The Jesus Fellowship was founded in 1969, when Noel Stanton, the lay pastor of the Bugbrooke village Baptist chapel near Northampton, East Midlands, was inspired by a charismatic experience which led him to successfully expand the congregation, largely by appealing to a younger generation of worshippers As the new church grew and became more charismatic in nature, many of the original congregation left to continue worshiping in the more traditional churches. The Jesus Fellowship has grown considerably since its inception in 1969. There are now approximately 3,500 members in around 24 congregations in various cities and towns of the UK. 
The Jesus Army frequently engages in evangelistic activities in public places, seeking through outreach to demonstrate the love of Jesus and the moving of the Holy Spirit. The slogan of the Jesus Army is ‘Love, Power & Sacrifice’.
- 1 Distinctive features
- 2 Beliefs
- 3 Footnotes
- 4 References
- 5 External links
The Jesus Fellowship operates much like the House Church movements, or the more radical elements of the larger, more conventional churches. The Jesus Army was affected by the Charismatic Movement of the late 1960s and early 70s, and influenced by the Jesus People movement in the USA. According to William Kay, Stanton was highly influenced by Arthur Wallis's book In the Day of Thy Power, and associated with a number of the early leaders within the British New Church movement.
The beliefs of the Jesus Fellowship are in line with historic Christian orthodoxy. Nevertheless, there are various aspects of the Jesus Fellowship’s way of practising Christianity that are distinctive when compared with more conventional churches.
Jesus Army, evangelism and ministry to the marginalised
The UK general public are most likely to be aware of the Jesus Army by its brightly-coloured minibuses and coaches and highly visible multi-coloured camouflage jacket often worn by Jesus Army evangelists on the street. 
The Jesus Army was launched in 1987 as the campaigning identity of the Jesus Fellowship. Following the example of the early Salvation Army, and with a stated intention to “go where others will not go”, the Jesus Army engages in what has been called “aggressive and effective street evangelism among the marginalized sections of society”. The Jesus Army’s mission has been described as “essentially one to the poor, the disadvantaged and the marginalized” .
Jesus Army Charitable Trust and Jesus Centres
Growing from the Jesus Army’s work among homeless street people, those involved in drug or alcohol abuse, and prisoners and ex-prisoners, the Jesus Army/Jesus Fellowship has founded a charitable trust “to develop and enhance its existing work with many disadvantaged groups and individuals”, largely through the founding and running of “Jesus Centres” in UK cities and towns.
In 2002 the Jesus Fellowship opened the Coventry Jesus Centre including a Drop-In Centre known as “The Bridge”, which provides services such as a subsidised breakfast, free clothing, showers and hot drinks, as well as social support, job training and medical help to vulnerable people. The Centre also assists in finding rented accommodation for the homeless, though a major emphasis of these activities is evangelistic, “bringing people to Jesus”. Other Jesus Centres have been opened in Northampton (2004) and Central London (2008), with more expected to follow.
Multiply Christian Network
The Jesus Army hosts a yearly event for young people aged between 15 and 35 called “RAW (Real and Wild)”. In contrast with many Christian churches which often have an increasingly aged population, the Jesus Army has a comparatively high proportion of young members.
New Creation Christian Community
In the early years of the Jesus Fellowship, a residential Christian community was founded for its growing membership. Initially a large Anglican rectory in Bugbrooke was purchased and renamed “New Creation Hall”. Several members of the Jesus Fellowship moved in and it became the first centre of a community lifestyle. By 1979, several other large houses in the surrounding area were purchased and “New Creation Christian Community,” as the entire community was named, was established, with some 350 residents. Today there are around 60 New Creation Christian Community houses in the UK with about 700 people – about 25 per cent of the total membership of the Jesus Fellowship – living in them.
