Nathaniel G. S. Hart
|Nathaniel Gray Smith Hart
also Nathaniel G. S. Hart
January 23, 1813 (aged 29)|
|Buried||Re-interred at State Cemetery/Frankfort Cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky in 1834|
|Years of service||1812–13|
|Unit||Lexington Light Infantry|
Lexington Light Infantry
|Relations||Lucretia Hart Clay, Henry Clay|
Nathaniel Gray Smith Hart (c. 1784 – January 23, 1813), often Nathaniel G. S. Hart, [A] was a Lexington, Kentucky lawyer and businessman, who served with the state's volunteer militia during the War of 1812. As Captain of the Lexington Light Infantry from Kentucky, Hart and many of his men were killed in the River Raisin Massacre of January 23, 1813, after being taken prisoner the day before following the Battle of Frenchtown in Michigan Territory.
Hart was especially well-connected politically and socially. In addition to reading law with Henry Clay, Hart's wife Anna and Clay's wife Lucretia were sisters. Hart's wife Anna Edward Gist was the stepdaughter of Charles Scott, Governor of Kentucky and through her Hart was also a brother-in-law to James Brown, a future Ambassador to France and to James Pindell - a member of the Society of Cincinnati. Many other members of Hart's Kentucky militia unit and its associated troops also came from the elite of Lexington and of the state. The men's deaths in the two Battles of Frenchtown, but especially in the subsequent Massacre captured state and national attention. The phrase "Remember the Raisin!" became an American call to arms for the duration of the War.
Originally from North Carolina, the family had moved to Hagerstown, Maryland, where Nathaniel was born. In 1794 they settled in Lexington, Kentucky as part of the postwar migration west. His father was a highly successful businessman, achieving wealth. Hart's four sisters married men who achieved some renown: Ann married the future US Senator James Brown (who subsequently served as Minister to France); Eliza married the surgeon Dr. Richard Pindell (a member of the Society of the Cincinnati); Susanna married the lawyer Samuel Price, and Lucretia married Henry Clay, future US Senator and Secretary of State.
Hart attended Princeton College, where his classmates included William Elliott from western Ontario. Elliott's father was a Loyalist who had resettled in Canada after the Revolutionary War. The two young men were close enough that Elliot stayed with Hart's parents for a time to recover from a serious illness.
After Hart's return to Lexington, he read law under Henry Clay, passed the bar, and set up a law practice in the city. Like his father, he became a successful businessman, a ropewalk (hemp rope factory) in the city being among his ventures. Hemp was a commodity crop of central Kentucky. In April 1809, Hart married Anna Edward Gist, the stepdaughter of General Charles Scott, governor of Kentucky, and daughter of Judith Cary Gist Scott and her late husband General Nathaniel Gist. Hart and Anna had two sons, Thomas Hart Jr. and Henry Clay Hart. On January 7, 1812, Hart duelled with Samuel E. Watson at a location on the Indiana side of the Ohio River, near where Silver Creek emptied into the river. This was the site where Henry Clay had duelled with fellow state legislator Humphrey Marshall in 1809.
Military service and death
At the start of the War of 1812, Hart was commissioned as Captain of the Lexington Light Infantry Company (aka "The Silk Stocking Boys")  a volunteer unit of the Fayette County, Kentucky militia. He later served as either a Deputy Inspector or as Inspector General of William Henry Harrison's Army of the Northwest.[B] Hart's command was attached to the Fifth Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Militia and left for the Northwest in August 1812, where it became part of Army of the Northwest under General James Winchester. In January 1813, a detachment was sent to the defense of Frenchtown, Michigan Territory as part of an effort to retake Detroit from the British. Frenchtown residents had sent word to the Americans asking for relief from an occupying force of the British and their Indian allies.
During the First Battle of Frenchtown on January 18, 1813, the American forces under Lt. Colonel William Lewis were successful in forcing the retreat of the small British force stationed there. The British commander of the Fort Malden garrison in Amherstburg, Colonel Henry Procter, made plans to take back Frenchtown and he ordered troops to the area.
On the morning of January 22, 1813, Procter's forces, including hundreds of Indian warriors, attacked the American troops and overwhelmed the right flank of regulars under Winchester, forcing him and much of the general staff to surrender. The Kentucky militia under the command of Major George Madison on the left flank fought on and thought the flag of truce presented by the enemy was a British flag of surrender. During this second Battle of Frenchtown, 397 Americans were killed. Hart was wounded and was among the 547 survivors who surrendered to Procter upon orders of Winchester. Not many more than 30 Kentucky troops escaped death or capture.
