User:Shuvuuia/Linnaeus

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Contents

Mammalia[edit]

Linnaean Characteristics

  • Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood
  • Lungs: respires alternately
  • Jaw: incombent, covered. Teeth usually within
  • Teats: lactiferous
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears, & papillae of the skin
  • Covering: hair, which is scanty in warm climates, hardly any on aquatics
  • Supports: 4 feet, except in aquatics; and in most a tail. Walks on the Earth & Speaks

Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number, situation, and structure of their teeth.

Primates[edit]

  • Fore-teeth: cutting, upper 4 parallel, (except in some species of bats which have 2 or none)
  • Tusks: solitary, that is, one on each side, in each jaw
  • Teats: 2 pectoral
  • Feet: 2 are hands
  • Nails: (usually) flattened, oval
  • Food: fruits, except a few who use animal food
Homo (humans)
The Barbary macaque was named Simia sylvanus in 1758.
The Diana monkey was given the names Simia diana and Simia faunua.
Simia (monkeys & apes[Note 1]
The ring-tailed lemur was named Lemur catta
Lemur (lemurs & colugos[Note 2]
Vespertilio (bats)

Bruta[edit]

  • Fore-teeth: none in any jaw
  • Tusks: in elephants and manatees
  • Feet: with strong hoof-like nails
  • Motion: slow
  • Food: (mostly) masticated vegetables
Elephas (elephants)
Trichechus (manatees)
Bradypus (sloths)
Myrmecophaga (anteaters)
Manis (pangolins)

Ferae[edit]

  • Fore-teeth: conic, usually 6 in each jaw
  • Tusks: longer
  • Grinders: with conic projections
  • Feet: with claws
  • Claws: subulate
  • Food: carcasses and preying on other animals
Phoca (seals)
Canis (dogs & hyenas)
Felis (cats)
The eastern spotted skunk was named Viverra putorius in 1758.
Viverra (mongooses & civets)
Mustela (weasels & kin)
Ursus (bears)

Bestiae[edit]

The wild boar was named Sus scrofa in 1758.
  • Fore-teeth: indefinite numbers on the sides, always have one extra canine
  • Nose: elongate, used to dig
  • Food: digs out juicy roots and vermin
Sus (pigs)
The Brazilian three-banded armadillo was given the names Dasypus tricinctus & Dasypus quadricinctus.
Dasypus (armadillos)
Erinaceus (hedgehogs)
Talpa (moles)
Sorex (shrews)
Didelphis (opossums)

Glires[edit]

The Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis was placed in the order Glires due to the fact that the animal's incisors resembled those of rodents. [6]
  • Fore-teeth: cutting, 2 in each jaw
  • Tusks: none
  • Feet: with claws formed for running and bounding
  • Food: bark, roots, vegetables, etc, which they gnaw
Rhinoceros (rhinoceroses)
Hystrix (porcupines)
Lepus (rabbits & hares)
Castor (beavers)
The southern flying squirrel was named Mus volans in 1758.
Mus (mice & kin)
The Siberian flying squirrel was named Sciurus volans in 1758.
Sciurus (squirrels)

Pecora[edit]

  • Fore-teeth: no upper, lower cutting, many
  • Feet: hoofed, cloven
  • Food: herbs which they pluck, chews the cud
  • Stomach: 4:
the paunch to macerate and ruminate the food
the bonnet, reticulate, to receive it,
the omasus, or maniplies of numerous folds to digest it,
and the abomasus', or caille, fasciate, to give it acescency and prevent putrefaction
Camelus (camels)
Moschus (musk deer)
Cervus (deer & giraffes)
Capra (goats & antelope)
Ovis (sheep)
Bos (cattle)

Belluae[edit]

The hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius, was named in 1758.
  • Fore-teeth: obtuse
  • Feet: hoofed
  • Motion: heavy
  • Food: gathering vegetables
Equus (horses)
Hippopotamus (hippopotamuses)

Cete[edit]

  • Fins: pectoral instead of feet
  • Tail: horizontal, flattened
  • Claws: none
  • Hair: none
  • Teeth: in some cartilaginous, in some bony
  • Nostrils: none, instead of which is a fistulous opening in the anterior and upper part of the head
  • Food: mollusca & fish
  • Habitation: the ocean
Monodon (narwhals)
Balaena (baleen whales)
Physeter (sperm whales)
  • Physeter catodon, Physeter macrocephalus, Physeter miscrops & Physeter tursiosperm whale [14]
Delphinus (dolphins & porpoises)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Carolius Linnaeus and his names for Primates". Darwiniana. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  2. ^ Bernard Wood & Mark Collard (1999). "The changing face of genus Homo". Evolutionary Anthropology. 8 (6): 195–207. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1999)8:6<195::AID-EVAN1>3.0.CO;2-2.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Anthea Gentry, Juliet Clutton-Brock, Colin P. Groves (2004). "The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives". Journal of Archaeological Science. 31: 645–651. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2003.10.006.
  4. ^ Jay Butfiloski & Tom Swaygnham. "Eastern Spotted Skunk Spilogale putorius" (PDF). South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
  5. ^ a b Alfred L. Gardner (2008). Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats. Volume 1 of Mammals of South America. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-28240-4.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ a b c Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (2005). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, Volume 1 (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  8. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=SNY-AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=Mus+longipes+Linnaeus+1758&source=bl&ots=ziTnQYGD2o&sig=ffIcrP0yDAZPgTZ18sJsLxCwd1w&hl=en&ei=_UoBToWWGtTTgAe45pHzDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false
  9. ^ "Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus, 1758)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  10. ^ Samuel N. Rhoades (1894). "Appendix". A reprint of the North American zoology by George Ord. pp. 1–51.
  11. ^ http://www.vocabularyserver.com/mammals/index.php?tema=14200776
  12. ^ http://www.vocabularyserver.com/mammals/index.php?tema=14200825&/aries
  13. ^ W. Perrin (2009). W. F. Perrin, ed. "Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758)". World Cetacea Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
  14. ^ W. Perrin (2009). W. F. Perrin, ed. "Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758". World Cetacea Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved August 9, 2010.

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Mammalia

Aves[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus listed the 564 species of bird from around the world which were known to him at the time.[1] There are now believed to be around 10,000 extant species.[2][3] Linnaeus described the class Aves as:[4]

A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are areal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.

Linnaean Characteristics [4]

  • Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood
  • Lungs: respires alternately
  • Jaw: incombent, naked, extended, without teeth
  • Eggs: covered with a calcareous shell
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, and ears without auricles
  • Covering: incumbent, imbricate feathers
  • Supports: 2 feet, 2 wings; and a heart-shaped rump. Flies in the Air & Sings

Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet.[5]

Accipitres[edit]

The Turkey Vulture was named Vultur aura in 1758.
Vultur (vultures & condors)
The Swallow-tailed Kite was named Falco forficatus in 1758.
The Snowy Owl was named Strix scandiaca and Strix nyctea in 1758.
Falco (falcons, eagles, & kin)
Strix (owls)
The Eastern Kingbird was named Lanius tyrannus in 1758.
Lanius (shrikes)

Picae[edit]

The African Grey Parrot, Psittacus erithacus, is the only species to remain in the genus Psittacus.
Psittacus (parrots)
Ramphastos (Toucans[12]
Buceros (hornbills)
Crotophaga (anis)
The Common Raven was named Corvus corax in 1758.
Corvus (crows & ravens)
Coracias (rollers & orioles)
The Common Hill Myna was named Gracula religiosa in 1758.
Gracula (mynas)
Paradisea (birds-of-paradise)
The Yellow-billed Cuckoo was named Cuculus americanus in 1758.
Cuculus (cuckoos)
Jynx (wrynecks)
Picus (woodpeckers)
The Eurasian Nuthatch was named Sitta europaea in 1758.
Sitta (nuthatches)
Alcedo (kingfishers)
Merops (bee-eaters)
The Hoopoe, Upupa epops, is now the only species in the genus Upupa and the family Upupidae.
Upupa (hoopoes)
Certhia (treecreepers)
The Ruby-throated Hummingbird was named Trochilus colubris in 1758.
Trochilus (hummingbirds)

Anseres[edit]

The King Eider was named Anas spectabilis in 1758.
The Eurasian Wigeon was named Anas penelope in 1758.
Anas (ducks, geese, & swans)
Mergus (mergansers)
The Little Auk was named Alca alle in 1758.
Alca (auks)
Procellaria (petrels)
The African Penguin was named Diomedea demersus in 1758.
Diomedea (albatrosses & penguins)
Pelecanus (pelicans & kin)
Phaethon (tropicbirds)
The Horned Grebe, or Slavonian Grebe, was named Colymbus auritus in 1758.
Colymbus (grebes & loons)[Note 3]
Larus (gulls)
Sterna (terns)
Rhyncops (skimmers)

Grallae[edit]

The American Flamingo was named Phoenicopterus ruber in 1758.
Phoenicopterus (flamingoes)
Platalea (spoonbills)
Mycteria (storks)
Tantalus
  • Tantalus loculator – the "Wood Ibis", a synonym for the Wood Stork [18]
Ardea (herons, cranes & kin)
Scolopax (godwits, ibises & kin)
The Bar-tailed Godwit was named Scolopax lapponica in 1758.
Tringa (phalaropes and sandpipers)
The Ruff (shown here in breeding plumage) was named Tringa pugnax in 1758.
Charadrius (plovers)
The European Golden Plover was named Charadrius apricarius and Charadrius pluvialis in 1758.
Recurvirostra (avocets)
Haematopus (oystercatchers)
Fulica (coots & kin)
Rallus (rails)
Psophia (Trumpeters)
Otis (bustards)
Struthio (ratites)

