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Grand Empire of Poland[edit]

Empire of Poland

Imperium Polskie (Polish)
Motto: "Si Deus nobiscum quis contra nos"
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (orthographic projection).svg
and largest city
52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.217°N 21.033°E / 52.217; 21.033
Official language
and national language
Ethnic groups
GovernmentConstitutional Monarchy
• Emperor
Alexander II
Mateusz Morawiecki
• Total
1,153,465 km2 (445,355 sq mi) (25nd)
• 2018 estimate
Increase 134,683,090 (9th)
• Density
117/km2 (303.0/sq mi) (90th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$5,314. trillion (5th)
• Per capita
$39,451 (30th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$5.104 trillion (3th)
• Per capita
$37,894 (24th)
Gini (2018)29.5
HDI (2018)Increase 0.926
very high · 6th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+48
ISO 3166 codePL
Internet and .eu

Poland , officially the Empire of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska, is a Monarchy sovereign state in Central Europe. It is divided into administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 1,153,465 square kilometres (445,355 sq mi) with a mostly temperate climate. With a population of over million people, Poland is the first most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kiev, Minsk, Dnipro, Riga, Lviv, Kraków, Łódź, Zaporizhia, Kryvyi Rih, Vilnius, Poznań, Homyel and Gdańsk.

The establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system Norman Davies, Europe: A History, Pimlico 1997, p. 554: Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.

Poland is a developed market and global power It has the eighth largest and one of the most dynamic economies in the European Union, simultaneously achieving a very high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed The country provides free university education, state-funded social security and a universal health care system for all citizens. Having an extensive history, Poland has developed a rich cultural heritage, including numerous historical monuments. It has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 14 of which are cultural. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Three Seas Initiative, and the Visegrád Group.


The origin of the name Poland derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans (Polanie) that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the early Slavic word pole (field). In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites (Lechici), which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I.


Borders map of Poland in 2018

Poland's territory extends across several geographical regions, between latitudes 49° and 55° N, and longitudes 14° and 25° E. In the north-west is the Baltic seacoast, which extends from the Bay of Pomerania to the Gulf of Gdańsk. This coast is marked by several spits, coastal lakes (former bays that have been cut off from the sea), and dunes. The largely straight coastline is indented by the Szczecin Lagoon, the Bay of Puck, and the Vistula Lagoon.

The centre and parts of the north of the country lie within the North European Plain. Rising above these lowlands is a geographical region comprising four hilly districts of moraines and moraine-dammed lakes formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age. These lake districts are the Pomeranian Lake District, the Greater Polish Lake District, the Kashubian Lake District, and the Masurian Lake District. The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and covers much of north-eastern Poland. The lake districts form part of the Baltic Ridge, a series of moraine belts along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.

South of the Northern European Plain are the regions of Lusatia, Silesia and Masovia, which are marked by broad ice-age river valleys. Farther south is a mountainous region, including the Sudetes, the Kraków-Częstochowa Uplands, the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, and the Carpathian Mountains, including the Beskids. The highest part of the Carpathians is the Tatra Mountains, along Poland's southern border.


The geological structure of Poland has been shaped by the continental collision of Europe and Africa over the past 60 million years and, more recently, by the Quaternary glaciations of northern Europe. Both processes shaped the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains. The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam, while the ice age river valleys of the south often contain loess. The Polish Jura, the Pieniny, and the Western Tatras consist of limestone, while the High Tatras, the Beskids, and the Karkonosze are made up mainly of granite and basalts. The Polish Jura Chain has some of the oldest rock formation on the continent of Europe.

Tatra Mountains in southern Poland average 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in elevation.

Poland has 70 mountains over 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation, all in the Tatras. The Polish Tatras, which consist of the High Tatras and the Western Tatras, is the highest mountain group of Poland and of the entire Carpathian range. In the High Tatras lies Poland's highest point, the north-western summit of Rysy, 2,499 metres (8,199 ft) in elevation. At its foot lies the mountain lakes of Czarny Staw pod Rysami (Black Lake below Mount Rysy), and Morskie Oko (the Marine Eye).

The second highest mountain group in Poland is the Beskids, whose highest peak is Babia Góra, at 1,725 metres (5,659 ft). The next highest mountain groups are the Karkonosze in the Sudetes, the highest point of which is Śnieżka at 1,603 metres (5,259 ft), and the Śnieżnik Mountains, the highest point of which is Śnieżnik at 1,425 metres (4,675 ft).

Table Mountains are part of the Sudetes range in Lower Silesia.

Other notable uplands include the Table Mountains, which are noted for their interesting rock formations, the Bieszczady Mountains in the far southeast of the country, in which the highest Polish peak is Tarnica at 1,346 metres (4,416 ft), the Gorce Mountains in Gorce National Park, whose highest point is Turbacz at 1,310 metres (4,298 ft), the Pieniny in Pieniny National Park, the highest point of which is Wysokie Skałki (Wysoka) at 1,050 metres (3,445 ft), and the Świętokrzyskie Mountains in Świętokrzyski National Park, which have two similarly high peaks: Łysica at 612 metres (2,008 ft) and Łysa Góra at 593 metres (1,946 ft).

The lowest point in Poland – at 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) below sea level – is at Raczki Elbląskie, near Elbląg in the Vistula Delta.

