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National Aeronautics and Space Administration
140px
NASA seal
Agency overview
Formed 29 July 1958
Headquarters Washington D.C.
Annual budget $16.8 billion for 2007[1]
Agency executives
Website www.nasa.gov

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program. It was established on July 29, 1958, by the National Aeronautics and Space Act.[3]

In addition to the space program, it is also responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research. Since February 2006 NASA's self-described mission statement is to "pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research."[4]

NASA's motto is: "For the benefit of all".[2] The motto of NASA's Office of Education is: Shaping the Future: Launching New Endeavors to Inspire the Next Generation of Explorers.[5]

History[edit]

The NASA "worm" logo used until 1992.

Space race[edit]

Following the Soviet space program's launch of the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik 1) on 4 October, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The U.S. Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to U.S. security and technological leadership (known as the "Sputnik crisis"), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisors counseled more deliberate measures. Several months of debate produced agreement that a new federal agency was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. DARPA was also created at this time and many of DARPA's early space programs were soon transferred to NASA.

Explorer-I, officially Satellite 1958 Alpha (and sometimes referred to as Explorer 1), was the first Earth satellite of the United States, having been launched at 10:48pm EST on 31 January 1958. On 29 July 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). When it began operations on 1 October, 1958, NASA consisted mainly of the four laboratories and some 80 employees of the government's 46-year-old research agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space race was the technology from the German rocket program, led by Wernher von Braun, who became a naturalized citizen of the United States after World War II. He is today regarded as the father of the United States space program. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (of which von Braun's team was a part) and the Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA.

May 5 1961 launch of Redstone rocket and NASA's Mercury Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard Jr. on the United States' first manned sub-orbital spaceflight.

NASA's earliest programs involved research into human spaceflight and were conducted under the pressure of the competition between the USA and the USSR (the Space Race) that existed during the Cold War. The Mercury program, initiated in 1958, started NASA down the path of human space exploration with missions designed to discover simply if man could survive in space. Representatives from the U.S. Army (M.L. Raines, LTC, USA), Navy (P.L. Havenstein, CDR, USN) and Air Force (K.G. Lindell, COL, USAF) were selected/requested to provide assistance to the NASA Space Task Group through coordination with the existing U.S. military research and defense contracting infrastructure, and technical assistance resulting from experimental aircraft (and the associated military test pilot pool) development in the 1950s. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American in space when he piloted Freedom 7 on a 15-minute suborbital flight. John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth on 20 February 1962 during the 5 and a quarter-hour flight of Friendship 7.

Once the Mercury project proved that human spaceflight was possible, project Gemini was launched to conduct experiments and work out issues relating to a moon mission. The first Gemini flight with astronauts on board, Gemini III, was flown by Virgil "Gus" Grissom and John W. Young on 23 March 1965. Nine other missions followed, showing that long-duration human space flight was possible, proving that rendezvous and docking with another vehicle in space was possible, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on human beings.

Apollo program[edit]

The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 tested various components while orbiting the Moon, and returned photography of the lunar surface. On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11, landed the first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong. Apollo 13 did not land on the Moon due to a malfunction, but did return photographs. The six missions that landed on the Moon returned a wealth of scientific data and almost 400 kilograms of lunar samples. Experiments included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind experiments.[6]

Skylab[edit]

Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. The 75 metric tonne station was in Earth orbit from 1973 to 1979, and was visited by crews three times, in 1973 and 1974. Skylab was originally intended to study gravitational anomalies in other solar systems, but the assignment was curtailed due to lack of funding and interest. It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity, and a solar observatory. A Space Shuttle was planned to dock with and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but Skylab reentered the atmosphere and was destroyed in 1979, before the first shuttle could be launched.

Shuttle era[edit]

The space shuttle became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned to be a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttles were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia, did so on April 12, 1981.[7]

The shuttle was not all good news for NASA — flights were much more expensive than initially projected, and even after the 1986 Challenger disaster highlighted the risks of space flight, the public again lost interest as missions appeared to become mundane. Work began on Space Station Freedom as a focus for the manned space program but within NASA there was argument that these projects came at the expense of more inspiring unmanned missions such as the Voyager probes. The Challenger disaster, aside from the late 1980s, marked a low point for NASA.

Nonetheless, the shuttle has been used to launch milestone projects like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST was created with a relatively small budget of $2 billion but has continued operation since 1990 and has delighted both scientists and the public. Some of the images it has returned have become near-legendary, such as the groundbreaking Hubble Deep Field images. The HST is a joint project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA, and its success has paved the way for greater collaboration between the agencies.