Gallinae[edit]

Pavo (peafowl)
Meleagris (turkeys)
Crax (curassows)
Phasianus (pheasants & chickens)
Tetrao (grouse & kin)

Passeres[edit]

Columba (pigeons & doves)
Alauda (larks & pipits)
Sturnus (starlings)
Turdus (thrushes & kin)
Loxia (cardinals, bullfinches & kin)
Emberiza (buntings)
Fringilla (finches & kin)
Motacilla (wagtails)
Parus (tits & manakins)
Hirundo (swallows & swifts)
Caprimulgus (nightjars)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Simia species are taken from Darwiniana.[1]
  2. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Lemur species are taken from Darwiniana.[1]
  3. ^ The genus Colymbus was mis-spelt "Columbus" in the list of bird genera on p. 84, but appears as Colymbus elsewhere.
  4. ^ a b Linnaeus mixed the two species Turdus iliacus and Turdus musicus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Under Turdus iliacus, he gave a description of the Song Thrush, but cited references referring to the Redwing; under Turdus musicus, he gave a description of the Redwing, but cited referenced referring to the Song Thrush. The confusion was partly clarified in the 1766 12th edition. The name Turdus musicus was suppressed after a 1957 appeal to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature by Ernst Mayr and Charles Vaurie.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ernst Mayr (1946). "The number of species of birds" (PDF). The Auk. 63 (1): 64–69.
  2. ^ James F. Clements (2007). The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (6th ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
  3. ^ Frank Gill (2006). Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12827-6.
  4. ^ a b Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.
  5. ^ Sibley & Ahlquist (1990)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al W. L. McAtee (1957). "The North American birds of Linnaeus". Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. 3: 291–300. doi:10.3366/jsbnh.1957.3.Part_5.291.
  7. ^ Chernelházi Chernél István, ed. (1918). Nomenclator Avium Regni Hungariae / A Magyar Birodalom Madarainak Névjegyzéke (PDF) (in Hungarian). Budapest: Officium Regium Hungaricum Ornithologicum / M. Kir. Ornithologiae Központ.
  8. ^ "Early Works on Ohio Birds by J. P. Kirtland" (PDF). The Ohio Cardinal. 24 (4): 189–212.
  9. ^ "Laughing Falcon, Herpetotheres cachinnans". World Bird Info. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  10. ^ Richard C. Banks & M. Ralph Browning (1995). "Comments on the status of revived old names for some North American birds" (PDF). The Auk. 112 (3): 633–648.
  11. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=1yEUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=Psittacus+aeruginosus+Linnaeus+1758&source=bl&ots=kmloRxrPR7&sig=FLBmX2l0fcp1uOdVrHK5qnNUf8c&hl=en&ei=L0wBTvfoDIrogQeR_oX-DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Psittacus%20aeruginosus%20Linnaeus%201758&f=false
  12. ^ James L. Peters (1930). "The identity of the toucans described by Linnaeus in the 10th and 12th editions of the Systema Naturae". The Auk. 47 (3): 405–408. JSTOR 4075491.
  13. ^ Biswamoy Biswas (1961). "Proposal to designate a neotype for Corvus benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves), under the plenary powers Z.N. (S) 1465". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 18 (3): 217–219.
  14. ^ James L. Peters (1921). "A review of the grackles of the genus Holoquiscalus". The Auk. 38 (3): 435–453. JSTOR 4073768.
  15. ^ "Sturnidae". Check-list of North American Birds (PDF) (7th ed.). American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. pp. 523–524. ISBN 1-891276-00-X.
  16. ^ H. E. Strickland, J. S. Henslow, J. Phillips, W. E. Shuckard, J. B. Richardson, G. R. Waterhouse, R. Owen, W. Yarrell, L. Jenyns, C. Darwin, W. J. Broderip & J. O. Westwood (1843). "Series of propositions for rendering the nomenclature of zoology uniform and permanent, being a report of a Committee for the consideration of the subject appointed by the British Association for the Advancement of Science". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 11: 259–275. Cited in: Alessandro Minelli (2008). "Zoological vs. botanical nomenclature: a forgotten 'BioCode' experiment from the times of the Strickland Code" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1950: 21–38.
  17. ^ Denis Lepage. "Jackass Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) (Linnaeus, 1758)". AviBase. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  18. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=L3KO7-tyCpcC&pg=PA37&lpg=PA37&dq=tantalus+loculator+linnaeus&source=bl&ots=37PWPKsmgT&sig=XdgFPLVbefgvx-YDFgcZijQGtto&hl=en&ei=Q_BzTPLRFYS0lQfEuqDICA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tantalus%20loculator%20linnaeus&f=false
  19. ^ John Penhallurick. "White Ibis". World Bird Info. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  20. ^ John Penhallurick. "Common Greenshank". World Bird Info. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  21. ^ John Penhallurick. "Bar-tailed Godwit". World Bird Info. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  22. ^ John Penhallurick. "Common Redshank". World Bird Info. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  23. ^ John Penhallurick. "Common Greenshank". World Bird Info. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  24. ^ John Penhallurick. "European Golden-Plover". World Bird Info. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  25. ^ Ernst Mayr & Charles Vaurie (1957). "Proposed use of the plenary powers to suppress the specific name "musicus" Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the combination "Turdus musicus" and to approve a neotype for "Turdus iliacus" Linnaeus, 1758, the Eurasian redwing (class Aves)". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 13 (6): 177–181.
  26. ^ Richard C. Banks & M. Ralph Browning (1995). "Comments on the status of revived old names for some North American birds" (PDF). The Auk. 112 (3): 633–648.
  27. ^ C. E. Hellmayr (1917). "Drei Beiträge zur Nomenklatur der Vögel Europas. Eine kritische Würdigung". Verhandlungen Der Ornithologischen Gesellschaft in Bayern. 13 (1): 87–104.

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Aves

Amphibia[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as:[1]

Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.

Linnaean Characteristics [1]

  • Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood
  • Lungs: breaths uncertainly
  • Jaw: incumbent
  • Penis: (frequently) double
  • Eggs: (usually) membranaceous
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears
  • Covering: a naked skin
  • Supports: various, in some none. Creeps in Warm Places & Hisses

Linnaeus often regarded reptiles within the amphibian class because living in Sweden, he often noticed that the local reptiles (examples include the common adder and grass snake) would hunt and be active in the water.

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus included several species of fishes (that do not belong the superclass Osteichthyes) into the amphibian class. It was not until later on that he would merge them into the Fish class and give them their own new order "Chondropterygious", defining them as species with cartilaginous gills.

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed.[2]

Reptiles[edit]

The European pond turtle was named Testudo orbicularis and Testudo lutaria in 1758.
Testudo (turtles & tortoises)
Draco (gliding lizards)
The Carolina anole was named Lacerta principalis in 1758.
The Sand Lizard was named Lacerta agilis in 1758.
The Smooth Newt was named Lacerta vulgaris, Lacerta palustris and Lacerta aquatica in 1758.
The Common Chameleon, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, was named Lacerta chameleon in 1758.
Lacerta (terrestrial lizards, salamanders, & crocodilians)
The Common Frog was named Rana temporaria in 1758.
Rana (frogs & toads)[Note 1]

Serpentes[edit]

[Note 2]

The South American Rattlesnake was named Crotalus durissus in 1758.
Crotalus (rattlesnakes)
Boa (boas)
Vipera ammodytes was named Coluber ammodytes in 1758.
Vipera berus was named Coluber berus in 1758.
Vipera aspis was named Coluber aspis in 1758.
The northern water snake, Nerodia sepodon, was named Coluber sepodon in 1758.
Lycodon aulicus was named Coluber aulicus in 1758.
The Indian cobra was named Coluber naja in 1758.
Leptophis ahaetulla was named Coluber ahaetulla in 1758.
Coluber (racers, vipers & cobras)
The slowworm was named Anguis fragilis in 1758.
Anguis (slowworms & worm snakes)
The red worm lizard was named Amphisbaena alba in 1758.
Amphisbaena (worm lizards)
Caecilia (caecilians)

Nantes[edit]

