User:Ruud Koot/Categorisation scheme (computer science)

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Contents

Categorisation[edit]

Category:Computer science[edit]

Category:Computing[edit]

Category:Information science[edit]

Category:Information technology[edit]

Category:Software[edit]

Category:Software engineering[edit]

ACM mapping[edit]

General Literature (→ Category:Computer science literature)[edit]

Introductory and Survey (→ Category:Computer science literature)[edit]

Reference (→ Category:Computer science literature)[edit]

Hardware (→ Category:Computer engineering)[edit]

Control Structures and Microprogramming[edit]

      • B.1.0 General
      • B.1.1 Control Design Styles
        • Hardwired control *
        • Microprogrammed logic arrays *
        • Writable control store *
      • B.1.2 Control Structure Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis *
        • Formal models *
        • Simulation *
      • B.1.3 Control Structure Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance * (B.8)
        • Diagnostics *
        • Error-checking *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
      • B.1.4 Microprogram Design Aids (D.2.2, D.2.4, D.3.2, D.3.4)
        • Firmware engineering *
        • Languages and compilers
        • Machine-independent microcode generation *
        • Optimization
        • Verification *
      • B.1.5 Microcode Applications
        • Direct data manipulation *
        • Firmware support of operating systems/instruction sets *
        • Instruction set interpretation
        • Peripheral control *
        • Special-purpose *
      • B.1.m Miscellaneous

Arithmetic and Logic Structures[edit]

      • B.2.0 General
      • B.2.1 Design Styles (C.1.1, C.1.2)
        • Calculator *
        • Parallel
        • Pipeline
      • B.2.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids * (B.8)
        • Simulation *
        • Verification *
        • Worst-case analysis *
      • B.2.3 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance * (B.8)
        • Diagnostics *
        • Error-checking *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
      • B.2.4 High-Speed Arithmetic
        • Algorithms
        • Cost/performance
      • B.2.m Miscellaneous

Memory Structures[edit]

      • B.3.0 General
      • B.3.1 Semiconductor Memories (B.7.1)
        • Dynamic memory (DRAM)
        • Read-only memory (ROM)
        • Static memory (SRAM)
      • B.3.2 Design Styles (D.4.2)
        • Associative memories
        • Cache memories
        • Interleaved memories *
        • Mass storage (e.g., magnetic, optical, RAID)
        • Primary memory
        • Sequential-access memory *
        • Shared memory
        • Virtual memory
      • B.3.3 Performance Analysis and Design Aids * (B.8, C.4)
        • Formal models *
        • Simulation *
        • Worst-case analysis *
      • B.3.4 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance * (B.8)
        • Diagnostics *
        • Error-checking *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
      • B.3.m Miscellaneous

Input/Output and Datacommunications[edit]

      • B.4.0 General
      • B.4.1 Data Communications Devices
        • Processors *
        • Receivers (e.g., voice, data, image) *
        • Transmitters *
      • B.4.2 Input/Output Devices
        • Channels and controllers
        • Data terminals and printers
        • Image display
        • Voice
      • B.4.3 Interconnections (Subsystems)
        • Asynchronous/synchronous operation
        • Fiber optics
        • Interfaces
        • Parallel I/O
        • Physical structures (e.g., backplanes, cables, chip carriers) *
        • Topology (e.g., bus, point-to-point)
      • B.4.4 Performance Analysis and Design Aids * (B.8)
        • Formal models *
        • Simulation *
        • Verification *
        • Worst-case analysis *
      • B.4.5 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance * (B.8)
        • Built-in tests *
        • Diagnostics *
        • Error-checking *
        • Hardware reliability *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
      • B.4.m Miscellaneous

Register-Transfer-Level Implementation[edit]

      • B.5.0 General
      • B.5.1 Design
        • Arithmetic and logic units
        • Control design
        • Data-path design
        • Memory design
        • Styles (e.g., parallel, pipeline, special-purpose)
      • B.5.2 Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Hardware description languages
        • Optimization
        • Simulation
        • Verification
      • B.5.3 Reliability and Testing * (B.8)
        • Built-in tests *
        • Error-checking *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
        • Testability *
      • B.5.m Miscellaneous

Logic Design[edit]

      • B.6.0 General
      • B.6.1 Design Styles
        • Cellular arrays and automata
        • Combinational logic
        • Logic arrays
        • Memory control and access *
        • Memory used as logic *
        • Parallel circuits
        • Sequential circuits
      • B.6.2 Reliability and Testing * (B.8)
        • Built-in tests *
        • Error-checking *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
        • Testability *
      • B.6.3 Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Hardware description languages
        • Optimization
        • Simulation
        • Switching theory
        • Verification
      • B.6.m Miscellaneous

Integrated Circuits[edit]

      • B.7.0 General
      • B.7.1 Types and Design Styles
        • Advanced technologies
        • Algorithms implemented in hardware
        • Gate arrays
        • Input/output circuits
        • Memory technologies
        • Microprocessors and microcomputers
        • Standard cells *
        • VLSI (very large scale integration)
      • B.7.2 Design Aids
        • Graphics
        • Layout
        • Placement and routing
        • Simulation
        • Verification
      • B.7.3 Reliability and Testing * (B.8)
        • Built-in tests *
        • Error-checking *
        • Redundant design *
        • Test generation *
        • Testability *
      • B.7.m Miscellaneous