Motivation for the Jesus Fellowship’s venture into residential communal living and the sharing of possessions came primarily from their interpretation of Biblical descriptions of the early church. Yet, the Jesus Fellowship’s community has many features in common with other charismatic Christian intentional communities and part of the initial stimulation towards staring the New Creation Christian Community came from the Church of the Redeemer, Houston, Texas, established by the Episcopalian priest Graham Pulkingham. New Creation Christian Community is one of the largest intentional Christian communities in Europe, charismatic or otherwise. According to sociologist Stephen Hunt, the Jesus Fellowship’s community “has been a source of inspiration and frequently attracts visitors from Europe and beyond who wish to observe, and sometimes imitate, a vibrant and enduring model of charismatic community life.”
From six to 35 people live in a community house, though a few larger properties have up to 60 residents. The pattern of community life in the largest, down to the smallest residence, is modelled along the same principles and pattern. Those dwelling in a community house, along with the majority of members who live outside but who are formally attached to it, comprise the “church household”.
The church household is the basic unit of the Jesus Fellowship, usually comprising both members who live in community and a majority who do not. Several church households will usually come together to form congregations for public worship along with members of the public who wish to attend. Jesus Fellowship congregations will typically meet in a hired venue such as a school or community centre, although latterly the church has purchased “Jesus Centres” in some cities and towns (see below): the Jesus Fellowship in these places use these centres as their venue for public meetings.
The community has founded a series of Christian businesses employing some 250 people. Profits from the businesses help fund the wider work of the Jesus Fellowship. Businesses and community houses are owned by a Trust Fund ultimately controlled by the members.
There are a variety of levels of commitment in the Jesus Fellowship with corresponding types of membership. Those in the loosest forms of membership may merely attach to a Jesus Fellowship weeknight “cell group” or attend only on Sundays.  Others will be more involved.
The committed core membership of the Jesus Fellowship consists of “covenant members,” those who have made a “covenant,” or pledge expressing an intention of lifelong loyalty to the Jesus Fellowship . Even within covenant membership, there are four different “styles”. “Style 1” is the non-resident, with a similar membership practice to that of most members of other churches. “Style 2” covenant members enter into closer financial and general accountability. “Style 3” covenant members are the residential members of the New Creation Christian Community: all their income, wealth and possessions are shared though they may reclaim them should they subsequently decide to leave. While they are members, the value of their contribution is protected by the Trust Fund. Becoming a member of the Jesus Fellowship’s community is a gradual process  and most of those who join the community have already belonged to the Jesus Fellowship as part of its broader membership first. “Style 4” is for covenant members who live at a distance and are unable to join regularly in the life of the church.
Celibacy and marriage
The Jesus Fellowship is the only new church stream that advocates and practices celibacy for those called to it, claiming it leads to a full life for single people. Within the Jesus Fellowship there are couples and there are male and female celibates. The Jesus Fellowship claims both as high callings. A main justification for celibacy, following St Paul, is that it frees a member for ministry, particularly in the unsocial hours that Jesus Army campaigning requires. Some critics have maintained that the Jesus Fellowship teaches celibacy as a better or higher way, and that single members have felt pressured into making the vow. Current members deny this and insist that both marriage and family life, and celibacy are held in high regard in the Jesus Fellowship. Celibacy is, however, described by the Jesus Fellowship as “a precious gem”.  Some 200 Fellowship members are committed to celibacy, plus a further 100 or so probationers. There have been instances where committed celibates have subsequently entered into married life within the Jesus Fellowship, but this is not taken lightly. Such a step can involve sanctions such as having one’s leadership responsibilities reduced. Noel Stanton, the Jesus Fellowship’s leader, is himself a celibate, and the senior leadership of the church is made up of roughly 50 per cent celibates and 50 per cent who are married.
Despite this emphasis on celibacy, marriage and the family are afforded a high priority by the Jesus Fellowship. Marriage is seen as a ministering relationship in which human warmth and Christian fellowship can be offered to others, providing spiritual parenting for those who are emotionally damaged. Where problems in child-rearing occur, support and advice for the parents is on hand from fellow members. Children are not totally separated from the outside world. All the Jesus Fellowship’s children go to state school, for instance.
The Jesus Fellowship upholds the historic creeds of the Christian faith. The creeds are a set of common beliefs shared with many other Christian churches, and consist of the Apostles' Creed, the Athanasian Creed and the Nicene Creed. It believes in baptism in water and the Holy Spirit, in the Bible as the Word of God, and in acceptance of charismatic gifts.