In 1995 Russian-American interaction would again be achieved as the Shuttle-Mir missions began, and once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft (this time a full-fledged space station). This cooperation continues to the present day, with Russia and America the two biggest partners in the largest space station ever built – the International Space Station (ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS following the 2003 Columbia disaster, which grounded the shuttle fleet for well over two years.

Costing over one hundred billion dollars, it has been difficult at times for NASA to justify the ISS. The population at large have historically been hard to impress with details of scientific experiments in space, preferring news of grand projects to exotic locations. Even now, the ISS cannot accommodate as many scientists as planned.

During much of the 1990s, NASA was faced with shrinking annual budgets due to Congressional belt-tightening in Washington, DC. In response, NASA's ninth administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, pioneered the "faster, better, cheaper" approach that enabled NASA to cut costs while still delivering a wide variety of aerospace programs (Discovery Program). That method was criticized and re-evaluated following the twin losses of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in 1999. Yet, NASA's shuttle program had made 116 successful launches as of December 2006.

The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, which killed the crew of six Americans and one Israeli, caused a 29-month hiatus in space shuttle flights and triggered a serious re-examination of NASA's priorities. The U.S. government, various scientists, and the public all reconsidered the future of the space program.

NASA's future[edit]

Left to Right: Saturn V, which last carried men to the Moon, the Space Shuttle, the planned Ares I, proposed Ares IV and planned Ares V launch vehicles.

NASA's ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars and Saturn and studies of the Earth and Sun. Other NASA spacecraft are presently en route to Mercury and Pluto. With missions to Jupiter in planning stages, NASA's itinerary covers over half the solar system.

Managed by the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA, the Phoenix mission was launched on August 4, 2007. It will search for possible underground water courses in the northern Martian pole. This lander revives much of its experiments and instrumentation from the failed 1999 Mars Polar Lander, hence its name. An improved and larger rover, Mars Science Laboratory, is under construction and slated to launch in 2009. On the horizon of NASA's plans are two possibilities under consideration for the Mars 2011 mission.

The New Horizons mission to Pluto was launched in 2006 and will fly by Pluto in 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter's inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the fly-by.

Vision for space exploration[edit]

On January 14, 2004, ten days after the landing of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, President George W. Bush announced a new plan for NASA's future, dubbed the Vision for Space Exploration. According to this plan, humankind will return to the Moon by 2018, and set up outposts as a testbed and potential resource for future missions. The space shuttle will be retired in 2010 and Orion will replace it by 2014, capable of both docking with the ISS and leaving the Earth's orbit. The future of the ISS is somewhat uncertain — construction will be completed, but beyond that is less clear. Although the plan initially met with skepticism from Congress, in late 2004 Congress agreed to provide start-up funds for the first year's worth of the new space vision.

Orion Contractor Selected 31 August 2006, at NASA Headquarters

Hoping to spur innovation from the private sector, NASA established a series of Centennial Challenges, technology prizes for non-government teams, in 2004. The Challenges include tasks that will be useful for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration, such as building more efficient astronaut gloves.

Mission statement[edit]

From 2002, NASA’s mission statement, used in budget and planning documents, read: “To understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe and search for life; to inspire the next generation of explorers ... as only NASA can.” In early February 2006, the statement was altered, with the phrase “to understand and protect our home planet” deleted.[8] Some outside observers believe the change is related to criticism of government policy on global warming by NASA scientists like James Hansen, but NASA officials have denied any such connection, pointing to new priorities for space exploration. The chair and ranking member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs wrote NASA Administrator Griffin on July 31, 2006 expressing concerns about the change.[9] NASA also canceled or delayed a number of earth science missions in 2006.[10]

Moon base[edit]

On December 4 2006, NASA announced they were planning to build a permanent moon base.[11] NASA Associate Administrator Scott Horowitz said the goal was to start building the moonbase by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base, that would allow for crew rotations like the International Space Station. Additionally, NASA plans to collaborate and partner with other nations for this project.[12]

Man on mars[edit]

On September 28, 2007, NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin stated that NASA aims to put a man on Mars by 2037: in 2057, "we should be celebrating 20 years of man on Mars."[13]

Spaceflight missions[edit]

NASA has had many successful space missions and programs, including over 150 manned missions. Many of the notable manned missions were from the Apollo program, a sequence of missions to the Moon which included the achievement of the first man to walk on the Moon, during Apollo 11. The Space Shuttle Program has also been a huge success, despite the loss of two of the Space Shuttles, Challenger and Columbia which resulted in the deaths of their entire crews. The Space Shuttles were able to dock with the space station Mir while it was operational, and are now able to dock with the International Space Station - a joint project of many space agencies. NASA's future plans for space exploration are with the Project Constellation.