Performance and Reliability[edit]

      • B.8.0 General
      • B.8.1 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
      • B.8.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids
      • B.8.m Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous[edit]

      • Design management

Computer Systems Organization (→ Category:Computer architecture)[edit]

  • Hardware/software interfaces
  • Instruction set design (e.g., RISC, CISC, VLIW)
  • Modeling of computer architecture
  • System architectures
  • Systems specification methodology

Processor architectures[edit]

      • C.1.0 General
      • C.1.1 Single Data Stream Architectures
        • Multiple-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (MISD) *
        • Pipeline processors *
        • RISC/CISC, VLIW architectures
        • Single-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (SISD) *
        • Von Neumann architectures *
      • C.1.2 Multiple Data Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors)
        • Array and vector processors
        • Associative processors
        • Connection machines
        • Interconnection architectures (e.g., common bus, multiport memory, crossbar switch)
        • Multiple-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (MIMD)
        • Parallel processors *
        • Pipeline processors *
        • Single-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (SIMD)
      • C.1.3 Other Architecture Styles
        • Adaptable architectures
        • Analog computers
        • Capability architectures *
        • Cellular architecture (e.g., mobile)
        • Data-flow architectures
        • Heterogeneous (hybrid) systems
        • High-level language architectures *
        • Neural nets
        • Pipeline processors
        • Stack-oriented processors *
      • C.1.4 Parallel Architectures
        • Distributed architectures
        • Mobile processors
      • C.1.m Miscellaneous
        • Analog computers *
        • Hybrid systems *

Computer-communication networks[edit]

      • C.2.0 General
        • Data communications
        • Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI)
        • Security and protection (e.g., firewalls)
      • C.2.1 Network Architecture and Design
        • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
        • Centralized networks *
        • Circuit-switching networks
        • Distributed networks
        • Frame relay networks
        • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
        • Network communications
        • Network topology
        • Packet-switching networks
        • Store and forward networks
        • Wireless communication
      • C.2.2 Network Protocols
        • Applications (SMTP, FTP, etc.)
        • Protocol architecture (OSI model)
        • Protocol verification
        • Routing protocols
      • C.2.3 Network Operations
        • Network management
        • Network monitoring
        • Public networks
      • C.2.4 Distributed Systems
        • Client/server
        • Distributed applications
        • Distributed databases
        • Network operating systems
      • C.2.5 Local and Wide-Area Networks
        • Access schemes
        • Buses
        • Ethernet (e.g., CSMA/CD)
        • High-speed (e.g., FDDI, fiber channel, ATM)
        • Internet (e.g., TCP/IP)
        • Token rings
      • C.2.6 Internetworking (C.2.2)
        • Routers
        • Standards (e.g., TCP/IP)
      • C.2.m Miscellaneous

Special-purpose and Application-based Systems[edit]

      • Microprocessor/microcomputer applications
      • Process control systems
      • Real-time and embedded systems
      • Signal processing systems
      • Smartcards

Performance of Systems[edit]

      • Design studies
      • Fault tolerance
      • Measurement techniques
      • Modeling techniques
      • Performance attributes
      • Reliability, availability, and serviceability

Computer Systems Implementation[edit]

      • C.5.0 General
      • C.5.1 Large and Medium (``Mainframe) Computers
        • Super (very large) computers
      • C.5.2 Minicomputers *
      • C.5.3 Microcomputers
        • Microprocessors
        • Personal computers
        • Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants)
        • Workstations
      • C.5.4 VLSI Systems
      • C.5.5 Servers
      • C.5.m Miscellaneous

D. Software (→ Category:Software engineering)[edit]

D.1 Programming techniques (E) (→ Category:Programming paradigms)[edit]

D.1.0 General[edit]
D.1.1 Applicative (Functional) Programming[edit]
D.1.2 Automatic Programming (I.2.2)[edit]
D.1.3 Concurrent Programming[edit]
  • Distributed programming
  • Parallel programming
D.1.4 Sequential Programming[edit]
D.1.5 Object-oriented Programming[edit]
D.1.6 Logic Programming[edit]
D.1.7 Visual Programming[edit]

D.2 Software engineering (K.6.3) (→ Category:Software engineering)[edit]