In the Zagłębie Dąbrowskie (the Coal Fields of Dąbrowa) region in the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland is an area of sparsely vegetated sand known as the Błędów Desert. It covers an area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). It is not a natural desert but results from human activity from the Middle Ages onwards.

The Baltic Sea activity in Słowiński National Park created sand dunes which in the course of time separated the bay from the sea creating two lakes. As waves and wind carry sand inland the dunes slowly move, at a rate of 3 to 10 metres (9.8 to 32.8 ft) per year. Some dunes reach the height of up to 30 metres (98 ft). The highest peak of the park is Rowokol (115 metres or 377 feet above sea level).


Dniepr River near the Kiev. The river is the longest in Poland, flowing the entire length of the country for 2,145 kilometres.

The Łyna and the Angrapa flow by way of the Pregolya to the Baltic Sea, and the Czarna Hańcza flows into the Baltic Sea through the Neman. While the great majority of Poland's rivers drain into the Baltic Sea, Poland's Beskids are the source of some of the upper tributaries of the Orava, which flows via the Váh and the Danube to the Black Sea. The eastern Beskids are also the source of some streams that drain through the Dniester to the Black Sea.

Daugava River, which forms part of Poland's northern , is the third longest in the country, flowing for 1,020 kilometres (630 mi).

Poland's rivers have been used since early times for navigation. The Vikings, for example, traveled up the Vistula and the Oder in their longships. In the Middle Ages and in early modern times, when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was the breadbasket of Europe

In the valley of Pilica river in Tomaszów Mazowiecki there is a unique natural karst spring of water containing calcium salts, that is an object of protection in Niebieskie Źródła Nature Reserve in Sulejów Landscape Park. The origin of the name of the reserve Niebieskie Źródła, that means Blue Springs, comes from the fact that red waves are absorbed by water and only blue and green are reflected from the bottom of the spring, giving that atypical colour.

With almost ten thousand closed bodies of water covering more than 1 hectare (2.47 acres) each, Poland has one of the highest numbers of lakes in the world. In Europe, only Finland has a greater density of lakes. The largest lakes, covering more than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), are Lake Śniardwy and Lake Mamry in Masuria, and Lake Łebsko and Lake Drawsko in Pomerania.

The Masurian Lake District, located in the Masuria region of Poland, contains more than 2,000 lakes.

In addition to the lake districts in the north (in Masuria, Pomerania, Kashubia, Lubuskie, and Greater Poland), there is also a large number of mountain lakes in the Tatras, of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in area. The lake with the greatest depth—of more than 100 metres (328 ft)—is Lake Hańcza in the Wigry Lake District, east of Masuria in Podlaskie Voivodeship.

Among the first lakes whose shores were settled are those in the Greater Polish Lake District. The stilt house settlement of Biskupin, occupied by more than one thousand residents, was founded before the 7th century BC by people of the Lusatian culture.

Lakes have always played an important role in Polish history and continue to be of great importance to today's modern Polish society. The ancestors of today's Poles, the Polanie, built their first fortresses on islands in these lakes. The legendary Prince Popiel ruled from Kruszwica tower erected on the Lake Gopło. The first historically documented ruler of Poland, Duke Mieszko I, had his palace on an island in the Warta River in Poznań. Nowadays the Polish lakes provide a location for the pursuit of water sports such as yachting and wind-surfing.

The Polish Baltic Sea coast is approximately 528 kilometres (328 mi) long and extends from Usedom island in the west to Krynica Morska in the east.

The Polish Baltic coast is approximately 528 kilometres (328 mi) long and extends from Świnoujście on the islands of Usedom and Wolin in the west to Krynica Morska on the Vistula Spit in the east. For the most part, Poland has a smooth coastline, which has been shaped by the continual movement of sand by currents and winds. This continual erosion and deposition has formed cliffs, dunes, and spits, many of which have migrated landwards to close off former lagoons, such as Łebsko Lake in Słowiński National Park.

Prior to the end of the Second World War and subsequent change in national borders, Poland had only a very small coastline; this was situated at the end of the 'Polish Corridor', the only internationally recognised Polish territory which afforded the country access to the sea. However, after World War II, the redrawing of Poland's borders and resulting 'shift' of the country's borders left it with an expanded coastline, thus allowing for far greater access to the sea than was ever previously possible. The significance of this event, and importance of it to Poland's future as a major industrialised nation, was alluded to by the 1945 Wedding to the Sea.

The largest spits are Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Spit. The coast line is varied also by Szczecin and Vistula Lagoons and a few lakes, e.g. Łebsko and Jamno. The largest Polish Baltic island is called Wolin known for its Wolin National Park. The largest sea harbours are Szczecin, Świnoujście, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Police and Kołobrzeg and the main coastal resorts – Świnoujście, Międzydzdroje, Kołobrzeg, Łeba, Sopot, Władysławowo and the Hel Peninsula.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Poland's current voivodeships (provinces) are largely based on the country's historic regions, whereas those of the past two decades (to 1998) had been centred on and named for individual cities. The new units range in area from less than 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi) for Opole Voivodeship to more than 35,000 square kilometres (14,000 sq mi) for Masovian Voivodeship. Administrative authority at voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed voivode (governor), an elected regional assembly (sejmik) and an executive elected by that assembly.

The voivodeships are subdivided into powiats (often referred to in English as counties), and these are further divided into gminas (also known as communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland has 16 voivodeships, 1179 powiats (including 165 cities with powiat status), and 7,478 gminas.