There have been many unmanned NASA space missions as well, including at least one that visited each of the other 7 planets in our solar system, and four missions (Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2) that have left our solar system. There has been much recent success with the missions to Mars, including the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. As of 2007, NASA remains the only space agency to have launched space missions to the outer solar system beyond the asteroid belt.

The Cassini probe, launched in 1997 and in orbit around Saturn since mid-2004, is investigating Saturn and its inner satellites. With over twenty years in the making, Cassini-Huygens is an example of international cooperation between JPL-NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Built entirely by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA, NASA probes have been continually performing science at Mars since 1997, with at least two orbiters since 2001 and several Mars rovers. The orbiting Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will continue monitoring the geology and climate of the Red Planet, as well as searching for evidence of past or present water and life, as they have since 2001 and 2006, respectively. If the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's nine-year lifetime is typical, these probes will continue to advance our knowledge for years to come. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity have been traversing the surface of Mars at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum since early 2004, and will continue to image and investigate those environments. They have both already operated over ten times longer than expected, and remain a promising part of NASA's future.

Advisory Council[edit]

With the creation of NASA in 1958, the NACA was abolished, and its research centers-- Ames Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Langley Aeronautical Laboratory--were incorporated within the new space and aeronautics agency along with some elements of the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy. In 1967, Congress directed NASA to form an Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to advise the NASA Administrator on safety issues and hazards in NASA's aerospace programs. In addition, there were the Space Program Advisory Council and the Research and Technology Advisory Council.

In 1977, these were all combined to form the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) which is the successor to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.[14]

Leadership[edit]

The Administrator of NASA is the highest-ranking official of that organization and serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. The role of the Administrator is to lead the NASA team and manage its resources to advance the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The current Administrator is Michael D. Griffin, who has served in that position since 2005.[15]

The Deputy Administrator of NASA serves as the agency's second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. The deputy administrator represents NASA to the Executive Office of the President, Congress, heads of federal and other appropriate government agencies, international organizations, and external organizations and communities. The deputy administrator also oversees the day to day work of NASA’s functional offices, such as the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Office of General Counsel and Strategic Communications. The current Deputy Administrator is Shana Dale, who has served in that position since 2005.[15]

Field installations[edit]

NASA's headquarters is located in Washington, D.C.

NASA's Shared Services center is located on the grounds of the John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Construction of their facility began in August 2006 and the scheduled completion date is October 2007.

NASA has field and research installations listed below by application. Some facilities serve more than one application due to historical or administrative reasons.

Research centers[edit]

Test facilities[edit]

Construction and launch facilities[edit]

Deep Space Network[edit]

Tourism and museum facilities[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

A NASA Boeing 737-100 landing.

Throughout its history, NASA has used several different types of aircraft on a permanent, semi-permanent, or short-term basis. These aircraft are usually surplus (or in a few cases new-built) military aircraft. Included among these are:

  • B-57 Canberra. Two Martin WB-57Fs are currently operating from Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center as high altitude research platforms for atmospheric research and Space Shuttle monitoring.
  • Boeing 747. Two 747s, one registered N905NA (which is a 747-100 model that was acquired from American Airlines in 1974) and a second registered N911NA (a 747-100SR model purchased from Japan Airlines in 1988) are currently used by NASA as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. Another Boeing 747 (a 747SP model purchased from United Airlines in 1996) is in use since 2007 as SOFIA.
  • C-141 Starlifter. In the early 1960s a single C-141A was procured by NASA for use as a heavy transport aircraft. The C-141A Kuiper Airborne Observatory, was operated from 1974 to 1995.
  • C-5 Galaxy. Two specially designed C-5Cs were procured by NASA for use as a heavy transport aircraft and flown by USAF crews.
  • C-9 Skytrain II. One ex-USN C-9B was taken in hand in 2005 to replace the famous KC-135s used in NASA's Reduced Gravity Research Program.
  • Convair 990. Nicknamed Galileo, it was used as an airborne laboratory for research in aeronautics, astronautics, astronomy, and earth observations. The Galileo I aircraft perished in a mid-air collision in 1973. The Galileo II continued service into the 1980s.
  • F-104 Starfighter. Three F-104Gs delivered to NASA in 1963 for use as high speed chase aircraft and redesignated F-104N. One of these aircraft, piloted by Joe Walker, collided with the XB-70 Valkyrie experimental bomber on June 8, 1966, killing Walker. NASA retired its last F-104 in 1995.
  • F-106 Delta Dart. From 1986 a handful of F-106As, redesignated QF-106A, were retained by NASA for test purposes, the last being retired in 1998.
  • F-15 Eagle. One modified ex-USAF F-15, the F-15S/MTD, has been in use as a technology demonstrator and technology research aircraft since 1993, being used in the ACTIVE (1993-1999) and IFCS (2002-) programs.
  • F-16 Fighting Falcon. From 1988 until 1999, 2 prototypes of the F-16XL, designed as a competitor to the F-15E Strike Eagle in the USAF's Enhanced Tactical Fighter program, were taken in hand by NASA for aeronautical research.
  • F-8 Crusader. Several F-8Cs were used by NASA in the early 1970s to test such features as Digital Fly-By-Wire Control System and supercritical wings, which have become standard on modern high performance military aircraft.
  • KC-135 Stratotanker. Two ex-USAF KC-135As (designated N930NA and N931NA) were used by NASA from 1973 to 2004 for the Reduced Gravity Research Program, where potential astronauts are exposed to simulated near-weightlessness. It were these aircraft that collectively gained the name Vomit Comet.
  • P-3 Orion. NASA currently uses the P-3 as an earth-science suborbital research platform and is located at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia.
  • SR-71 Blackbird. Two SR-71Bs were used as trainers by NASA between 1991 and 1999.
  • T-38 Talon. A number of T-38As have been used by NASA as jet trainers for its astronauts since the 1960s. NASA's T-38 fleet is housed primarily at Ellington Field in Houston, Texas.
  • U-2 "Dragon Lady". Two U-2s have been modified to the ER-2 (Earth Resources -2) standard and are currently in use at Dryden Flight Research Center for use in various high altitude research projects.
  • North American X-15. Rocket plane which flew from 1959 to 1968. Conceived by NACA, three were built and explored the regime of hypersonic flight. It is often regarded as a direct predecessor to the Space Shuttle.

Environmental contributions[edit]

NASA is a major contributor to the knowledge of our Earth; NASA has used satellites and pictures from space to show and display the change over years. NASA has used there Goddard Space Flight Center, to keep constant watch over our rapidly changing atmosphere, and ecosystem.[16] NASA continues its research of the infliction black soot has on the earths climate. Recent findings show that the black carbon or soot is indeed causing harm to the North pole, for example the rapid melting of sea ice, and snow changing the temperature of the atmosphere.[17]

Dorothy Koch of Columbia University and whose study appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research mentions "This research offers additional evidence black carbon, generated through the process of incomplete combustion, may have a significant warming impact on the Arctic," Koch said. "Further, it means there may be immediate consequences for Arctic ecosystems, and potentially long-term implications on climate patterns for much of the globe," she added. NASA hopes to soon be able to use satellites in the measuring of public health. They’re mission is to "to help determine how weather, climate, and other key environmental factors correlate with the occurrence of chronic and infectious diseases." [18]

Related legislation[edit]

Florida, USA, taken from NASA Shuttle Mission STS-95 on October 31, 1998.
  • 1958 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration PL 85-568 (passed on July 29)
  • 1961 – Apollo mission funding PL 87-98 A
  • 1970 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research and Development Act PL 91-119
  • 1984 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 98-361
  • 1988 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 100-685
  • 2005 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005
  • NASA Budget 1958– 2005 in 1996 Constant Year Dollars

Awards and decorations[edit]

NASA presently bestows a number of medals and decorations to astronauts and other NASA personnel. Some awards are authorized for wear on active duty military uniforms. The highest award is the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, which has been award to 28 individuals (17 posthumously), and is said to recognize "any astronaut who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and mankind."

The second highest NASA award is the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, which may be presented to any member of the federal government, including both military astronauts and civilian employees. It is an annual award, given out at the National Aeronautics Space Foundation plant, located in Orlando, Florida.

Criticism[edit]

Currently, the ISS relies on the Shuttle fleet for all major construction shipments. The Shuttle fleet has lost two spacecraft and fourteen astronauts in two disasters in 1986 and 2003. While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building Shuttle Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA does not plan to build another shuttle to replace the second loss. (See also CEV.)