The European river lamprey was named Petromyzon fluviatilis and Petromyzon branchialis in 1758.
Petromyzon (lampreys)
Raja (rays)
The spiny dogfish was named Squalus acanthias in 1758.
Squalus (sharks)
The suckermouth catfish was named Acipenser plecostomus in 1758.
Chimaera (ratfishes)
Lophius (anglerfishes)
Acipenser (sturgeons)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Except for Rana marginata, the modern identities of all Linnaeus' names in Rana are taken from Kitchell & Dundee (1994).[5]
  2. ^ The modern identities of all Linnaeus' Serpentes taxa (genera Crotalus, Boa (except Boa scytale), Coluber, Anguis, Amphisbaena and Caecilia) are taken from Kitchell & Dundee (1994).[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carl von Linné (Translated from GMELIN'S last Edition of the Celebrated SYSTEMA NATURAE, ... AMENDED AND ENLARGED BY THE IMPROVEMENTS AND DISCOVERIES OF LATER NATURALISTS AND SOCIETIES, ... By William Turton) (1800). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co. p. 638.
  2. ^ http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/bitstream/10088/8238/1/SHIS_100.pdf
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Anders G. J. Rhodin, James F. Parham, Peter Paul van Dijk & John B. Iverson (2009). A. G. J. Rhodin, P. P. van Dijk, R. A. Sumure, K. A. Buhlmann, J. B. Iverson & R. A. Mittermeier, ed. "Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises" (PDF). Chelonian Research Monographs. 5: 000.39–000.41. doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v2.2009. |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^ Anders G. J. Rhodin & John L. Carr (2009). "A quarter millenium of uses and misuses of the turtle name Testudo scabra: identification of the type specimens of T. scabra Linnaeus 1758 (= Rhinoclemmys punctularia) and T. scripta Thunberg in Schoepff 1792 (= Trachemys scripta scripta)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2226: 1–18.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Kenneth Kitchell, Jr. & Harold A. Dundee (1994). "A trilogy on the herpetology of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae X" (PDF). Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service. 100: 1–61.
  6. ^ Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 at the Encyclopedia of Life
  7. ^ Marinus Steven Hoogmoed & Jean Lescure (1975). "An annotated checklist of the lizards of French Guinea, mainly based on two recent collections" (PDF). Zoologische Mededelingen. 49 (13): 141–171.
  8. ^ Anthony P. Russell & Aaron M. Bauer (1991). "Anolis garmani". Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (PDF).
  9. ^ "Bufo typhonius (Linnaeus, 1758)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
  10. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1962). "Opinion 623: Regina Baird & Girard, 1853 (Reptilia): designation of a type-species under the plenary powers". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 19 (3): 145–147.
  11. ^ Arthur Loveridge (1929). "East African Reptiles and Amphibians in the United States National Museum". Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 151: 1–135.

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Amphibia

Pisces[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as:[1]

Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. Besides they parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with an swim-blader, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure.

Linnaean Characteristics [1]

  • Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood
  • Gills: external
  • Jaw: incumbent
  • Penis: (usually) none
  • Eggs: without whites
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils?, eyes, ears
  • Covering: imbricate scales
  • Supports: fins. Swims in the Water & Smacks.

Apodes[edit]

The European eel was named Muraena angvilla in 1758.
Muraena (eels)
Gymnotus (electric knifefishes)
Trichiurus (cutlassfishes)
The seawolf was named Anarhichas lupus in 1758.
Anarhichas (wolffishes)
Ammodytes (sand eels)
Stromateus (butterfishes)
Xiphias (swordfishes)

Jugulares[edit]

Callionymus (dragonets)
Uranoscopus (stargazers)
Trachinus (weevers)
The Atlantic cod was named Gadus morhua & Gadus callarias in 1758.
Gadus (cod & kin)
The butterfly blenny was named Blennius ocellaris in 1758.
Blennius (blennies)
Ophidion (cusk-wels)

Thoracici[edit]

Cyclopterus (Lumpfishes)
Echeneis (Remoras)
Coryphaena (Dolphinfishes)
The black goby was named Gobius niger & Gobius jozo in 1758.
Gobius (Gobies)
Cottus (Sculpins)
Scorpaena (Scorpionfishes)
The lookdown was named Zeus vomer in 1758.
Zeus (John Dories & kin)
The European plaice was named Pleuronectes platessa in 1758.
Pleuronectes (Flatfishes)
The Moorish idol was named Chaetodon canescens & Chaetodon cornutus in 1758.
Chaetodon (Butterflyfishes, Angelfishes, & kin)
The red porgy was named Sparus orphus & Sparus pagrus in 1758.
Sparus (Breams and Porgies)
The goldsinny wrasse was named Labrus suillus & Labrus rupestris in 1758.
Labrus (Wrasses, Parrotfishes, & kin)
Sciaena (Snappers & Croakers)
The European perch was named Perca fluviatilis in 1758.
Perca (Perch, Grouper, & kin)
The red lionfish was named Gasterosteus volitans in 1758.
The flying gurnard was named Gasterosteus spinarella & Trigla volitans in 1758.
Gasterosteus (Sticklebacks & kin)
The Atlantic mackerel was named Scomber scombrus in 1758.
Scomber (Mackerel & Tuna)
The red mullet was named Mullus surmuletus in 1758.
Mullus (Goatfishes)
Trigla (Sea robins)

Abdominales[edit]

Cobitis (Loaches)
The walking catfish was named Silurus batrachus in 1758.
Silurus (Catfishes)
Loricaria (Suckermouth Catfishes)
The Atlantic salmon was named Salmo salar in 1758.
The brown trout was named Salmo eriox, Salmo trutta, Salmo fario & Salmo lacustris in 1758.
Salmo (Salmon, Trout, & kin)
Fistularia (Cornetfishes)
The longnose gar was named Esox osseus in 1758.
Esox (Pike, Gar, and kin)
Argentina (Herring smelts)
Atherina (Silversides)
Mugil (Mullet)
Exocoetus (Flying fishes)
Polynemus (Threadfins)
The European anchovy was named Clupea encrasicolus in 1758.
Clupea (Herring, Hatchetfishes, & kin)
The common carp was named Cyprinus carpio in 1758.
Cyprinus (Carp & kin)

Branchiostegi[edit]

The queen triggerfish was named Balistes vetula in 1758.
Mormyrus (Elephantfishes)
Balistes (Triggerfishes)
The yellow boxfish was named Ostracion tuberculatus & Ostracion cubicus in 1758.
Ostracion (Boxfishes & Cowfishes)
Tetrodon (Pufferfishes & Sunfishes)
The long-spine porcupinefish was named Diodon holocanthus in 1758.
Diodon (Porcupinefishes)
Centriscus (Shrimpfishes)
Syngnathus (Pipefishes & Seahorses)
Pegasus (Seamoths)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Pisces Category:Obsolete taxonomic groups

Insecta[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". He described the Insecta as:[1]

A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation.

Linnaean Characteristics [1]

  • Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, puss-like blood.
  • Spiracles: lateral pores
  • Jaw: lateral
  • Penis: penetrates
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, eyes, antennae on head, no brain, no ears, no nostrils
  • Covering: a bony coat of mail
  • Supports: feet, and in some, wings. Skips on Dry Ground & Buzzes

Orders[edit]

Scarabaeus hercules (now Dynastes hercules) was the first species in Linnaeus' class "Insecta".

Linnaeus divided the class Insecta into seven orders, based chiefly on the form of the wings. He also provided a key to the orders:[2]

  • 4 wings
  • pairs dissimilar
  • pairs similar
  • wings covered with flat scales: Lepidoptera
  • wings membranous

Despite this key, however, Linnaeus grouped insects together that shared other affinities. His genus Coccus, containing the scale insects, he placed among the 4-winged Hemiptera, along with aphids and other plant-attacking insects, even though females have no wings, and males have two wings.[2] Similarly, the sheep ked Hippobosca ovina (now Melophagus ovinus) was correctly placed among the Diptera, despite being wingless.[2]

Genera[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.
  2. ^ a b c Mary P. Winsor (1976). "The development of Linnaean insect classification". Taxon. 25 (1): 57–67. JSTOR 1220406.

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Insecta

Coeloptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with hardened wing covers (beetles, earwigs and orthopteroid insects) were brought together under the name Coleoptera.

Scarabaeus (scarab beetles)[edit]

Strategus aloeus was named Scarabaeus aloeus in 1758.
Geotrupes stercorarius was named Scarabaeus stercorarius in 1758.
Valgus hemipterus was named Scarabaeus hemipterus in 1758.
Cetonia aurata was named Scarabaeus auratus in 1758.
Lucanus cervus was named Scarabaeus cervus in 1758.

Dermestes (larder beetles)[edit]

  • Dermestes lardariusDermestes lardarius
  • Dermestes undatus
  • Dermestes pellioAttagenus pellio, the carpet beetle
  • Dermestes pectinicornis - Ptilinus pectinicornis
  • Dermestes clavicornis
  • Dermestes pertinax
  • Dermestes mollis
  • Dermestes capucinus
  • Dermestes typographus
  • Dermestes micrographus
  • Dermestes poligraphus
  • Dermestes piniperdaTomicus piniperda
  • Dermestes violaceus
  • Dermestes fenestralis
  • Dermestes domesticus
  • Dermestes melanocephalus
  • Dermestes murinus
  • Dermestes pilula
  • Dermestes scarabaeoides
  • Dermestes scrophulariaeAnthrenus scrophulariae
  • Dermestes pisorum
  • Dermestes paniceus
  • Dermestes eustatius
  • Dermestes stercoreus
  • Dermestes pedicularius
  • Dermestes pulicarius
  • Dermestes psyllius
  • Dermestes scanicus
  • Dermestes colon
  • Dermestes surinamensis
  • Dermestes hemipterus

Hister (clown beetles)[edit]

Silpha (carrion beetles)[edit]

  • Silpha germanicaNicrophorus germanicus
  • Silpha vespilloNicrophorus vespillo
  • Silpha bipunctata
  • Silpha quatripunctata
  • Silpha indica
  • Silpha americanaNecrophila americana, the American carrion beetle
  • Silpha seminulum
  • Silpha agaricina
  • Silpha maura
  • Silpha russica
  • Silpha littoralis
  • Silpha atrataPhosphuga atrata
  • Silpha thoracica
  • Silpha opacaBlitophaga opaca
  • Silpha rugosa
  • Silpha sabulosa
  • Silpha obscura
  • Silpha ferruginea
  • Silpha grossa
  • Silpha oblonga
  • Silpha aquatica
  • Silpha colon
  • Silpha depressa
  • Silpha grisea
  • Silpha aestiva
  • Silpha pedicularis

Cassida (tortoise beetles)[edit]

  • Cassida viridis
  • Cassida nebulosa
  • Cassida nobilis
  • Cassida cruciata
  • Cassida bifasciata
  • Cassida flava
  • Cassida purpurea
  • Cassida marginata
  • Cassida reticularis
  • Cassida variegata
  • Cassida grossa
  • Cassida clatrata
  • Cassida jamaicensis
  • Cassida cyanea
  • Cassida inaequalis
  • Cassida lateralis
  • Cassida discoides
  • Cassida petiverianaTherea petiveriana [14]

Coccinella (ladybirds or ladybugs)[edit]

Coccinella septempunctata was named Coccinella 7-punctata in 1758.
Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata was named Coccinella 22-punctata in 1758.
Halyzia sedecimguttata was named Coccinella 16-guttata in 1758.