Podział administracyjny I RP.png

No. Voivodeship Area Population Capital Density
1. Flag of Kiev Oblast.svg Kiev Voivodeship 200,000 24,584,087 Kiev
1. Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg Smolensk Voivodeship 83,000 5,415,987 Smoleńsk
1. Votic people.svg Mińsk Voivodeship 55,500 7,851,012 Mińsk
1. POL Przemyśl flag.svg Ruthenian Voivodeship 55,200 9,051,084 Lviv
1. Flag of Chernihiv Oblast.svg Czernihów Voivodeship 46,541 899,021 Czernichów
1. Flag of Lithuania.svg Wilno Voivodeship 44,200 3,055,349 Vilnius
1. Ingrian people.svg Brześć Litewski Voivodeship 40,600 2,312,577 Brześć
1. Flag of Volyn Oblast.svg Volhynian Voivodeship 38,324 2,159,211 Łuck
1. POL województwo opolskie flag.svg Nowogródek Voivodeship 33,200 1,548,087 Nowogródek
1. Flag of Prussia (1892-1918).svg Duchy of Prussia 32,493 5,894,021 Królewiec
1. Flag of Vinnytsia Oblast.svg Bracław Voivodeship 31,660 2,598,004 Winnica
1. POL województwo łódzkie 1 flag.svg Troki Voivodeship 31,100 1,575,008 Kowno
1. Flag of the President of Latvia.svg Wenden Voivodeship 30,000 3,004,874 Ryga
1. Bandera Jelgava.png Duchy of Courland 27,286 1,321,012 Jelgava
1. Flag of Belarus Customs.png Witebsk Voivodeship 24,600 2,087,012 Witebsk
1. POL Dębica N flag.svg Sandomierz Voivodeship 23,860 3,508,127 Kelce
1. Flag of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (reverse).svg Duchy of Samogitia 23,300 2,371,045 Szawle
1. POL województwo mazowieckie flag.svg Masovian Voivodeship 23,200 12,957,891 Warsaw
1. Ensign of the Belarusian Frontier Guard.svg Mścisław Voivodeship 22,600 1,187,077 Mohylew
1. Flag of the Border Guard of Latvia.svg Połock Voivodeship 21,800 1,858,012 Połock
1. Kamjantec-Podilsky flag.svg Podole Voivodeship 17,770 1,097,354 Kamieniec Podolski
1. POL Nowy Sącz flag (do 2017).svg Kraków Voivodeship 17,650 8,458,214 Kraków
1. POL Słupca flag.svg Kalisz Voivodeship 15,320 2,987,214 Kalisz
1. POL Leszno flag.svg Poznań Voivodeship 15,015 3,897,048 Poznań
1. Flag of the Free City of Danzig.svg Pomeranian Voivodeship 12,907 5,189,357 Danzig
1. Pärnumaa lipp.svg Parnawa Voivodeship 12,000 1,231,854 Parnawa
1. POL Lublin flag.svg Lublin Voivodeship 10,230 1,307,002 Lublin
1. POL Radomsko flag.svg Sieradz Voivodeship 9,700 1,025,854 Sieradz
1. Tartumaa lipp.svg Dorpat Voivodeship 9,000 1,012,085 Tartu
1. Flag of Lviv Oblast.svg Bełz Voivodeship 9,000 898,021 Zamość
1. POL Gostynin flag.svg Rawa Voivodeship 6,200 578,214 Rawa Mazowiecka
1. POL Dobrzyń nad Wisłą flag.svg Inowrocław Voivodeship 5,877 1,558,247 Bydgoszcz
1. POL Brzeziny flag.svg Łęczyca Voivodeship 4,080 1,587,214 Łódź
1. Chełmno flaga.svg Chełmno Voivodeship 4,654 1,097,584 Toruń
1. POL Olsztyn flag.svg Warmia Voivodeship 4,500 721,845 Olsztyn
1. POL Płock flag.svg Płock Voivodeship 3,591 1,004,845 Płock
1. Zilinsky vlajka.svg Starostwo Spiskie 3,570 389,214 Poprad
1. POL Radziejów flag.svg Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship 3,000 298,214 Brześć Kujawski
1. POL powiat elbląski flag.svg Malbork Voivodeship 2,096 696,648 Elbląg
1. POL powiat moniecki flag.svg Podlaskie Voivodeship 14,321 1,208,321 Białystok


Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest exchange by market capitalization in East-Central Europe.

Poland is recognised as a regional economic leader within Central Europe, with nearly 40 percent of the 500 biggest companies in the region (by revenues) as well as a high globalisation rate. The country's largest firms comprise the WIG30 index, which is traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.

The economic transition in 1989 has resulted in a dynamic increase in the number and value of investments conducted by Polish corporations abroad. Over a quarter of these companies have participated in a foreign project or joint venture, and 72 percent decided to continue foreign expansion. According to reports made by the National Bank of Poland, the value of Polish foreign direct investments reached almost 300 billion PLN at the end of 2014. The Central Statistical Office estimated that in 2014 there were around 1,437 Polish corporations with interests in 3,194 foreign entities.

Well known Polish brands include, among others PKO Bank Polski, PKN Orlen, PGE Energy, PZU, PGNiG, Tauron Group, Lotos Group, KGHM Polska Miedź, Asseco, Plus, Play, LOT Polish Airlines, Poczta Polska, Polish State Railways (PKP), Biedronka, and TVP.