D.2.0 General (K.5.1)[edit]
  • Protection mechanisms
  • Standards
D.2.1 Requirements/Specifications (D.3.1)[edit]
  • Elicitation methods (e.g., rapid prototyping, interviews, JAD)
  • Languages
  • Methodologies (e.g., object-oriented, structured)
  • Tools
D.2.2 Design Tools and Techniques[edit]
  • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
  • Decision tables
  • Evolutionary prototyping
  • Flow charts
  • Modules and interfaces
  • Object-oriented design methods
  • Petri nets
  • Programmer workbench *
  • Software libraries
  • State diagrams
  • Structured programming *
  • Top-down programming *
  • User interfaces
D.2.3 Coding Tools and Techniques[edit]
  • Object-oriented programming
  • Pretty printers
  • Program editors
  • Reentrant code *
  • Standards
  • Structured programming
  • Top-down programming
Software/Program Verification (→ Category:Formal methods)[edit]
  • Assertion checkers
  • Class invariants
  • Correctness proofs
  • Formal methods (→ Category:Formal methods)
  • Model checking
  • Programming by contract
  • Reliability
  • Statistical methods
  • Validation
D.2.5 Testing and Debugging[edit]
  • Code inspections and walk-throughs
  • Debugging aids
  • Diagnostics
  • Distributed debugging
  • Dumps *
  • Error handling and recovery
  • Monitors
  • Symbolic execution
  • Testing tools (e.g., data generators, coverage testing)
  • Tracing
D.2.6 Programming Environments[edit]
  • Graphical environments
  • Integrated environments
  • Interactive environments
  • Programmer workbench
D.2.7 Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement[edit]
        • Corrections *
        • Documentation
        • Enhancement *
        • Extensibility *
        • Portability
        • Restructuring, reverse engineering, and reengineering
        • Version control
D.2.8 Metrics (D.4.8)[edit]
  • Complexity measures
  • Performance measures
  • Process metrics
  • Product metrics
  • Software science *
D.2.9 Management (K.6.3, K.6.4)[edit]
  • Copyrights *
  • Cost estimation
  • Life cycle
  • Productivity
  • Programming teams
  • Software configuration management
  • Software process models (e.g., CMM, ISO, PSP)
  • Software quality assurance (SQA)
  • Time estimation
D.2.10 Design * (D.2.2)[edit]
  • Methodologies *
  • Representation *
D.2.11 Software Architectures (→ Category:Software architecture)[edit]
  • Data abstraction
  • Domain-specific architectures
  • Information hiding
  • Languages (e.g., description, interconnection, definition)
  • Patterns (e.g., client/server, pipeline, blackboard)
D.2.12 Interoperability[edit]
  • Data mapping
  • Distributed objects
  • Interface definition languages
D.2.13 Reusable Software[edit]
  • Domain engineering
  • Reusable libraries
  • Reuse models
D.2.m Miscellaneous[edit]
  • Rapid prototyping *
  • Reusable software *

D.3 Programming languages (→ Category:Programming Category:Programming languages)[edit]

      • D.3.0 General
        • Standards
      • D.3.1 Formal Definitions and Theory (D.2.1, F.3.1, F.3.2, F.4.2, F.4.3)
        • Semantics
        • Syntax
      • D.3.2 Language Classifications
        • Applicative (functional) languages
        • Concurrent, distributed, and parallel languages
        • Constraint and logic languages
        • Data-flow languages
        • Design languages
        • Extensible languages
        • Macro and assembly languages
        • Microprogramming languages *
        • Multiparadigm languages
        • Nondeterministic languages *
        • Nonprocedural languages *
        • Object-oriented languages
        • Specialized application languages
        • Very high-level languages
      • D.3.3 Language Constructs and Features (E.2)
        • Abstract data types
        • Classes and objects
        • Concurrent programming structures
        • Constraints
        • Control structures
        • Coroutines
        • Data types and structures
        • Dynamic storage management
        • Frameworks
        • Inheritance
        • Input/output
        • Modules, packages
        • Patterns
        • Polymorphism
        • Procedures, functions, and subroutines
        • Recursion
      • D.3.4 Processors
        • Code generation
        • Compilers
        • Debuggers
        • Incremental compilers
        • Interpreters
        • Memory management (garbage collection)
        • Optimization
        • Parsing
        • Preprocessors
        • Retargetable compilers
        • Run-time environments
        • Translator writing systems and compiler generators
      • D.3.m Miscellaneous

D.4 Operating systems (C) (→ Category:Operating systems)[edit]

      • D.4.0 General
      • D.4.1 Process Management
        • Concurrency
        • Deadlocks
        • Multiprocessing/multiprogramming/multitasking
        • Mutual exclusion
        • Scheduling
        • Synchronization
        • Threads
      • D.4.2 Storage Management
        • Allocation/deallocation strategies
        • Distributed memories
        • Garbage collection
        • Main memory
        • Secondary storage
        • Segmentation *
        • Storage hierarchies
        • Swapping *
        • Virtual memory
      • D.4.3 File Systems Management (E.5)
        • Access methods
        • Directory structures
        • Distributed file systems
        • File organization
        • Maintenance *
      • D.4.4 Communications Management (C.2)
        • Buffering
        • Input/output
        • Message sending
        • Network communication
        • Terminal management *
      • D.4.5 Reliability
        • Backup procedures
        • Checkpoint/restart
        • Fault-tolerance
        • Verification
      • D.4.6 Security and Protection (K.6.5)
        • Access controls
        • Authentication
        • Cryptographic controls
        • Information flow controls
        • Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        • Security kernels *
        • Verification *
      • D.4.7 Organization and Design
        • Batch processing systems *
        • Distributed systems
        • Hierarchical design *
        • Interactive systems
        • Real-time systems and embedded systems
      • D.4.8 Performance (C.4, D.2.8, I.6)
        • Measurements
        • Modeling and prediction
        • Monitors
        • Operational analysis
        • Queueing theory
        • Simulation
        • Stochastic analysis
      • D.4.9 Systems Programs and Utilities
        • Command and control languages
        • Linkers *
        • Loaders *
        • Window managers
      • D.4.m Miscellaneous
    • D.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Software psychology *

Data[edit]

Data structures (→ Category:Data structures)[edit]

