User:Pseudo-Richard/Allegations of Jewish control of the media

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Allegations of Jewish control of the media are allegations which maintains that Jews control the world’s mass media. The allegations are that Jews control mass media in order to promote “insidious propaganda” that supports Jewish control of global politics and global financial systems,[1][2][3] and that such control has been used to establish and advocate for the state of Israel.[4] The accusation was a major theme in the 1903 anti-Semitic pamphletThe Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[5] and was widely repeated in the early part of the twentieth century by the Dearborn Independent, a newspaper published by Henry Ford.

These allegations have been documented by Alan Dershowitz, the Anti Defamation League (ADL) in their report Alleged Jewish 'Control' of the American Motion Picture Industry, ADL Director Abraham Foxman in his book The Deadliest Lies: the Israel lobby and the Myth of Jewish Control, and the Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting organization in their report The Jewish Media: The Lie That Won't Die. One alleged consequence cited by believers in Jewish control of the media is promotion of the interests of the state of Israel or suppression of criticism of it.

The allegation continues to be widespread in the modern era. According to historian Robert Michael, in his book A Concise History of American Antisemitism, a 2002 poll showed that 48 million Americans believed that "Jews control the media."[6] The accusation has been repeated by Louis Farrakhan, Richard Nixon, Ayatollah Khamenei, General George Brown, Nick Griffin, Hamas, Osama bin Laden, and William A. Donohue.

Journalists, scholars and Jewish groups have argued that while many prominent individuals in the American media are Jewish, they do not act as a group to promote Jewish interests.[7]

History[edit]

19th century[edit]

English translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

In the early 19th century many Jews entered the press since it was an area where governments did not prohibit their working. They developed journalistic and marketing techniques that resulted in Jews owning several important newspapers in Germany and France by mid-century. This led to early claims of “Jewish control of the press.”[8] The Jewish emancipation in Europe after the revolutions of the late 18th century helped free Jews from antisemitic laws. But it led to both conservative and radical fear of growing Jewish power in banking and other professions. After the European-wide Revolutions of 1848, many of whose leaders were Jewish, the “Jewish question” became part of public discourse, with Jewish control of the media being one of four dominant themes.[9]

In the 1890s, French journalist Edouard Drumont promoted anti-Semitism in France, and an anti-Semitic conference he organized included a discussion of "Jewish control of virtually the entire press."[10] British-Canadian journalist and historian Goldwin Smith wrote numerous antisemitic tracts, including articles in the 1890s that claimed that Jews controlled the European press and used the control to censor negative material about Jews.[11]

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a black propaganda document fabricated so as to appear to be written by Jews laying out their plans for world domination. It was produced between 1897 and 1903; implicated in its creation was the head of the Paris office of the Russian Secret Police. Supposed plans to control the press (in protocols numbers 2, 12, and 13) form part of a larger imagined conspiracy to control the world.[12] It has been criticized widely as an antisemitic document.[5] [13] Stephen Eric Bronner writes that those who wrote and who remain attracted to the Protocols have been opposed to progress, parliamentarianism, urbanization, and capitalism, and an active Jewish role in these modern institutions. They find themselves "'losers' in the struggle over modernity."[14] The Protocols continue to be widely published throughout the world.[15]

Dearborn Independent

During the 1920s the Dearborn Independent, a newspaper published by Henry Ford, engaged in a campaign of articles repeatedly asserting that Jews controlled the media, particularly the press and the movies. A representative pronouncement from the Dearborn Independent in 1921 was "the motion picture influence of the United States - and Canada - is exclusively under the control, moral and financial, of the Jewish manipulators of the public mind.... This ill-concealed propaganda of the Jewish movie picture control is also directed against non-Jewish religions.”[16] It asserted that control was based not only on ownership, but on factors like legal representation, social connections of its editors and the role of Jewish advertising.[17] Much of the material, including the accusation of media-control, was based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and was later re-published in book form as The International Jew.[18] In 1927, and again in 1942, Ford apologized to the American Jewish community for the harm done by his newspaper's campaign.[13]

In Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II Steven Alan Carr documents many allegations about Jews in the media. During the 1920s the official publication of the Catholic Knights of Columbus stated that only "foreign-born Jews of the lowest sort" who controlled the film industry would "glorify crime and make heroes of seducers and heroines of prostitutes for a dollar."[19] In 1926 United States Representative William David Upshaw proposed censoring the motion picture industry. Carr writes that "Rather than talking solely about the Jews in Hollywood, those who espoused the Hollywood Question more often articulated their fears in terms of the threat that movies held for a Protestant America. Georgia Representative W. B. Upshaw, who had hoped that Hays would 'deliver' Hollywood from its Pharisees, testified that the movie 'monopoly' had 'nobody to blame but itself for arousing the militant decency of America'." Such efforts led to the 1930 Motion Picture Production Code.[20]

Nazi leader Adolf Hitler used his rise to power in the 1930s to propagate antisemitism worldwide, emphasizing Jewish control of media. This coincided with the rise of religous ideologues like Father Charles Coughlin, Robert P. Shuler,Gerald Burton Winrod and William Dudley Pelley who blamed Jewish control of the press and films for corrupting American culture and considered Nazism a defense against Communism, which allegedly was controlled by Jews as well.[21] As Hitler initiated war in Europe in 1939, isolationist and anti-war sympathies were strong in America and by 1941 a range of religious and media groups, as well as politicians, were adamant against U.S. entry into World War II. Many, while expressing sympathy for Nazi atrocities against Jews, also blamed Jewish control of media for a surge of films and newsreels urging the U.S. to enter the war.[22] In 1941 Charles Lindbergh delivered a speech before the America First Committee in which he accused the British, the Roosevelt administration, and "Jewish people" of trying to pull the United States intoWorld War II. He stated about Jews, "Their greatest danger to this country lies in their large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio, and our government."[23]

From the 1930s to the 1950s the House Un-American Activities Committee investigated communist influences, initially inferring Jewish and communist control of media were equivalent; eventually the “red scare” became a substitute for antisemitism.[24] Far-right demagogue Gerald L.K. Smith said in 1945 that the motion picture industry was "being exploited by Russian Jewish Communists determined to inject their materialistic propaganda into the fresh young minds of our children."[25]

During the later 20th century white supremacists,[26] African Americans[27] and Middle east Muslims and Arabs[3] have blamed many perceived inequalities and injustices on Jewish control of the media. Articles like William Cash 1994 "Kings of the Deal" published in Britain’s The Spectator and Dennis Sewell’s 2002 "A Kosher Conspiracy?" published in Britain’s New Statesman have been accused of making such antisemitic allegations.[28] Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and United States wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, critics of Israel and even mainstream journalists increasingly blame the Israel lobby for stifling media criticism of the state of Israel; some allege a worldwide Jewish conspiracy to control of media.[29]

Types of media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

In the modern era references to Jewish control of newspapers continue to be promulgated, often specifying major United States newspapers such as The New York Times or The Washington Post. In 1974, according to Rafael Medoff, only 3% of the newspapers in the United States were owned by Jews, but the fact that the prominent newspaper The New York Times was historically owned by a Jewish family has contributed to the allegations.[30] Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr., who has served as the paper's publisher since 1992, came from a Jewish family but was raised Episcopalian and does not consider himself religiously observant.[31]

Music industry[edit]

Some assert that they use their influence to promote immorality via the music industry. An early example was the Dearborn Independent (and its follow-on book, The International Jew) which singled-out the music industry as one field that Jews controlled. [32]

Jeffrey Melnick quotes Alain LeRoy Locke, who wrote about the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s, as saying "One of the handicaps of Negro music today is that it is too popular. It is tarnished with commercialism and the dust of the marketplace. the very musicians who know the folkways of Negro music are the very ones who are in the commercial slavery to the Shylocks of Tin Pan Alley.'" Melnick claims that Locke accused Jews of "perverting" true African-American music, and also that Jews had acted as "oppressors" of African-Americans by hindering or stealing music produced by black artists. Melnick uses Irving Berlin as an example of Locke's claim.[33]

Louis Farrakhan and other representatives of the Nation of Islam have repeated the accusation, specifically singling-out control of the music industry which they allege is used to "corrupt Americans".[34]

Hollywood[edit]

Another variation of the accusation that Jews control the media is that Jews control Hollywood's film and television industries with the goal of subverting American values,[13][35] favoring Jews for employment, and portraying Christianity and African-Americans in a negative manner.[36]

