DYK Medal   
For all of your effort to accomplish 50 DYK articles, I hereby award you the 50 DYK Medal. Readers throughout the world have benefited from your generosity! Your efforts are appreciated. Royalbroil 04:39, 18 June 2009 (UTC)

I'm happy to see that I did the crediting on some of the articles that you worked on. Royalbroil 04:52, 18 June 2009 (UTC)

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Goldenwiki.png For Good Works on Kraków related articles
For Good Works on Kraków related articles
Presented by SilkTork *YES! 12:39, 25 July 2009 (UTC)

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From talk pages of alternate accounts

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Barnstar of Reversion2.png The RickK Anti-Vandalism Barnstar
I, Mikhailov Kusserow, hereby award you The RickK Anti-Vandalism Barnstar for outstanding achievement in countering vandalism. — Mikhailov Kusserow (talk) 04:02, 3 May 2011 (UTC)

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Real Life Barnstar.jpg The Real Life Barnstar
Thank you for organizing the Vancouver meetup! InverseHypercube 23:19, 20 October 2011 (UTC)

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Chopin, by Wodzinska.JPG Polish Barnstar of National Biography
For your outstanding efforts to build biographical articles on Polish people on wikipedia.♦ Dr. Blofeld 22:39, 30 December 2011 (UTC)

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Purple Heart Star.PNG The Purple Heart Barnstar
Za całokształt. (Polish: Covering the entirety) Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| talk to me 18:57, 6 February 2012 (UTC)

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Cornflower blue Yogo sapphire.jpg Precious
Thank you for your artistic and poetic way, covering Poland's history, culture and people, but also naming "a symptom of an illness of anxiety" with a clear view, --Gerda Arendt (talk) 09:28, 3 May 2012 (UTC)

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Dyk100CE.svg The 100 DYK Creation and Expansion Medal
I believe you're past the big one-oh-oh! Congratulations! VolunteerMarek 02:46, 8 August 2012 (UTC)

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BoNM-Poland.png The Polish Barnstar of National Merit, 2nd Class
For your constant help with the Poland-related articles and issues, on behalf of Wikipedia:WikiProject Poland, I award you [Poeticbent] the Polish Barnstar of National Merit, 2nd class. Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| reply here 17:29, 23 August 2012 (UTC)
this WikiAward was given to Poeticbent by Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| reply here on 17:29, 23 August 2012 (UTC)

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BoNM-Poland.png The Polish Barnstar of National Merit, 2nd Class

For your timely expansion of pasterka for today's XMAS eve, I award you yet another Polish Barnstar of National Merit. I would also like to attach my personal thanks for your continued presence, after all that we have endured over the years. Dziękuję!
Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| reply here 17:13, 24 December 2012 (UTC)

this WikiAward was given to Poeticbent by Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| reply here on 17:13, 24 December 2012 (UTC)

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Tireless Contributor Barnstar Hires.gif The Tireless Contributor Barnstar
For your tireless contribution you deserve this barnstar! Best, Tito Dutta (talk) 21:55, 5 January 2013 (UTC)

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Swami Vivekananda September 1893 Chicago.jpg My India: The India Eternal Barnstar
Thanks a lot for your work on Khandana Bhava–Bandhana article. Without your help it was not possible to get the article on the main page. Firstly we aimed for Featured article, but that did not go well (...) I wrote few more articles but, anyhow I could not find way to have something related to Swami Vivekananda on the main page on 12 January 2012, so I almost gave up hope. Thanks a lot for your help, kindness and contribution which helped to have this article featured in Did you know section of 12 January 2013 Wikipedia main Page (archived copy of 12 January 2013's main page) !
-- Tito Dutta (talk) 02:01, 12 January 2013 (UTC)

Note: Barnstar's title is taken from a book of Swami Vivekananda.

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Million award logo.svg The Quarter Million Award
For your contributions to bring Treblinka extermination camp (estimated annual readership: 269,000) to Good Article status, I hereby present you the Quarter Million Award. Congratulations, and thanks for all you do for Wikipedia's readers. -- Khazar2 (talk) 12:35, 24 October 2013 (UTC)

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Human Rights Barnstar.png The Human Rights Barnstar
For your work to bring Treblinka extermination camp to Good Article status through a long review process. Thanks so much for contributing on this important topic! -- Khazar2 (talk) 12:31, 24 October 2013 (UTC)

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Writers Barnstar Hires.png The Writer's Barnstar
Nice job writing Franciszek Duszeńko and promoting it to the Main Page! Thank you [Poeticbent] for your recent contributions, too! Happy holidays, and make sure to pat someone on their back today. ComputerJA () 02:22, 8 December 2013 (UTC)