  • Arrays
  • Distributed data structures
  • Graphs and networks
  • Lists, stacks, and queues
  • Records
  • Tables *
  • Trees

Data storage representations (→ Category:Data structures)[edit]

  • Composite structures *
  • Contiguous representations *
  • Hash-table representations
  • Linked representations
  • Object representation
  • Primitive data items *

Data encryption (→ Category:Cryptography)[edit]

  • Code breaking
  • Data encryption standard (DES) *
  • Public key cryptosystems
  • Standards (e.g., DES, PGP, RSA)

Coding and Information theory (→ Category:Information theory / Category:Coding theory)[edit]

Files (→ Category:Data management)[edit]

  • Backup/recovery
  • Optimization *
  • Organization/structure
  • Sorting/searching

Theory of Computation (→ Category:Theoretical computer science)[edit]

Computation by abstract devices (→ Category:Theory of computation)[edit]

Models of Computation (→ Category:Computational models)[edit]
  • Automata (e.g., finite, push-down, resource-bounded)
  • Bounded-action devices (e.g., Turing machines, random access machines)
  • Computability theory
  • Relations between models
  • Self-modifying machines (e.g., neural networks)
  • Unbounded-action devices (e.g., cellular automata, circuits, networks of machines)
Modes of Computation (→ Category:Computational models)[edit]
  • Alternation and nondeterminism
  • Interactive and reactive computation
  • Online computation
  • Parallelism and concurrency
  • Probabilistic computation
  • Relations among modes *
  • Relativized computation
Complexity Measures and Classes (→ Category:Computational complexity theory)[edit]
  • Complexity hierarchies
  • Machine-independent complexity *
  • Reducibility and completeness
  • Relations among complexity classes
  • Relations among complexity measures

Analysis of algorithms and problem complexity (→ Category:Analysis of algorithms)[edit]

Numerical Algorithms and Problems (→ Category:Algorithms / Category:Computer algebra )[edit]
  • Computation of transforms (e.g., fast Fourier transform)
  • Computations in finite fields
  • Computations on matrices
  • Computations on polynomials
  • Number-theoretic computations (e.g., factoring, primality testing)
Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems (→ Category:Algorithms)[edit]
Tradeoffs between Complexity Measures (→ Category:Analysis of algorithms)[edit]

Logics and meanings of programs[edit]

Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs (→ Category:Formal methods)[edit]
        • Assertions
        • Invariants
        • Logics of programs
        • Mechanical verification
        • Pre- and post-conditions
        • Specification techniques
Semantics of Programming Languages (→ Category:Semantics of programming languages)[edit]
  • Algebraic approaches to semantics
  • Denotational semantics
  • Operational semantics
  • Partial evaluation
  • Process models
  • Program analysis
Studies of Program Constructs (→ Category:Programming constructs)[edit]
        • Control primitives
        • Functional constructs
        • Object-oriented constructs
        • Program and recursion schemes
        • Type structure

Mathematical logic and formal languages[edit]

Mathematical Logic Category:Mathematical logic[edit]
  • Computability theory
  • Computational logic
  • Lambda calculus and related systems
  • Logic and constraint programming
  • Mechanical theorem proving
  • Modal logic
  • Model theory
  • Proof theory
  • Recursive function theory
  • Set theory
  • Temporal logic
Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems (→ Category:Formal languages)[edit]
  • Decision problems
  • Grammar types (e.g., context-free, context-sensitive)
  • Parallel rewriting systems (e.g., developmental systems, L-systems)
  • Parsing
  • Thue systems
Formal Languages (→ Category:Formal languages)[edit]
  • Algebraic language theory
  • Classes defined by grammars or automata (e.g., context-free languages, regular sets, recursive sets)
  • Classes defined by resource-bounded automata *
  • Decision problems
  • Operations on languages

Mathematics of Computing (→ Category:Mathematics)[edit]

Numerical analysis (→ Category:Numerical analysis)[edit]

