User:RLHobbs/sandbox

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Project[edit]

This is for my English 213 class. We're editing the candy page. Below, you'll find the topics we are contributing.

Ambassador comments

Looking really good so far. There are a few things I've noticed. Some of the references that you've added need formatting, at the moment they are just bare URLs. Eg, at present you have "Barack Obama is the president of the United States http://whitehouse.gov.

A better way to format it would be Barack Obama is the president of the United States<ref>[http://whitehouse.gov The White House]</ref> which will display like this: "Barack Obama is the president of the United States[1]. Hope that helps. Steven Zhang DR goes to Wikimania! 03:45, 21 March 2012 (UTC)

To-do items[edit]

Now that you have tasks divided up, we need to see some potential sources each of you will be using. Those could be posted here—before Tuesday's class (Mar 13) would be ideal. Everyone should also start reading and researching those sources. Webster Newbold (talk) 17:09, 9 March 2012 (UTC)


Sources for Popular Candy by Region[edit]

  1. Businessweek: What Are The Worlds Most Popular Candies?
  2. Exploratorium: Candy Around The World
  3. Travel & Leisure: World's Strangest Candy
  4. Huffington Post: Candy From Around The World
  5. Sugar Inc.: Top-Selling Candy From Around The World

Sources for the History of Candy[edit]

  1. Food Industry Wars by Ronald D. Michman and Edward M. Mazze
  2. A History of Food by Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat

Sources for packaging design of Candy[edit]

  1. “Poetry to Sweeten the Sale” Darra Goldstein, Russian Life March/April 2011, pages 50-54.
  2. “The Candy Prophylactic: Danger, Disease, and Children’s Candy around 1916” Samira Kawash The Journal of American Culture Volume 33 No. 3 September 2010.
  3. “Trends in Food Packaging Technology” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry October 1953 1 (16) pp978-986.


Sources for Health Effects Of Candy[edit]

  1. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents [1]
  2. Candy Canes Fight Germs, Settle Stomachs [2]
  3. The Undeniable Association: Diet and Ratcheted-up Health Risks [3]
  4. Candy: How Sweet It Is! [4]

Topics[edit]

Jesse: history of candy

Rebekah: packaging, especially from design

Chaylee: favorite candies by region

Kristyn: health effects of candy

current candy article[edit]

I LIKE THE AMOUNT OF MATERIAL YOU HAVE ASSEMBLED! THIS IS OFF TO A GOOD START; SOME CORRECTIONS TO REFERENCES ARE NEEDED, AND THE PACKAGING SECTION SEEMS TO STILL BE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, WITH REFERENCES NEEDED, AND THE INTERNATIONAL SECTION COULD USE AN INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH, BUT OVERALL THIS IS COMING ALONG WELL. —Webster Newbold (talk) 03:17, 20 March 2012 (UTC)

Final Instructor Comments
Looks impressive--you're almost ready to go live in the Candy article space, but need to correct the references first, the ones that are giving error messages. I suggest deleting the existing problem references and redoing the template with all the info. Let me know if you need help with this. Well done group!

Webster Newbold (talk) 03:04, 27 March 2012 (UTC)

Multicolored chocolate buttons.
A selection of mixed candy.
Traditional holiday candy house.
Lemon, orange, strawberry and cherry flavoured candy bought from a small shop in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France.

Candy, specifically sugar candy, is a confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water, to which flavorings and colorants are added. Candies come in numerous colors and varieties and have a long history in popular culture.

The Middle English word "candy" began to be used in the late 13th century, coming into English from the Old French çucre candi, derived in turn from Persian Qand (=قند) and Qandi (=قندی), "cane sugar", probably derived from Sanskrit word khanda (खण्ड) "piece (of sugar)," perhaps from Dravidian (cf. Tamil kantu for candy, or kattu "to harden, condense").[2][3] In North America, candy is a broad category that includes candy bars, chocolates, licorice, sour candies, salty candies, tart candies, hard candies, taffies, gumdrops, marshmallows, and more.[citation needed] Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied.

Outside North America, the generic English-language name for candy is sweets or confectionery (United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa and other commonwealth countries). In Australia, small pieces of sweet substance are known as "lollies".[4]

In North America, Australia, NZ and the UK, the word "lollipop" refers specifically to sugar candy with flavoring on a stick. While not used in the generic sense of North America, the term candy is used in the UK for specific types of foods such as candy floss (cotton candy in North America and fairy floss in Australia), and certain other sugar based products such as candied fruit.