Chrysomela (leaf beetles)[edit]

  • Chrysomela göttingensis
  • Chrysomela tanaceti
  • Chrysomela haemorrhoidalis
  • Chrysomela graminis - Chrysolina graminis, the tansy beetle
  • Chrysomela aenea
  • Chrysomela alni - Agelastica alni
  • Chrysomela betulae
  • Chrysomela haemoptera
  • Chrysomela occidentalis
  • Chrysomela padi
  • Chrysomela armoraciae - Phaedon armoraciae
  • Chrysomela hypochaeridis
  • Chrysomela vulgatissima - Phratora vulgatissima, the blue willow beetle
  • Chrysomela vitellinae
  • Chrysomela polygoni - Gastrophysa polygoni
  • Chrysomela pallida
  • Chrysomela staphylaea
  • Chrysomela polita
  • Chrysomela clavicornis
  • Chrysomela populi
  • Chrysomela viminalis
  • Chrysomela 10-punctata
  • Chrysomela lapponica - Chrysomela lapponica
  • Chrysomela boleti
  • Chrysomela collaris
  • Chrysomela sanguinolenta
  • Chrysomela marginata
  • Chrysomela marginella
  • Chrysomela aestuans
  • Chrysomela coccinea
  • Chrysomela philadelphica
  • Chrysomela americana - Chrysolina americana
  • Chrysomela sacra
  • Chrysomela minuta
  • Chrysomela oleracea
  • Chrysomela chrysocephala
  • Chrysomela hyoscyami
  • Chrysomela erythrocephala
  • Chrysomela helxines
  • Chrysomela exsoleta
  • Chrysomela nitidula
  • Chrysomela nemorum
  • Chrysomela rufipes
  • Chrysomela holsatica
  • Chrysomela hemisphaerica
  • Chrysomela surinamensis
  • Chrysomela litera
  • Chrysomela aequinoctialis
  • Chrysomela tridentata
  • Chrysomela 4-punctata
  • Chrysomela 2-punctata
  • Chrysomela moraei
  • Chrysomela nitida
  • Chrysomela sericea - Plateumaris sericea
  • Chrysomela coryli
  • Chrysomela pini
  • Chrysomela bothnica
  • Chrysomela cordigera
  • Chrysomela 6-punctata
  • Chrysomela 10 maculata
  • Chrysomela obscura - Bromius obscurus
  • Chrysomela merdigera
  • Chrysomela nymphaeae
  • Chrysomela caprea
  • Chrysomela 4-maculata
  • Chrysomela cyanella
  • Chrysomela 12-punctata - Crioceris duodecimpunctata
  • Chrysomela melanopus - Oulema melanopus, the cereal leaf beetle
  • Chrysomela phellandrii
  • Chrysomela asparagi - Crioceris asparagi
  • Chrysomela cerasi - Orsodacne cerasi
  • Chrysomela sulphurea
  • Chrysomela cervina
  • Chrysomela ceramboides
  • Chrysomela murina
  • Chrysomela hirta
  • Chrysomela inda
  • Chrysomela elongata

Curculio (true weevils)[edit]

  • Curculio palmarum
  • Curculio indus
  • Curculio hemipterus
  • Curculio violaceus
  • Curculio alliariae
  • Curculio cyaneus
  • Curculio aterrimus
  • Curculio cerasi
  • Curculio acridulus
  • Curculio purpureus
  • Curculio frumentarius
  • Curculio granarius
  • Curculio dorsalis
  • Curculio melanocardius
  • Curculio pini
  • Curculio rumicis
  • Curculio lapathi
  • Curculio cupreus
  • Curculio scaber
  • Curculio T.album
  • Curculio quercus
  • Curculio arator
  • Curculio 2-punctatus
  • Curculio 4-maculatus
  • Curculio 5-maculatus
  • Curculio pericarpius
  • Curculio scrophulariae
  • Curculio vittatus
  • Curculio paraplecticus
  • Curculio algirus
  • Curculio bacchus
  • Curculio betulae
  • Curculio populi
  • Curculio alni
  • Curculio salicis
  • Curculio fagi
  • Curculio segetis
  • Curculio pomorum
  • Curculio ovatus
  • Curculio carbonarius
  • Curculio mucoreus
  • Curculio pusio
  • Curculio vaginalis
  • Curculio stigma
  • Curculio depressus
  • Curculio annulatus
  • Curculio dispar
  • Curculio anchorago
  • Curculio abietis - Hylobius abietis, the pine weevil
  • Curculio germanus
  • Curculio nucum
  • Curculio 5-punctatus
  • Curculio hispidus
  • Curculio rectirostris
  • Curculio pedicularius
  • Curculio ligustici
  • Curculio pyri
  • Curculio oblongus
  • Curculio argentatus
  • Curculio ovatus - Otiorhynchus ovatus
  • Curculio cervinus
  • Curculio argyreus
  • Curculio viridis
  • Curculio speciosus
  • Curculio ruficornis
  • Curculio albinus
  • Curculio lineatus - Sitona lineatus
  • Curculio incanus
  • Curculio cloropus
  • Curculio rufipes
  • Curculio nebulosus
  • Curculio ater
  • Curculio emeritus
  • Curculio barbarus
  • Curculio cornutus
  • Curculio 16-punctatus
  • Curculio granulatus
  • Curculio abbreviatus - Diaprepes abbreviatus
  • Curculio chinensis
  • Curculio apterus

Attelabus (leaf-rolling weevils)[edit]

  • Attelabus coryli
  • Attelabus surinamensis
  • Attelabus pensylvanicus
  • Attelabus betulae
  • Attelabus formicarius
  • Attelabus sipylus
  • Attelabus apiarius
  • Attelabus mollis
  • Attelabus ceramboides
  • Attelabus buprestoides

Cerambyx (longhorn beetles)[edit]

Rosalia alpina was named Cerambyx alpinus in 1758.
Cerambyx cerdo was named in 1758.
Lamia textor was named Cerambyx textor in 1758.
Phymatodes testaceus was named Cerambyx testaceus in 1758.

Leptura[edit]

Cantharis (soldier beetles)[edit]

  • Cantharis noctiluca - Lampyris noctiluca, the common glow-worm
  • Cantharis pyralis
  • Cantharis lampyris
  • Cantharis ignita
  • Cantharis lucida
  • Cantharis phosphorea
  • Cantharis nauritanica
  • Cantharis chinensis
  • Cantharis italica
  • Cantharis fusca
  • Cantharis livida
  • Cantharis rufa
  • Cantharis sanguinea
  • Cantharis obscura
  • Cantharis lateralis
  • Cantharis aenea
  • Cantharis bipustulata
  • Cantharis pedicularia
  • Cantharis fasciata
  • Cantharis biguttata
  • Cantharis minima
  • Cantharis testacea
  • Cantharis pectinata
  • Cantharis serrata
  • Cantharis tropica
  • Cantharis pectinicornis
  • Cantharis caerulea
  • Cantharis viridissima
  • Cantharis navalis
  • Cantharis melanura

Elater (click beetles)[edit]

  • Elater oculatus
  • Elater noctilucus
  • Elater phosphoreus
  • Elater brunneus
  • Elater syriacus
  • Elater cruciatus
  • Elater linearis
  • Elater ruficollis
  • Elater mesomelus
  • Elater castaneus
  • Elater ferrugineus
  • Elater sanguineus
  • Elater balteatus
  • Elater marginatus
  • Elater sputator - Elages sputator
  • Elater obscurus
  • Elater tristis
  • Elater fasciatus
  • Elater murinus
  • Elater tessellatus
  • Elater aeneus
  • Elater pectinicornis
  • Elater niger
  • Elater minutus

Cicindela (ground beetles)[edit]

Buprestis (jewel beetles)[edit]

  • Buprestis gigantea
  • Buprestis 8-guttata - Buprestis octoguttata
  • Buprestis gnita
  • Buprestis stricta
  • Buprestis sternicornis
  • Buprestis mariana
  • Buprestis chrysostigma
  • Buprestis rustica
  • Buprestis fascicularis
  • Buprestis hirta
  • Buprestis nitidula
  • Buprestis bimaculata
  • Buprestis tristis
  • Buprestis cuprea
  • Buprestis nobilis
  • Buprestis 4-punctata
  • Buprestis minuta
  • Buprestis viridis
  • Buprestis linearis