Henry Ford publicized the accusation widely in the early twentieth century via an editorial campaign in the 1920s published in the Dearborn Independent, which wrote: "The motion picture influence of the United States -- and Canada -- is exclusively under the control, moral and financial, of the Jewish manipulators of the public mind. (...) the American Public is as helpless against the films as it is against any other exaggerated expression of Jewish power."[37]

Scholar Steven Alan Carr has documented many instances of the accusation in the Hollywood context, including statements by Donald Wildmon, Dolly Parton, William Cash, and Marlon Brando. Carr cites the instance when Donald Wildmon of the American Family Association wrote to a major Jewish Hollywood producer and asked "[h]ow many Christians are in the top positions at MCA/Universal?"[38]

In 1996 actor Marlon Brando, speaking on the Larry King Live television show, said "Hollywood is run by Jews; it is owned by Jews.... Because they've exploited — we have seen the — we have seen the Nigger and Greaseball, we've seen the Chink, we've seen the slit-eyed dangerous Jap, we have seen the wily Filipino, we've seen everything but we never saw the Kike". The Anti-Defamation League called Brando's statement outrageous and offensive and replied that Hollywood studios are "owned and movies are made by men and women, some of whom are Jewish, many of whom are not. Those Jews who enter the movie industry have done so as individuals, not as representatives of their religious group or with an aim to act in some coordinated conspiratorial manner."[39]

Robert Michael includes William A. Donohue, president of the Catholic League, in his Dictionary of Antisemitism because during an appearance on MSNBC's Scarborough Country television show in 2004, Donohue said that "Hollywood is controlled by secular Jews who hate Christianity in general and Catholicism in particular." Donohue was responding to a question about his thoughts on the Mel Gibson movie The Passion of Christ.[40]

The ADL and Abraham Foxman describe a 1994 instance of the accusation, when British Journalist William Cash wrote an article titled "Kings of the Deal" for the British magazine The Spectator. The article alleged that Jews dominated Hollywood with a "feudal power structure" and that "it has long been a standing joke in L.A that the way to get on is to convert to Judaism". The ADL called the article antisemitic, and ADL director Abraham Foxman responded to the article by saying that those Jews who work in the movie industry have done so as "individuals pursuing the American dream", not as representatives of Judaism.[41]

Television[edit]

Media critic Frank Rich, writing on the topic of the portrayal of Jews in television, wrote Jews are distinctive in television shows because of the large numbers of Jewish writers, directors, and producers in the television industry; and he cited a 1996 survey of television's creative leaders that showed that 59% had been raised Jewish, and 38% currently identified themselves as Jewish, but Rich concludes that Jews do not control the television industry.[42]

ADL director Abraham Foxman criticized entertainer Dolly Parton for “anti-semitic stereotyping” for her comments about why her planned television show about a gospel singer was never produced. Parton said "Everybody's afraid to touch anything that's religious because most of the people out there [in Hollywood] are Jewish, and it's a frightening thing for them to promote Christianity."[43] [44] Parton publicly apologized for the remark, saying she regretted that her comment may have conjured the impression of Jewish "control" of Hollywood.[45]

In 2010 television news anchor Rick Sanchez was fired from CNN due to Sanchez's remarks during a radio interview about comedian Jon Stewart who had been mocking him regularly on his television show. Sanchez called Stewart a “bigot,” as well as "prejudicial" and "uninformed," and implied Jews controlled CNN and other networks.[46] Journalist Jeffrey Goldberg writes that "Rick Sanchez trafficked in a pernicious stereotype."[47] Sanchez apologized to Stewart and any one else offended for "inartful" comments, writing "I am very much opposed to hate and intolerance, in any form..."[48][49] Jon Stewart called Sanchez’s firing “absolute insanity.”[50][51]

Sources[edit]

Jews[edit]

In 2008 Joel Stein wrote an article for the Los Angeles Times entitled 'Who runs Hollywood? C'mon' which claimed Jews dominated the media.[52][53] which has been picked up by such people as Lew Rockwell,[54] The Guardian newspaper,[55] the Jewish Journal,[56] Former Rep. Dr. David E. Duke, Ph.D.,[57] the Institute for Historical Review,[58] and Professor Kevin B. MacDonald's Occidental Observer.[59]

In 2010 Former Rep. Dr. David E. Duke, Ph.D., produced a video proclaiming that Jews do control the media, using Jewish sources.[60]

In 2013 Manny Friedman of The Times of Israel wrote that 'Jews DO control the media'[61] and Professor Kevin B. MacDonald's Occidental Observer also wrote on this subject.[62]

In 2013 Lord Ahmed, Britain’s First Muslim Peer, resigned from that country’s Labour Party after it emerged that he blamed a recent prison sentence for dangerous driving from pressure placed on the courts by Jews “who own newspapers and TV channels.”[63]

In 2013 Egyptian President Mohamed Morsy told a group of U.S. senators that he is being smeared in the American media which is run by Jews.[64]

Politicians[edit]

On February 1, 1972 United States President Richard Nixon spoke with minister Billy Graham in the Oval office, statements captured on a White House tape recording, which was declassified in 2002. Nixon "complained obsessively" at length about Jewish control of media, naming various individuals, and saying there is "a terrible Jewish clique" that "totally dominates the media."[65] Graham commented "They're the ones putting out the pornographic stuff..." and later "this stranglehold has got to be broken or the country's going to go down the drain." (It has been assumed by "they" he means Jews.)[66] These remarks were characterized as antisemitic by Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League. After the tapes were made public, Graham issued two apologies for the remarks.[66][67]

Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting writes that "Nixon's button-man in the campaign" against Jews in the media was Vice President of the United States Spiro Agnew and charges that Agnew's attack on the news media—"a tiny and closed fraternity of privileged men, elected by no one"—was tacitly anti-Semitic.[68] In 1976 Agnew stated in a Newsweekmagazine interview that U.S. foreign policy titled towards Israel, saying "All you have to do is look around and see who owns the networks, who owns the Washington Post, the New York Times. As you look around in the big news business, you see a heavy concentration of Jewish people."[69]

Rafael Medoff criticizes as antisemitic 1974 comments by former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General George Scratchley Brown that Jews "own, you know, the banks in this country, the newspapers".[70] Vincent Brook has criticized Jesse Jackson because during his 1984 campaign for United States President he blamed "Jewish domination of the media" for poor news coverage.[71]

White supremacists[edit]

Members of White supremacist movements often repeat the accusation of media control as part of their conspiracy theories aboutJewish world domination, and they sometimes assert that Jewish control of the media is exerted to prevent the supremacists from publicizing their messages to mainstream America. White supremacist George Lincoln Rockwell (1918–1967) asserted that Jewish control of the United States' press was a "paper curtain" which prevented him from publicizing his movement's goals.[72] White supremacists Matthew F. Hale[73] andDavid Duke[74] assert that Jews control the media, and prevent supremacists from publicizing their philosophy. Todd Schroer analyzed the supremacists and found that the supremacists believe that Jews control schools and the "mass media", in conjunction with "liberals". Schoer also suggests that most supremacists believe that their messages are being suppressed by Jewish-controlled media, and that if their message were not suppressed, other whites would adopt it.[75]

Nick Griffin made similar claims about the media in Britain in his 1997 pamphlet Who Are the Mindbenders? which he wrote for the then openly neo-Nazi British National Party.[76]

African-American community[edit]

Some African-Americans have repeated that accusation that Jews control the media, and state that Jews sometimes portray African-Americans in an unfavorable light.[77]

The Anti-Defamation League has denounced Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam, for repeating accusations that Jews control the media,[78] citing a speech in which Farrakahn said "[d]o you know some of these satanic Jews have taken over BET?… The mind of Satan now is running the record industry, movie industry and television."[79]

Former New York City mayor Ed Koch and journalist J. J. Goldberg describe the accusation made by Legrand Clegg, founder of the Coalition Against Black Exploitation, a pressure group that lobbied against negative screen images of African-Americans. During a 1990 Los Angeles NAACP convention Clegg alleged that "the century-old problem of Jewish racism in Hollywood" denies blacks access to positions of power in the industry and portrays blacks in a derogatory manner. Clegg said: "If Jewish leaders can complain of black anti-Semitism, our leaders should certainly raise the issue of the century-old problem of Jewish racism in Hollywood.... we're concerned with Jewish producers who degrade the black image. It's a genuine concern. And when we bring it up, our statements are distorted and we're dragged through the press as anti-Semites." Koch writes that "the allegation by … Clegg that Hollywood is 'owned' by Jews is intended to encourage anti-Semitism."[80]