The Jesus Fellowship define their Christian beliefs in the following statement:
The Jesus Fellowship Church, which is also known as the Jesus Army and includes the New Creation Christian Community, upholds the historic Christian faith, being reformed, evangelical and charismatic. It practises believer’s baptism and the New Testament reality of Christ’s Church; believing in Almighty God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit; in the full divinity, atoning death and bodily resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ; in the Bible as God’s word, fully inspired by the Holy Spirit.
This Church desires to witness to the Lordship of Jesus Christ over and in His Church; and, by holy character, righteous society and evangelical testimony to declare that Jesus Christ, Son of God, the only Saviour, is the way, the truth and the life, and through Him alone can we find and enter the kingdom of God.This church proclaims free grace, justification by faith in Christ and the sealing and sanctifying baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Theology and economics
Underwriting much of the Jesus Fellowship’s beliefs and practices is a theology of the new creation. Regeneration brings the individual into a spiritual family that incorporates and transcends the biological family. Critics have claimed that this can tend to break up the natural family, but the Jesus Fellowship maintains that many relationships with parents have been strengthened and that the Fellowship encourages (and the community pays for) community members to visit relatives – including visits overseas if family live abroad.
In line with this basic theology, all members are deemed as equal in an economic sense. There is little by way of private property for those who live in community. At a time when even religious life has been increasingly influenced by the dominant cultural ideology of materialism and worldly success, the Jesus Fellowship has eschewed worldly belongings and seek what is perceived as a simple and more ethical form of economic life. It is not surprising, therefore, that the "prosperity doctrine" espoused by many ministries originating in the USA, is singled out for particular ridicule. Wealth is not perceived as a blessing, particularly for the individual, and an official publication states that “the love of money brings selfishness in human hearts.” As far as the Fellowship is concerned “wealth for Jesus” means to the benefit of the whole church and the deprived individuals it serves.  As mentioned above, the wealth deposited in the common purse includes members’ incomes and salaries. Approximately half of this wealth is used for the needs of the community itself and to fund evangelizing endeavor. The other half is re-invested in the fellowship’s businesses or in paying off bank loans for new business ventures. In many respects the economic structure of the Jesus Fellowship might be said to be “socialist” in orientation and is most readily seen in the property-less community and the philosophy of “each according to their need.”
Nevertheless, the Jesus Fellowship has been described as “careful with both members and money”. New community members have to live in a community for a probationary period for two years and must be over 21, before being allowed to commit themselves to full community membership. Although New Creation Christian Community members donate all their money to the Community Trust fund, if they later decide to leave the community, their capital is paid back, sometimes with interest. New Creation Christian Community keeps its running expenses and its capital completely separate, and has its accounts audited by an international firm of accountants. 
Baptist Union and Evangelical Alliance membership
From its inception, the Jesus Army aroused controversy. The original Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship had long been a part of the Baptist Union. However the sudden expansion in members had made the new church a nationwide movement, which took it out of the ambit of the Baptist Union, which places authority within a specific congregation. The JA was also accused of "isolationism," epitomised by the JA practice of sometimes rebaptising new members who had already been baptised by other Baptist churches, implying that Christian baptism elsewhere may have been invalid. Consequently, in 1986 the Jesus Army was expelled from the Baptist Union, leaving it on the margins of the Baptist denomination.
In 1982, the Jesus Fellowship had joined the Evangelical Alliance, one of whose membership requirements was that the church remain in close fellowship with other local evangelical churches. Earlier in 1986, the Evangelical Alliance had launched an inquiry into the beliefs and practices of the Jesus Fellowship Church and found that it no longer qualified for membership, citing much the same problems as did the Baptist Union later that year. But at least as relevant in both cases was the fact that the rise of the JA came at a time when an international welter of anti-cult activity was under way. Allegations that the JA had too authoritarian a style of leadership and that members were under pressure to commit to life-long celibacy, together with the fact that corporal punishment of children (rodding) was practised, and that community members were required to hand over their material possessions, left them vulnerable to accusations of cultic practices. Their intense style and all-engulfing requirement of commitment led to some allegations of abuse from disillusioned former members, and some hostility from more conventional churchgoers. A number of churches within the Evangelical Alliance threatened to leave if the Jesus Fellowship Church was allowed to remain a member.