Dytiscus (Dytiscidae)[edit]

  • Dytiscus piceus
  • Dytiscus caraboides
  • Dytiscus fuscipes
  • Dytiscus latissimus
  • Dytiscus marginalis - Great diving beetle
  • Dytiscus striatus
  • Dytiscus fuscus
  • Dytiscus cinereus
  • Dytiscus semistriatus
  • Dytiscus sulcatus
  • Dytiscus erytrocephalus
  • Dytiscus maculatus
  • Dytiscus minutus
  • Dytiscus natator
  • Dytiscus scarabaeoides

Carabus[edit]

  • Carabus coriaceus - Carabus coriaceus
  • Carabus granulatus - Carabus granulatus
  • Carabus leucophthalmus - Sphodrus leucophthalmus
  • Carabus nitens - Carabus nitens
  • Carabus hortensis - Carabus hortensis
  • Carabus violaceus - Carabus violaceus
  • Carabus cephalotes
  • Carabus inquisitor
  • Carabus sycophanta
  • Carabus lividus
  • Carabus crepitans
  • Carabus americanus
  • Carabus spinipes
  • Carabus cyanocephalus
  • Carabus melanocephalus
  • Carabus vaporariorum
  • Carabus latus
  • Carabus ferrugineus
  • Carabus germanus
  • Carabus vulgaris
  • Carabus caerulescens
  • Carabus cupreus
  • Carabus piceus
  • Carabus marginatus
  • Carabus multipunctatus
  • Carabus 6-punctatus
  • Carabus ustulatus
  • Carabus crux major
  • Carabus crux minor
  • Carabus 4-maculatus
  • Carabus atricapillus

Tenebrio (darkling beetles)[edit]

  • Tenebrio molitor - Mealworm
  • Tenebrio mauritanicus - Tenebroides mauritanicus, the Cadelle Beetle
  • Tenebrio culinaris
  • Tenebrio barbarus
  • Tenebrio fossor
  • Tenebrio cursor
  • Tenebrio pedicularius
  • Tenebrio erraticus
  • Tenebrio pallens
  • Tenebrio mortisagus
  • Tenebrio muricatus
  • Tenebrio caeruleus
  • Tenebrio angulatus
  • Tenebrio caraboides

Meloe (blister beetles)[edit]

Mordella (tumbling flower beetles)[edit]

  • Mordella aculeata
  • Mordella humeralis
  • Mordella frontalis
  • Mordella thoracica
  • Mordella flava

Necydalis (necydaline beetles)[edit]

Staphylinus (rove beetles)[edit]

Forficula (earwigs)[edit]

Blaberus giganteus was named Blatta gigantea in 1758.

Blatta (cockroaches)[edit]

[Note 1]

Gryllus (other orthopteroid insects)[edit]

[Note 2]

The European mantis was named Gryllus Mantis religiosus in 1758.

Mantis[edit]

Acrida[edit]

Bulla[edit]

Acheta[edit]

Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa was named Gryllus Acheta gryllotalpa in 1758.
The wart-biter was named Gryllus Tettigonia verrucivorus in 1758.

Tettigonia[edit]

Locusta[edit]

The migratory locust was named Gryllus Locusta migratorius in 1758.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Blatta species are taken from Marshall (1983).[14]
  2. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Gryllus species are taken from Marshall (1983).[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Miguel Angel Morón Ríos (2004). Escarabajos: 200 millones de años de evolución (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Istituto de Ecología. ISBN 978-84-932807-6-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Lars Wallin (February 14, 2001). "Catalogue of type specimens. 4. Linnaean specimens" (PDF). Uppsala University. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  3. ^ a b Brett C. Ratcliffe (1976). "A revision of the genus Strategus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum. 10 (3): 93–207.
  4. ^ "Oryctes nasicornis". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  5. ^ Tristrão Branco (2007). "Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) of Portugal: genus-group names and their type species" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1453: 1–31.
  6. ^ a b c Bert Kohlmann & Miguel Angel Morón (2003). "Análisis histórico de la clasificación de los Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea o Lamellicornia" (PDF). Acta Zoológica Mexicana. n.s. 90: 175–280.
  7. ^ Jean-Michel Maes, Brett Ratcliffe & M. L. Jameson. "Subfamilia Dynastinae". BIO-NICA. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Andrew B. T. Smith (April 22, 2009). "Checklist and Nomenclatural Authority File of the Scarabaeoidea of the Nearctic Realm including Canada, the continental United States, and the northern Mexican states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, and Zacatecas. Version 4" (PDF). University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
  9. ^ Milan Nikodým & Denis Keith (2007). "A contribution to knowledge of the genus Glaphyrus Latreille, 1807 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Glaphyridae)". Animma.x. 20: 1–20.
  10. ^ a b Joel Hallan. "Geotrupidae Latreille, 1802". Biology Catalog. Texas A&M University. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  11. ^ Jacques Baraud (1992). Coléoptères Scarabaeoidea d'Europe. Volume 78 of Faune de France (in French). Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles. ISBN 978-2-9505514-1-2.
  12. ^ Joel Hallan. "Bostrichidae". Biology Catalog. Texas A&M University. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  13. ^ Julio Ferrer & Jose Luis Bujalance de Miguel (2008). "Biblioteca Entomológica. Un artificio fotográfico" (PDF). Boletín de la S.E.A. (in Spanish). 42: 471–472.
  14. ^ a b c Judith A. Marshall (1983). "The orthopteroid insects described by Linnaeus, with notes on the Linnaean collection". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 78 (4): 375–396. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1975.tb02266.x.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Yves Bousquet, Daniel J. Heffern, Patrice Bouchard & Eugenio H. Nearns (2009). "Catalogue of family-group names in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2321: 1–80.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Lamiaires du Monde / Lamiines of World". Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Ubirajara R. Martins, Maria Helena M. Galileo & Francisco Limeira-de-Oliveira (2009). "Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) do estado do Maranhão, Brasil" (PDF). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia. 49 (19): 229–247.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Svatopluk Bílý & O. Mehl (1989). Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-08697-5.
  19. ^ "Elateropsis lineatus". BioStor. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  20. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cerambyx cerdo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  21. ^ Lech Borowiec (1987). "The genera of seed-beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)" (PDF). Polskie Pizmo Entomologiczne. 57: 3–207.
  22. ^ Ross H. Arnett, Jr. (1951). "A revision of the Nearctic Oedemeridae (Coleoptera)". American Midland Naturalist. 45 (2): 257–391. JSTOR 2421732.
  23. ^ Mikhail L. Danilevsky (September 7, 2003). "A systematic list of Longicorn Beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycoidea) of Mongolia". Retrieved November 5, 2010.
  24. ^ a b Mikhail L. Danilevsky (September 7, 2003). "Systematic list of longicorn beetles (Cerambycoidea, Coleoptera) of Mongolia". Cerambycidae. Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v.v.i.
  25. ^ http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?guid=urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:260096
  26. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=3RoJUIunQ-UC&pg=PA341&lpg=PA341&dq=Staphylinus+littoreus+Linnaeus+1758&source=bl&ots=H9nRzSGwOk&sig=2FMl5RPBCGp2Uo3NeCb92dip9JQ&hl=en&ei=R81CTsbBDYO3twf_lMSxCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Staphylinus%20littoreus%20Linnaeus%201758&f=false
  27. ^ a b Fabian Haas (2004–2009). "The Earwigs of the United Kingdom".

DEFAULTSORT:Coleoptera In The 10th Edition Of Systema Naturae Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Coleoptera

Hemiptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". True bugs and thrips were brought together under the name Hemiptera.

Cicada (cicadas)[edit]

  • Cicada laternaria
  • Cicada candelaria
  • Cicada phosphorea
  • Cicada noctivida
  • Cicada lucernaria
  • Cicada foliata
  • Cicada fronditia
  • Cicada squamigera
  • Cicada crux
  • Cicada cornuta
  • Cicada aurita
  • Cicada ciliarisPlatypleura ciliaris
  • Cicada quadrifasciata
  • Cicada bifasciata
  • Cicada fornicata
  • Cicada stridulaPlatypleura stridula
  • Cicada orni
  • Cicada repanda
  • Cicada reticulata
  • Cicada tibicenTibicen tibicen
  • Cicada septendecimMagicicada septendecim, periodical cicada
  • Cicada violacea
  • Cicada coleoptrata
  • Cicada spumaria
  • Cicada nervosa
  • Cicada leucophthalma
  • Cicada albifrons
  • Cicada leucocephala
  • Cicada lateralis
  • Cicada striata
  • Cicada lineata
  • Cicada interrupta
  • Cicada vittata
  • Cicada aptera
  • Cicada phalaenoides
  • Cicada lanata
  • Cicada rubra
  • Cicada viridis
  • Cicada flava
  • Cicada aurata
  • Cicada ulmi
  • Cicada rosae

Notonecta (backswimmers)[edit]

Nepa (water scorpions)[edit]

Cimex (shield bugs & bedbugs)[edit]