After the 1990 release of Mo' Better Blues, film maker Spike Lee defended two characters in the film after critics described them as "Shylocks" and charged Lee with antisemitism. Lee expressed skepticism that the Jewish producers of the film would have allowed antisemitic content, because Jews run Hollywood, and "that's a fact."[81] Edward Koch describes Lee's 1990 interview with Chris Wallace where he made similar comments.[82] In a 1991 interview in Playboy Lee added “I don’t know why people get upset when you say that there are a lot Jewish people in the movie industry. That’s the truth. That’s like saying there are blacks in the NBA. That’s not making a judgment, that’s just a fact."[83]

In 1991 speech at the Empire State Black Arts and Cultural Festival Professor Leonard Jeffries said that Jews controlled the film industry and conspired to produce movies "where African peoples were completely denigrated".[84]

Researcher Robin Coleman interviewed African Americans about television programming in the United States, and found that many African American television viewers considered portrayals of blacks on television to be demeaning, and several asserted that the problem arises because television is controlled by Jews, making comments such as "Jews own the media, and that's how they perceive us, as big clowns. We can sing for them, we can dance for them." and "have you ever looked at the names at the end of a [TV] show? Goldstein, Westheimer, Stein - the names in the credits. Jews are in control."[85]

Arabs and Muslims[edit]

According to the Anti-Defamation League, Arabs and Muslims sometimes focus on the allegation that Jewish control of the media is utilized to support the state of Israel, and to prevent fair coverage of the Israeli-Palesintian conflict. Some Arab governments have endorsed the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, including Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadatof Egypt, one of the President Arifs of Iraq, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, and ColonelMuammar al-Gaddafi of Libya, Hamas, and the education ministry of Saudi Arabia.[3]

Political scientist Matthias Küntzel describes an instance of the accusation made by Osama bin Laden in bin Laden's "Letter to America" published after the September 11 attacks, which explained the motives for the attacks, and put much of the blame on Jews: "… the Jews have taken control of your [United States] economy, through which they have then taken control of your media, and now control all aspects of your life making you their servants and achieving their aims at your expense; precisely what Benjamin Franklin warned you against."[86]

Author Daniel Pipes writes that the topic of Jewish control of American media is widely commented upon in the Middle East media. Pipes describes Iranian leader Ayatollah Khamenei's statement that Jews are the "ringleaders of the world's media" and said that Zionists run the "world's propaganda network". As an example, Pipes cites the Pakistan Times which wrote that "the information media including publishing and book trade is its [Zionists Jewry's] leading instrument of deception, disinformation, hiding truth, confusing facts and yet conditioning the minds of the public and the policy makers to perceive things the way it wants".[87]

Professor Robert Michael reports that Hamas alleged that "Jews control the world's … mass media."[88]

In his book Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest, Efraim Karsh wrote that the Palestinian Authority's official newspaper Al-Hayat al-Jadida stated that control of the press was part of an organized plan to create and support the state of Israel, and that "the number of news agencies, newspapers, magazines, and TV networks under Jewish control demonstrates their overwhelming influence over the mass media."[89]

Historian Yvonne Haddad writes that some segments of Islamic society hold the view that Jews control entertainment, music and pornography industries, turning men away from God, inviting "immorality and iniquity" and spreading venereal disease.[90]

Critics of Israel[edit]

Some writers[91] and activists state that Jewish control of the media is used to promote the interests of the state of Israel, or to prevent publication of thePalestinian or Arab viewpoints about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Many analysts[who?] consider Anti-Zionism or an anti-Israeli stance to be a manifestation of the New antisemitism.[92] Others argue that there no such thing as a "new" antisemitism[93] and that criticism of Israel is not always antisemitism.[94]

Naomi Kramer writes that an example of how “antisemitic tropes creep into discourse on Israel” is a year 2000 article by Jemima Khan in The Guardian which described what she considered media distortion of the filming of the deaths of Palestinian children and others and posited as an explanation that "Jews control much of the media and Hollywood in the United States".[95]

Tzvi Fleischer, editor of the Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council ‘s monthly magazine, criticizes Australian journalist Margo Kingston’s response to all major Jewish groups in Australia protesting the awarding of a university peace prize to Palestinian legislator Hanan Ashrawi. Kingston wrote that "the fundamentalist Zionist lobby controls politics and the media in the US and Australia." After criticism, Kingston stated “I am not anti-semitic, and I thought what I wrote was a statement of fact.”[96]

Journalist Jude Wanniski wrote a column in 2002, analyzing Billy Graham's comments about Jewish control of the media, in which Wanniski distinguishes between "political" antisemitism of Graham's remarks, and conventional antisemitism, and Wanniski concludes that Graham is not antisemitic. Wanniski asserts that Jews "dominate" the news meda regarding coverage of Israel, and thus Graham was correct when he asserted that Jews dominate the news media in a political sense when it comes to issues related to Israel, yet he concludes that such "political" viewpoint is not antisemitism.[97]

Alexander Cockburn, in his book The Politics of Antisemitism, makes notes of Wanniski's column, and makes a similar distinction between control (which Cockburn states does not exist) and political influence: "Obviously, Jews don't 'control' the media. All the same, Jewish families are proprietors of some of the most powerful newspapers in the country. Is it likely that this has no bearing on their coverage of the Middle East?". Cockburn explains that both the New York Times and Washington Post are owned by Jewish families, and he suggests that it is reasonable to inquire whether that would affect the editorial opinions of those newspapers.[98]

Abraham Foxman book[edit]

Abraham Foxman’s 2007 book The Deadliest Lies: the Israel lobby and the myth of Jewish control charges that two publications promote the "old canard of 'Jewish control of the media'": professors John Mearsheimer (University of Chicago) and Stephen Walt's (Harvard University) 2006 article “The Israel Lobby” and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter's book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid.[99] James Traub has criticized Foxman for over-reacting to both books and attempting to stifle debate.[100][101] Anshel Pfeffer of Haaretz notes that the books say "nothing that many left-wing Jewish Zionists have not said in the past."[102]

Professors Walt and Mearsheimer presented evidence for their statements in the article that “The Lobby’s perspective prevails in the mainstream media..." and "It is hard to imagine any mainstream media outlet in the United States publishing a piece like this one.”[103] Foxman writes that "Mearsheimer and Walt can't resist toying with the notion that individuals with a pro-Israel agenda dominate the news media and manipulate its coverage to their advantage. The belief that Jews secretly control the mainstream press and use it as a medium for insidious propaganda has long been a staple of anti-Semitic fantasy.”[104] He further states that “either explicitly or by implication” the authors embrace assertions Jews control the media “so as to stifle dissent and prevent the world from understanding their true objectives."[105][106]

Mearsheimer and Walt later expanded their article into the best selling book The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. In it they wrote that they were aware that writing about the lobby’s influence on the media might sound like “the old canard" and like "the old anti-Semitic accusation that 'Jews control the media'.” They state this is not the case, one reason being that “the lobby's perspective on Israel is widely reflected in the mainstream media in part because a substantial number of American commentators who write about Israel are themselves pro-Israel.”[107] Stephen Walt has disavowed "anti-Semitic conspiracy theories."[108] Eric Alterman[109] and Richard Cohen,[110] among others, reject the charge that The Israel Lobby is anti-Semitic.

Abraham Foxman also criticized Jimmy Carter’s writing in his book “There are constant and vehement political and media debates in Israel concerning its policies in the West Bank, but because of powerful political, economic, and religious forces in the United States, Israeli government decisions are rarely questioned or condemned, voices from Jerusalem dominate our media, and most American citizens are unaware of circumstances in the occupied territories.”[111] Foxman called the comment a repeat of “the media-control canard of Jewish control of the media, Congress, and the U.S. government.”[112] Foxman later told James Traub that he would not call the former president himself an "anti-Semite" or a "bigot".[100] New York Times Jerusalem correspondent Ethan Bronner opines that Carter's "overstatement" in the book "hardly adds up to anti-Semitism."[113] According to British journalist Robert Fisk, Carter replied to criticism "by mildly (and rightly) pointing out that Israeli lobbyists had produced among US editorial boards a 'reluctance to criticize the Israeli government'."[114]

Other[edit]

Writing on anti-Semitism in Japanese media, Adam Gamble and Takesato Watanabe note that in 2001, Koji Kawamura, a commentator on the Japanese television show Super Morning stated that "Jews were targeted for anthrax attacks because they control the U.S. media." They point out that Jews were not among the early or notable victims of the attacks.[115]

In 2010, motion picture director Oliver Stone, talking about his new movie about Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin, stated that "Hitler did far more damage to the Russians than the Jewish people" and that "Jewish control of the media is preventing an open discussion of the Holocaust."[116] Stone apologized a day later, stating: “In trying to make a broader historical point about the range of atrocities the Germans committed against many people, I made a clumsy association about the Holocaust, for which I am sorry and I regret. Jews obviously do not control media or any other industry.”[117]