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Tireless Contributor Barnstar.gif The Tireless Contributor Barnstar
I'd just like to commend you for your steady production of interesting, well-cited, and well-illustrated articles on Nazism and the Holocaust in Poland. Your hooky DYK nominations are exposing more readers to the atrocities, while building up the encyclopedia in a significant topic area. Keep up the great work! Yoninah (talk) 16:43, 14 September 2014 (UTC)

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Civility Barnstar Hires.png The Civility Barnstar
In appreciation and respect for your consistent ability to remain civil even in the most egregious situations. Your level-headedness and predisposition towards thinking through both the content and discussion of content issues is invaluable to the project. Iryna Harpy (talk) 03:39, 15 March 2015 (UTC)

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Cheeseburger.png I just stopped by to check you out after we both made edits to the same article. I ended up reading everything on your userpage. I'm amazed by your work and all the DYK's. Keep editing WP and be happy with your work! Accept this cheeseburger from me for all your efforts. —M@sssly 05:50, 5 June 2015 (UTC)

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Barnstar of Diligence Hires.png The Barnstar of Diligence
For your scrutiny of content (WP:NPOV) and determination to get things right (WP:RS citing) for the betterment of Nazi Germany and World War II related articles I award you this barnstar. Cheers, Kierzek (talk) 03:14, 4 March 2016 (UTC)

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Dyk200N.svg The 200 DYK Nomination Medal
Just two weeks short of celebrating a decade of contributions to the Wikipedia project I would like to recognise your contribution to the DYK project. 200 new or improved articles is a major achievement. Your contribution to military history is well noted and pulling out people like Frumka Płotnicka is an important donation to historical balance. Thanks from Wikipedia, the DYK project and me. Victuallers (talk) 17:18, 31 March 2016 (UTC)

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Biographystar.png The Biography Barnstar
For your creation of Debbie Blair, she might be missing, but not forgotten, thanks in part to you. InsertCleverPhraseHere 04:28, 6 October 2016 (UTC)

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Tireless Contributor Barnstar Hires.gif The Tireless Contributor Barnstar
Welcome back :) Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus| reply here 12:46, 11 August 2017 (UTC)


Selected articles created and written by me personally, non-stubs[edit]

Symbol question.svgThis user has initiated and developed over 200 DYK articles on Wikipedia.

Most-viewed in the 8 hour time slot[edit]

Article Image DYK views DYK hook
Zofia Posmysz Zofia Posmysz, Auschwitz Nr 7566 25,808 ... that Zofia Posmysz (pictured), Auschwitz inmate No. 7566, wrote an audio play on her memories, which became the basis for her 1962 novel Passenger, a 1963 film, and a 1968 opera?
Jadwiga Apostoł Jadwiga Apostoł, Auschwitz 1942 19,429 ... that school teacher and conspirator Jadwiga Apostoł (pictured) survived three German camps, including Auschwitz, and was jailed in Stalinist Poland on trumped-up charges soon after her return?
Maria Bal Maria Bal as Angel of Death by Malczewski 19,171 ... that baroness Maria Bal (Angel of Death, pictured) served as the live model for a series of symbolic portraits of women as well as nude studies and mythological beings by Jacek Malczewski?
Stanisława Leszczyńska Stanislawa-Leszczynska.jpg 16,117 ... that Polish Catholic midwife Stanisława Leszczyńska (pictured) delivered 3,000 babies at the Auschwitz concentration camp during the Holocaust in occupied Poland?
Conversations with an Executioner Warsaw Ghetto 15,233 ... that the Conversations with an Executioner are between the man who destroyed the Warsaw Ghetto (pictured, left) and a fellow prisoner?
Siedlce Ghetto Deportation to Treblinka from ghetto in Siedlce 1942.jpg 11,919 ... that Cypora Zonszajn could not live without her closest family and returned to the Siedlce Ghetto to perish along with them (deportation pictured)?
Józef and Wiktoria Ulma Polish Righteous Józef and Wiktoria Ulma.jpg 9,800 ... that the family of Józef and Wiktoria Ulma (pictured), Polish Righteous among the Nations from Markowa, was summarily executed for rescuing their Jewish countrymen during the Holocaust?
  List of Poeticbent's articles generated by X!'s tools on December 7, 2013