William Elliott, Hart's former Princeton classmate who had become a Captain in the British Army, promised the wounded man safe passage to Fort Malden,[C] but did not carry out his pledge. Elliot borrowed a horse, bridle and saddle from Major Benjamin Franklin Graves, an American officer, promising to send help to the American wounded, but none arrived. Acting American captain William Caldwell wrote the next month that he heard Elliott tell General Winchester and Major Madison that "the Indians were very excellent surgeons (and ought to kill all the officers and men)." In one official letter, the eye-witness says that Elliott's broken promise included an offer to take Hart in Elliott's "own sleigh to Malden that evening" and that Hart could stay at Elliott's home for his recovery.
Unable to march with the able-bodied prisoners who were being directed to Fort Malden, Hart paid a friendly Indian to take him to the fort. Along the way they encountered other Indians, who shot and scalped Hart. Hart and an estimated 30–100 unarmed prisoners were killed by Indians on January 23, the day after the battle, in what became known as the River Raisin Massacre.[D]
The high fatalities of the Americans in the Battle of Frenchtown and the subsequent Massacre of prisoners became fuel for pro-war political factions known as War Hawks, and for anti-British sentiment of the era. The phrase "Remember the Raisin!" entered the lexicon of the day as a flashpoint for popular sentiment, becoming a battle cry for American troops, especially the ones on the western frontier. The fact that many of the murdered men were well-known and well-connected members of Kentucky's elite increased the public outcry. Among the dead was Colonel John Allen, Henry Clay's law-partner and co-counsel in Aaron Burr's conspiracy trial at Frankfort. Hart's death is remembered in modern times as "The Murder of Captain Hart." Major Benjamin Franklin Graves of Lexington was another officer apparently killed while a prisoner of the Potawatomi, who were overseeing him and others marching to Detroit. Many American prisoners disappeared or were killed while being force-marched back to British-held territory.
Aftermath of Hart's death and memorials
Owing to their high casualties and status as prisoners, surviving Americans were not able to properly bury their fallen comrades. The remains of the American dead at this site were not interred until months later. In 1818, the remains were transferred from Monroe, Michigan to Detroit. Isaac Baker, an American ensign who survived the Massacre and served as an official US Agent for the prisoners, stated in a report to General Winchester that:
- The dead of our army are still denied the rites of sepulture. ... I was told the hogs were eating them. A gentleman told me he had seen them running about with skulls, arms, legs and other parts of the human system in their mouths. The French people on the Raisin buried Captains Hart, Woolfolk, and some others, but it was more than their lives were worth to have been caught paying this last customed tribute to mortality."
In 1834, the box containing the commingled American remains (including tomahawked skulls), were moved from their former Detroit resting-place and re-interred in Detroit's City Cemetery. These remains are asserted to have received final burial in the State Cemetery of Frankfort, Kentucky. As late as 1849, a mass grave from the battle was excavated during road construction in Monroe, which developed in the area of the battlefield. Some writers state that those skeletons, along with the City Cemetery remains, were returned to Kentucky for final and proper burial that year.[E] A 2004 archeological investigation at the State Monument found no evidence of remains from men of the River Raisin events.
Matthew Harris Jouett, a man who painted noted portraits of Thomas Jefferson, George Rogers Clark and Lafayette, was one of the Kentucky volunteers and among the survivors of the River Raisin Massacre. The company payroll of $6000 disappeared during the slaughter. Jouett restored the missing funds to the militia, based on his earnings as a painter. He also painted portraits of his fellow soldiers from memory, including Hart and Colonel Allen.
Legacy and honors
- In 1819, the state of Kentucky named its 61st county as Hart County in Nathaniel Hart's honor.
- Hart was listed among officers on the Kentucky War Memorial in Frankfort Cemetery in the capital of Frankfort.
- In 1904 residents of Monroe, Michigan, which includes much of the area of the battlefield, erected a monument to the Kentuckians who died defending their settlement during the various River Raisin engagements. Some unidentified victims were buried here.
- In 2009, the River Raisin National Battlefield Park was established, the only such park to commemorate the War of 1812, and one of four battlefield parks in the nation. It had earlier been recognized as a state historic site and was previously listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
- Although some sources list Hart's name as "Nathaniel G. T. Hart," this is incorrect according to historian John E. Kleber writing in The Kentucky Encyclopedia and to historians David and Jeanne Heidler's Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Also, Hart is referred to in a court document dating from shortly before his death as "Nathaniel G. S. Hart." The misnomer apparently dates to a mistake in Historical Sketches of Kentucky, either the Richard Collins edition (published in 1874) or the original edition (published in 1848 by Lewis Collins).
