User:Sifaka/Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

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Controversies[edit]

ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s.[1][2][3][4][3][5] Researchers from the McMaster University Evidence-based Practice Center identified five features of ADHD that contribute to its controversial nature: 1) it is a clinical diagnosis for which there are no laboratory or radiological confirmatory tests or specific physical features; 2) diagnostic criteria have changed frequently; 3) there is no curative treatment, so long-term therapies are required; 4) therapy often includes stimulant drugs that are thought to have abuse potential; and 5) the rates of diagnosis and of treatment substantially differ across countries.[6]

The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents and the media,

with opinions regarding ADHD that range from not believing it exists at all to believing there are genetic and physiological bases for the condition. 

disagreement about the use of stimulant medications in treatment.[2]

Most healthcare providers accept that ADHD is a genuine disorder with debate in the scientific community mainly around how it is diagnosed and treated.[7][8]


Long term effects of stimulants prescribed for ADHD are largely unknown because of a dearth of research.[9] A great deal of research goes into ADHD, some of which raises questions about the long term effectiveness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD.[10]

  1. ^ Parrillo, Vincent (2008). Encyclopedia of Social Problems. SAGE. p. 63. ISBN 9781412941655. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
  2. ^ a b "Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". US department of health and human services. 1999. Retrieved 2008-10-02. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. ^ a b Mayes R, Bagwell C, Erkulwater J (2008). "ADHD and the rise in stimulant use among children". Harv Rev Psychiatry. 16 (3): 151–66. doi:10.1080/10673220802167782. PMID 18569037.
  4. ^ Cohen, Donald J.; Cicchetti, Dante (2006). Developmental psychopathology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-23737-X.
  5. ^ Foreman DM (2006). "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: legal and ethical aspects". Arch. Dis. Child. 91 (2): 192–4. doi:10.1136/adc.2004.064576. PMID 16428370. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. ^ Jadad AR, Booker L, Gauld M; et al. (1999). "The treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an annotated bibliography and critical appraisal of published systematic reviews and metaanalyses". Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. 44 (10): 1025–35. PMID 10637682. Retrieved 2009-05-02. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. ^ Sim MG, Hulse G, Khong E (2004). "When the child with ADHD grows up" (PDF). Aust Fam Physician. 33 (8): 615–8. PMID 15373378. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Schonwald A, Lechner E (2006). "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complexities and controversies". Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 18 (2): 189–95. doi:10.1097/01.mop.0000193302.70882.70. PMID 16601502. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. ^ Ashton H, Gallagher P, Moore B (2006). "The adult psychiatrist's dilemma: psychostimulant use in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 20 (5): 602–10. doi:10.1177/0269881106061710. PMID 16478756. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. ^ Lakhan SE; Hagger-Johnson G. http://www.cpementalhealth.com/content/3/1/21 The impact of prescribed psychotropics on youth. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 2007;3(21).