  • Cimex lectulariusbedbug
  • Cimex stockerus
  • Cimex scarabaeoides
  • Cimex maurus
  • Cimex lineatusGraphosoma lineatum
  • Cimex arabs
  • Cimex serratus
  • Cimex stolidus
  • Cimex histrio
  • Cimex littoralis
  • Cimex rugosus
  • Cimex clavicornis
  • Cimex corticalis
  • Cimex betulae
  • Cimex erosus
  • Cimex filicis
  • Cimex carduiTingis cardui
  • Cimex bidensPicromerus bidens
  • Cimex rufipes
  • Cimex marginatus
  • Cimex bipustulatus
  • Cimex ypsilonMormidea ypsilon
  • Cimex punctatus
  • Cimex haemorrhoidalisAcanthosoma haemorrhoidale
  • Cimex valgus
  • Cimex quadrispinosus
  • Cimex acantharis
  • Cimex viridulusNezara viridula, southern green stink bug
  • Cimex peregrinator
  • Cimex bipunctatus
  • Cimex sexapunctatus
  • Cimex griseus
  • Cimex interstinctusElasmostethus interstinctus
  • Cimex baccarumDolycoris baccarum
  • Cimex dumosus
  • Cimex variolosus
  • Cimex juniperinus
  • Cimex caeruleusZicrona caerulea
  • Cimex lineola
  • Cimex oleraceus
  • Cimex biguttatus
  • Cimex bicolorTritomegas bicolor
  • Cimex ornatus
  • Cimex ruber
  • Cimex acuminatusAelia acuminata
  • Cimex leucocephalus
  • Cimex minutus
  • Cimex personatus
  • Cimex annulatus
  • Cimex aterCapsus ater
  • Cimex gothicus
  • Cimex indus
  • Cimex hyoscyami
  • Cimex equestrisLygaeus equestris
  • Cimex apterus
  • Cimex aegyptius
  • Cimex andreae
  • Cimex kalmii
  • Cimex pratensisLygus pratensis
  • Cimex campestris
  • Cimex umbratilis
  • Cimex crassicornis
  • Cimex saltatoriusSaldula saltatoria
  • Cimex arenarius
  • Cimex pini
  • Cimex rolandri
  • Cimex nigripes
  • Cimex laevigatus
  • Cimex dolabratus
  • Cimex striatus
  • Cimex erraticus
  • Cimex ferus
  • Cimex populi
  • Cimex ulmi
  • Cimex sylvestris
  • Cimex bimaculatus
  • Cimex mutabilis
  • Cimex calcaratusAlydus calcaratus
  • Cimex abietis
  • Cimex kermesinus
  • Cimex lacustrisGerris lacustris, common water strider
  • Cimex stagnorumHydrometra stagnorum
  • Cimex vagabundusEmpicoris vagabundus
  • Cimex tipularius
  • Cimex coryli

Aphis (aphids)[edit]

  • Aphis ribis
  • Aphis ulmi
  • Aphis pastinacae
  • Aphis sambuci
  • Aphis rumicis
  • Aphis lychnidis
  • Aphis padi
  • Aphis rosaerose aphid
  • Aphis tiliae
  • Aphis brassicaeBrevicoryne brassicae, cabbage aphid
  • Aphis craccae
  • Aphis lactucae
  • Aphis cirsii
  • Aphis cardui
  • Aphis tanaceti
  • Aphis absinthii
  • Aphis jaceae
  • Aphis betulae
  • Aphis roboris
  • Aphis quercus
  • Aphis pini
  • Aphis salicis
  • Aphis populi
  • Aphis bursaria
  • Aphis urticaeOrthezia urticae [1]

Chermes (woolly aphids)[edit]

  • Chermes graminis
  • Chermes ulmi
  • Chermes cerastii
  • Chermes pyri
  • Chermes buxi
  • Chermes urticae
  • Chermes betulae
  • Chermes alni
  • Chermes quercus
  • Chermes abietis
  • Chermes salicis
  • Chermes fraxini
  • Chermes aceris
  • Chermes ficus

Coccus (scale insects)[edit]

[Note 1]

Thrips (thrips)[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Coccus species are taken from Gertsson (2008)[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b C. A. Gertsson (2008). "Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) as described by Linnaeus" (PDF). Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies. pp. 55–58.
  2. ^ a b c "Genus Thrips Linneaeus, 1758". Thrips of the World Checklist. CSIRO. November 17, 2005. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  3. ^ "Species Aeolothrips fasciatus (Linnaeus, 1758)". Australian Faunal Directory. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. October 9, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2010.

DEFAULTSORT:Hemiptera In The 10th Edition Of Systema Naturae

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Hemiptera

Lepidoptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Butterflies and moths were brought together under the name Lepidoptera. Linnaeus divided the group into three genera – Papilio, Sphinx and Phalaena. The first two, together with the seven subdivisions of the third, are now used as the basis for nine superfamily names: Papilionoidea, Sphingoidea, Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Torticoidea, Pyraloidea, Tineoidea and Alucitoidea.[1]

Themes[edit]

When naming the nearly 200 species of butterflies known to him at the time, Linnaeus used names from classical mythology as specific names. These were thematically arranged into six groups, and were drawn from classical sources including the Fabulae of Gaius Julius Hyginus and Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia.[2] The first such group was the Equites, or knights, which were divided into the Equites Trojani (Trojan army) and Equites Achivi (Achaean army), and between them named most of the figures involved in the Trojan War.[2] The second group was the Heliconii, comprising Apollo and Muses. The third group was the Danai, divided into the Danai Candidi and the Danai Festivi, representing the Danaids and their husbands.[2] The fourth group was the Nymphales, or nymphs, divided into the Nymphales gemmati and the Nymphales phalerati, on the basis of the insects' wing markings.[2] The fifth group, the Plebeji, were divided into Plebeji Rurales and Plebeji Urbicolae. There is little thematic connection between their names. The final group was the Barbari, or Argonauts.[2]

Papilio (butterflies)[edit]

[Note 1]

Equites Trojani[edit]

The name of Graphium agamemnon (originally Papilio agamemnon) commemorates Agamemnon.

Equites Achivi[edit]

The Old World Swallowtail was named Papilio machaon, after Machaon.
The Common Lime was named Papilio demoleus in 1758.

Heliconii[edit]

The Apollo was named Papilio apollo, after Apollo.

Danai candidi[edit]

The Black-veined White was named Papilio crataegi after the hawthorn bushes it feeds on.
The Round-winged Orange Tip was named Papilio euippe, after Euippe.

Danai festivi[edit]

The Small Heath was named Papilio pamphilus, after Pamphilus.

Nymphales gemmati[edit]

Junonia lemonias was named Papilio lemonias in 1758.
The Large Wall was named Papilio maera in 1758.
The Purple Emperor was named Papilio iris, after Iris.
Linnaeus gave two names to the seasonally polyphenic Map butterfly.
The spring generation was named Papilio levana.
The summer generations were named Papilio prorsa.

Nymphales phalerati[edit]

Plebeji rurales[edit]

The Silver-studded Blue was named Papilio argus in 1758.
The Scarce Copper was named Papilio virgaureae in 1758.

Plebeji urbicolae[edit]

The Grizzled Skipper was named Papilio malvae in 1758.

Barbari[edit]

Neptis hylas was named Papilio hylas, after Hylas.

Sphinx (hawk moths)[edit]

Macroglossum stellatarum, the hummingbird hawk moth, was named Sphinx stellatarum in 1758.
Hyles euphorbiae, the spurge hawk moth (caterpillar pictured), was named Sphinx euphorbiae in 1758.
Zygaena filipendulae, the six-spot burnet moth (Zygaenidae) was included among the hawk moths of the genus Sphinx in 1758.

Phalaena (moths)[edit]

Bombyces[edit]

The puss moth Cerura vinula was described as Phalaena vinula in 1758.
Arctia caja was described as Phalaena caja in 1758.
Clostera curtula was described as Phalaena curtula in 1758.
Calliteara pudibunda was described as Phalaena pudibunda in 1758.
Notodonta ziczac was described as Phalaena ziczac in 1758.

[Note 2]

Noctuae[edit]

[Note 3]

Xyleutes strix was described as Phalaena strix in 1758.
Callimorpha dominula was described as Phalaena dominula in 1758.
Tyria jacobaeae was described as Phalaena jacobaeae in 1758.
The Angle Shades moth, Phlogophora meticulosa, was described as Phalaena meticulosa in 1758.
Orthosia gothica was described as Phalaena gothica in 1758.
Aedia leucomelas was described as Phalaena leucomelas in 1758.

Geometrae[edit]

[46]

Eurrhypara hortulata was described as Phalaena hortulata in 1758.

Tortrices[edit]

[Note 4]

Agapeta hamana was described as Phalaena hamana in 1758.
Eulia ministrana was described as Phalaena ministrana in 1758.
Epinotia solandriana was described as Phalaena solandriana in 1758.

Pyrales[edit]

Pyrausta purpuralis was described as Phalaena purpualis in 1758.

[Note 5]

Tineae[edit]

[Note 6]

Alucitae[edit]

Geina didactyla was described as Phalaena didactyla in 1758.