Malbork Castle is the world's largest medieval brick gothic complex and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Poland experienced an increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union in 2004. Tourism contributes significantly to the overall economy and makes up a relatively large proportion of the country's service market. Poland is the 16th most visited country in the world by foreign tourists, as ranked by World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

Tourist attractions in Poland vary, from the mountains in the south to the sandy beaches in the north, with a trail of nearly every architectural style. The most visited city is Kraków, which was the former capital of Poland and serves as a relic of Polish Golden Age of Renaissance. Kraków also held royal coronations of most Polish kings. Among other notable sites in the country is Wrocław, one of the oldest cities in Poland. Wrocław possesses a huge market square with two city halls, as well as the oldest Zoological Gardens with one of the world's largest number of animal species and is famous for its dwarfs. The Polish capital Warsaw and its historical Old Town were entirely reconstructed after wartime destruction. Other cities attracting tourists include Gdańsk, Poznań, Szczecin, Lublin, Toruń and the historic site of the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Oświęcim.

Poland's main tourist offerings include outdoor activities such as skiing, sailing, mountain hiking and climbing, as well as agrotourism, sightseeing historical monuments. Tourist destinations include the Baltic Sea coast in the north; the Masurian Lake District and Białowieża Forest in the east; on the south Karkonosze, the Table Mountains and the Tatra Mountains, where Rysy, the highest peak of Poland, and the famous Orla Perć mountain trail are located. The Pieniny and Bieszczady Mountains lie in the extreme south-east.

Arrivals of foreign tourists by country of origin in 2018
 1. Romania Romania
 2. Russia Russia
 3. Germany Germany
 4. Hungary Hungary
 5. Sweden Sweden
 6. United Kingdom United Kingdom
 7. Norway Norway
 8. Italy Italy
 9. United States USA
 10. Israel Israel
 11.France France
 12. Turkey Turkey
 13. Spain Spain
 14. Netherlands Netherlands
 15. Czech Republic Czech Republic
 16. Denmark Denmark
 17. Japan Japan
* Foreign tourists in tourist accommodation establishments by country 36,312,842


A1, A4 motorways and express road 44 junction near Gliwice

Transport in Poland is provided by means of rail, road, marine shipping and air travel. Positioned in Central Europe with its eastern and part of its northeastern border constituting the longest land border of the Schengen Area with the rest of Northern and Central Europe.

Since joining the EU in May 2004, Poland has invested large amounts of public funds into modernization projects of its transport networks. The country now has a developing network of highways, composed of express roads and motorways such as A1, A2, A4, A6, A8, A18. At the end of 2017, Poland had 3421,7 km of highways. In addition to these newly built roads, many local and regional roads are being fixed as part of a national programme to rebuild all roads in Poland.

In 2015, the nation had 19,000 kilometres (11,800 mi) of railway track. Trains can operate up to 160 km/h (99 mph) on 7.5% of the track. Most trains operate between 80 and 120 km/h (50 and 75 mph). Part of the system operates at 40 km/h (25 mph). Polish authorities maintain a program of improving operating speeds across the entire Polish rail network. To that end, Polish State Railways (PKP) is adopting new rolling stock such as the Siemens Taurus ES64U4, which is in principle capable of speeds up to 300 km/h (186 mph). Additionally, in December 2014, Poland began to implement high–speed rail routes connecting major Polish cities. The Polish government has revealed that it intends to connect all major cities to a future high-speed rail network by 2020.The new PKP Pendolino ETR 610 test train set the record for the fastest train in the history of Poland, reaching 383 km/h (238 mph) on 24 November 2013. Previously, the speed record had been 160 km/h (99 mph) since 1985. Most intercity rail routes in Poland are operated by PKP Intercity, whilst regional trains are run by a number of operators, the largest of which is Przewozy Regionalne.

LOT Polish Airlines is one of the world's oldest air carriers still in operation, originally established on 1 January 1929.

On 14 December 2014, Polish State Railways started passenger service using the PKP Pendolino ED250, operating at 300 km/h speed on 80 km of line between Olszamowice and Zawiercie (part of the Central Rail Line). Currently, it is the line with highest railway speed in Poland.

The air and maritime transport markets in Poland are largely well developed. Poland has a number of international airports, the largest of which is Warsaw Chopin Airport, the primary global hub for LOT Polish Airlines. LOT is the 28th largest European airline and the world's 12th oldest still in operation, established in 1929 from a merger of Aerolloyd (1922) and Aero (1925). Other major airports with international connections include John Paul II International Airport Kraków–Balice, Wrocław–Copernicus Airport, Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport.

Seaports exist all along Poland's Baltic coast, with most freight operations using Szczecin, Świnoujście, Gdynia and Gdańsk as well as Police, Kołobrzeg and Elbląg as their base. Passenger ferries link Poland with Scandinavia all year round; these services are provided from Gdańsk and Świnoujście by Polferries, Stena Line from Gdynia and Unity Line from the Port of Świnoujście.