A popular candy in Latin America is the so-called pirulín (also known as pirulí), which is a multicolor, conic-shaped hard candy of about 10 to 15 cm long, with a sharp conical or pyramidal point, with a stick in the base, and wrapped in cellophane.

History[edit]

Before sugar was readily available, people from around the world made candy of honey. The Chinese, the people of the Middle East, the Egyptians, and the Greeks and Romans all used honey to coat fruits and flowers to preserve them or to create forms of candy.[5] Candy is still served in this form today, though now it is more typically seen as a type of garnish.

Candy as we know it today began as a form of medicine, either used to calm the digestive system or cool a sore throat. In the Middle Ages candy appeared on the tables of only the most wealthy at first. At that time it began as a combination of spices and sugar that was used as an aid to digestive problems. Digestive problems were very common during this time due to the constant consumption of food that was neither fresh nor well balanced. Banquet hosts would typically serve these types of ‘candies’ at banquets for their guests. One of these candies, sometimes referred to as a 'chamber spice', was made with cloves, ginger, aniseed, juniper berries, almonds and pine kernels dipped in melted sugar. [5]

Candy in America[edit]

The first candy came to America in the early eighteenth century from Britain and France. Only a few of the early colonists were proficient in sugar work and were able to provide the sugary treats for the very wealthy. Rock candy, made from crystallized sugar, was the simplest form of candy, but even this basic form of sugar was considered a luxury and was only attainable by the rich.[6] In contrast, since 1979 the world has produced more sugar than can be sold, making it very attainable and cheap.[5]

The candy business underwent a drastic change in the 1830’s when technological advances and the availability of sugar opened up the market. The new market was not only for the enjoyment of the rich but also for the pleasure of the working class as well. There was also an increasing market for children. Confectioners were no longer the venue for the wealthy and high class but for children as well. While some fine confectioners remained, the candy store became a staple of the child of the American working class. Penny candies epitomized this transformation of candy. Penny candy became the first material good that children spent their own money on. For this reason candy store-owners relied almost entirely on the business of children to keep them running. Even penny candies were directly descended from medicated lozenges that held bitter medicine in a hard sugar coating. [7]

In 1847 the invention of the candy press (also known as a toy machine) made it possible to produce multiple shapes and sizes of candy at once. In 1851 confectioners began to use a revolving steam man to assist in boiling sugar. This transformation meant that the candy maker was no longer required to continuously stir the boiling sugar. The heat from the surface of the pan was also much more evenly distributed and made it less likely that the sugar would burn These innovations made it possible for only one or two people to successfully run a candy business. [6]

Classification[edit]

Chemically, sugar candies are broadly divided into two groups: crystalline candies and amorphous candies.[8] Crystalline candies are not as hard as crystals of the mineral variety, but derive their name and their texture from their microscopically organized sugar structure, formed through a process of crystallization, which makes them easy to bite or cut into. Fudge, creams, and fondant are examples of crystalline candies. Amorphous candies have a disorganized crystalline structure. They usually have higher sugar concentrations, and the texture may be chewy, hard, or brittle. Caramels, nut brittles and toffees are examples of amorphous candies.[8]

Commercially, candies are often divided into three groups, according to the amount of sugar they contain:[8]

  • 100% sugar (or nearly so), such as hard candies or creams
  • 95% sugar or more, with up to 5% other ingredients, such as marshmallows or nougats, and
  • 75 to 95% sugar, with 5 to 25% other ingredients, such as fudge or caramels.

Each of these three groups contains both crystalline and amorphous candies.

Manufacture[edit]

Fruit-shaped hard candy.

Candy is made by dissolving sugar in water or milk to form a syrup, which is boiled until it reaches the desired concentration or starts to caramelize. The type of candy depends on the ingredients and how long the mixture is boiled. Candy comes in a wide variety of textures, from soft and chewy to hard and brittle. Some examples are: caramel candy, toffee, fudge, praline, tablet, gumdrops, jelly beans, rock candy, lollipops, taffy, cotton candy, candy canes, peppermint sticks, peanut brittle, chocolate-coated raisins or peanuts, hard candy (called boiled sweets in British English) and candy bars.