[Note 7]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Papilio species are taken from Honey & Scoble (2008).[3]
  2. ^ Except where otherwise indicated, all given identities of Linnaeus' Bombyces are taken from Mikkola & Honey (1993).[18]
  3. ^ Except where otherwise indicated, the identities of Linnaeus' Noctuae are taken from Mikkola & Honey (1993).[18]
  4. ^ Except where otherwise indicated, the identities of Linnaeus' Tortrices are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]
  5. ^ The identities of all Linnaeus' Pyrales are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]
  6. ^ The identities of all Linnaeus' Tineae are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]
  7. ^ The identities of all Linnaeus' Alucitae are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Malcolm J. Scoble (1995). "Classification of the Lepidoptera". The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Oxford University Press. pp. 186–191. ISBN 978-0-19-854952-9.
  2. ^ a b c d e John L. Heller (1945). "Classical mythology in the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 76: 333–357. JSTOR 283345.
  3. ^ Martin R. Honey & Malcolm J. Scoble (2008). "Linnaeus's butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 132 (3): 277–399. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2001.tb01326.x.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q A. R. Pittaway (September 13, 2010). "Sphingidae of the Western Palaearctic". Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  5. ^ Markku Savela. "Enyo Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Lars Wallin (February 14, 2001). "Catalogue of type specimens. 4. Linnaean specimens" (PDF). Uppsala University. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  7. ^ a b John W. Brown & Julian P. Donahue (1989). "The Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) of Baja California, Mexico" (PDF). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 43 (3): 184–209.
  8. ^ a b Markku Savela. "Aellopos Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  9. ^ Markku Savela. "Xylophanes Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  10. ^ a b Markku Savela. "Synanthedon Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  11. ^ A. R. Pittaway & I. J. Kitching. "Sphingidae of the Eastern Palaearctic (including Siberia, the Russian Far East, Mongolia, China, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula and Japan)". Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  12. ^ Markku Savela. "Zygaena Fabricius, 1775". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  13. ^ Н. Н. Игнатьев & В. В. Золотухин (2005). "Обзор лжепестрянок (Lepidoptera: Syntomidae) России и сопредельных территорий. Часть 1. Род Syntomis Ochsenheimer, 1808" (PDF). Eversmannia (in Russian). 3–4: 28–55. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  14. ^ a b Markku Savela. "Euchromia Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  15. ^ Markku Savela. "Saurita Herrich-Schäffer, [1855]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  16. ^ Shen-Horn Yen, Gaden S. Robinson & Donald L. J. Quicke (2005). "The phylogenetic relationships of Chalcosiinae (Lepidoptera, Zygaenoidea, Zygaenidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 143 (2): 161–341. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00139.x.
  17. ^ Markku Savela. "Adscita Retzius, 1783". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kauri Mikkola & Martin R. Honey (1993). "The Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) described by Linnaeus". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 108 (2): 103–169. doi:10.1006/zjls.1993.1019. Unknown parameter |doi2= ignored (help)
  19. ^ Markku Savela. "Attacus Linnaeus, 1767". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  20. ^ Markku Savela. "Rothschildia Grote, 1896". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  21. ^ Markku Savela. "Hyalophora Duncan [& Westwood], 1841". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  22. ^ Markku Savela. "Actias Leach, 1815". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  23. ^ Markku Savela. "Saturnia Schrank, 1802". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  24. ^ A. R. Pittaway. "Aglia Ochsenheimer, 1810". Saturniidae of the Western Palaearctic. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  25. ^ Markku Savela. "Phyllodesma Hübner, [1820]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  26. ^ "Odonestis pruni (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  27. ^ Markku Savela. "Euthrix Meigen, 1830". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  28. ^ Markku Savela. "Dendrolimus Germar, 1812". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  29. ^ Markku Savela. "Lasiocampa Schrank, 1802". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  30. ^ Markku Savela. "Macrothylacia Rambur, 1866". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  31. ^ Markku Savela. "Eriogaster Germar, 1810". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  32. ^ "Endromis versicolora (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  33. ^ Anthea Gentry, Juliet Clutton-Brock, Colin P. Groves (2004). "The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives". Journal of Archaeological Science. 31: 645–651. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2003.10.006.
  34. ^ a b Markku Savela. "Malacosoma Hübner, [1820]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  35. ^ "Eriogaster (Eriogaster) catax (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  36. ^ "Trichiura (Trichiura) crataegi (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  37. ^ "Poecilocampa populi (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  38. ^ "Cossus cossus (Linnaeus 1758)". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  39. ^ Markku Savela. "Pitthea Walker, 1854". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  40. ^ Jeremy Daniel Holloway. "Dysphania militaris Linnaeus". The Moths of Borneo. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  41. ^ David L. Wagner (1988). "Taxonomic status of Korscheltellus Börner in North America (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 96 (3): 345–354. JSTOR 25009697.
  42. ^ "Familia Sematuridae". Fauna Entomologica de Nicaragua (in Spanish). Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  43. ^ Jeremy Daniel Holloway. "Thyatira batis Linnaeus". The Moths of Borneo. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  44. ^ Nikola-Michael Prpic (November 9, 2008). "Hepialus lupulinus, Common Swift, Kleiner Hopfenwurzelbohrer". DEpository. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  45. ^ Markku Savela. "Achlya Billberg, 1820". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  46. ^ http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonsubtaxa/id17265/
  47. ^ http://193.166.3.2/pub/sci/bio/life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/drepanoidea/drepanidae/drepaninae/drepana/index.html
  48. ^ http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?guid=urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:443446
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gaden S. Robinson & Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen (1983). "The Microlepidoptera described by Linnaeus and Clerck". Systematic Entomology. 8 (2): 191–242. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1983.tb00479.x.

DEFAULTSORT:Lepidoptera In The 10th Edition Of Systema Naturae Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Lepidoptera

Neuroptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with net-veined wings were brought together under the name Neuroptera.

Libellula (dragonflies & damselflies)[edit]

[Note 1]

The Beautiful Demoiselle was named Libellula virgo in 1758.
The Black-tailed Skimmer was named Libellula cancellata in 1758.

Ephemera (mayflies)[edit]

The mayfly Ephemera vulgata was named in 1758.

Phryganea (caddisflies)[edit]

[Note 2]

Hemerobius (lacewings)[edit]

The alderfly Sialis lutaria was named Hemerobius lutarius in 1758.
The scorpionfly Panorpa communis was named in 1758.

Panorpa (scorpionflies)[edit]

Raphidia (snakeflies)[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Libellula species are taken from Schorr et al.[1]
  2. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Phryganea species are taken from Holzenthal et al. (2007).[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martin Schorr, Martin Lindeboom & Dennis Paulson. "World Odonata List". University of Puget Sound. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Listes faunistique des Ephémères" (PDF) (in French). Office pour les Insectes et leur Environnement. Retrieved September 1, 2010. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  3. ^ A. Poppels & M.Kalniņš (November 11, 2002). "Viendienītes – Ephemeroptera". Entomological Society of Latvia. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
  4. ^ Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha L. Prather & Karl M. Kjer (2007). "Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813 (Insecta), Caddisflies" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1668: 639–698.
  5. ^ a b c Colin L. Plant (1994). Provisional atlas of the lacewings and allied insects (Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera and Mecoptera) of Britain and Ireland (PDF). Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. ISBN 1-870393-18-X.
  6. ^ Roberto Antonio Pantaleoni (2005). "Interpretation of Achille Costa's data on Neuropterida" (PDF). Bulletin of Insectology. 58 (1): 71–92.
  7. ^ Mark Swanson. "Zoological History". Antlion Pit. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  8. ^ "Genus Coptotermes Wasmann". Catalog of the Termites of the New World. Universidade de Brasília. October 3, 2000. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  9. ^ Hemerobius humulinus at the Encyclopedia of Life
  10. ^ Hemerobius sexpunctatus at the Encyclopedia of Life
  11. ^ Hemerobius flavicans at the Encyclopedia of Life
  12. ^ Norman D. Penny, Phillip A. Adams & Lionel A. Stange (1997). "Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera and Raphidioptera of America north of Mexico". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 50 (3): 39–114.
  13. ^ "Chrysopidia ciliata (Wesmael, 1841)". Neuropterida Species of the World. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  14. ^ Atilano Contreras-Ramos (November 15, 1997). "Corydalus". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  15. ^ Hemerobius pedicularius at the Encyclopedia of Life
  16. ^ a b Evelyne Carrières (2001). "Revision and additions to the list of lacewings (Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Raphidioptera) and scorpion flies (Mecoptera) of Luxembourg" (PDF). Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois. 102: 91–96.
  17. ^ Paul Foster (2007). "The Gibraltar collections: Gilbert White (1720–1793) and John White (1727–1780), and the naturalist and author Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723–1788)". Archives of Natural History. 34 (1): 30–46. doi:10.3366/anh.2007.34.1.30.
  18. ^ Raphidia ophiopsis at the Encyclopedia of Life

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Neuroptera

Hymenoptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with membranous wings, including bees, wasps and ants were brought together under the name Hymenoptera.

Cynips (gall wasps)[edit]

The gall wasp Cynips quercusfolii was named Cynips quercus folii in 1758.

Tenthredo (sawflies)[edit]

[Note 1]

The cherry slug is the larva of Caliroa cerasi, which Linnaeus named Tenthredo cerasi in 1758.
Tenthredo scrophulariae was named in 1758.
Arge rustica was named Tenthredo rustica in 1758.
The pine sawfly Diprion pini was named Tenthredo pini in 1758.