Analysis and commentary[edit]

In 1936, Fortune magazine, in an effort to refute the allegations, conducted an "extensive survey" of Jewish representation in important United States industries. Stephen Steinberg analyzed the survey and found that "only two industries had significant Jewish representation - the apparel industry and the movie and broadcasting industries."[118] The 1936 survey was also cited by rabbi Isaac Landman(in a very early discussion of the allegations in 1941) who concluded that "save for the New York Times … the interest of Jews in the field [of newspapers] is small".[119] Arnold Eisen reviewed the 1936 data (which he characterized as "sympathetic") and wrote that it "found few Jews in leading banks, few in heavy industry or tranportation, … and power approaching monopoly in … the movie industry. 'Half the opinion-making and taste-influencing paraphernalia in America is in Jewish hands' [Eisen is quotingFortune]".[120] Mark Cooper noted that the 1936 data attempted to distinguish between mere participation and the antisemitic concept of control: "Fortune proceeds to conduct a survey of industry as if the question of control could be decided by identifying the number of Jews in positions of authority. And while the article concludes that 'there is no basis whatever for the suggestion that Jews monopolize US business and industry' in general, it concedes that Jews 'exert pretty complete control over the production of [motion] pictures'… In this way the article seeks to mediate between the acknowledgement that Jews are prominent in the motion picture industry and the observation that 'Jewish control' has been a racist claim."[121]

The Anti-Defamation League has condemned allegations of Jewish control of Hollywood as anti-semitism. The ADL points out that virtually all major motion picture studios are publicly traded corporations, which are owned by a wide variety of shareholders. The ADL writes "the number of Jews involved in a particular field bears no relationship to 'Jewish power' or 'Jewish control' of that industry. ADL does not accept the notion that Jews in any field act in concert with other Jews similarly situated simply because they happen to be Jewish. To believe otherwise is to accept a conspiracy theory that is the anti-Semites' stock-in-trade and relegates Jews to a kind of second-class citizenship…. Moreover, it bears repeating that those Jews who involve themselves in the motion picture industry do so as individuals, not as representatives of their religious group or with an aim to act in some coordinated conspiratorial manner."[13]

According to Neil Sandberg of the American Jewish Committee, Jews function in Hollywood not as an ethnic group promoting a specific agenda, but instead act as individuals answerable to banks and foreign and corporate sponsorship: "they are business people, like anywhere else, trying to make a profit. They're not defending ethnic or cultural interests."[122]

Richard Maltby wrote that racism drew exaggerated attention to the number of Jews working in the movie industry. He describes an early example of refutation in 1941, when a new story was published refuting domination of the movie industry by Jews, and instead it showed that only 10% of the financial control was "in Jewish hands", and only 33% of film executives were Jewish.[123]

Journalist Philip Weiss summarized a study by Seymour Martin Lipset that analyzed Jewish achievement in the United States, and reported employment rates of "26% of reporters, editors, and executives at major print and broadcast media. 59% of the writers, producers, and directors on the 50 top-grossing motion pictures."[124]

In an essay headed "Who Says Jews Control Hollywood?" published in the February/March 1995 issue of Midstream magazine, Steven G. Kellman, a professor at the University of Texas in San Antonio, wrote: "Boosters and antisemites agree: Jews have been prominent and predominant in all phases of the [motion picture] business: production, distribution and exhibition." He noted that, at the time, "Of the 100 most powerful people in the industry according to a recent survey by Premiere [magazine], most, including the top 12, are Jewish," but observed, "Though individual Jews control Hollywood, Jewishness does not."[125]

Journalist J. J. Goldberg asserts that, although Jews occupy many leadership positions in Hollywood, they have never used those positions to exert control over the medium: "The combined weight of so many Jews in one of America's most lucrative and important industries gives the Jews of Hollywood a great deal of political power... the same could be said, to a much greater degree, of other industries with significant concentrations of Jews: Wall Street, New York real estate, or the garment industry. In each of those industries, Jews make up a significant bloc - an important minority on Wall Street, near majorities in clothing and commercial real estate - and have translated their clout into a visible presence on the political scene.... The common impression of Jewish power in Hollywood - the ability of the group to create a desired image through control of the medium - simply never materialized. The Jews who went to Hollywood were not interested." Goldberg asserts that Hollywood in the late 20th century had a "pronounced ethnic tinge", and cited statistics that up to 59 percent of Hollywood writers, producers and directors are Jewish, which he characterizes as "disproportionate". Goldberg writes that the "combined weight of so many Jews in one of America's most lucrative and important industries gives the Jews of Hollywood a great deal of political power" and suggests that they are heavy supporters of the Democratic party, specifically identifing Barbara Striesand, Norman Lear, and Lew Wasserman.[126]

In 2010 Brian Palmer in Slate magazine, concluded that the television news industry is not dominated by Jews, that Hollywood does have significant Jewish representation in executive ranks, and that newspapers are somewhere in between.[127]

References[edit]

