User:RashersTierney/Sandbox - Referencing

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In Ireland, the Great Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration between 1845 and 1852.[1] It is also known, mostly outside of Ireland, as the Irish Potato Famine.[2] In the Irish language it is called an Gorta Mór (IPA: [ənˠ ˈɡɔɾˠtˠə ˈmˠoːɾˠ], meaning "the Great Hunger")[fn 1] or an Drochshaol ([ənˠ ˈdˠɾɔxˌhiːlˠ], meaning "the bad times").

During the Famine, Ireland's population fell by between 20 and 25 percent.[3] Approximately one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland.[4] The proximate cause of famine was a potato disease commonly known as potato blight.[5] Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was entirely dependent on the potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[6][7]


  1. ^ The term has appeared in the titles of numerous books on the event, as demonstrated by this search on WorldCat


  1. ^ Kinealy 1995, pp. xvi–ii.
  2. ^ O'Neill 2009, p. 1.
  3. ^ Kinealy 1994, p. 357.
  4. ^ Ross 2002, p. 226.
  5. ^ Ó Gráda 2002, p. 7.
  6. ^ Woodham-Smith 1991, p. 19.
  7. ^ Kinealy 1994, pp. xvi–ii, 2–3.


  • American University (1996), Irish Potato Famine and Trade, American University, retrieved September 24, 2010 
  • Association of Medical Journal (1856), The Census of Ireland for the Year 1851. Part III. Report on the Status of Disease, BPP, 1854, lviii; part V, Tables of Deaths, I, BPP, 1856, [2087-I], xxix;vol.II, 1856 [2087-II], xxx. 
  • Aymaz, Abdullah (2007), Gratitude to the Ottomans 
  • Blake, Robert (1967), Disraeli, University paperbacks, St. Martin's Press, LCCN 67011837 
  • Clark, Dennis (1982), "Dennis Clark: The Irish in Philadelphia", Temple University, ISBN 0-87722-227-4, retrieved September 24, 20101  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  • Cousens, S. H (1960), Regional death rates in Ireland during the Great Famine from 1846 to 1851, Population Studies, 14 
  • Corrigan, Sir Dominic (1846), On famine and fever as cause and effect in Ireland: with observations on hospital location, and the dispensation in outdoor relief of food and medicine, J. Fannin & Co. 
  • Doheny, Michael (1951), The Felon's Track, M.H. Gill & Son, LTD 
  • Ranelagh, John O'Beirne (2000), Fearful Realities: New Perspectives on the Famine, Chris Morash & Richard Hayes, Colourbooks Ltd, ISBN 0 7165 2566 6 
  • Donnelly, James S (2005), The Great Irish Potato Famine, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0 7509 2928 6 
  • Donnelly, James S., Jr. (1995), Poirteir, Cathal, ed., Mass Eviction and the Irish Famine: The Clearances Revisited", from The Great Irish Famine, Dublin, Ireland: Mercier Press