  • G.1.0 General
    • Computer arithmetic
    • Conditioning (and ill-conditioning)
    • Error analysis
    • Interval arithmetic
    • Multiple precision arithmetic
    • Numerical algorithms
    • Parallel algorithms
    • Stability (and instability)
  • G.1.1 Interpolation (I.3.5, I.3.7)
    • Difference formulas *
    • Extrapolation
    • Interpolation formulas
    • Smoothing
    • Spline and piecewise polynomial interpolation
  • G.1.2 Approximation
    • Approximation of surfaces and contours
    • Chebyshev approximation and theory
    • Elementary function approximation
    • Fast Fourier transforms (FFT)
    • Least squares approximation
    • Linear approximation
    • Minimax approximation and algorithms
    • Nonlinear approximation
    • Rational approximation
    • Special function approximations
    • Spline and piecewise polynomial approximation
    • Wavelets and fractals
  • G.1.3 Numerical Linear Algebra
    • Conditioning
    • Determinants *
    • Eigenvalues and eigenvectors (direct and iterative methods)
    • Error analysis
    • Linear systems (direct and iterative methods)
    • Matrix inversion
    • Pseudoinverses *
    • Singular value decomposition
    • Sparse, structured, and very large systems (direct and iterative methods)
  • G.1.4 Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation (F.2.1)
    • Adaptive and iterative quadrature
    • Automatic differentiation
    • Equal interval integration *
    • Error analysis
    • Finite difference methods
    • Gaussian quadrature
    • Iterative methods
    • Multidimensional (multiple) quadrature
  • G.1.5 Roots of Nonlinear Equations
    • Continuation (homotopy) methods
    • Convergence
    • Error analysis
    • Iterative methods
    • Polynomials, methods for
    • Systems of equations
  • G.1.6 Optimization
    • Constrained optimization
    • Convex programming
    • Global optimization
    • Gradient methods
    • Integer programming
    • Least squares methods
    • Linear programming
    • Nonlinear programming
    • Quadratic programming methods
    • Simulated annealing
    • Stochastic programming
    • Unconstrained optimization
  • G.1.7 Ordinary Differential Equations
    • Boundary value problems
    • Chaotic systems
    • Convergence and stability
    • Differential-algebraic equations
    • Error analysis
    • Finite difference methods
    • Initial value problems
    • Multistep and multivalue methods
    • One-step (single step) methods
    • Stiff equations
  • G.1.8 Partial Differential Equations
    • Domain decomposition methods
    • Elliptic equations
    • Finite difference methods
    • Finite element methods
    • Finite volume methods
    • Hyperbolic equations
    • Inverse problems
    • Iterative solution techniques
    • Method of lines
    • Multigrid and multilevel methods
    • Parabolic equations
    • Spectral methods
  • G.1.9 Integral Equations
    • Delay equations
    • Fredholm equations
    • Integro-differential equations
    • Volterra equations
  • G.1.10 Applications

Discrete mathematics (→ Category:Discrete mathematics)[edit]

      • G.2.0 General
      • G.2.1 Combinatorics (F.2.2)
        • Combinatorial algorithms
        • Counting problems
        • Generating functions
        • Permutations and combinations
        • Recurrences and difference equations
      • G.2.2 Graph Theory (F.2.2)
        • Graph algorithms
        • Graph labeling
        • Hypergraphs
        • Network problems
        • Path and circuit problems
        • Trees
      • G.2.3 Applications
      • G.2.m Miscellaneous

Probability and Statistics (→ Category:Probability theory / Category:Statistics)[edit]

      • Contingency table analysis
      • Correlation and regression analysis
      • Distribution functions
      • Experimental design
      • Markov processes
      • Multivariate statistics
      • Nonparametric statistics
      • Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte Carlo)
      • Queueing theory
      • Random number generation
      • Reliability and life testing
      • Renewal theory
      • Robust regression
      • Statistical computing
      • Statistical software
      • Stochastic processes
      • Survival analysis
      • Time series analysis

Mathematical software[edit]

      • Algorithm design and analysis
      • Certification and testing
      • Documentation
      • Efficiency
      • Parallel and vector implementations
      • Portability *
      • Reliability and robustness
      • User interfaces
      • Verification *

Miscellaneous[edit]

Information Systems (→ Category:Information science)[edit]

Models and principles[edit]

      • H.1.0 General
      • H.1.1 Systems and Information Theory (E.4)
        • General systems theory
        • Information theory
        • Value of information
      • H.1.2 User/Machine Systems
        • Human factors
        • Human information processing
        • Software psychology
      • H.1.m Miscellaneous

Database management (→ Category:Database management)[edit]

      • H.2.0 General
        • Security, integrity, and protection *
      • H.2.1 Logical Design
        • Data models
        • Normal forms
        • Schema and subschema
      • H.2.2 Physical Design
        • Access methods
        • Deadlock avoidance
        • Recovery and restart
      • H.2.3 Languages (D.3.2)
        • Data description languages (DDL)
        • Data manipulation languages (DML)
        • Database (persistent) programming languages
        • Query languages
        • Report writers
      • H.2.4 Systems
        • Concurrency
        • Distributed databases
        • Multimedia databases
        • Object-oriented databases
        • Parallel databases
        • Query processing
        • Relational databases
        • Rule-based databases
        • Textual databases
        • Transaction processing
      • H.2.5 Heterogeneous Databases
        • Data translation *
        • Program translation *
      • H.2.6 Database Machines
      • H.2.7 Database Administration
        • Data dictionary/directory
        • Data warehouse and repository
        • Logging and recovery
        • Security, integrity, and protection
      • H.2.8 Database Applications
        • Data mining
        • Image databases
        • Scientific databases
        • Spatial databases and GIS
        • Statistical databases
      • H.2.m Miscellaneous

Information storage and retrieval[edit]

      • H.3.0 General
      • H.3.1 Content Analysis and Indexing
        • Abstracting methods
        • Dictionaries
        • Indexing methods
        • Linguistic processing
        • Thesauruses
      • H.3.2 Information Storage
        • File organization
        • Record classification *
      • H.3.3 Information Search and Retrieval
        • Clustering
        • Information filtering
        • Query formulation
        • Relevance feedback
        • Retrieval models
        • Search process
        • Selection process
      • H.3.4 Systems and Software
        • Current awareness systems (selective dissemination of information--SDI) *
        • Distributed systems
        • Information networks
        • Performance evaluation (efficiency and effectiveness)
        • Question-answering (fact retrieval) systems *
        • User profiles and alert services
      • H.3.5 Online Information Services
        • Commercial services
        • Data sharing
        • Web-based services
      • H.3.6 Library Automation
        • Large text archives
      • H.3.7 Digital Libraries
        • Collection
        • Dissemination
        • Standards
        • Systems issues
        • User issues
      • H.3.m Miscellaneous