  • Alexander, Edward, The Jewish idea and its enemies: personalities, issues, events, Transaction Publishers, 1988
  • Alterman, Eric, "Intractable Foes, Warring Narratives", MSNBC.com, March 28, 2002.online.
  • Anti Defamation League, "Alleged Jewish 'Control' of the American Motion Picture Industry", September 1999.
  • Brook, Vincent, Something ain't kosher here: the rise of the "Jewish" sitcom, Rutgers University Press, 2003.
  • Carr, Steven Alan, Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Cash, William, "Kings of the Deal", The Spectator, 29 October 1994, p. 14-16.
  • Cockburn, Alexander, The politics of anti-Semitism, AK Press, 2003.
  • Davies, Alan T. (1992). Antisemitism in Canada: history and interpretation. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. ISBN 0-88920-216-8. 
  • Dearborn publishing Co., The International Jew: Jewish activities in the United States, The Dearborn publishing Co., 1921.
  • Foxman, Abraham H., The deadliest lies: the Israel lobby and the myth of Jewish control, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
  • Gabler, Neal, An empire of their own: how the Jews invented Hollywood, Crown Publishers, 1988.
  • Goldberg, J.J., Jewish power: inside the American Jewish establishment, Basic Books, 1997.
  • Jacobs, Steven L., and Weitzman, Mark, Dismantling the big lie: the Protocols of the elders of Zion, KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 2003.
  • Karsh, Efraim, Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest, Grove Press, 2004
  • Koch, Edward I., The Koch Papers: My Fight Against Anti-Semitism, Macmillan, 2009. Reprinting an article Koch originally published 10 August 1990 in the New York Post.
  • Kramer, Naomi, Civil courage: a response to contemporary conflict and prejudice, Peter Lang, 2007
  • Küntzel, Matthias, Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11, Telos Press Publishing, 2007
  • Levy, Richard S., Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2005
  • Mearsheimer, John J., and Walt, Stephen M, The Israel lobby and U.S. foreign policy, Macmillan, 2007.
  • Medoff, Rafael (2002). Jewish Americans and political participation: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-314-9. 
  • Melnick, Jeffrey Paul, A Right to Sing the Blues: African Americans, Jews, and American Popular Song, Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Michael, Robert, Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present, Scarecrow Press, 2007.
  • Milton-Edwards, Beverly, Islamic Politics in Palestine, I.B.Tauris, 1999
  • Silberman, Charles E., A Certain People: American Jews and Their Lives Today, Simon & Schuster, 1986.
  • Singh, Robert (1997). The Farrakhan phenomenon: race, reaction, and the paranoid style in American politics. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-658-1. 
  • Tulchinsky, Gerald, "Goldwin Smith: Victorian Canadian Antisemite", in Antisemitism in Canada: history and interpretation, Alan T. Davies (Ed), Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 1992.
  • Weinraub, Bernard."The Talk of Hollywood; A Stereotype of Jews in Hollywood Is Revived",The New York Times, November 7, 1994, p. C11.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Krefetz, Gerald, Jews and money: the myths and the reality, 1982,45, 71: "The major economic myth to pursue the Jews is simply stated: They control the banks, the money supply, the economy...", "Another corollary to the conspiracy theory is that Jews control the press and the communications industry."
  2. ^
    • Foxman, Abraham H., The Deadliest Lies: The Israel Lobby and the Myth of Jewish Control, 2009, pp 70-71:“The belief that Jews secretly control the mainstream press and use it as a medium for insidious propaganda has long been a staple of anti-Semitic fantasy.”
    • Robert Samuels, Teaching the rhetoric of resistance: the popular Holocaust and the popular Holocaust and social change in a post-9/11 world , MacMillan, 2007, 166: Samuels lists "the most basic anti-Semitic myths,” with the first one being "Jews secretly control the world through their control of the media;" ...
  3. ^ a b c "Islamic Antisemitism in Historical Perspective" (PDF).  (276 KB), Anti-Defamation League (ADL), p. 8-10: ADL quotes “A-Hayat Al-Jadeeda, July 2, 1998: “There is no alternative but to say that the success of the Jews is not coincidental but rather the result of long years of planning and a great investment of effort in order to obtain their wretched control over the world's media…” Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ADL-IASHP" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ADL-IASHP" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^
    • Karsh, Efraim, Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest, Grove Press, 2004,95: The Palestinian Authority's official newspaper Al-Hayat al-Jadida position was that “the Zionist movement recognized that unless it gained complete and unassailable control stated that control over the world media, the press in particular, its cherished goal of establishing a Jewish state would never come to fruition.”
    • Foxman, The Deadliest Lies, pp 70-71: Foxman rejects “the notion that individuals with a pro-Israel agenda dominate the news media and manipulate its coverage to their advantage.”
  5. ^ a b Jacobs, Steven L., and Weitzman, Mark, Dismantling the big lie: the Protocols of the elders of Zion, KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 2003., pp 21-22, 34-38, 77-81, 82-83.
  6. ^ Michael, Robert, A concise history of American antisemitism, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005, p 210
  7. ^ Goldberg, 287-288
  8. ^ Malamat, Abraham and Hillel Ben-Sasson, Haim, A history of the Jewish people, Harvard University Press, 1976, 828.
  9. ^ Laqueur, Walter and Tydor Baumel, Judith, The Holocaust encyclopedia, Yale University Press, 2001, 20: The four themes mentioned are “Jewish political radicalism, Jewish control of the media, the threat of Jewish economic dominance and the question of whether the political and cultural gulf between Jews and non-Jews could be bridged.”
  10. ^ Kertzer, David, The Popes against the Jews: the Vatican's role in the rise of modern anti-semitism, Random House, Inc., 2001, p 181: "this [program of Drumont's congress] addressed the Jews' predominance and its danger for … public opinion (Jewish control of virtually the entire press)..."
  11. ^ Tulchinsky, Gerald, "Goldwin Smith: Victorian Canadian Antisemite", in Antisemitism in Canada: history and interpretation, Alan T. Davies (Ed), Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 1992: p 76:"...[Goldwin] Smith, in almost every article he composed on Jewish matters, alleged Jewish control over the press to explain why the real truth could not reach the public…. In July 1897, he informed the readers of the Weekly Sun that 'the Jews control the European press..'. [he wrote:] 'They seem to be behind the press everywhere, or at least be able to muzzle it'."
  12. ^
    • Speier, Hans "The Truth in Hell: Maurice Joly on Modern Despotism" Polity, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 18-32
  13. ^ a b c d Anti Defamation League report, "Alleged Jewish 'Control' of the American Motion Picture Industry", September 1999.
  14. ^ Stephen Eric Bronner, A Rumor About the Jews: Reflections on Antisemitism and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (Oxford University Press, 2003), ix, 56.
  15. ^ Jacobs, Steven L., and Weitzman, Mark,Dismantling the big lie: the Protocols of the elders of Zion, pp 1-20.
  16. ^
    • Levy, Richard S., Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2005, pp 163-164, article "Dearborn Independent and The International Jew."
    • Dumenil, Lynn, The modern temper: American culture and society in the 1920s, Macmillan, 1995, p. 216: "Thus the Dearborn Independent, week after week, presented the Jewish conspiracy to destroy Christian civilization as Jews embarked on their relentless pursuit of power. And it presented a successful pursuit: Jews allegedly had already ascended to a dominant role in … the media."
    • Representative quote from The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem, Being a Reprint of a Series of Articles Appearing in The Dearborn Independent, Vol 2, Henry Ford (Ed.), The Dearborn publishing co., February 19, 1921, pp 127, 133.
    • Gabler, Neal, An empire of their own: how the Jews invented Hollywood, p 277: Gabler quotes the Dearborn Independent: “As soon as the Jews gained control of the 'movies', we had a movie problem, the consequences of which are not yet visible. It is the genius of that race to create problems of a moral character in whatever business they achieve a majority."
  17. ^ Carr, Steven Alan, Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, Cambridge University Press, 2001, 82-90.
  18. ^ Goldstein, Eric L., The price of whiteness: Jews, race, and American identity, Princeton University Press, p122: "Ford charged the 'International Jew' with a string of intrigues, from bringing the United States into World War I, to manipulating American business and finance for their own ends, to corrupting Anglo-Saxon virtues through their control of Hollywood and the music industry."
  19. ^ Carr, Steven Alan, Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, 76, quote from an undated issue.
  20. ^ Carr, Steven Alan, Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, 68-74.
  21. ^ Carr, Steven Alan,Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, 113-122.
  22. ^ Carr, Steven Alan, Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, 238-278.
  23. ^

    "It is not difficult to understand why Jewish people desire the overthrow of Nazi Germany. The persecutionthey suffered in Germany would be sufficient to make bitter enemies of any race... Instead of agitating for war the Jewish groups in this country should be opposing it in every possible way, for they will be among the first to feel its consequences."