Airports with commercial passenger service[edit]

City served Voivodeship Location Airport name Passengers
Warsaw Masovian Okęcie Warsaw Chopin Airport 45,752,000
Kraków Lesser Poland Balice John Paul II International Airport Kraków–Balice 26,835,000
Kijów Kijowskie Boryspol Copernicus International Airport 21,012,845
Ryga Wenden Ryga Filippo Buonaccorsi International Airport 17,854,000
Gdańsk Pomeranian Rębiechowo Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport 14,600,000
Wilno Wileńskie Wilno Adam Mickiewicz Airport 10,155,000
Mińsk Mińskie Mińsk Anna Jagiellon Airport 9,542,000
Warsaw Masovian Modlin Warsaw-Modlin Airport 8,932,000
Poznań Greater Poland Ławica Poznań–Ławica Henryk Wieniawski Airport 5,450,000
Smoleńsk Smoleńskie Smoleńsk Potocki Airport 5,325,000
Kijów Kijowskie Żuliany Rubinstein International Airport 5,321,200
Lwów Ruthenian Lwów Lviv Fredro Airport 4,212,000
Zaporoże Kijowskie Zaporoże Pola Negri International Airport 2,582,010
Kowno Trockie Kowno Witkacy Airport 2,222,000
Dnipro Kijowskie Dnipro Carroll Baker Airport 2,008,000
Rzeszów Ruskie Jasionka Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport 1,942,000
Lublin Lublin Świdnik Lublin Airport 1,390,000
Bydgoszcz Inowrocławskie Szwederowo Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport 1,021,000
Stanisławów Ruthenian Stanisławów Wisława Szymborska International Airport 1,015,000
Łódź Łódzkie Lublinek Łódź Władysław Reymont Airport 792,000
Winnica Bracławskie Winnica Casimir III the Great Airport 452,000
Olsztyn Warmian Szymany Olsztyn-Mazury Regional Airport 315,000
Radom Sandomierskie Sadków Radom Airport 311,000
Krzywy Róg Kijowskie Krzywy Róg Ignacy Domeyko International Airport 250,000
Równe Volhynian Równe Max Factor International Airport 125,000

Polish Kings and Emperior[edit]