Information system applications[edit]

      • H.4.0 General
      • H.4.1 Office Automation (I.7)
        • Desktop publishing
        • Equipment *
        • Groupware
        • Spreadsheets
        • Time management (e.g., calendars, schedules)
        • Word processing
        • Workflow management
      • H.4.2 Types of Systems
        • Decision support (e.g., MIS)
        • Logistics
      • H.4.3 Communications Applications
        • Bulletin boards
        • Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing
        • Electronic mail
        • Information browsers
        • Videotex
      • H.4.m Miscellaneous

Information interfaces and presentation (→ Category:Human-computer interaction)[edit]

      • H.5.0 General
      • H.5.1 Multimedia Information Systems
        • Animations
        • Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities
        • Audio input/output
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Hypertext navigation and maps *
        • Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI)
      • H.5.2 User Interfaces (D.2.2, H.1.2, I.3.6)
        • Auditory (non-speech) feedback
        • Benchmarking
        • Ergonomics
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Graphical user interfaces (GUI)
        • Haptic I/O
        • Input devices and strategies (e.g., mouse, touchscreen)
        • Interaction styles (e.g., commands, menus, forms, direct manipulation)
        • Natural language
        • Prototyping
        • Screen design (e.g., text, graphics, color)
        • Standardization
        • Style guides
        • Theory and methods
        • Training, help, and documentation
        • User-centered design
        • User interface management systems (UIMS)
        • Voice I/O
        • Windowing systems
      • H.5.3 Group and Organization Interfaces
        • Asynchronous interaction
        • Collaborative computing
        • Computer-supported cooperative work
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Organizational design
        • Synchronous interaction
        • Theory and models
        • Web-based interaction
      • H.5.4 Hypertext/Hypermedia (I.7, J.7)
        • Architectures
        • Navigation
        • Theory
        • User issues
      • H.5.5 Sound and Music Computing (J.5)
        • Methodologies and techniques
        • Modeling
        • Signal analysis, synthesis, and processing
        • Systems

I. Computing Methodologies[edit]

I.1 Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation (→ Category:Computer algebra)[edit]

      • I.1.0 General
      • I.1.1 Expressions and Their Representation (E.1, E.2)
        • Representations (general and polynomial)
        • Simplification of expressions
      • I.1.2 Algorithms (F.2.1, F.2.2)
        • Algebraic algorithms
        • Analysis of algorithms
        • Nonalgebraic algorithms
      • I.1.3 Languages and Systems (D.3.2, D.3.3, F.2.2)
        • Evaluation strategies
        • Nonprocedural languages *
        • Special-purpose algebraic systems
        • Special-purpose hardware *
        • Substitution mechanisms *
      • I.1.4 Applications
      • I.1.m Miscellaneous

I.2 Artificial intelligence (→ Category:Artificial intelligence)[edit]

      • I.2.0 General
        • Cognitive simulation
        • Philosophical foundations
      • I.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems (H.4, J)
        • Cartography
        • Games
        • Industrial automation
        • Law
        • Medicine and science
        • Natural language interfaces
        • Office automation
      • I.2.2 Automatic Programming (D.1.2, F.3.1, F.4.1)
        • Automatic analysis of algorithms
        • Program modification
        • Program synthesis
        • Program transformation
        • Program verification
      • I.2.3 Deduction and Theorem Proving (F.4.1)
        • Answer/reason extraction
        • Deduction (e.g., natural, rule-based)
        • Inference engines
        • Logic programming
        • Mathematical induction
        • Metatheory *
        • Nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision
        • Resolution
        • Uncertainty, ``fuzzy, and probabilistic reasoning
      • I.2.4 Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods (F.4.1)
        • Frames and scripts
        • Modal logic
        • Predicate logic
        • Relation systems
        • Representation languages
        • Representations (procedural and rule-based)
        • Semantic networks
        • Temporal logic
      • I.2.5 Programming Languages and Software (D.3.2)
        • Expert system tools and techniques
      • I.2.6 Learning (K.3.2)
        • Analogies
        • Concept learning
        • Connectionism and neural nets
        • Induction
        • Knowledge acquisition
        • Language acquisition
        • Parameter learning
      • I.2.7 Natural Language Processing
        • Discourse
        • Language generation
        • Language models
        • Language parsing and understanding
        • Machine translation
        • Speech recognition and synthesis
        • Text analysis
      • I.2.8 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (F.2.2)
        • Backtracking
        • Control theory
        • Dynamic programming
        • Graph and tree search strategies
        • Heuristic methods
        • Plan execution, formation, and generation
        • Scheduling
      • I.2.9 Robotics
        • Autonomous vehicles
        • Commercial robots and applications
        • Kinematics and dynamics
        • Manipulators
        • Operator interfaces
        • Propelling mechanisms
        • Sensors
        • Workcell organization and planning
      • I.2.10 Vision and Scene Understanding (I.4.8, I.5)
        • 3D/stereo scene analysis
        • Architecture and control structures *
        • Intensity, color, photometry, and thresholding
        • Modeling and recovery of physical attributes
        • Motion
        • Perceptual reasoning
        • Representations, data structures, and transforms
        • Shape
        • Texture
        • Video analysis
      • I.2.11 Distributed Artificial Intelligence
        • Coherence and coordination
        • Intelligent agents
        • Languages and structures
        • Multiagent systems
      • I.2.m Miscellaneous