  24. ^ Carr, Steven Alan, Hollywood and anti-semitism: a cultural history up to World War II, p 278-288.
  25. ^ Miller, Mark Crispin,"The Jewish Media: The Lie That Won't Die".
  26. ^
    • Simonelli, Frederick, American fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party, p 67
    • Zatarain, Michael, David Duke, evolution of a Klansman, Pelican Publishing, 1990, p 116
    • Schroer, Todd J., "Issue and Identity Framing within the White Racialist Movement: Internet Dynamics", in The politics of social inequality, Betty A. Dobratz, Lisa K. Waldner, Tim Buzzell (Eds), Emerald Group Publishing, 2001, p 213,220
  27. ^ Goldberg, pp 285–286,288–290
  28. ^
  29. ^ Eytan Gilboa, Efraim Inbar, US-Israeli relations in a new era: issues and challenges after 9/11, Taylor & Francis, 2009, 186-187.
  30. ^ Medoff, pp 61–62
  31. ^ Diamond, Edwin (30 September 1991). "Old Times, New Times: Passing the Torch". New York Magazine. p. 30. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  32. ^ Marks, Steven Gary (2003). How Russia Shaped the Modern World: From Art to Anti-semitism, Ballet to Bolshevism. Princeton University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-691-09684-8. 
    "This [The International Jew] was a version of the Protocols [of the Elders of Zion] designed specifically for the American public…. With their [Jews] 'demonic shrewdness', they had acquired control over … the popular music industry."
  33. ^
    • Melnick, Jeffrey Paul, A Right to Sing the Blues: African Americans, Jews, and American Popular Song, Harvard University Press, 2001, 151:
    Melnick writes: "Not only were Jews responsible for perverting 'authentic' African American music by directly commercializing it themselves, but also their control of the music industry allowed them to obstruct the artistic labor of those African American composers who were able - by talent and inclination - to produce folk-based masterworks. Locke made explicit here one of the arguments held inside the anecdote about Irving Berlin's 'little colored boy': by denying African American artists the fruits of their labor in urban spaces, Jews had come to function as oppressors."
    • Melnick is quoting Alain LeRoy Locke, The Negro and His Music, 1939, Arno press. p 4.
  34. ^ Singh, Robert (1997). The Farrakhan phenomenon: race, reaction, and the paranoid style in American politics. Georgetown University Press. p. 165. ISBN 0-87840-658-1. 
    "Thus, according to the Black Muslim, the United States is 'being made ripe for a take-over from without' through a Jewish plot to use Hollywood and the music industry to corrupt Americans through the 'sexual drive'."
  35. ^
    • Carr, p 76: material on Catholic Knights of Columbus claims.
  36. ^
    • Goldberg, pp 285–286,288–290
    • Carr, p 68-74: "Upshaw claimed that in endeavoring to regulate the film industry 'we are simply proposing to stand at the back door of our homes, our churches, and our schools and fight back the wolves of immorality, that are crouching to destroy the hope and strength of the Nation.'"..
  37. ^
  38. ^ Carr, p 5:
    "Of course, the anti-Semitic charge of Jewish control is nothing new. Protestant reformers advocating federal censorship of the movies had begun to enunciate the charge shortly after World War I. Throughout the 1930s, the charge electrified the formation of such pressure groups as the Catholic League of Decency and, in the 1940s, the isolationist America First.... William Cash, correspondent to the conservative British magazine The Spectator, used [the book by Neal Gabler] An Empire of Their Ownin 1994 to characterize a 'Jewish cabal' behind the '21st Century Entertainment Supherhighway'.".
    "On Feb 26, 2004, on The O'Reilly Factor, a television program on the Fox News Network, during an interview with Mel Gibson in regard to the movie The Passion of the Christ, O'Reilly defended Gibson, saying: 'OK, it's a very, very difficult question. And I'm asking this question respectfully. Is it because … the major media in Hollywood and a lot of the secular press is controlled by Jewish people'?"
  39. ^
    • "ADL outraged by Marlon Brando's remarks on Jews in Hollywood", ADL press release, 8 April 1996, online
    • Brando's comments on Larry King Live in April 1996. Bando also said: "... Because they knew perfectly well, that that is where you draw the wagons around." King replied, "When you say — when you say something like that you are playing right in, though, to anti-Semitic people who say the Jews are — " at which point Brando interrupted, "No, no, because I will be the first one who will appraise the Jews honestly and say 'Thank God for the Jews.'"
    • In a 1979 interview in Playboy magazine in January 1979, Brando said: "You've seen every single race besmirched, but you never saw an [unfavorable] image of the kike because the Jews were ever so watchful for that—and rightly so. They never allowed it to be shown on screen." - Grobel, Lawrence. "Playboy Interview: Marlon Brando." Playboy, January 1979, ISSN 0032-1478. Retrieved: April 3, 2008.
  40. ^
    • Michael, Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present, Scarecrow Press, 2007,134.
    • Michael cites MSNBC-TV transcript Scarborough Country, Dec. 8, 2004, online
  41. ^
    • Carr, p 5:
    "William Cash, correspondent to the conservative British magazine The Spectator, used [the book by Neal Gabler] An Empire of Their Own in 1994 to characterize a 'Jewish cabal' behind the '21st Century Entertainment Supherhighway'."
    "A British magazine has revived a stereotype of Hollywood from the early days in which a 'Jewish cabal' controls the entertainment industry. Movie executives here [Hollywood] who have seen the article in The Spectator are outraged…. The article, titled 'Kings of the Deal', which goes on to say that Jews have created an 'invidious and protective culture' that denies employment to non-Jews"
    • Anti Defamation League report, online "Alleged Jewish 'Control' of the American Motion Picture Industry": "Even a reputable British magazine in 1994 revived the stereotype of Hollywood in which an alleged 'Jewish cabal' controls the industry. The article, in The Spectator, authored by William Cash, a Hollywood correspondent for the conservative British newspaper The Daily Telegraph, contended that Jews have created an 'invidious and protective culture' that denies employment to non-Jews."
    • Cash, William, "Kings of the Deal", in The Spectator, 29 October 1994, p 14-16. Some representative excerpts:
    "A rare glimpse of the feudal power structure of Hollywood at work was given by the Wall Street Journal's front-page report of the new studio launch. Before any contracts could be signed, a private 'blessing' was required from 81-year-old Lew Wasserman, the long-time chairman of MCA (which owns Universal) and the last surviving Jewish Founder-builder of a studio.... Simon Kelton, an Eton-and Oxford-educated screenwriter friend with whom I used to share a house, and who was short listed last year for the Samuel Goldwyn film-writing award, always stresses his Jewish 'ancestry' whenever he gets a chance in LA; something few had ever heard about before."
  42. ^
    • Rich, Frank, and Neal Gabler, Television's Changing Image of American Jews, The Norman Lear Center, 2000, pp 25, 82
    • Rich cites a survey by Alina Sivorinsovsky, "Do Jews Control TV? No, But they have Strength Without Numbers", Inside, Dec 31, 1996, p 70.
  43. ^
    • Foxman's comments during an interview with WNBC, November 2003.
    • See comments quoted at: "The ADL's Definition of an Antisemite" in Catalyst, newsletter of the Catholic League, December 2003, online
  44. ^ Parton's comments in: "Interview with Dolly Parton", Vogue magazine, January 1994
    • Parton quoted in Carr, p 5: :"Of course, the anti-Semitic charge of Jewish control is nothing new…. Dolly Parton explained her unsuccessful bid to launch a TV series about a country star turned gospel singer as having to face 'people [in Hollywood who] are Jewish. And it's a frightening thing for them to promote Christianity' ".
  45. ^ Dolly Parton Apologizes to ADL for Anti-Semitic Comments. U.S. Newswire, February 22, 1994
  46. ^ Lucy Madison,Rick Sanchez Out at CNN After Saying Jon Stewart a Bigot, Suggesting Network is Run by Jews, CBS, October 1, 2010.
  47. ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey,Answering Andrew Sullivan's Question About Rick Sanchez, The Atlantic, October 6, 2010.
  48. ^ Melissa Bell,Rick Sanchez's apology transcript for 'inartful comments', Washington Post, October 6, 2010.
  49. ^ David S. Morgan,Rick Sanchez: Jon Stewart Is "Classiest Guy in the World", CBS, October 8, 2010.
  50. ^ Williams fired, Rick Sanchez fired: National Public Radio (NPR) and CNN face public backlash for respective actions, Comtex News, October 22, 2010.
  51. ^ Jon Stewart Tells Larry King CNN Shouldn’t Have Fired Rick Sanchez, Mediaite.com, October 21, 2010.
  52. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2008/dec/19/opinion/oe-stein19
  53. ^ http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-stein19-2008dec19,0,4676183.column
  54. ^ http://www.lewrockwell.com/blog/lewrw/archives/60974.html
  55. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2008/dec/23/jews-hollywood-film
  56. ^ http://www.jewishjournal.com/hollywoodjew/item/joel_stein_hates_torah_but_loves_that_jews_run_hollywood
  57. ^ http://www.davidduke.com/?p=39028
  58. ^ http://www.ihr.org/leaflets/jewishlobby.shtml
  59. ^ http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2010/07/kevin-macdonald-oliver-stone/
  60. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVmiAR5nvJE
  61. ^ http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/jews-do-control-the-media/
  62. ^ http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2012/07/manny-friedman-jews-own-a-whole-freaking-country-and-yes-that-includes-the-media/
  63. ^ http://www.davidduke.com/?p=39659
  64. ^ http://www.davidduke.com/?p=38169
  65. ^