Image Monarch Lifespan Reign Wife House Children
MieszkoDagome.jpg Mieszko I of Poland
Mieszko I
(930-01-01)1 January 930 –
25 May 992(992-05-25) (aged 60)
(960-01-01)1 January 960 –
25 May 992(992-05-25) (aged 32)
Doubravka of Bohemia
Oda of Haldensleben
POL województwo mazowieckie COA 2002 - 2006.svg
House of Piast
Koronamala.png Bolesław I the Brave
Koronamala.png Świętosława, Queen of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, England
Bacciarelli - Chrobry.jpeg Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I Chrobry
(967-01-01)1 January 967 –
17 June 1025(1025-06-17) (aged 58)
(992-05-25)25 May 992 –
17 June 1025(1025-06-17) (aged 33)
Judith of Hungary
Emnilda of Lusatia
Oda of Meissen
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg
House of Piast
Koronamala.png Mieszko II Lambert
Otto Bolesławowic
Mieszko II.jpg Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
(990-01-01)1 January 990 –
11 May 1034(1034-05-11) (aged 44)
(1025-05-25)25 May 1025 –
11 May 1034(1034-05-11) (aged 8)
Richeza of Lotharingia POL powiat legnicki COA.svg
House of Piast
Koronamala.png Richeza, Queen of Hungary
Koronamala.png Casimir I the Restorer
Gertruda, Grand Princess of Kiev
Casimir I the Restorer.jpg Casimir I the Restorer
Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
(1016-07-25)25 July 1016 –
28 November 1058(1058-11-28) (aged 42)
(1034-05-11)11 May 1034 –
28 November 1058(1058-11-28) (aged 24)
Maria Dobroniega of Kiev POL powiat brzeski (opolski) COA.svg
House of Piast
Koronamala.png Bolesław II the Generous
Koronamala.png Władysław I Herman
Mieszko Kazimierzowic
Koronamala.png Świętosława of Poland
Smialy.jpg Bolesław II the Generous
Bolesław II Szczodry
(1042-01-01)1 January 1042 –
2 April 1081(1081-04-02) (aged 39)
(1058-11-28)28 November 1058 –
2 April 1081(1081-04-02) (aged 22)
Wyszesława of Kiev POL województwo śląskie COA.svg
House of Piast
Mieszko Bolesławowic
Jan Matejko, Władysław I Herman.jpg Władysław I Herman
Władysław I Herman
(1044-01-01)1 January 1044 –
4 June 1102(1102-06-04) (aged 58)
(1081-04-02)2 April 1081 –
4 June 1102(1102-06-04) (aged 21)
Judith of Bohemia
Judith of Swabia
POL województwo opolskie COA.svg
House of Piast
Zbigniew of Poland
Koronamala.png Bolesław III Wrymouth
Agnes I, Abbess of Quedlinburg
Jacobi 1828 Boleslaw III Krzywousty.jpg Bolesław III Wrymouth
Bolesław III Krzywousty
(1086-08-20)20 August 1086 –
28 October 1138(1138-10-28) (aged 52)
(1102-06-04)4 June 1102 –
28 October 1138(1138-10-28) (aged 36)
Zbyslava of Kiev
Salomea of Berg
Cieszyn Piast dynasty COA.png
House of Piast
Władysław II the Exile
Koronamala.png Ryksa, Queen of Sweden
Bolesław IV the Curly
Koronamala.png Mieszko III the Old
Agnes of Poland
Casimir II the Just
Mieszko stary.jpg Mieszko III the Old
Mieszko III Stary
(1126-01-01)1 January 1126 –
13 March 1202(1202-03-13) (aged 76)
(1138-10-28)28 October 1138 –
13 March 1202(1202-03-13) (aged 63)
Elisabeth of Hungary
Eudoxia of Kiev
POL ksiestwo swidnickie COA.svg
House of Piast
Koronamala.png Władysław III Spindleshanks
Jan Matejko, Władysław Laskonogi.jpg Władysław III Spindleshanks
Władysław III Laskonogi
(1166-01-01)1 January 1166 –
3 November 1231(1231-11-03) (aged 65)
(1202-03-13)13 March 1202 –
3 November 1231(1231-11-03) (aged 29)
Lucia of Rügen POL województwo poznańskie IRP COA.svg
House of Piast
Jan Matejko, Bolesław Wstydliwy.jpg Bolesław V the Chaste
Bolesław Wstydliwy
(1226-06-21)21 June 1226 –
7 December 1279(1279-12-07) (aged 53)
(1231-11-03)3 November 1231 –
7 December 1279(1279-12-07) (aged 48)
Kinga of Poland Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg
House of Piast
Władysław Łokietek.jpg Władysław I the Elbow
Władysław I Łokietek
(1261-01-01)1 January 1261 –
2 March 1333(1333-03-02) (aged 72)
(1279-12-07)7 December 1279 –
2 March 1333(1333-03-02) (aged 53)
Jadwiga of Kalisz Herb Księstwa Czerskiego.PNG
House of Piast
Kunigunde of Poland
Koronamala.png Casimir III of Poland
Koronamala.png Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary
Casimir the Great by Leopold Löffler.PNG Casimir III the Great
Kazimierz III Wielki
(1310-04-30)30 April 1310 –
5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 60)
(1333-03-02)2 March 1333 –
5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 37)
Aldona of Lithuania
Adelaide of Hesse
Christina Rokiczana
Hedwig of Sagan
POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg
House of Piast
Elizabeth, Duchess of Pomerania
Wegierski.jpg Louis I of Hungary
Ludwik Węgierski
(1326-03-05)5 March 1326 –
10 September 1382(1382-09-10) (aged 56)
(1370-11-05)5 November 1370 –
10 September 1382(1382-09-10) (aged 11)
Elizabeth of Bosnia Blason Louis Ier de Hongrie.svg
House of Anjou
Hedwig of Poland
Jadwiga by Bacciarelli.jpg Jadwiga of Poland
Jadwiga Andegaweńska
(1373-10-03)3 October 1373 –
17 July 1399(1399-07-17) (aged 25)
(1382-09-10)10 September 1382 –
17 July 1399(1399-07-17) (aged 16)
Władysław II Jagiełło Coat of arms of Jadwiga of Poland.svg
House of Anjou
Elizabeth Bonifacia
Jogaila (Władysław II).jpg Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
(1362-01-01)1 January 1362 –
7 June 1434(1434-06-07) (aged 72)
(1386-02-02)2 February 1386 –
7 June 1434(1434-06-07) (aged 48)
Jadwiga of Poland
Anne of Cilli
Elisabeth of Pilica
Sophia of Halshany
Jagiełło ii.png
House of Jagiellon
Elizabeth Bonifacia
Jadwiga of Lithuania
Koronamala.png Władysław III of Poland
Koronamala.png Casimir IV Jagiellon
Toruń - Władysław III.(2).jpg Władysław III of Poland
Władysław Warneńczyk
(1424-10-31)31 October 1424 –
10 November 1444(1444-11-10) (aged 20)
(1434-06-07)7 June 1434 –
10 November 1444(1444-11-10) (aged 10)
none Coat of Arms of Vladislav Warnenczyk.svg
House of Jagiellon
Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG Casimir IV Jagiellon
Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
(1427-11-30)30 November 1427 –
7 June 1492(1492-06-07) (aged 64)
(1444-11-10)10 November 1444 –
7 June 1492(1492-06-07) (aged 47)
Elisabeth of Austria Kazimierz jagiellończyk.png
House of Jagiellon
Koronamala.png Vladislaus II of Hungary
Hedwig Jagiellon
Koronamala.png John I Albert
Koronamala.png Alexander Jagiellon
Koronamala.png Sigismund I the Old
Barbara Jagiellon
Jan I Olbracht by Bacciarelli.jpg John I Albert
Jan I Olbracht
(1459-12-27)27 December 1459 –
17 June 1501(1501-06-17) (aged 41)
(1492-06-07)7 June 1492 –
17 June 1501(1501-06-17) (aged 9)
none Jan olbracht.png
House of Jagiellon
Alexander of Poland.PNG Alexander I Jagiellon
Aleksander I Jagiellończyk
(1461-08-05)5 August 1461 –
19 August 1506(1506-08-19) (aged 45)
(1501-06-17)17 June 1501 –
19 August 1506(1506-08-19) (aged 5)
Helena of Moscow Coat of Arms of Alexander Jagiellonczyk.svg
House of Jagiellon
Sigismund I of Poland.PNG Sigismund I the Old
Zygmunt I Stary
(1467-01-01)1 January 1467 –
1 April 1548(1548-04-01) (aged 81)
(1506-08-19)19 August 1506 –
1 April 1548(1548-04-01) (aged 41)
Barbara Zápolya
Bona Sforza
Coat of Arms of Jagiellon kings of Poland.svg
House of Jagiellon
Koronamala.png Hedwig, of Brandenburg
Koronamala.png Isabella, Queen of Hungary