During the late 1980s and the 90s, the Jesus Fellowship improved its relationships with other churches, and broadened its membership so that community residents became a minority of the church. At the same time it re-examined its practices and loosened its style, with the result that when it reapplied for membership of the Evangelical Alliance in 1999 it received endorsements from both local and national church leaders and was accepted into membership later in the year. It has never re-applied for membership of the Baptist Union, though a number key Baptist ministers have spoken at Jesus Fellowship events.
Despite the entry of the Jesus Army into the charismatic mainstream, the church continued to attract a range of views and anti-cult groups like the Cult Information Centre, FAIR and Reachout Trust still included the Jesus Army on their lists.
Stephen Hunt has summed up the outlook of the wider charismatic Christian fraternity on the Jesus Fellowship as follows: “To some in the broader movement, the Jesus Fellowship will always be something of an enigma, tending towards exclusiveness and displaying a sectarianism incongruent with contemporary Pentecostalism. To others, the Jesus Fellowship will continue to epitomize the fullest expression of Christian and Pentecostal life.” 
- C. Peter Collinson, All Churches Great and Small, p.78: "Originally this was a Baptist church in the village of Bugbrooke, just west of Northampton. Noel Stanton became the pastor there in 1957, and is still the overall leader. After a charismatic experience in 1969, he led the church into experiencing the supernatural gifts of the spirit, and they grew in numbers quite dramatically."
- George D Chryssides, Exploring New Religions (Cassell, 1999), p.149-150
- Chryssides, p.151
- Kay, p.157
- Stephen J Hunt: "Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction" (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), p. 113: In many respects, however, the movement was not that different from other New Churches that sprung up at the time, though it did differ in its emphasis on communal life and a membership that was not predominantly middle-class in composition.
- Keith Newell in Charismatic Christianity: Sociological Perspectives, ed. Hunt et al, (St. Martin’s Press Inc, 1997), p.122: Under the leadership of the pastor, Noel Stanton (who still holds this position), a number of Chrismatics gathered at Bugbrooke Baptist Chapel, near Northampton, in 1969. At this point there were some similarities with the Jesus Movement in California (Palms, 1971). For the first three years the group that met at the chapel to participate in Charismatic life included bikers, drug-users, hippies and others who lived through the counter-culture. Very diverse people joined in the years that followed, including a number of evangelicals from Oxford, and to a lesser extent, Cambridge University.
- Nigel Wright in Charismatic Christianity: Sociological Perspectives, p.66: A full description of Restorationism ought to include a reference to the Bugbrooke Community or Jesus Fellowship in Northamptonshire. In the 1970s an ordinary village Baptist church passed under the leadership of its lay pastor, Noel Stanton, into Charismatic renewal and then into practising the community of goods in the style of the Anabaptist Hutterites.
- William K Kay, Apostolic Networks in Britain (Milton Keynes; Paternoster, 2007), p.151
- Arthur Wallis, In the Day of Thy Power (London: CLC, 1956)
- Chryssides, p.149: ...the group is thoroughly orthodox, professing allegiance to Christianity’s historic creeds; it neither seeks to add to scripture nor claims new present-day prophets, although, in common with many mainstream Christians, it believes in continuing revelation through the Holy Spirit’s inspiration.
- Barrett, p.228
- Kay, p.156
- Nigel Wright, in Charismatic Christianity , p.66: ...the Jesus Army has engaged in aggressive and effective street evangelism among the marginalized sections of society.
- Chryssides, p.154
- Barrett, p.228
- Stephen J. Hunt, in Pneuma, p.21-41 [pp.39ff]
- Coventry Evening Telegraph, May 2, 2007.