1.Kraków_Mydlniki 2.Franz_Heim 3.Gosfond 4.Edward_Kopówka 5.Franciszek_Duszeńko 6.Katyn_Commission 7.Ukrainian_Scientific_Institute 8.Theodor_van_Eupen 9.Max_Möller_(SS_officer) 10.Willi_Mentz 11.Josef_Hirtreiter 12.Paul_Bredow 13.Max_Möller 14.Alison_Stenning 15.Tadeusz_Wolsza 16.Książka_i_Wiedza 17.Anna_Poray 18.Terese_Pencak_Schwartz 19.Berek_Lajcher 20.Verbrennungskommando_Warschau 21.Maria_Trzcińska 22.Wolfgang_Scheffler_(historian) 23.Wolfgang_Scheffler 24.Franciszek_Ząbecki 25.Polish_People's_Party_"Nowe_Wyzwolenie" 26.Julian_Chorążycki 27.Hans_Hingst 28.Samuel_Willenberg 29.Ivanhorod 30.Ostindustrie 31.Szebnie_concentration_camp 32.Sobibór_Museum 33.Karl_Steubl 34.Karl_Streibel 35.Robert_Lévy 36.Schutzhaftlagerführer 37.Hans_Bothmann 38.Chełmno_Trials 39.Majdanek_State_Museum 40.Wilhelm_Gerstenmeier 41.Poniatowa_concentration_camp 42.Anton_Thernes 43.Majdanek_Trials 44.Anneliese_Kohlmann 45.Krystyna_Wróblewska 46.Inheritance_(2006_film) 47.Gertrud_Heise 48.Olga_Anstei 49.Polish_postmodernism 50.Ateneum_Theatre 51.Lev_Ozerov 52.Liudmila_Titova 53.Leonid_Pervomayskiy 54.Aert_van_den_Bossche 55.Kraków_Philharmonic_Orchestra 56.Jerzy_Katlewicz 57.Roland_Bader 58.Dorothy_Dorow 59.Jan_Tomasz_Adamus 60.Capella_Cracoviensis 61.Van_Pur 62.Ecoregions_in_Poland 63.Krkonose_/_Karkonosze 64.Gorce_Mountains 65.Czarnieckiego_Prison 66.Bishop's_Palace,_Kraków 67.Tomasz_Pryliński 68.Mikołaj_Zyblikiewicz 69.Gładyszów 70.Society_of_Polish_Artists_"Sztuka" 71.Maria_Bal 72.Garden_of_the_Righteous_Among_the_Nations 73.Montelupi 74.Haupttreuhandstelle_Ost 75.Emeryk_Hutten-Czapski 76.National_Museum,_Wrocław 77.Moral_conversion 78.Fałszywka 79.Leopold_Loeffler 80.Ostrężnik 81.Poprad_River_Gorge 82.Wincenty_Antonowicz 83.Richard_Tylman 84.Yertsevo 85.Władysław_Machejek 86.Jan_Nepomucen_Głowacki 87.Władysław_Łuszczkiewicz 88.Leopold_Pilichowski 89.Dagobert_Frey 90.Maurycy_Trębacz 91.Dorota_Krzysztofek 92.Deutscher_Volksverband 93.Molly_Castelloe 94.Union_of_Jewish_Religious_Communities_in_Poland 95.Dariusz_Stola 96.Płutowo 97.Battle_of_Grudziądz_(1659) 98.Ernst_Damzog 99.Polskie_Zoo 100.Olga_Lipińska 101.Kabaret_Olgi_Lipińskiej 102.Pod_Egidą 103.Polish_Federation_of_Engineering_Associations 104.Academy_of_Music_in_Łódź 105.Włodzimierz_Korcz 106.Rzeszów_University_of_Technology 107.University_of_Technology_and_Life_Sciences_in_Bydgoszcz 108.Stanisław_Kociołek 109.Zenon_Kliszko 110.Mayors_of_Kraków 111.ORMO 112.Kazimierz_Czachowski 113.Stanisław_Klimecki 114.Polish_Writers'_Union 115.Polenlager 116.Bruno_Müller 117.Fritz_Arlt 118.Eugen_Seim 119.Action_Saybusch 120.Jadwiga_Apostoł 121.Tadeusz_Popek 122.Augustyn_Suski 123.Tatra_Confederation 124.Ryczywół,_Masovian_Voivodeship 125.Leszek_Gondek 126.Annamaria_Orla-Bukowska 127.Robert_D._Cherry 128.Maurycy_Allerhand 129.Marian_Auerbach 130.Osnova 131.Districts_of_Białystok 132.Gazeta_Krakowska 133.Konstanty_Laszczka 134.Paweł_Machcewicz 135.Hermann_Schaper 136.Głos_–_Tygodnik_Nowohucki 137.Sromowce 138.Trzy_Korony 139.Peter_Stachura 140.Szczepan_Siekierka 141.Stanisław_Jasiński_and_Emilia_Słodkowska 142.Local_government_in_Kraków 143.Church_of_St._Casimir_the_Prince 144.Churches_of_Kraków 145.Opera_Krakowska 