- Henry Clay (The papers of Henry Clay, Volume 1, Page 19) refers to Hart's rank as "Inspector General of the N.W.[Northwestern] Army."
- According to Pierre Berton's War of 1812 (Page 406), Elliott's mother was Shawnee and he was raised among the Indians.
- Elliott reportedly said, "He tried to explain that it is impossible to restrain the Indians and (...) that they are simply seeking revenge for their own losses." (of Tippecanoe and Mississinewa).
- According to Clift's Remember the Raisin! (Page xii), "Kentucky historians have written that these dead now rest in the state lots at Frankfort Cemetery. ... In the light of present day research, little has been found to substantiate these statements."
- Clift 2009, pp. 149–150.
- Kleber 1992, pp. 415–416.
- Heidler & Heidler 2004, pp. 232–233.
- Farmer 1890, p. 280.
- Cook & Cummings 1985, p. 185.
- Collins 1848, p. 345.
- Remini 1992, p. 29.
- Smith, Clay & Clay 1899, p. 232.
- "A Militant Surgeon of the Revolution:Some Letters of Richard Pindell, M.D." Maryland Historical Magazine. Maryland Historical Society. 17-18: 309. 1922. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Williams 1992, p. 427.
- Connelley & Coulter 1922, p. 5.
- Berton 2011, p. 406.
- Clift 2009, pp. 149.
- Register of Kentucky State Historical Society, Volume 16. Kentucky Historical Society. 1918. p. 59. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "The Duels at Silver Creek (Historical Series of New Albany)" (PDF). Historical Series of New Albany (Volume III, No. 8). New Albany Floyd County Public Library (originally broadcast on Radio Station WLRP/WOW/WHEL). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- Samuel Scott (New Albany Rotary Club) (c. 1950s). "New Albany Suburb Famous Field of Honor in Early Days" (PDF). New Albany Floyd County Public Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- Hopkins 1959, p. 613.
- Ranck 1872, p. 156.
- Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, Volume 11(Issue 31). 1912–1913. p. 19.
- Ranck 1872, p. 155.
- "The History" (PDF). River Raisin Battlefield. City of Monroe, Michigan. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Ramage & Watkins 2011, p. 105.
- Ridler, Jason. "Henry Procter (Proctor)". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Coles 1966, p. 116.
- Upton, Emory (1904). Military Policy of the United States (Military History of the United States). United State Government. p. 109. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- Gardner 1860, p. 566.
- Ranck 1872, p. 256.
- "River Raisin National Battlefield Park - Monroe, Michigan". nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Ranck 1872, p. 255.
- Caldwell, William (January 2003). "War of 1812 – Caldwell letter (February 20, 1813)" (pdf). Jessamine Historical Quarterly. Jessamine County Historical & Genealogical Society. p. 6. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States (Part 5, Volume 1). Gales and Seaton (US. Congress). 1832. p. 375. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- Brannan 1823, pp. 135–136.
- Lossing 1869, pp. 358–359.
- Cook & Cummings 1985, pp. 185–189.
- "The Battles of the River Raisin". City of Monroe, Michigan. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Clift 2009, pp. 87–88.
- Michigan Historical Commission, Michigan State Historical Society, Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society (1892). Michigan Historical Collections, Volume 7. State of Michigan (Michigan Historical Commission). p. 222. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- Kleber 1992, p. 415.
- Kinkead 1896, p. 111.
- "Murder of Captain Hart". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Greenblatt & Bowman 2009, p. 72.
- Watson 2014, p. 113.
- Wyman, (Dr.) Hal C. (May 1907). "Remarks on the Surgery of the War of 1812". Physician and Surgeon. 29 (5): 206–207.
- Burcar 2011, p. 18.
- American State Papers, page 369 (Alexis Labadie)
- Scroggins, William G. Leaves of a Stunted Shrub, Volume One. p. 41. ISBN 9780979125751. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- American State Papers, page 370 (Isaac Baker)
- Niles, William Ogden, ed. (1849). "Kentucky's Gallant Dead". Niles' National Register. 74: 235.
- Stottman, M. Jay; David Pollack; Peter E. Killoran; Sarah E. Miller; Phillip B. Mink; Christina A. Pappas; Eric Schlarb; Lori Stahlgren (August 2005). "Archaeological Investigation of the State Monument – Frankfort, Kentucky" (PDF). Kentucky Archaeological Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Pennington & Miles 2010, p. 172.