    • Alterman, Eric, What liberal media?: the truth about bias and the news, Basic Books, 2003, 2. For the source of the Nixon quotes, Alterman cites the Washington Post, March 1, 2002, p A02, and the Chicago Tribune, March 1, 2002.
    • Brook, Vincent, Something ain't kosher here: the rise of the "Jewish" sitcom, Rutgers University Press, 2003: Brook, pp 59-60. "Nixon himself was busy insulting and slandering Jews …in a newspaper interview baldly declaring that 'the Jews in the U.S. control the entire information and propaganda machine, the large newspapers, the motion pictures, radio and television, and the big companies'".
    • Cockburn, Alexander, The politics of anti-Semitism, AK Press, 2003, 31-33: "..the president raises a topic about which 'we can't talk … publicly', namely Jewish influence in Hollywood and the media. Nixon cites Paul Keyes, a political conservative … as telling him that 11 of the 12 writers are Jewish'."
    • Audio recording of Nixon-Graham conversation from Nixon.archives.gov.
  66. ^ a b William Martin, Is Billy Graham an Anti-Semite? Graham should have known better, says his biographer, but he doesn't deserve our condemnation Belief.net, undated.
  67. ^ Graham Responds to Lingering Anger Over 1972 Remarks on Jews, New York Times, March 17, 2002.
  68. ^ *Miller, Mark Crispin,"The Jewish Media: The Lie That Won't Die".
  69. ^
    • Newsweek magazine, Vol 87, 1976.
    • Silberman, p 149
    "Spiro Agnew complained that a 'Jewish Cabal' in control of the mass media was responsible for tilting American foreign policy toward Israel..."
    • Martin, Bernard, Movements and issues in American Judaism: an analysis and source book of developments since 1945, Greenwood Press, 1978, p. 240:
    "… Spiro Agnew, once vice president of the United States, who stated that American policy in the Middle East was 'less even handed' because 'as you look around in the big-news business, you see a heavy concentration of Jewish people'".
  70. ^
    • Dinnerstein, Leonard, Antisemitism in America, Oxford University Press US, 1995, p 233: Dinnerstein quotes General Brown: "Jewish influence [in Congress] was so strong you wouldn't believe… They own, you know, the banks in this country, the newspapers. Just look at where the Jewish money is."
    • Original Brown quote from "The General and the Jews", Newsweek, 84, Nov 25, 1974, p 39.
    • Silberman, p 149: "...public figures as disparate as the Reverend Jesse Jackson and General George Brown, former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, have attacked the Jewish 'control' of the press."
    • Medoff, Rafael, "Jewish Americans and political participation: a reference handbook," ABC-CLIO, 2002, p 61-62: "By the time of General Brown's remark [1974], Jews owned only an estimated 3 percent of America's newspapers. The fact that the most important of the daily newspapers, the New York Times, is Jewish-owned, has undoubtedly fed erroneous assumptions about the role of Jews in the media…."
  71. ^
    • Barker, Lucius Jefferson, Our time has come: a delegate's diary of Jesse Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign, University of Illinois Press, 1988, pp 65-66:
    "[Pearlmutter said]: 'Many of [the Jewish community] remember that [Jesse Jackson] is the man who is sick and tired of hearing about the Holocaust and that he blamed 'Jewish domination of the media' for some of the news coverage that he has gotten'". [author is quoting Nathan Pearlmutter, director of the ADL].
    • Brook, Vincent, Something ain't kosher here, p 59: "In the 1970s, black leader Jesse Jackson revived the canards both of Jewish control of the media and of Jewish control of the government …"
    • Silberman, Charles E., A Certain People: American Jews and Their Lives Today, Simon & Schuster, 1986, p 149.
  72. ^
    • Simonelli, Frederick, American fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party, p 67
    • Zatarain, Michael, David Duke, evolution of a Klansman, Pelican Publishing, 1990, p 116:
    "George Lincoln Rockwell was the best-known white racist of the 1960's… Rockwell also believed in the John Birch Society's concepts of a communist infiltration into America's government and news media. He theorized that Jews were at the heart of this conspiracy orchestrating what he labeled 'the liberal media'…. The theme Rockwell repeatedly stressed was Jewish media control. He consistently maintained in the Rockwell Report that the 'favorite tactic of the media was to blackout all opposing viewpoints'."
  73. ^
    • Schroer, Todd J., "Issue and Identity Framing within the White Racialist Movement: Internet Dynamics", in The politics of social inequality, Betty A. Dobratz, Lisa K. Waldner, Tim Buzzell (Eds), Emerald Group Publishing, 2001, p 213,220
  74. ^
    • Foxman, 81:
    Abraham Foxman calls David Duke a "notorious anti-Semite" and quotes his comments on professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt's 2006 article “The Israel Lobby”. Duke wrote: " ..the task before us is to wrest control of American foreign policy and critical junctures of media from the Jewish extremist neocons that seek to lead us into what they expectantly call World War Four."
    • Levy, p 193:
    "[David] Duke draws his antisemitic theories from a variety of sources: … allegations of Jewish control of the media from Edward Fields and William Pierce."
  75. ^ Schroer, Todd, "Issue and Identity Framing within the White Racialist Movement: Internet Dynamics", in The politics of social inequality, Betty A. Dobratz, Lisa K. Waldner, Tim Buzzell (Eds), Emerald Group Publishing, 2001, p 213,220:
    page 213: "Jewish control of the mass media is such a widely held belief among White Racialists that they often use terms such as 'jewspapers' or 'the Jew tube' when talking of newspapers and television."
  76. ^
    "But he left shortly afterwards to join the BNP. He soon announced himself as a Holocaust denier and, in a 1997 booklet entitled Who are the Mind Benders?, Griffin outlined a Jewish conspiracy to brainwash the British people in their own 'homeland'. "
    There is some inconsistency in this and the following sources over the name of the pamphlet. The BBC do, however, provide a picture of the pamphlet from which the original title can be identified.
    "And Nick Griffin wrote a pamphlet in 1997 called "The Mind-Benders", in which he said of the Holocaust: 'The 'extermination' tale is a mixture of Allied wartime propaganda and witch-hysteria.' "
    "He believes it about Jews. In 1997 he wrote a pamphlet (available on the internet) called The Mindbenders: The Mindbending Power of the Masters of the Media. It is a list of Jews, or people Griffin assumed were Jews, in positions of power in the media in Britain and Hollywood. I asked him why I was on it. 'The main reason you’re there,' he replied, 'is that I was commissioned to find all the Jews in the media and you do rather stand out.' Standing out, in the words of his pamphlet, as part of the machinery of 'enormous control over every form of mass media the Jews possess'."
  77. ^ Goldberg, pp 285–286,288–290
  78. ^
  79. ^
    • From a Farrakhan speech (“Justifiable Homicide: Black Youth in Peril, Part 3” ) at Mosque Maryam, 11 November 2007, quoted by ADL at [1] :
    “Do you know some of these satanic Jews have taken over BET?… Everything that we built, they have. The mind of Satan now is running the record industry, movie industry and television. And they make us look like we’re the murders; we look like we’re the gangsters, but we’re punk stuff.”
    • From a Farrakhan speech (Saviours' Day Speech, Chicago, 29 Feb 2004) quoted by ADL at[2] :
    “See, you so called Jews – I’m not gonna give you the credit for being one of those that obey God. You portrayed us, you know what images do, that’s why you jumped on Mel Gibson. But you painted us, big lips, red eyes, kinky hair, you put in the movies like that. You mocked our characteristics and made us to hate God’s creation of us. You did that. Hollywood did that….You take our strongest, more courageous black minds, you think we don’t see you? And you put us in Hollywood. You give us television shows, and then we gotta bug our eyes.”
  80. ^
    • Goldberg, pp 288–289
    • Koch, pp 36-37
    • Quart, Leonard, "Jews and Blacks in Hollywood", Dissent, Fall 1992. [3]
    "More than a year ago Legrand Clegg — president of a media watchdog organization, the Coalition Against Black Exploitation — was applauded at the NAACP convention in Los Angeles when he charged that "the century-old problem of Jewish racism in Hollywood" denies blacks access to positions of power in the industry."
  81. ^ James, Caryn (August 16, 1990). "Spike Lee's Jews and the Passage From Benign Cliche Into Bigotry". The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2009. 
  82. ^ Koch, Edward I., The Koch Papers: My Fight Against Anti-Semitism, Macmillan, 2009, 35-36. Reprint of an article Koch originally published 10 August 1990 in the New York Post. Koch quotes Lee as responding to a question about movies by saying: "Because a large part of the people that run Hollywood are Jewish. I mean, that's a basic fact… I mean if it's your own business, you can do what you want. And when black people start owning our own businesses, running our schools, making our own movies, then we can do what the hell we want to do."
  83. ^ Spike Lee, Cynthia Fuchs,Spike Lee: interviews, Conversations with Filmmakers Series, University Press of Mississippi, 2002,61.
  84. ^
    • "Our Sacred Mission" speech at the Empire State Black Arts and Cultural Festival] in Albany, New York, July 20, 1991,archived 2007-09-27.
    • Quart, Leonard, "Jews and Blacks in Hollywood", Dissent, Fall 1992. [4]:"The charge of "Jewish racism" in both executive hiring and Hollywood movie images of blacks was more recently echoed in the race-baiting, reminiscent of anti-Semitic tracts like the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, of City College professor Leonard Jeffries, Jr. In a speech at the Empire State Black Arts and Cultural Festival in Albany he stated that "Russian Jewry had a particular control over the movies,"...
