User:Sasata/Timeline of mycology

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Timeline of mycology lists important works, discoveries, ideas, and experiments that significantly changes mankind's understanding of the fungi, and the modern science known as mycology. The history of mycology in its modern form is often considered to begin with the 1729 publication of Pier Antonio Micheli's Nova plantarum genera, though its roots can be traced back much earlier.

Pre-17th century[edit]

c. 77
Pliny the Elder writes about fungi in Naturalis historia.[1]
Pietro Andrea Mattioli, Italian physician and herbalist, provides the first published illustrations of fungus identifiable to genus, in his Commentarii secundo aucti, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis, Anazarbei de medica materia.[2]
Wood-block of 'Agaricum', species Fomes officinalis, growing on Larch (Larix) trees, from P.A. Mattioli's 1560 herbal.
Giambattista della Porta publishes the first observation of fungal spores.[3]
Clusius publishes Rariorum plantarum historia, the first monograph written on fungi, which described 105 species, in 47 genera.[2]
Jean Bauhin's Historia plantarum universalis, a posthumously published folio of descriptions of over 5000 plants, has a volume devoted to fungi (Excrementa terrae).[4]
Robert Hooke, writing in Micrographia, recognizes the close connection between fungi and molds,[5] and provides the first illustrations of microfungi.[6]
Marcelo Malpighi described various molds, such as Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium]], and '[Botrytis]] in his Anatomie Plantarum.[7]
Van Leeuwenhoek, in a letter to the Royal Society of London, describes the presence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermented beer, the first observation of yeast cells.[8]
The first copper-plate illustrations of fungi appears in J.F. van Sterbeeck's Theatrum fungorum oft het Tooneel der Campernelien.

17th century[edit]

Pier Antonio Micheli performs a series of experiments on the culture of agaric mushrooms and molds from spores under a variety of environmental conditions. The techniques he described become standard for the next 125 years, until the development of pure culture techniques and synthetic growing medias.
Pier Antonio Micheli's Nova plantarum genera described 900 species of fungi, with 73 copper plate illustrations.[9]
Carl Linnaeus' seminal workSpecies Plantarum is published; it is the current starting point for fungal nomenclature.
Tillet provided experimental proof that bunt of wheat was contagious.[10]
English medical botanist William Withering recognizes that fairy rings have a fungal origin.[11]
Pierre Bulliard's Histroire des champignons de la France is the first mycological book with printed color plates.[12]

18th century[edit]

Carl Hendrik Persoon publishes Synopsis Methodica Fungorum
Isaac-Bénédict Prévost makes the first observation of motile spores (zoospores) from the sporangia of a species of Albugo.[13]
James Sowerby, commissioned by the British Navy, examines the British warship Queen Charlotte, undergoing severe fungal decay.[14]
Elias Magnus Fries' Systema Mycologicum becomes the starting point for fungal nomenclature, until 1982.
A.C.J. Corda publishes Icones fungorum hucusque cognitorum in Prague, with hundreds of illustrations of microfungi.
The parasitic fungus known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans) devastates potao crops in Ireland, causing massive economic and social distress.
Vittadini solidifies media with gelatine during attempts to grow the culture of the muscardine fungus Beauveria bassiana.
German mycologist H.A. DeBary, in Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Flecthen und Myxomyceten gives a broad classification of the fungi.[15]
Candolles "Lois de la Nomenclature botanique" (predecessor to the ICBN) is agreed upon as the starting point for fungal nomenclature.
Jules Raulin elaborates the conditions required to optimize the growth of Aspergillus niger, including the effects of trace minerals on growth.[16]
A.B. Frank proposes the concept of symbiosis (a relationship where both partners benefit) to describe the association between the algal and fungal components in,lichens.[17]
Robert Hartig initiaties the modern era of understanding of wood decay in his Zersetzungserscheinungen des Holzes.[18]
Pier Antonio Saccardo's work Sylloge Fungorum Omnium hucusque Cognitorum, published in 25 volumes, contain a compilation of all known genera and species of fungi, with short Latin descriptions.
A.B. Frank coins the term 'Mycorhiza' (later spelled as mycorrhiza) for the fungus roots he found growing in association with the roots of certain trees.[19]
Georg Klebs, working mostly with Saprolegnia, advances the field of fungal morphogenesis in his Die Bedingungen der Fortplanzung bei einigen Algen und Pilzen and several later publications.[20]

19th century[edit]

American mycologist Albert Francis Blakeslee discovers heterothallism, the phenomenon in which sexual reproduction requires the involvement of two different thalli.[21]
First version of "International Rules (Code) of Botanical Nomenclature" (ICBN) is approved in Vienna.
The red bread mold Neurospora is discovered by American mycologists C.L. Shear and B.O. Dodge; it later becomes a common test organism for studying the principles of heredity.[22]
Sir Alexander Fleming discovers the antibiotic penicillin.
Cambridge mycologist E.J.H. Corner elaborates the idea of hyphal analysis, demonstrating that the fruiting bodies of polypores were made up of three main types of hyphae. The use of hyphal structure as a microscopic character later becomes standard practice in fungal classification.[23]
Chain, Florey and Heath undertake large-scale production of penicillin.[24]
S.J. Hughes differentiates eight main sections of hyphomycetes on the basis of conidiophore and conidium development.[25]
The starting point for fungal nomenclature is moved from Fries (1821) and Persoon (1801) to Linnaeus (1753).


  1. ^ Ainsworth, p. 12.
  2. ^ a b "Farlow Library of Cryptogamic Botany exhibit on mycological Illustration". Retrieved 2009-03-02.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "urlFarlow_Library_of_Cryptogamic_Botany_exhibit_on_mycological_Illustration" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ Ainsworth, p. 4.
  4. ^ Ainsworth, p. 46.
  5. ^ Ainsworth, p. 15.
  6. ^ Ainsworth, p. 59.
  7. ^ Sharma, p. 12.
  8. ^ Ainsworth, p. 58.
  9. ^ Ainsworth, p. 84.
  10. ^ Sharma, p. 12.
  11. ^ Ainsworth, p. 78.
  12. ^ Ainsworth, p. 56.
  13. ^ Ainsworth, p. 62.
  14. ^ Ainsworth, p. 91–92.
  15. ^ Sharma, p. 12.
  16. ^ Ainsworth, p. 110.
  17. ^ Ainsworth, p. 89.
  18. ^ Ainsworth, p. 93.
  19. ^ Ainsworth, p. 100.
  20. ^ Ainsworth, p. 78.
  21. ^ Alexopolous et al., p. 125.
  22. ^ Alexopolous et al., p. 21.
  23. ^ Ainsworth, p. 75.
  24. ^ Sharma, p. 12
  25. ^ Ainsworth, p. 64.

Books cited[edit]

  • Ainsworth, G. C. (1976). Introduction to the history of mycology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21013-5. 
  • Blackwell, Meredith; Alexopoulos, Constantine John; Mims, Charles W. (1996). Introductory mycology. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52229-5. 
  • Fungi and allied organisms. Alpha Science Intl Ltd. 2005. ISBN 1-84265-277-X.