- "Hart County Chamber of Commerce". Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "Kentucky Counties Named in Honor of Military Personnel". Kentucky: National Guard History eMuseum. Commonwealth of Kentucky. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Ohio history, Volume 15. Ohio Historical Society. 1906. pp. 141–153.
- "The Battle of River Raisin". Friends of the River Raisin Battlefield (RiverRaisinBattlefield.Org). Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Berton, Pierre (November 1, 2011). Pierre Berton's War of 1812: being a compendium of The invasion of Canada and Flames across the border (Paperback). Toronto: Anchor Canada. p. 406. ISBN 0385676484.
- Brannan, John (1823). Official Letters of the Military and Naval Officers of the United States, during the War with Great Britain in the years 1812, 13, 14, & 15s. Way & Gideon. pp. 135–136. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- Burcar, Colleen (2011). It Happened in Michigan: Remarkable Events That Shaped History. Guilford, Conn: Rowman & Littlefield, Globe Pequot Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7627-6024-4.
- Clift, G. Glenn (2009) . Remember the Raisin! Kentucky and Kentuckians in the battles and massacre at Frenchtown, Michigan Territory, in the War of 1812 Remember the Raisin! reprinted with Notes on Kentucky veterans of the War of 1812 (Reprinted, two volumes in one ed.). Baltimore, Md: Clearfield by Genealogical Pub. Co. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0-8063-4520-8. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Coles, Henry L. (1966). The War of 1812. Evanston, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. p. 116. ISBN 9780226113500. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Collins, Lewis (1848). Historical sketches of Kentucky. Collins of Maysville, Kentucky & James of Cincinnati. p. 345. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- Connelley, William Elsey; Coulter, Ellis Merton (1922). History of Kentucky, Volume 3. The American Historical Society. p. 5. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Cook, Michael L.; Cummings, Bettie (1985). Fayette County, Kentucky Records. I (Hart vs. Benton Lawsuit August 22, 1812). Evansville, Indiana: Cook Publications. pp. 185–189. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Farmer, Silas (1890). History of Detroit and Wayne County and early Michigan. S. Farmer & Co. for Muncell & Vo., New York. p. 280. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Gardner, Charles Kitchell (1860). A Dictionary of All Officers: Who Have Been Commissioned, Or Have Been Appointed and Served, in the Army of the United States, Since the Inauguration of Their First President, in 1789, to the First January, 1853. New York, New York: D. Van Nostrand. p. 566. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- Greenblatt, Miriam; Bowman, John Stewart (2009). War of 1812. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, Facts On File. p. 72. ISBN 1438100167. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
- Heidler, David Stephen; Heidler, Jeanne T. (2004). Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 232–233. ISBN 1591143624. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- Hopkins, James F., Ed. (1959). The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 1 (1797–1814). Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 613.
- Kinkead, Elizabeth Shelby (1896). A history of Kentucky. American Book Company. p. 111. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Kleber, John E. (1992). "Hart, Nathaniel Gray Smith". The Kentucky encyclopedia. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. pp. 415–416. ISBN 978-0-8131-1772-0. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Lossing, Benson John (1869). The Pictorial Field-book of the War of 1812: Or, Illustrations, by Pen and Pencil, of the History, Biography, Scenery, Relics, and Traditions of the Last War for American Independence (First ed.). Harper & Bros. pp. 358–359. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
- Pennington, Estill Curtis; Miles, Ellen G. (2010). Lessons in Likeness: Portrait Painters in Kentucky and the Ohio River Valley, 1802–1920. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-8131-2612-8. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- Ramage, James; Watkins, Andrea (2011). Kentucky Rising: Democracy, Slavery, and Culture from the Early Republic to the Civil War. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 105. ISBN 0813134404. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Ranck, George Washington (1872). History of Lexington, Kentucky. R. Clarke. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Remini, Robert Vincent (January 22, 1992). Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 29. ISBN 9780393030044.
- Smith, Zechariah Frederick; Clay, Mary Katherine (Rogers); Clay, Mary Rogers (1899). The Clay Family. J. P. Morton and company (Filson Club Publications, Number 14). p. 232. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
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- Williams, Thomas John Chew (1992) . History of Washington County, Maryland: From the Earliest Settlements to the Present Time, Volume 1. Hagerstown, Md.: Clearfield Company & Family Line Pub. p. 427.