I.3 Computer graphics (→ Category:Computer graphics)[edit]

      • I.3.0 General
      • I.3.1 Hardware Architecture (B.4.2)
        • Graphics processors
        • Hardcopy devices *
        • Input devices
        • Parallel processing
        • Raster display devices
        • Storage devices *
        • Three-dimensional displays *
        • Vector display devices *
      • I.3.2 Graphics Systems (C.2.1, C.2.4, C.3)
        • Distributed/network graphics
        • Remote systems *
        • Stand-alone systems *
      • I.3.3 Picture/Image Generation
        • Antialiasing *
        • Bitmap and framebuffer operations
        • Digitizing and scanning
        • Display algorithms
        • Line and curve generation
        • Viewing algorithms
      • I.3.4 Graphics Utilities
        • Application packages
        • Device drivers *
        • Graphics editors
        • Graphics packages
        • Meta files *
        • Paint systems
        • Picture description languages *
        • Software support
        • Virtual device interfaces
      • I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling
        • Boundary representations
        • Constructive solid geometry (CSG) *
        • Curve, surface, solid, and object representations
        • Geometric algorithms, languages, and systems
        • Hierarchy and geometric transformations
        • Modeling packages
        • Object hierarchies
        • Physically based modeling
        • Splines
      • I.3.6 Methodology and Techniques
        • Device independence *
        • Ergonomics
        • Graphics data structures and data types
        • Interaction techniques
        • Languages
        • Standards
      • I.3.7 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
        • Animation
        • Color, shading, shadowing, and texture
        • Fractals
        • Hidden line/surface removal
        • Radiosity
        • Raytracing
        • Virtual reality
        • Visible line/surface algorithms
      • I.3.8 Applications
      • I.3.m Miscellaneous

I.4 Image Processing and Computer Vision (→ Category:Image processing Category:Computer vision)[edit]

      • I.4.0 General
        • Image displays
        • Image processing software
      • I.4.1 Digitization and Image Capture
        • Camera calibration
        • Imaging geometry
        • Quantization
        • Radiometry
        • Reflectance
        • Sampling
        • Scanning
      • I.4.2 Compression (Coding) (E.4)
        • Approximate methods
        • Exact coding *
      • I.4.3 Enhancement
        • Filtering
        • Geometric correction
        • Grayscale manipulation
        • Registration
        • Sharpening and deblurring *
        • Smoothing
      • I.4.4 Restoration
        • Inverse filtering *
        • Kalman filtering
        • Pseudoinverse restoration *
        • Wiener filtering *
      • I.4.5 Reconstruction
        • Series expansion methods
        • Summation methods *
        • Transform methods
      • I.4.6 Segmentation
        • Edge and feature detection
        • Pixel classification
        • Region growing, partitioning
        • Relaxation
      • I.4.7 Feature Measurement
        • Feature representation
        • Invariants
        • Moments
        • Projections
        • Size and shape
        • Texture
      • I.4.8 Scene Analysis
        • Color
        • Depth cues
        • Motion
        • Object recognition
        • Photometry
        • Range data
        • Sensor fusion
        • Shading
        • Shape
        • Stereo
        • Surface fitting
        • Time-varying imagery
        • Tracking
      • I.4.9 Applications
      • I.4.10 Image Representation
        • Hierarchical
        • Morphological
        • Multidimensional
        • Statistical
        • Volumetric
      • I.4.m Miscellaneous

I.5 Pattern Recognition (→ Category:Pattern recognition)[edit]

      • I.5.0 General
      • I.5.1 Models
        • Deterministic *
        • Fuzzy set
        • Geometric
        • Neural nets
        • Statistical
        • Structural
      • I.5.2 Design Methodology
        • Classifier design and evaluation
        • Feature evaluation and selection
        • Pattern analysis
      • I.5.3 Clustering
        • Algorithms
        • Similarity measures
      • I.5.4 Applications
        • Computer vision
        • Signal processing
        • Text processing
        • Waveform analysis
      • I.5.5 Implementation (C.3)
        • Interactive systems
        • Special architectures
      • I.5.m Miscellaneous

Simulation and modeling (→ Category:Computational science / Category:Scientific modeling)[edit]

      • I.6.0 General
      • I.6.1 Simulation Theory
        • Model classification
        • Systems theory
        • Types of simulation (continuous and discrete) *
      • I.6.2 Simulation Languages
      • I.6.3 Applications
      • I.6.4 Model Validation and Analysis
      • I.6.5 Model Development
        • Modeling methodologies
      • I.6.6 Simulation Output Analysis
      • I.6.7 Simulation Support Systems
        • Environments
      • I.6.8 Types of Simulation
        • Animation
        • Combined
        • Continuous
        • Discrete event
        • Distributed
        • Gaming
        • Monte Carlo
        • Parallel
        • Visual
      • I.6.m Miscellaneous

Document and text processing (→ Category:Document processing / Category:Text processing)[edit]