Sugar stages[edit]

The final texture of candy depends on the sugar concentration. As the syrup is heated, it boils, water evaporates, the sugar concentration increases, and the boiling point rises. A given temperature corresponds to a particular sugar concentration. In general, higher temperatures and greater sugar concentrations result in hard, brittle candies, and lower temperatures result in softer candies. The stages of sugar cooking are as follows:[9]

Stage Temperature in °F Temperature in °C Sugar concentration
thread (e.g., syrup) 230–233 °F 110–111 °C 80%
soft ball (e.g., fudge) 234–240 °F 112–115 °C 85%
firm ball (e.g., caramel candy) 244–248 °F 118–120 °C 87%
hard ball (e.g., nougat) 250–266 °F 121–130 °C 92%
soft crack (e.g., salt water taffy) 270–290 °F 132–143 °C 95%
hard crack (e.g., toffee) 295–310 °F 146–154 °C 99%
clear liquid 320 °F 160 °C 100%
brown liquid (e.g., caramel) 338 °F 170 °C 100%
burnt sugar 350 °F 177 °C 100%

The names come from the methods used to test the syrup before thermometers became affordable. The "thread" stage is tested by cooling a little syrup, and pulling it between the thumb and forefinger. When the correct stage is reached, a thread will form. This stage is used for making syrups. For subsequent stages, a small spoonful of syrup is dropped into cold water, and the characteristics of the resulting lump are evaluated to determine the concentration of the syrup. A smooth lump indicates "ball" stages, with the corresponding hardness described. At the "soft crack" stage, the syrup forms threads that are just pliable. At the "hard crack" stage, the threads are brittle.[10]

This method is still used today in some kitchens. A candy thermometer is more convenient, but has the drawback of not automatically adjusting for local conditions such as altitude, as the cold water test does.

Once the syrup reaches 340 °F (171 °C) or higher, the sucrose molecules break down into many simpler sugars, creating an amber-colored substance known as caramel. This should not be confused with caramel candy, although it is the candy's main flavoring.

Candy and vegetarianism[edit]

Candy at a souq in Damascus, Syria.

Some candy, including marshmallows and gummi bears, contain gelatin derived from animal collagen, a protein found in skin and bones, and is thus avoided by vegetarians and vegans. "Kosher gelatin" is also unsuitable for vegetarians and vegans, as it is derived from fish bones.[11] Other substances, such as agar, pectin, starch and gum arabic may also be used as setting and gelling agents, and can be used in place of gelatin.

Other ingredients commonly found in candy that are not suitable for vegetarian or vegan diets include carmine, a red dye made from cochineal beetles, and confectioner's glaze, which may contain wings or other insect parts.

Shelf life[edit]

Because of its high sugar concentration, bacteria are not usually able to grow in candy. As a result, the shelf life of candy is longer than for many foods. Most candies can be safely stored in their original packaging at room temperature in a dry, dark cupboard for months or years. As a rule, the softer the candy or the damper the storage area, the sooner it goes stale.[12]

Shelf life considerations with most candies are focused on appearance, taste, and texture, rather than about the potential for food poisoning. That is, old candy may not look pretty or taste very good, even though it is very unlikely to make the eater sick. Candy can be made unsafe by storing it badly, such as in a wet, moldy area. Typical recommendations are these:[12]

  • Hard candy may last indefinitely in good storage conditions.
  • Milk chocolates and caramels usually become stale after about one year.
  • Dark chocolate lasts up to two years.
  • Soft or creamy candies, like candy corn, may last 8 to 10 months in ideal conditions.
  • Chewing gum and gumballs may stay fresh as long as 8 months after manufacture.

Health aspects[edit]

Cavities[edit]

Candy generally contains sugar, which can be involved in tooth decay causing cavities. Sugar is a food for several types of bacteria commonly found in the mouth, particularly Streptococcus mutans; when the bacteria metabolize the sugar they create acids in the mouth which demineralize the tooth enamel and can lead to dental caries.[13] To help prevent this dentists recommend that individuals should brush their teeth regularly, particularly after every meal and snack.