Ichneumon (ichneumon wasps)[edit]

Sphex (digger wasps)[edit]

Ammophila sabulosa was named Sphex sabulosa in 1758.
  • Sphex argillaceaZeta argillaceum
  • Sphex sabulosaAmmophila sabulosa[7]
  • Sphex asiaticaSceliphron asiaticum
  • Sphex fervens
  • Sphex inda
  • Sphex clavipes
  • Sphex spirifex & Sphex aegyptiaSceliphron spirifex
  • Sphex figulus
  • Sphex viatica
  • Sphex pectinipes
  • Sphex variegata
  • Sphex indica
  • Sphex tropica
  • Sphex colon
  • Sphex gibba
  • Sphex rufipes
  • Sphex arenaria
  • Sphex fossoria
  • Sphex leucostoma
  • Sphex vaga
  • Sphex caerulea
  • Sphex ignita
  • Sphex aurata
  • Sphex cyanea

Vespa (hornets & wasps)[edit]

  • Vespa crabroEuropean hornet
  • Vespa vulgarisVespula vulgaris, common wasp
  • Vespa rufaVespula rufa
  • Vespa parietum
  • Vespa muraria
  • Vespa cribraria
  • Vespa spinipes
  • Vespa rupestris
  • Vespa coarctata
  • Vespa arvensis
  • Vespa biglumis
  • Vespa uniglumis
  • Vespa cornuta
  • Vespa signata
  • Vespa canadensis
  • Vespa emarginata
  • Vespa calida

Apis (bees)[edit]

  • Apis longicornis
  • Apis tumulorum
  • Apis clavicornis
  • Apis centuncularis
  • Apis cineraria
  • Apis surinamensisEufriesea surinamensis
  • Apis retusa
  • Apis rufa
  • Apis bicornis
  • Apis truncorum
  • Apis dentataExaerete dentata
  • Apis cordataEuglossa cordata
  • Apis helvola
  • Apis succincta
  • Apis zonata
  • Apis caerulescens
  • Apis melliferaWestern honey bee
  • Apis subterranea
  • Apis variegata
  • Apis rostrata
  • Apis manicata
  • Apis quadridentata
  • Apis florisomuis
  • Apis conica
  • Apis annulata
  • Apis ruficornis
  • Apis ichneumonea
  • Apis cariosa
  • Apis violaceaXylocopa violacea, violet carpenter bee
  • Apis terrestrisBombus terrestris, buff-tailed bumblebee
  • Apis lapidariaBombus lapidarius, red-tailed bumblebee
  • Apis muscorum
  • Apis hypnorumBombus hypnorum, new garden bumblebee
  • Apis acervorum
  • Apis subterraneaBombus subterraneus, short-haired bumblebee
  • Apis surinamensis
  • Apis aestuans
  • Apis tropica
  • Apis alpinaBombus alpinus

Formica (ants)[edit]

Formica rufa was named by Linnaeus in 1758.

Mutilla (velvet ants)[edit]

The velvet ant Ronisia barbara was named Mutilla barbara in 1758.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The current identities of Linnaeus' Tenthredo species are taken from the Hymenoptera Name Server.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Nomina - Hymenoptera C". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  2. ^ "Euura amerinae (Linnaeus)". Hymenoptera Name Server. Ohio State University. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  3. ^ "Nomina - Hymenoptera A–B". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  4. ^ J. T. Wiebes (1968). "Fig wasps from Israeli Ficus sycomorus and related East African species (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). 2. Agaonidae (concluded) and Sycophagini" (PDF). Zoologische Mededelingen. 42 (28): 307–321.
  5. ^ "Hymenoptera Name Server. Version 1.5". Ohio State University. December 19, 2007.
  6. ^ Thierry Noblecourt (April 18, 2007). "Liste Systématique des Hyménoptères Symphytes de France" (PDF) (in French).
  7. ^ Toshko Ljubomirov & Erol Yildirim (2008). Annotated Catalogue of the Ampulicidae, Sphecidae, and Crabronidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Turkey. Pensoft Series Faunistica. 71. Pensoft Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 978-954-642-312-2.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Nomina - Hymenoptera: F-I". Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  9. ^ Social Insects Specialist Group (1996). "Formica rufa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  10. ^ Formica obsoleta at the Encyclopedia of Life
  11. ^ Formica omnivora at the Encyclopedia of Life
  12. ^ "Species: Dolichoderus bidens". AntWeb. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  13. ^ "Species: Atta sexdens". AntWeb. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  14. ^ "Species: Atta cephalotes". AntWeb. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  15. ^ "Species: Cephalotes atratus". AntWeb. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  16. ^ "Species: Odontomachus haematodus". AntWeb. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  17. ^ "Species: Pachycondyla foetida". AntWeb. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  18. ^ James L. Reveal (2009). "Identification of the plant and associated animal images in Catesby's Natural History, with nomenclatural notes and comments". Rhodora. 111 (947): 273–388. doi:10.3119/08-4.1.
  19. ^ Clarence E. Mickel (1964). "Synonymical notes on Neotropical Mutillidae (Hymenoptera)". Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series B, Taxonomy. 33 (9–10): 163–171. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1964.tb01635.x.
  20. ^ Petr Bogusch (2007). "Vespoidea: Mutillidae (kodulkovití)" (PDF). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae. Supplementum 11: 93–104.
  21. ^ "LINN 2904 Mutilla maura (Ins Linn)". The Linnean Collections. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  22. ^ a b M. Schwarz (1995). "Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schmiedeknecht (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 1" (PDF). Linzer biologische Beiträge. 27 (1): 5–105.

DEFAULTSORT:Hymenoptera In The 10th Edition Of Systema Naturae

Category:Systema Naturae Systema Naturae, Hymenoptera

Diptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with simply two wings (true flies) were brought together under the name Diptera.

Oestrus (botflies)[edit]

Tipula (craneflies)[edit]

Tipula hortorum was so named in 1758.
Chironomus plumosus was named Tipula plumosus in 1758.
Bibio marci was named Tipula marci in 1758.

Musca (houseflies & hoverflies)[edit]

Hermetia illucens was named Musca illucens in 1758.
Rhagio scolopaceus was named Musca scolopacea in 1758.
Helophilus pendulus was named Musca pendula in 1758.
Sphaerophoria scripta was named Musc scripta in 1758.
Syritta pipiens was named Musca pipiens in 1758.
Calliphora vomitoria was named Musca vomitoria in 1758.
Tachina grossa was named Musca grossa in 1758.
Scathophaga stercoraria was named Musca stercoraria in 1758.
Urophora cardui was named Musca cardui in 1758.

Tabanus (horse flies)[edit]

Tabanus bromius was so named in 1758.

Culex (mosquitoes)[edit]

Culex pipiens was named Culex pipens and Culex bifurcatus in 1758.

Empis (dance flies)[edit]

Empis livida was named Empis livida and Asilus tipuloides in 1758.

Conops (thick-headed flies)[edit]

Conops flavipes was so named in 1758.

Asilus (robber flies)[edit]

Bombylius (bee flies)[edit]

Bombylius major was so named in 1758.

Hippobosca (louse flies)[edit]

References[edit]

DEFAULTSORT:Diptera In The 10th Edition Of Systema Naturae

Category:Systema Naturae Category:Flies Systema Naturae, Diptera

Aptera[edit]

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Wingless arthropods were brought together under the name Aptera.

Lepisma (silverfish)[edit]

Podura (springtails)[edit]

Allacma fusca was named Podura fusca in 1758.

Termes (termites and Psocoptera)[edit]

Pediculus (lice)[edit]

The head louse was named Pediculus humanus in 1758.
The fly Lipoptena cervi was classified among the lice as Pediculus cervi by Linnaeus.

Pulex (fleas)[edit]

Acarus (mites & ticks)[edit]

The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, was named Acarus ricinus in 1758.
The velvet mite Trombidium holosericeum was named Acarus holosericeus in 1758.
The pseudoscorpion Chelifer cancroides was named Acarus cancroides in 1758.

Phalangium (harvestmen, Amblypygi, Thelyphonida)[edit]

Phalangium opilio was named in 1758.

Aranea (spiders)[edit]

Araniella cucurbitina was named Aranea cucurbitina by Linnaeus.
The zebra spider was named Aranea scenica by Linnaeus.

Scorpio (scorpions)[edit]

Scorpio maurus was described by Linnaeus in 1758. Most of the other scorpion names he coined are no longer in use.

Cancer (crabs, lobsters & kin)[edit]

Brachyuri (crabs)[edit]

The "edible crab", Cancer pagurus, is the only one of Linnaeus' species to remain in the genus Cancer.
Lithodes maja (named Cancer maja in 1758) on top of Hyas araneus (named Cancer araneus in 1758).
Grapsus grapsus ("Sally Lightfoot") was named Cancer grapsus in 1758.

Macrouri[edit]

Nephrops norvegicus was named Cancer norvegicus in 1758.
The peacock mantis shrimp, Odontodactylus scyllarus, was named Cancer scyllarus in 1758.

Monoculus (branchiopods & kin)[edit]

Daphnia pulex was named Monoculus pulex in 1758.

Oniscus (woodlice)[edit]

Oniscus asellus was named in 1758.

Scolopendra (centipedes)[edit]

Scutigera coleoptrata was named Scolopendra coleoptrata in 1758.

Julus (millipedes)[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon indicates that "Cancer pennaceus" is synonymous with Johan Christian Fabricius' "Palaemon locusta",[68] which is now known as Leander tenuicornis.[69]

References[edit]

  1. ^ K. A. J. Wise (1977). "The Smaller Orders" (PDF). Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum. 11: 1–176.
  2. ^