The ISS, which was intended to have a crew of seven, just as of 2006 has been restored to a crew of three for the first time since it was cut to a skeleton crew of two in May 2003, causing many intended research projects to be delayed. Since the Columbia Shuttle accident, the permanent space station crew has comprised one Russian and one American, on board for six months at a time, meaning European and Japanese astronauts could not stay for longer missions. An increase in the number of crew members has been in the pipeline for some time but was delayed following the Columbia disaster in February 2003.

Other nations that have invested in the space station's construction, such as the members of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), have expressed concern over the completion of the ISS.

Alleged alcohol use[edit]

Following the arrest of Lisa Nowak in February of 2007, NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin commissioned an independent panel, the NASA Astronaut Health Care System Review Committee, to examine how well NASA attended to the mental health of its astronauts. The initial report released by the panel raised questions in regards to possible alcohol use prior to flight.[19] However, the report offered no specifics, no facts to substantiate the claims, and stated that no attempt to confirm or investigate the allegations had been performed.[20][21][22]

Shuttle commander Scott J. Kelly was vocal in his criticism of the report during interviews prior to STS-118, stating that it was beyond his comprehension that astronauts would ever consider what was suggested.[21] Following the release of the independent panel report, NASA ordered an internal review, The Space Flight Safety Review.[22]

On August 29, 2007, Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer Bryan O'Connor reported that after the month-long review, NASA found that there was no evidence to verify the independent panel's report that astronauts have been allowed to fly drunk.[23][20][24] Additionally, investigation into all incident reports dating from 1984 to 2007, found no incident involving alcohol or drug use.[25] The report's findings specifically stated:

In response to the internal review, policies at NASA would be changed in a variety of ways: Flight surgeons would be present during the pre-mission suit-up activities, flight surgeons would receive additional training in psychiatric evaluation, and although there was an unofficial code of conduct in place, an official "Code of Conduct" would be written up for employees.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NASA (2006). "Fiscal Year 07 Budget" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  2. ^ a b Lale Tayla and Figen Bingul (2007). "NASA stands "for the benefit of all." - Interview with NASA's Dr. Süleyman Gokoglu". The Light Millennium. Retrieved September 13, 2007. 
  3. ^ NASA (2005). "The National Aeronautics and Space Act". NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  4. ^ NASA (2005). "What Does NASA Do?". NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  5. ^ NASA (2007). "NASA Office of Education". NASA Langley Research Center. Retrieved September 13, 2007. 
  6. ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1998). A Man on the Moon. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140272011. 
  7. ^ Bernier, Serge (Stephen Lyle Translator) Space Odyssey: The First Forty Years of Space Exploration (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 0-521-81356-5
  8. ^ Revkin, Andrew C. (2006-07-22). "NASA's Goals Delete Mention of Home Planet". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  9. ^ U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (2006-08-01). "Senators Collins and Lieberman Raise Concerns about Changes to NASA Mission Statement". Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  10. ^ Daley, Beth (2006-06-09). "NASA shelves climate satellites". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  11. ^ NASA (2006). "Lunar Architecture" (.pdf). NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  12. ^ Diane Hawkins-Cox (2006). "NASA wants permanent moon base". CNN. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  13. ^ Yahoo.com, NASA aims to put man on Mars by 2037
  14. ^ NASA (2006). "NASA Advisory Council History". NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  15. ^ a b NASA (2005). "NASA Biography of Michael D. Griffin". NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "griffin1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ arctic soot damage
  18. ^ health
  19. ^ Traci Watson (2007). "Report uncovers allegations of astronauts drunk on flights". USA Today. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  20. ^ a b Traci Watson (2007). "NASA: No evidence of drunk astronauts". USA Today. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  21. ^ a b Miles O'Brien (2007). "Shuttle commander: Alcohol report lacks facts" (html). CNN. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  22. ^ a b CBS News/Associated Press (2007). "NASA Probe Likely To Clear Drinking Charge". CBS. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  23. ^ Miles O'Brien (2007). "NASA report: No evidence astronauts flew drunk". CNN. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  24. ^ NASA (2007). "Findings of NASA Safety Review Following Astronaut Health Reviews". NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  25. ^ a b c Bryan O'Conner (2007). "Space Flight Safety Review (Alcohol Use In The Preflight Period)" (.pdf). NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 

External links[edit]

General[edit]

Further reading[edit]