Sugar is often cited as the source of insufficient dentistry, but is in fact the streptococcus bacteria that feed on sugar, not the sweet substance itself, that causes poor teeth. The bacteria eats away tooth enamel the longer it stays in contact with teeth, so the amount of sugar consumed is less important than the time it is left on and in between the teeth.[14]

Glycemic index[edit]

Candy has a high glycemic index (GI), which means that it causes a rapid rise in blood sugar levels after ingestion. This is chiefly a concern for people with diabetes, but could also be dangerous to the health of non-diabetics.[15]

Health Benefits[edit]

Increased Brain Power is one benefit. Candies that primarily consist of peppermint and mint, such as candy canes, have been shown to have digestive benefits. Peppermint oil can help soothe an upset stomach by creating defense against Irritable Bowel system, a pain in the abdomen. The peppermint in candy canes has been shown effective in killing germs.[16]


Mint flavored gum is proven to increase short-term memory. A sample group of test takers proved that by chewing gum their heart rate increased as well as the amount of oxygen in the brain. The correlation between heart rate and oxygen in the brain triggers short term memory. Chewing gum can also provide a burst of insulin in the anticipation for food.[17]


When eaten in moderation, chocolate can have health benefits. The cocoa in chocolate can help reduce the risk of heart disease. Vitamins and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium can be found I chocolate, as well as antioxidants. Of course chocolate contains a high amount of sugar and low nutritional value, but once every so often, chocolate can be a health boost rather than a nutritional downfall.[18]


Non-consumers of candy had a higher mortality rate than consumers of candy, both frequent and occasional. Frequent candy consumers fit into the category of three or more times per week consumption. Occassional consumers are categorized as eating candy one to three times per month, and live on average one year longer than non-consumers. The non-consumers run into several problems such typically eating less red meat, salads, and are also more prone to smoking. Candy consumption in moderation is the key to maximizing life longevity, rather than constantly denying the lust of sweet candy.[19]

Packaging[edit]

"Candy wrapper" or "sweets-wrapper" is a common term for this packaging.[20]

Purposes of Packaging[edit]

Packaging preserves aroma and flavor and eases shipping and dispensation. Wax paper seals against air, moisture, dust, and germs, while cellophane is valued by packagers for its transparency and resistance to grease, odors and moisture. In addition, it is often resealable. Polyethylene is another form of film sealed with heat, and this material is often used to make bags in bulk packaging. Saran wraps are also common. Aluminum foils wrap chocolate bars and prevent transfer of water vapor, while being lightweight, non-toxic and odor proof. Vegetable parchment lines boxes of high-quality confections like gourmet chocolates. Cardboard cartons are less common, though they offer many options concerning thickness and movement of water and oil. Packages are often sealed with a starch-based adhesive derived from tapioca, potato, wheat, sago, or sweet potato. Occasionally, glues are made from the bones and skin of cattle and hogs for a stronger and more flexible product, but this is not as common because of the expense.[21]

History[edit]

Prior to the 1900s, candy was commonly sold unwrapped from carts in the street, where it was exposed to dirt and insects. By 1914 there were some machines to wrap gum and stick candies, but this was not the common practice. After the polio outbreak in 1916, unwrapped candies garnered widespread censure because of the dirt and germs. At the time, only upscale candy stores used glass jars. With advancements in technology wax paper was adopted, and foil and cellophane were imported from France by DuPont in 1925. Necco packagers were one of the first companies to package without human touch.[22]

Marketing and Design[edit]

Packaging helps market the product as well. Manufacturers know that candy must be hygienic and attractive to customers. In the children’s market quantity, novelty, large size and bright colors are the top sellers.[23] Many companies redesign the packaging to maintain consumer appeal.

Top-Selling Candies World-Wide[edit]

United States[edit]

  • M&M's
    • Annual Sales: $673.2 million[24]
    • M&M’s are milk chocolate drops with a colorful candy coating on the outside. The candies were first manufactured in 1941 and were given to American soldiers serving in the Second World War. M&M's are manufactured by Mars Inc.[25]
  • Reese's Peanut Butter Cups
    • Annual Sales: $516.5 million[26]
    • Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups are round chocolate disks that are filled with a sweet, creamy peanut butter filling. The cups were first manufactured in 1928 by the Hershey’s company. [27]

United Kingdom[edit]