- idea [magazine of the Evangelical Alliance], May 1999: "Multiply Christian Network ... links more than 30 churches in England and Wales with others abroad. Multiply was initiated in 1992 by the Jesus Fellowship Church."
- William Kay in C. Partridge (ed), Encyclopedia of New Religions, a Guide (Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2004: "The Army is noted for ... its linkage with more than 40 other independent Christian churches in the Multiply Network."
- Multiply website (retrieved 14 October 08): "There are around 250 churches and groups in the Multiply Christian Network."
- Whychurch website (retrieved 30 October 08)
- Hunt in Pneuma, The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies , Vol 20, Number 1, Spring 1998 (Hagerstown, Maryland, USA), p. 25
- David V. Barrett, The New Believers, (London: Cassell, 2001), p.227
- William Kay in C. Partridge (ed), Encyclopedia of New Religions, a Guide (Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2004).
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.21
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.22: Pulkingham’s model of community living epitomized the conviction that collective life would provide a deeper expression of the Christian faith and the charismatic experience, his ministry to the poor inspired a number of Christians in Britain committed to ministering to the needy, the Jesus Fellowship among them.</
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.22
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.22
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.31
- Newell in Charismatic Christianity , pp.131-132
- Chryssides, p.155
- Jesus Army:Vault-Library-Hot Topics 12 (retrieved 11 December 07): In the Jesus Fellowship many have entered into a membership covenant, joining together as a committed brotherhood-church. This covenant, like those made between people in the Bible, is made before God and is viewed as being unbreakable. We agree to be bonded with one another and to work out the implications of such a pledge of brotherly love. [...] We promise never to let one another down. We help one another through difficulties. We forgive and encourage one another. We fight together to save sinners with the gospel, sharing in sufferings and disappointments. We build strong brotherhood relationships and ‘find’ ourselves. This vow of covenant brotherhood is part of the strength of our church.
- Hunt, Alternative Religions , p.114
- Hunt, Alternative Religions , p.114
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.36
- Newell in Charismatic Christianity, p.130 JF is the only new church stream that advocates and practices celibacy for those called to it, claiming it leads to a full life for single people. There are couples and celibates, male and female, and JF claims both as high callings. A main justification for celibacy, following St Paul, is that it frees a member for ministry, particularly in the unsocial hours that Jesus Army campaigning can require. Critics have maintained that JF teaches celibacy as a better or higher way and that single brothers and sisters are pressurized into the vow, though I have not myself seen any evidence of this.
- Nigel Scotland, Charismatics and the New Millennium, (Eagle, 2000), p.113 “The Jesus Fellowship themselves attach value to both marriage and celibacy. Both are seen as callings from God. Families are needed to ‘provide the essential base of homeliness and security’. Celibates on the other hand, are free to engage in pioneering and evangelistic work”
- Chryssides, p.158
- Chryssides, p.158
- Chryssides, p.158
- Chryssides, p.159
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.33 “Marriage is seen as a ministering relationship in which human warmth and Christian fellowship is offered to others in the house, providing spiritual parenting for those who are emotionally damaged.”
- Hunt in Pneuma, p.34 “All children go to state school since there are not the resources to run an independent school, although this type of schooling would remain an ideal.”
- William Kay: New Religions, A Guide.
- Jesus Fellowship: We Believe (Multiply Publications, 2000)
- Newell in Charismatic Christianity, p.128
- Newell in Charismatic Christianity, p.128
- See, for example, Howard Perkin, The Enterprise Culture in Historical Perspective: Birth, Life, Death - and Resurrection? (London, England: Routledge, 1992), pp.36-60; Richard Roberts, Religion in the 'Enterprise Culture': the British Experience In the Thatcher Era, Social Compass 39.1 (1992), pp.15-33
- Hunt in Pneuma, p. 37
- Barrett, p.229
- Barrett, p.229
- Chryssides, pp.160-161
- Buzz Magazine, April 1986.