      • I.7.1 Document and Text Editing
        • Document management
        • Languages *
        • Spelling *
        • Version control
      • I.7.2 Document Preparation
        • Desktop publishing
        • Format and notation
        • Hypertext/hypermedia
        • Index generation
        • Languages and systems
        • Markup languages
        • Multi/mixed media
        • Photocomposition/typesetting
        • Scripting languages
        • Standards
      • I.7.3 Index Generation *
      • I.7.4 Electronic Publishing (H.5.4, J.7)
      • I.7.5 Document Capture (I.4.1)
        • Document analysis
        • Graphics recognition and interpretation
        • Optical character recognition (OCR)
        • Scanning

Computer Applications (→ Category:Software)[edit]

    • J.1 ADMINISTRATIVE DATA PROCESSING
      • Business
      • Education
      • Financial (e.g., EFTS)
      • Government
      • Law
      • Manufacturing
      • Marketing
      • Military
    • J.2 PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING
      • Aerospace
      • Archaeology
      • Astronomy
      • Chemistry
      • Earth and atmospheric sciences
      • Electronics
      • Engineering
      • Mathematics and statistics
      • Physics
    • J.3 LIFE AND MEDICAL SCIENCES
      • Biology and genetics
      • Health
      • Medical information systems
    • J.4 SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
      • Economics
      • Psychology
      • Sociology
    • J.5 ARTS AND HUMANITIES
      • Architecture
      • Arts, fine and performing *
      • Fine arts
      • Language translation
      • Linguistics
      • Literature
      • Music *
      • Performing arts (e.g., dance, music)
    • J.6 COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING
      • Computer-aided design (CAD)
      • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
    • J.7 COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS (C.3)
      • Command and control
      • Consumer products
      • Industrial control
      • Military
      • Process control
      • Publishing
      • Real time

Computing Milieux (→ Category:Computing / Category:Information technology )[edit]

The Computer Industry[edit]

      • Markets
      • Standards
      • Statistics
      • Suppliers

History of Computing (→ Category:History of computing)[edit]

      • Hardware
      • People
      • Software
      • Systems
      • Theory

Computers and Education[edit]

      • K.3.0 General
      • K.3.1 Computer Uses in Education
        • Collaborative learning
        • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
        • Computer-managed instruction (CMI)
        • Distance learning
      • K.3.2 Computer and Information Science Education
        • Accreditation
        • Computer science education
        • Curriculum
        • Information systems education
        • Literacy
        • Self-assessment
      • K.3.m Miscellaneous
        • Accreditation *
        • Computer literacy *

Computers and Society[edit]

      • K.4.0 General
      • K.4.1 Public Policy Issues
        • Abuse and crime involving computers
        • Computer-related health issues
        • Ethics
        • Human safety
        • Intellectual property rights
        • Privacy
        • Regulation
        • Transborder data flow
        • Use/abuse of power
      • K.4.2 Social Issues
        • Abuse and crime involving computers *
        • Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities
        • Employment
        • Handicapped persons/special needs *
      • K.4.3 Organizational Impacts
        • Automation
        • Computer-supported collaborative work
        • Employment
        • Reengineering
      • K.4.4 Electronic Commerce (J.1)
        • Cybercash, digital cash
        • Distributed commercial transactions
        • Electronic data interchange (EDI)
        • Intellectual property
        • Payment schemes
        • Security

Legal Aspects of Computing[edit]

      • K.5.0 General
      • K.5.1 Hardware/Software Protection
        • Copyrights
        • Licensing
        • Patents
        • Proprietary rights
        • Trade secrets *
      • K.5.2 Governmental Issues
        • Censorship
        • Regulation
        • Taxation
      • K.5.m Miscellaneous
        • Contracts *
        • Hardware patents *

Management of Computing and Information Systems[edit]

      • K.6.0 General
        • Economics
      • K.6.1 Project and People Management
        • Life cycle
        • Management techniques (e.g., PERT/CPM)
        • Staffing
        • Strategic information systems planning
        • Systems analysis and design
        • Systems development
        • Training
      • K.6.2 Installation Management
        • Benchmarks
        • Computer selection
        • Computing equipment management
        • Performance and usage measurement
        • Pricing and resource allocation
      • K.6.3 Software Management (D.2.9)
        • Software development
        • Software maintenance
        • Software process
        • Software selection
      • K.6.4 System Management
        • Centralization/decentralization
        • Management audit
        • Quality assurance
      • K.6.5 Security and Protection (D.4.6, K.4.2)
        • Authentication
        • Insurance *
        • Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        • Physical security *
        • Unauthorized access (e.g., hacking, phreaking)
      • K.6.m Miscellaneous
        • Insurance *
        • Security *

The Computing Profession[edit]

      • K.7.0 General
      • K.7.1 Occupations
      • K.7.2 Organizations
      • K.7.3 Testing, Certification, and Licensing
      • K.7.4 Professional Ethics (K.4)
        • Codes of ethics
        • Codes of good practice
        • Ethical dilemmas
      • K.7.m Miscellaneous
        • Codes of good practice *
        • Ethics *

Personal Computing[edit]

      • Games *
      • K.8.0 General
        • Games
      • K.8.1 Application Packages
        • Data communications
        • Database processing
        • Freeware/shareware
        • Graphics
        • Spreadsheets
        • Word processing
      • K.8.2 Hardware
      • K.8.3 Management/Maintenance