  • Cadbury's Dairy Milk
    • Annual Sales: $852 million[28]
    • Cadbury’s Dairy Milk is a chocolate bar that brags to have a glass and a half of milk in every bar. This chocolate treat was created in 1904 and became an instant hit following its initial sales in 1905.[29]

Germany[edit]

  • Milka
    • Annual Sales: $733 million[30]
    • Milka is milk chocolate that is manufactured by the Kraft Foods Company. It was first created in 1901. The candy’s packaging is unique and includes its iconic lilac-colored cow, which helps tie the candy back to its Alpine heritage. [31]

France[edit]

  • Hollywood Chewing Gum
    • Annual Sales: $318 million[32]
    • Hollywood Chewing Gum was the first French chewing gum, and it was created in 1952. The French were introduced to chewing gum for the first time by the American troops stationed there in 1944. In 1958, the gum’s main advertising focus was that of the American Dream. While Hollywood now offers a variety of different flavors, the very first flavor was spearmint.[33]

Italy[edit]

  • Vivident Gum
    • Annual Sales: $313 million[34]
    • Vivdent is a sugar-free gum that is manufactured by the Perfetti Van Melle Group and is wildly popular in Italy[35] . The outrageous advertisements for the gum seem to be one of the greatest forces behind the gum’s current popularity[36] .

Russia[edit]

  • Orbit Gum
    • Annual Sales: $445 million[37]
    • Orbit gum first got its name during the Second World War when Wrigley shipped all of their chewing gum overseas to the troops and began manufacturing gum for the civilians under the name of Orbit. After the war, the name Orbit disappeared again. In the 1970s, Wrigley began selling sugar-free gum under the name of Orbit in European countries. It was not until 2001 that Orbit gum returned to the United States[38] .
  • Alpen Gold
    • Annual Sales: $198 million[39]
    • Alpen Gold is a brand of chocolate produced in Russia. They sell chocolate bars, pralines, and boxes of chocolates. Their chocolate often includes ingredients such as raisins, nuts, and liqueur[40] .

Czech Republic[edit]

  • Orion
    • Annual Sales: $142 million[41]
    • Production of Orion chocolate began in 1896 as a part of a small family business in Prague. The chocolate became very popular, representing 1/3 of the chocolate produced in the Czech Republic. In 1991, Nestle took over Orion chocolate, which has only helped boost the popularity of the candy[42] .

China[edit]

  • Hsu Fu Chi
    • Annual Sales: $256 million[43]
    • The Hsu Fu Chi company started in 1992 with brothers by the name of Hsu. The company makes a wide variety of candy, including lollipops, gummies, jelly beans, chocolates, and pastries. The company was bought out by Nestle in 2011[44] .

Japan[edit]

  • Meiji
    • Annual Sales: $479 million[45]
    • Meiji chocolate is manufactured by Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd., which was established in 1916 and is located in Tokyo.[46] Meiji chocolates range in flavors, “such as cheese, black pepper, jasmine, basil, and lemon salt”.[47]

India[edit]

  • Cadbury's Dairy Milk
    • Annual Sales: $127 million[48]
    • Cadbury’s Dairy Milk is a chocolate bar that brags to have a glass and a half of milk in every bar. This chocolate treat was created in 1904 and became an instant hit following its initial sales in 1905.[49]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

  • Galaxy bar
    • Annual Sales: $94 million[50]
    • Galaxy caramel bars are the top-sold candy in Saudi Arabia. The bars are milk chocolate with a caramel filling, and are made by Mars Inc. This same candy is known as Dove in the United States.[51]

Israel[edit]

  • Elite
    • Annual Sales: $93 million[52]
    • Elite candy is manufactured by the Strauss Group and includes a variety of different types of candies.[53]

Argentina[edit]

  • TopLine gum
    • Annual Sales: $124 million[54]
    • TopLine gum is manufactured by a company by the name of Arcor, which was started in 1951.[55]

Chile[edit]

  • Ambrosoli
    • Annual Sales: $102 million[56]
    • Ambrosoli is the largest candy manufacturer in Chile. The creator of the company, Constantino Ambrosoli, was originally from Italy[57] . The company produces a wide variety of candies, including jelly and hard candy, and it is Chile’s top-selling candy company with approximately $102 million in annual sales[58] .