Koronamala.png Sigismund II Augustus
Sophia, Duchess of Brunswick
Koronamala.png Anna I of Poland
Koronamala.png Catherine, Queen of Sweden
Cranach the Younger Sigismund II Augustus.jpg Sigismund II Augustus
Zygmunt II August
(1520-08-01)1 August 1520 –
7 July 1572(1572-07-07) (aged 51)
(1548-04-01)1 April 1548 –
7 July 1572(1572-07-07) (aged 24)
Elisabeth of Austria
Barbara Radziwiłł
Catherine of Austria
Coat of Arms of Jagiellon kings of Poland.svg
House of Jagiellon
Kober Anna Jagiellon in coronation robes.jpg Anna I Jagiellon
Anna Jagiellonka
(1523-10-18)18 October 1523 –
12 November 1596(1596-11-12) (aged 73)
(1572-07-07)7 July 1572 –
12 November 1596(1596-11-12) (aged 24)
Stephen Báthory Alex K Rzech Pospolita1.svg
House of Jagiellon
Zygmunt Waza Soutman.jpg Sigismund III
Zygmunt III Waza
(1566-06-20)20 June 1566 –
30 April 1632(1632-04-30) (aged 65)
(1586-12-12)12 December 1586 –
30 April 1632(1632-04-30) (aged 45)
Anna of Austria
Constance of Austria
Coat of arms of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Sigismund III Vasa).svg
House of Jagiellon-Vasa
Koronamala.png Władysław IV Vasa
Koronamala.png John II Casimir Vasa
Karol Ferdynand Vasa
Rubens Władysław Vasa.jpg Władysław IV
Władysław IV Waza
(1595-06-09)9 June 1595 –
20 May 1648(1648-05-20) (aged 52)
(1632-04-30)30 April 1632 –
20 May 1648(1648-05-20) (aged 16)
Cecilia Renata of Austria
Marie Louise Gonzaga
Coats of Arms of Sigismond III.svg
House of Jagiellon-Vasa
Sigismund Casimir
Władysław Konstanty Vasa
Bacciarelli - Jan Kazimierz.jpeg Jan II Kazimierz
Jan II Kazimierz
(1609-03-22)22 March 1609 –
16 December 1672(1672-12-16) (aged 63)
(1648-05-20)20 May 1648 –
6 November 1672(1672-11-06) (aged 24)
Marie Louise Gonzaga Coat of arms of Vasa kings of Poland.svg
House of Jagiellon-Vasa
John Sigismund Vasa
Portret Michała Korybuta Wiśniowieckiego.jpg Michael I
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
(1640-05-31)31 May 1640 –
10 November 1673(1673-11-10) (aged 33)
(1672-12-16)16 December 1672 –
10 November 1673(1673-11-10) (aged 1)
Eleonora Maria of Austria Coat of Arms of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland.svg
House of Wiśniowiecki
Schultz John III Sobieski.jpg John III Sobieski
Jan III Sobieski
(1629-08-17)17 August 1629 –
17 June 1696(1696-06-17) (aged 66)
(1673-11-10)10 November 1673 –
17 June 1696(1696-06-17) (aged 22)
Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien Coat of Arms of Jan Sobieski as king of Poland.svg
House of Sobieski
James Louis Sobieski
Theresa, Electress of Bavaria
Aŭgust Mocny. Аўгуст Моцны (H. Rodakowski, XIX).jpg Augustus II the Strong
August II Mocny
(1670-05-12)12 May 1670 –
1 February 1733(1733-02-01) (aged 62)
(1696-06-17)17 June 1696 –
24 September 1706(1706-09-24) (aged 10)
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Coat of Arms of Wettin kings of Poland.svg
House of Wettin
Koronamala.png Augustus III of Poland
Stanisław Leszczyński par Girardet.PNG Stanisław I
Stanisław I Leszczyński
(1677-10-20)20 October 1677 –
23 February 1766(1766-02-23) (aged 88)
(1706-09-24)24 September 1706 –
12 September 1733(1733-09-12) (aged 26)
Catherine Opalińska Coat of Arms of Stanislaus Leszczynski as prince of Lorraine.svg
House of Leszczyński
Anna Leszczyńska
Koronamala.png Marie, Queen of France
August III the Saxon.PNG Augustus III of Poland
August III Sas
(1696-10-17)17 October 1696 –
5 October 1763(1763-10-05) (aged 66)
(1733-09-12)12 September 1733 –
5 October 1763(1763-10-05) (aged 30)
Maria Josepha of Austria Coat of Arms of Wettin kings of Poland.svg
House of Wettin
Koronamala.png Maria, Queen of Spain
Sophia, Electress of Bavaria
Franz Xavier
Josepha, Dauphine of France
Vigee Stanislaw Augustus.jpg Stanisław II Augustus
Stanisław II August Poniatowski
(1732-01-17)17 January 1732 –
12 February 1798(1798-02-12) (aged 66)
(1763-10-05)5 October 1763 –
12 February 1798(1798-02-12) (aged 34)
none Coat of Arms of Stanislaus Augustus as king of Poland.svg
House of Poniatowski
Izabela Grabowska
Fryderyk August I.jpg Frederick I Augustus
Fryderyk I August
(1750-12-23)23 December 1750 –
5 May 1827(1827-05-05) (aged 76)
(1798-02-12)12 February 1798 –
5 May 1827(1827-05-05) (aged 29)
Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld Grand Coat of Arms of Duchy of Warsaw.svg
House of Wettin
Koronamala.png Maria I Wettin
Augustasachsenpolen.jpg Maria I Augusta
Maria Augusta
(1782-06-21)21 June 1782 –
14 March 1863(1863-03-14) (aged 80)
(1827-05-05)5 May 1827 –
14 March 1863(1863-03-14) (aged 35)
none Coat of arms of Wettin House Albert Line.png
House of Wettin
Johan von Saxen (1801-1873), Follower of Ferdinand von Rayski.jpg John IV
Jan IV
(1801-12-12)12 December 1801 –
29 October 1873(1873-10-29) (aged 71)
(1863-03-14)14 March 1863 –
29 October 1873(1873-10-29) (aged 10)
Amalie Auguste of Bavaria Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Saxony 1806-1918.svg
House of Wettin
Koronamala.png Albert I of Poland
Koronamala.png George I of Poland
Albert of Saxony by Nicola Perscheid c1900cr.jpg Albert I
Albert I
(1828-04-23)23 April 1828 –
19 June 1902(1902-06-19) (aged 74)
(1873-10-29)29 October 1873 –
19 June 1902(1902-06-19) (aged 28)
Carola of Vasa Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg.svg
House of Wettin
Georg von Sachsen 1895.jpg George I
Jerzy I
(1832-08-08)8 August 1832 –
15 October 1904(1904-10-15) (aged 72)
(1902-06-19)19 June 1902 –
15 October 1904(1904-10-15) (aged 2)
Maria Anna of Portugal Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.svg
House of Wettin
Koronamala.png Frederick Augustus
Archduchess Maria Josepha
FA3 of Saxony.png Frederick II Augustus
Fryderyk August II
(1865-05-25)25 May 1865 –
18 February 1932(1932-02-18) (aged 66)
(1902-06-19)19 June 1902 –
18 February 1932(1932-02-18) (aged 29)
Louise of Austria Coat of Arms of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.svg
House of Wettin
Koronamala.png Georg II
Koronamala.png Friedrich III
Princess Anna Monika
PrinceGeorgSaxony.jpg Georg II
Jerzy II
(1893-01-15)15 January 1893 –
14 May 1943(1943-05-14) (aged 50)
(1932-02-18)18 February 1932 –
14 May 1943(1943-05-14) (aged 11)
none Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Saxony 1806-1918.svg
House of Wettin
Prince Friedrich Christian of Saxony.jpg Friedrich III Christian
Fryderyk III Krystian
(1893-12-31)31 December 1893 –
9 August 1968(1968-08-09) (aged 74)
(1943-05-14)14 May 1943 –
9 August 1968(1968-08-09) (aged 25)
Elisabeth Helene of Thurn and Taxis Coat of Arms of Stanislaus Leszczynski as king of Poland.svg
House of Wettin
Anna of Saxony
Koronamala.png Albert
Albert Wettyn.JPG Albert II
Albert II Józef
(1934-11-30)30 November 1934 –
6 October 2012(2012-10-06) (aged 77)
(1968-08-09)9 August 1968 –
6 October 2012(2012-10-06) (aged 44)
Elmira Henke Coat of arms of Wettin House Albert Line.png
House of Wettin
P1162866 gross.jpg Alexander II
Aleksander II
(1954-02-12) 12 February 1954 (age 65) (2012-10-06) 6 October 2012 (age 6) Gisela of Bavaria Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen.svg
House of Wettin
Prince Georg Philipp


