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- Thomas A. Dorsey (July 1, 1899 - January 23, 1993)
- James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)
- Father of History: Herodotus, (485–c. 420 BC), Halicarnassian (Persia)
- Father of Church history: Eusebius of Caesarea (~275–339)
- Father of American Catholic history: John Gilmary Shea
- Father of historical criticism: William of Newburgh (1135–1198), English historian
- Thales of Miletus is regarded by many as the father of science; he was the first Greek philosopher to seek to explain the physical world in terms of natural rather than supernatural causes.
- Chung-Yao Chao, Caltech PhD 1930
- Tsien Hsue-shen, Caltech PhD 1939
- Paul MacCready, Caltech MS 1948, PhD 1952
- William Smith (March 23, 1769 - August 28, 1839) was an English geologist. Smith is credited with creating the first nationwide geologic map and is known as the "Father of English Geology". However, recognition was slow in coming. His work was plagarized, he was financially ruined and spent time in debtor's prison. The genteel practitioners of the new science of geology and founders of the geological societies snubbed the low-born Smith. It was only much later in Smith's life that he received recognition for his accomplishments. In January 1831 the Geological Society of London conferred on Smith the first Wollaston medal. It was on this occasion that Adam Sedgwick referred to Smith as "the Father of English Geology".
- Father of modern toxicology: Paracelsus said, "dose determines the poison". Paracelsus, who lived in the 15th century was the first person to explain the dose response relationship of toxic substances.
- Mathieu Orfila is considered to be the father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Trait des poisons, also called Toxicologie generate.
- Vladimir Vernadsky, a Russian scientist in the tradition of Mendeleev, is credited with founding the science of biogeochemistry.
- Father of biogeochemistry
- Father of systematics: Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. He is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology.
- Euclid of Alexandria (Greek: Eukleides) (circa 365 BC – 275 BC) was a Greek mathematician, now known as "the father of geometry". His most famous work is Elements, widely considered to be history's most successful textbook. Within it, the properties of geometrical objects and integers are deduced from a small set of axioms, thereby anticipating (and partly inspiring) the axiomatic method of modern mathematics. Although many of the results in Elements originated with earlier mathematicians, one of Euclid's major accomplishments was to present them in a single, logically coherent framework. In addition to providing some missing proofs, Euclid's text also includes sections on number theory and three-dimensional geometry. The geometrical system described in Elements was long known simply as "the" geometry. Today, however, it is often referred to as Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called non-Euclidean geometries which developed in the 19th century. These new geometries grew out of more than two millennia of investigation into Euclid's fifth postulate, one of the most-studied axioms in all of mathematics.
- Pythagoras was a Greek mathematician who is known as the "father of numbers"; it is believed that he had the pioneering insight into the numerical ratios that determine the musical scale, and the Pythagorean theorem is commonly attributed to him.
- Diophantus of Alexandria is sometimes called the "father of algebra"
- In 1939, Dr. Frank W. Cyr of New York, who became known as The Father of the Yellow School Bus, hosted a 7 day long national conference of industry and school leaders which established 44 important safety standards and the yellow color for school buses all across the United States.
- Sir Francis Galton (1822–1911) made important contributions to statistics and is known as the father of eugenics.
- Gabriel Bell (DS9, "Past Tense") (April 24, 1987 - September 3, 2024) During a 2024 revolt in San Francisco where federal employees were held hostage, he made sure the hostages were not harmed. In an alternate timeline, Bell was killed earlier and Benjamin Sisko stepped in to fulfill Bell's role in the pivotal historical moment. In a guidebook to Earth that Jake gave to Nog, Gabriel Bell is described as "the father of Earth's post-modern reformism," and shown with a picture of Sisko.
- biology and related : Theory of evolution
- climatology : Global Warming Theory
- computer science : Algorithmic information theory | Computation theory
- games : Rational choice theory | Game theory
- general : Obsolete scientific theories
- geology : Continental drift | Plate tectonics
- general humanities : Critical theory
- literature : Literary theory
- mathematics : axiomatic set theory | Chaos theory | Graph theory | Number theory | Probability theory
- music : Music theory
- other : Phlogiston theory
- philosophy speculative reason (theory vs. practice)
- physics (a mother of theories) : Grand unification theory | Quantum field theory | String theory | Superstring theory | Theory of relativity | Acoustic theory | Antenna theory | Theory of everything (TOE) | Kaluza-Klein theory | M-theory | Loop quantum gravity theory | special theory of relativity | general theory of relativity | Dynamic theory of gravity | Ether theory
- planetary science : Giant impact theory
- sexology and behaviour : Ladder theory
- sociology and philosophy : Critical social theory | Value theory
- statistics : Extreme value theory