Colombia[edit]

  • Jet
    • Annual Sales: $47 million[59]
    • Jet chocolate bars are produced by Compania Nacional de Chocolates. The candy was first manufactured in the 1960s, and has since become Colombia’s top-selling candy with an annual revenue of approximately $47 million[60] .

South Africa[edit]

  • Beacon Sweets and Chocolates
    • Annual Sales: $69 million[61]
    • Candy manufactured by the Beacon Sweets and Chocolates company is the top-selling candy in South Africa. They produce a wide variety of candies, including gummies, jelly candy, chocolate, and more, and bring in an average $69 million a year[62] .

Australia[edit]

  • Cadbury's Dairy Milk
    • Annual Sales: $197 million[63]
    • Cadbury’s Dairy Milk is a chocolate bar that brags to have a glass and a half of milk in every bar. This chocolate treat was created in 1904 and became an instant hit following its initial sales in 1905.[64]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The White House
  2. ^ "candy", Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^ "Sugarcane: Saccharum Offcinarum" (PDF). USAID, Govt of United States. 2006. p. 1 (Chapter 7). 
  4. ^ Bruce Moore, ed. (1996). The Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary (fourth ed.). Oxford University Press Australia. pp. 636 ("lolly") and 1098 ("sweet"). ISBN 978-0-19-554015-4. 
  5. ^ a b c Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009). A History of Food. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. 
  6. ^ a b Woloson, Wendy. "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  7. ^ Woloson, Wendy (2002). Refined Tastes. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  8. ^ a b c McWilliams, Margaret (2007). Nutrition and Dietetics' 2007 Edition. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 177–184. ISBN 9789712347382. 
  9. ^ The Cold Water Candy Test, Exploratorium; Sugar Syrup Chart at Baking911
  10. ^ Sugar Work at Cooking4Chumps
  11. ^ Will These Bones Live? Yechezkel 37:3. Kashrut.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-02.
  12. ^ a b The Shelf Life of Candy from The Candy Crate
  13. ^ Dental caries. National Confectioners Association
  14. ^ "Does Sugar Cause Tooth Decay? Not exactly..." 
  15. ^ Balkau et al. (1998) "High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and the Helsinki Policemen Study." Diabetes Care 1998 Mar;21(3):360-7
  16. ^ Viegas, Jennifer. "Candy Canes Fight Germs, Settle Stomachs". Retrieved 03/14/12.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  17. ^ Scholey, Andrew. "Chewing Gum Found to Increase Brain Power". Retrieved 03/20/12.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. ^ Mondestin, Angely. "Chocolate? As a Health Benefit?". 03/14/12. 
  19. ^ Paffenbarger, Ralph. "Life Is Sweet: Candy Consumption and Longevity" (PDF). Retrieved 03/15/12.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  20. ^ Old Candy Wrappers. Wholesale Candy Store. Retrieved on 2011-11-02.
  21. ^ "Trends in Food Packaging Technology". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1 (16): 978–986. 1953.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  22. ^ Kawash, Samira (2012). "The Candy Prophylactic: Danger, Disease, and Children's Candy around 1916". The Journal of American Culture. 33 (3).  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  23. ^ Kawash, Samira (2012). "The Candy Prophylactic: Danger, Disease, and Children's Candy around 1916". The Journal of American Culture. 33 (3).  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  24. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  25. ^ "M&M's History". Mars, Incorporated. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  26. ^ Arndt, Michael. "America's 25 Favorite Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Reese's Experience". The Hershey Company. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  28. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  29. ^ "About Chocolate". Cadbury. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  30. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Brands-M". Kraft Foods Inc. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  32. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  33. ^ "Hollywood". Cadbury Inc. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  34. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  35. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  36. ^ McDonnel-Perry, Amelia. "Vivident Gum's Man Boobs & Marionettes". The Frisky. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  37. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Orbit". Wrigley. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  39. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Largest Brands". Kraft Foods Inc. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  41. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Orion". Nestle. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  43. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Hsu Fu Chi International Ltd". Hsu Fu Chi Inc. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  45. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd". Funding Universe. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  47. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  48. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  49. ^ "About Chocolate". Cadbury. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  50. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  51. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  52. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  53. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  54. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  55. ^ "All About Arcor". Arcor. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  56. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  57. ^ "Chile's Ambrosoli pursues niche in global markets". Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  58. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  59. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  60. ^ Deprez, Esme. "The World's Best-Selling Candies". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
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