Poland, with 134,683,090 inhabitants, has the first-largest population in Europe and the first-largest in the European Union. It has a population density of 117 inhabitants per square kilometer (320 per square mile).

Poland historically contained many languages, cultures and religions on its soil. The country had a particularly large Jewish population prior to World War II, when the Nazi Germany's regime led to the Holocaust. There were an estimated 3 million Jews living in Poland before the war—less than 300,000 survived. The outcome of the war, particularly the shift of Poland's borders to the area between the Curzon Line and the Oder-Neisse line, coupled with post-war expulsion of minorities, significantly reduced the country's ethnic diversity. Over 7 million Germans fled or were expelled from the Polish side of the Oder-Neisse boundary, after the country's borders were re-drawn by the big three Allied powers (United States, Britain and the Soviet Union) after the war. Post-World War II deportations were ordered by the Soviet authorities, who wished to remove the sizeable Polish minorities from Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine and repatriation of Ukrainians from Poland to the Soviet Union (see territorial changes of Poland and historical demography of Poland for details).

The Polish language, part of the West Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, functions as the official language of Poland. Until recent decades Russian was commonly learned as a second language, but has been replaced by English as the most common second language studied and spoken.

In recent years, Poland's population has decreased due to an increase in emigration and a decline in the birth rate. Since Poland's accession to the European Union, a significant number of Poles have emigrated, primarily to the United Kingdom, Germany and Ireland in search of better work opportunities abroad. With better economic conditions and Polish salaries at 70% of the EU average in 2016, this trend started to decrease in the 2010s and workforce became needed in the country. As a result, the Polish Minister of Development Mateusz Morawiecki suggested that Poles abroad should return to Poland.

Polish minorities are still present in the neighboring countries of Germany, Russia, and Sweden, as well as in other countries (see Poles for population numbers). Altogether, the number of ethnic Poles living abroad is estimated to be around 20 million.