  85. ^ Coleman, Robin R. Means. African American viewers and the Black situation comedy: situating racial humor (Routledge 1998) (ISBN 978-0-8153-3125-4), pp 244-245
    [The author surveyed a large number of African-Americans about portrayal of blacks on TV] "… some participants argued that European American control of the media is problematic, … A similar subtheme emerged where blame was placed not generically on White managers, but specifically on Jewish Americans. There is the belief that Jewish image makers are especially guilty of stereotyping Blacks. This was a common belief that crossed demographic strata, and which was greatly pondered before any participant ever encountered me."
  86. ^
  87. ^
    • Pipes, Daniel, The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fears of Conspiracy, Palgrave Macmillan, 1998, 152: "That Zionists dominate the media means it is on the wrong side not just on the Arab-Israel conflict, but on every issue…. [a common conspiracy theory is that] Jews control the press by staffing and owning it. That Jews have a disproportionate presence in news rooms results not from personal predilection or skill but from a concerted Zionist effort that includes salary supplements from Jewish organizations."
  88. ^
    • Michael, p 198: :"Hamas alleges that Jews control the world's … mass media"
    • Milton-Edwards, 189
  89. ^ Karsh, Efraim, Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest, Grove Press, 2004, 95: Karsh quotes an undated issue of Al-Hayat al-Jadida as writing: "They control several French and British newspapers, including the Times, …. In the United States [the Jews control] the New York Times, New York Post, Washington Post, the New Yorker magazine, Business Week, and so forth and so on. In France Nouveaux Cahiers, L'Express, Le Figaro, … … they also own a fair share of … ABC, NBC, CBS and many more are all controlled by Jews."
  90. ^ Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Ellison Banks Findly (Eds), "Islam, Women and Revolution in Twentieth-Century Arab Thought", inWomen, religion, and social change, Chapter "Islam, Women and Revolution" by Yvonne Haddad, SUNY Press, 1985,291:
    "Part of the Zionist manipulation of society, in this [Islamic] view, comes through Jewish control over various modes of entertainment, …to keep men preoccupied with women, away from faith and the fear of God. They have control over the music industry, writing songs with explicit and frank invitations to immorality and iniquity.… They publish pornographic magazines advocating the mixing of sexes, which has resulted in the spread of veneral (sic) disease…"
  91. ^ Thomas, Hellen, Wayne State ends Helen Thomas Award, United Press International, 2010,[5]
  92. ^
    • Donskis, Leonidas, Troubled identity and the modern world, Macmillan, 2009, p 130
    • Chesler, Phyllis, The new anti-semitism: the current crisis and what we must do about it, Jossey-Bass, 2003
  93. ^ Klug, Brian,The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. The Nation, February 2, 2004. Retrieved January 9, 2006.
  94. ^
  95. ^
      • Kramer, Naomi, Civil courage: a response to contemporary conflict and prejudice, Peter Lang, 2007308:
    "An example of how antisemitic tropes creep into discourse on Israel is provided by an Op-Ed written by Jemima Khan in the November 2000 issue of The Guardian .. when it comes to the media coverage of the Middle East conflict she has to make an exception [to conspiracy theories] due to the 'influence of the Zionist lobby'. She then proceeds to remark, matter-of-factly, that Jews control much of the media and Hollywood in the United States, surmising that Jews conspire to distort information".
  96. ^ Fleischer, Tzvi, "Israel in the Australian Media", inJewish Political Studies Review, 17:3-4 (Fall 2005), []
  97. ^
    • Wanniski, Jude, "Do Jews Control the Media: Memo to Mortimer Zuckerman", March 6, 2002, originally published on polyconomics.com. online; quote: "I got some angry e-mails from Christians who insisted Billy Graham was not anti-Semitic, as I had written. They calmed down when I answered that I had written 'anti-Semitic' in quotation marks, as I certainly do not believe either Nixon or Graham had complaints about Jewish people beyond the "political" realm. In my mind, anti-Semitism requires one to want to do harm to Jews in some way.".
    • See also Shamir, Israel, Our Lady of Sorrow: The Collected Essays from the Holy Land, Booksurge Llc, 2005, p 57.
  98. ^
    • Cockburn, p 33:
    "It's supposedly the third rail in political and cultural life here even to have a discussion of Zionist influence in the media..... The economic and political commentator … Jude Wanniski remarked in his web newsletter at the time of the Graham uproar [2002] that even if Jews don't control the media overall, it is certainly true to say that they control discussion of Israel in the media here"
  99. ^ Foxman, Abraham H., The deadliest lies: the Israel lobby and the myth of Jewish control, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, Foreward by George P. Schultz, p 13.
  100. ^ a b James Traub, "Does Abe Foxman Have an Anti-Anti-Semite Problem?", New York Times Magazine 14 January 2007: 30–35, accessed 14 January 2007 online; 18 January 2007 in print
  101. ^ Joe Eskenazi,Feisty Foxman says he’s portrayed as bad guy for rebuking anti-Semitism, JWeekly.com, March 9, 2007.
  102. ^ Anshel Pfeffer,A good year for the Jews, Haaretz, September 26, 2009.
  103. ^ John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, The Israel Lobby, London Review of Books, Vol. 28 No. 6 · 23 March 2006, pages 3-12.
  104. ^ Foxman, The Deadliest Lies, pp 70-71.
  105. ^ Foxman, The Deadliest Lies, pp 81-82.
  106. ^ Foxman's book devotes a chapter of criticism to one other publication, New York University professor Tony Judt's defense of the Walt and Mearsheimer article in the New York Times. Judt writes that mainstream media had not covered the widespread controversy over the article because of "fear. Fear of being thought to legitimize talk of a 'Jewish conspiracy'; fear of being thought anti-Israel; and thus, in the end, fear of licensing the expression of anti-Semitism." (See Tony Judt,A Lobby, Not a Conspiracy, New York Times, April 19, 2006.) Foxman replied that the real issues were the "dubious central thesis" of the article and the short time it had been in circulation. (See "The Deadliest Lies," pp 143-145.)
  107. ^ Mearsheimer, John J., and Walt, Stephen M., The Israel lobby and U.S. foreign policy, Macmillan, 2007, 12 and 168-170, at this link
  108. ^ Haist, Paul. "Mearsheimer, Walt bring Israel lobby controversy here". Jewish Review. Portland, Oregon. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  109. ^ Eric Alterman,AIPAC's Complaint, The Nation, May 1, 2006 (posted April 13, 2006)
  110. ^ Richard Cohen,No, It's Not Anti-Semitic, Washington Post, April 25, 2006.
  111. ^ Carter, Jimmy, Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, Thorndike Press, 2007, p 209.
  112. ^ Foxman, The Deadliest Lies, pp 70, [6].
  113. ^ Ethan Bronner,"Jews, Arabs and Jimmy Carter," The New York Times Book Review, January 7, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
  114. ^ Fisk, Robert, The age of the warrior: selected essays, Nation Books, 2008, p 409.
  115. ^ Gamble, Adam, and Watanabe, Takesato, A public betrayed: an inside look at Japanese media atrocities and their warnings to the West, Regnery Publishing, 2004, pp [7].
  116. ^
  117. ^ WSJStaff. "Oliver Stone 'Sorry' About Holocaust Comments". The Wall Street Journal. 
  118. ^
    • Steinberg, Stephen, The ethnic myth: race, ethnicity, and class in America, Beacon Press, 2001, p 90
    • The 1936 survey is "Jews in America", an article in Fortune, Archibald MacLeish (Ed.), February 1936, pp 130-136:
    "Granted the great power of the movies in the influencing of modern society and the great influence of Jews in the movies, it still remains true that the Jewish interest in journalism and advertising is extraordinarily small and that journalism and advertising also have their persuasiveness. With the radio and the theatre standing midway between, each about half owned by Jews, it may perhaps be guessed that they more fairly reflect the actual situation. At the very most, half the opinion-making and taste-influencing paraphernalia in America is in Jewish hands."
  119. ^ Landman, Isaac, The Universal Jewish encyclopedia, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Inc, 1941, p 8.
  120. ^ Eisen, Arnold M., The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology, Indiana University Press, 1995, pp 32-34
  121. ^ Cooper, Mark Garrett, Love rules: silent Hollywood and the rise of the managerial class, U of Minnesota Press, 2003, p 263.
  122. ^ Weinraub
  123. ^ Maltby, Richard, Hollywood cinema, Wiley-Blackwell, 2003, pp 135–136:
    ".. the extent of Jewish 'domination' of the motion picture industry has always been overstated … Responding to accusations of 'Jewish control of the movies', a 1941 news story asserted that 'Jews number only a bare 33% among film executives … not more than 10% of financial control … can be said to be in Jewish hands'".
  124. ^
    • Weiss, Philip, "Letting Go", in New York Magazine Jan 29, 1996, p 32
    • Weiss is citing Lipset, Seymour Martin, and Raab, Earl, Jews and the New American Scene, Harvard Press, 1995
  125. ^ Kellman's quote (and description of the article) are from the Anti Defamation League report,online "Alleged Jewish 'Control' of the American Motion Picture Industry".
  126. ^
    • Goldberg, pp 288-289.
    • Goldberg also wrote: "A few - very few - individual Jews in Hollywood have gotten involved directly in Jewish political issues: recording-industry executive Danny Goldberg in religious rights and civil liberties, actors Ron Silver and Richard Dreyfuss in Middle East politics."
  127. ^
    • Palmer, Brian, "Do Jews Really Control the Media?", in Slate, October 5, 2010, online
    • Palmer cites Stein, Joel, "Who runs Hollywood", Los Angeles Times, December 19, 2008.online
    • Palmer cites "Film Power 100" list from The Guardian, September 24, 2010. online