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Sikh Confederacy
Active 1748-1801
Allegiance Dal Khalsa
Type Army
Role land military force of Sikhism
Size Cavalry 60-75,000
Infantry 25,000
Atillery 40 Cannons
Supreme Commander Nawab Kapur Singh
Supreme Commander Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Khanda Khanda.svg

Misl refers to a confederacy of clans. The period from 1716 to 1799 in Punjab was a highly turbulent time politically and militarily due to the decline of the Mughal Empire. The Misls were the result of Guru Gobind Singh creating the Khalsa. The power vacuum left by the Mughal Empire and repeated attacks from Afghan Rulers led to clans uniting together under the Misl system. There were twelve Misls, and in general, they took their name from their Misldar.[1] Before being consolidated into the Sikh Empire by Ranjit Singh of Sukerchakia Misl, the misls unified during invasions by Afghan Rulers


jathas came to file military records called misls, people would get recognized by their misl

General Military Structure[edit]

Each Misl was made up of members of soldiers, whose loyalty was given to the Misl's leader (Misldar). A Misl could be composed of a few hundred to tens of thousands soldiers. Every soldier was free to join any Misl he chose and free to cancel his membership of the Misl to whom he belonged. He could, if he wanted, cancel his membership of his old Misl and join another. The Barons would allow their armies to combine or coordinate their defences together against a hostile force if ordered by the Misldar Supreme Commander. These orders were only issued in military matters affecting the whole Sikh community. These orders would normally be related to defense against external threats, such as Afghan military attacks.

Previous Supreme Commanders include Nawab Kapur Singh and Sultan Ul Quam Baba Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.

The Sikh Confederacy is a description of the political structure, of how all the Barons' Kingdoms interacted with each other, (politically), together in Punjab.


The Sikh Misls in order of importance in 1780

Strength(1780)[2] Name Capital Territory(1759)[3]
1. Phulkian Misl Patiala
2. Ahluwalia Misl kapurthala Nurmahal,Talwandi,Phagwara,Kana Dhillon,Hariana
3. Bhangi Misl Amritsar Tarn Taran,Gujrat,Wazirabad,Sialkot,Chiniot
4. Kanheya Misl Sohian Ajnala,Sohiau,Nag,,Surdaspur,Dera Baba Nanak,
5. Ramgarhia Misl Sri Hargobindpur Batala,Jukerian,
6. Singhpuria Misl Jalandhar Haibatpur,Patta,etc.
7. Panjgarhia Misl Bhunga Nawashahr,Burka,Bassisn, Pindorian,Hoshiarpur,
8. Nishanwalia Misl Ambala ...
9. Sukerchakia Gujranwala Kunja,etc.
10. Dallewalia Misl Rahon Nakodar,Talban,Badala,Rahon,Philluar
11. Nakai Misl Chunian Baharwal,Khem Karan,Khudian,etc.
12. Shaheedan Misl Shahzadpur ...


  1. ^ Cave-Browne, John (1861). The Punjab and Delhi in 1857. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. pp. 368–369. ISBN 978-1143611568. 
  2. ^ Griffin, Lepel Henry (1893). Ranjít Singh. Clarendon Press. p. 78. 
  3. ^ Kakshi, S.R. (2007). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup and Son. pp. 163–164. ISBN 978-8176257381.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Ahmad Shah Batalia, Appendix to Sohan Lal Suri’s Umdat-ut-Tawarikh. Daftar I, Lahore, 1X85, p. 15; Bute Shahs Tawarikh-i-Punjab, Daftar IV, (1848), (MS., Ganda Singh’s personal collection. Patiala), p. 6; Kanaihya Lal, Tarikh-i-Punjab, Lahore, 1877, p. 88; Ali-ud-Din Mufti, Ibratnama, Vol. I, (1854), Lahore, 1961, p. 244. Muhammad Latif, History of the Punjab (1891), Delhi, 1964, p. 296.
  • Ian Heath, The Sikh Army, 1799-1849 (Men-at-arms), Osprey (2005) ISBN 1841767778
  • Harbans Singh, The Heritage of the Sikhs, second rev. ed., Manohar (1994) ISBN 8173040648
  • Hari Ram Gupta, History of the Sikhs: Sikh Domination of the Mughal Empire, 1764-1803, second ed., Munshiram Manoharlal (2000) ISBN 8121502136
  • Hari Ram Gupta, History of the Sikhs: The Sikh Commonwealth or Rise and Fall of the Misls, rev. ed., Munshiram Manoharlal (2001) ISBN 8121501652
  • Gian Singh, Tawarikh Guru Khalsa, (ed. 1970), p. 261.

See also[edit]

Category:Sikh history Category:Sikh Empire Category:Sikh warriors