146.Józef_and_Wiktoria_Ulma 147.Hans_G._Furth 148.Grodno_Ghetto 149.Jan_and_Anna_Puchalski 150.Adam_Mickiewicz_Museum 151.Krystyna_Dańko 152.Antoni_Gawryłkiewicz 153.Marian_Massonius 154.Michał_Twaróg_of_Bystrzyków 155.Jan_of_Stobnica 156.Grzegorz_of_Stawiszyn 157.Jakub_of_Gostynin 158.John_of_Głogów 159.Beuthen_Jewish_Community 160.Ludowy_Theatre 161.Polish_Society_of_War_Veterans 162.Józef_Turowski 163.Gloria_Kossak 164.Tadeusz_Kossak 165.Barbara_Tuge-Erecińska 166.Polish_American_Museum 167.Suzanne_Strempek_Shea 168.Lithuanian_partisans_(disambiguation) 169.Teodor_Rygier 170.Cyprian_Godebski_(sculptor) 171.Jerzy_and_Irena_Krępeć 172.Ewa_Siemaszko 173.Wolf_Popper_Synagogue 174.Tadeusz_Kościuszko_Monument,_Kraków 175.Stanisław_Jastrzębski_(writer) 176.Margaret_Maye 177.Alfreda_and_Bolesław_Pietraszek 178.Vselyub 179.Pańska_Dolina 180.Miežionys 181.Mateikonys 182.Holosko 183.Budki_Borovskiye 184.Kysorychi 185.Belazariškiai 186.Stara_Huta,_Volyn_Oblast 187.Hucisko_Oleskie 188.Bortnytsia 189.Netreba 190.Adamy 191.Dovhyi_Voinyliv 192.Kurdybań_Warkowicki 193.Żeniówka 194.Svynaryn 195.Franciszek_and_Magdalena_Banasiewicz 196.Jerzy_and_Eugenia_Latoszyński 197.Grossaktion_Warsaw_(1942) 198.Synagogues_of_Kraków 199.Andrzej_Garbuliński 200.Irena_Adamowicz 201.Ferdynand_Arczyński 202.Stefan_Jagodziński 203.Wacław_Iwaniuk 204.Royal_Road,_Kraków 205.Podgórski_sisters 206.Maria_Kotarba 207.Szczepan_Bradło 208.Julian_Grobelny 209.Royal_Route 210.Stutthof_Trial 211.Blessed_Bronisława_Chapel 212.Kiev_pogrom 213.Stefan_Staszewski 214.Roman_Werfel 215.Teresa_Torańska 216.Members_of_Polish_Sejm_elected_from_Kraków_constituency 217.Kościuszko_Mound 218.Park_Krakowski 219.Kraków-Częstochowa_Upland 220.Jordan_Park 221.Swoszowice 222.Bieńczyce 223.Grzegórzki 224.Pontifical_University_of_John_Paul_II 225.Ludwik_Solski_Academy_for_the_Dramatic_Arts 226.Agricultural_University_of_Cracow 227.Pedagogical_University_of_Cracow 228.Stanisław_Rehman 229.Kiev_Pogroms_(1919) 230.Kiev_Pogrom_(1905) 231.Rudawa_(river) 232.Henryk_Jordan 233.Hans_Beham 234.Jan_Haller 235.Piotr_Wysz_Radoliński 236.St._Adalbert's_Church 237.Church_of_St._Adalbert,_Kraków 238.Ami_66 239.Krzysztof_Gliszczyński 240.Collegium_Novum 241.Lucjan_Dobroszycki 242.Julian_Kwiek 243.Kupa_Synagogue 244.Dariusz_Libionka 245.Jolanta_Antas 246.Augustów_Canal 247.Niedzica_Castle 248.Niedzica 249.Krościenko 250.Dunajec_River_Gorge 251.St._Florian's_Church 252.Krzysztofory_Palace 253.Maria_Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska 254.Robert_C._Jones 255.St._Florian's_Gate 256.Sukiennice_Museum 257.Collegium_Maius 258.Adam_Mickiewicz_Monument,_Kraków 259.Warsaw_Barbican 260.Lucjan_Rydel 261.Juliusz_Słowacki_Theatre 262.Town_Hall_Tower,_Kraków 263.Historical_Museum_of_Kraków 264.Włodzimierz_Tetmajer 265.National_Museum,_Kraków 266.Zbylut_Grzywacz 267.Ewa_Lipska 268.Alan_Clodd 269.Wanda_Krahelska-Filipowicz 270.The_Career_of_Nicodemus_Dyzma 271.Provisional_Committee_to_Aid_Jews 272.Irene_Tomaszewski 273.Miron_Białoszewski 274.Joanna_Siedlecka ( Stubs since merged and/or turned into various redirects excluded )

  Important contributions to selected articles last updated in 2009