- Northampton Mercury and Herald, 22/11/86. 'We shall not be moved - Jesus People to carry on regardless.' The latest blow to the sect, which owns and runs numerous businesses including several Northampton shops, came from 129 of the 137 council members of the Baptist Union. The Jesus Fellowship was expelled from the organisation because of a lack of involvement in denominational life and unilateral programme of recruitment. A statement from the union also said the Fellowship was becoming a national rather than local organisation, and spoke of 'embarrassment' over bad publicity.
- Nigel Wright in Charismatic Christianity , p.66
- Chryssides, p.161
- Hunt in Pneuma , p. 40: "The decision in the late 1980s to become more open and link with other New Churches has been of particular importance. So has the decision, over the last decade, to broaden the membership so that now community residences [residents] form only one-third of the church."
- Kay in C. Partridge (ed), Encyclopedia of New Religions "After criticism of what were seen as cultic aspects of the Jesus Fellowship in the mid-1980s, deliberate attempts were made to widen and loosen the organization."
- idea [magazine of the Evangelical Alliance], May 1999: "...the Jesus Fellowship Church, which withdrew its own membership from the Alliance in 1986 due to relational issues. Since then, positive efforts have been made by the leadership to improve their contact and working relationships with the wider Christian constituency at both local and national levels...Having received a number of endorsements from both local and national church leaders, the Evangelical Alliance expects to approve the Jesus Fellowship Church's application for membership later in 1999."
- Christian Herald, 29 July 2000. "Another high-profile movement who joined the EA family last autumn is the Jesus Fellowship Church - also known as the Jesus Army. The fellowship left the EA in the late 1980s in relation to issues with other evangelicals. John Smith [General Secretary of the EA] explained: 'They again have moved considerably since then. It is an organisation that has had a lot of allegations made against it, most of which are based on past reputation rather than present practice.'"
- Hunt in Pneuma, p. 27: "Prominent leaders of practically all the strands of the British charismatic and Pentecostal scene have spoken at the large public meetings of the Jesus fellowship, and are frequent contributors to its major publications Jesus Life-style and the Jesus Revolution Street Paper."
- Hunt in Pneuma , p. 24
- Hunt in Pneuma , p. 40
- Hunt in Pneuma , p. 40
- Barker, Eileen (1989). New Religious Movements, A Practical Introduction. London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11340-927-3. OCLC 20805774.
- Barrett, David V. (2001). The New Believers: A Survey of Sects, Cults and Alternative Religions. London: Cassell. pp. 544pp. ISBN 0-304-35592-5.
- Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective: A Study of Religious Change in Modern World. Routledge. pp. 385pp. ISBN 0415257484.
- Collinson, C Peter (1998). All Churches Great and Small. Carlisle: OM Publishing. pp. 190pp. ISBN 1-85078-311-X.
- Cooper, Simon & Farrant, Mike (1997). Fire In Our Hearts (2nd edition). Northampton: Multiply. pp. 371pp. ISBN 1-900878-05-4. Multiply Publications is the publishing arm of the Jesus Fellowship.
- Hunt, Stephen J. (1998). "The Radical Kingdom of the Jesus Fellowship" in Pneuma, The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies, Vol 20, Number 1, Spring 1998 (Hagerstown, Maryland, USA) Pp.21-41. ISSN 0 272 096 5.
- Hunt, Stephen J. (2003). Alternative Religions: A Sociological Approach. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 268pp. ISBN 978-0-754634-10-2.
- Jesus Fellowship (2000). We Believe: An introduction to the faith and practice of the Jesus Fellowship. Northampton: Multiply. pp. 50pp. ISBN 978-1-900878-10-4.
- Kay, William K. (2004), "The Jesus Fellowship (Jesus Army)", in Partridge, Christopher, Encyclopedia of New Religions, A Guide, Oxford: Lion Publishing, pp. 89–90, ISBN 9780745950730 Also published as New Religions, a Guide (New York NY: Oxford, 2004)
- Kay, William K. (2007). Apostolic Networks in Britain: New Ways of Being Church. Milton Keynes: Paternoster Press. pp. 400pp. ISBN 978-1-55635-480-9.
- Newell, Keith (1997) "Charismatic Communitarianism and the Jesus Fellowship", in S. Hunt, M. Hamilton & T. Walter (eds), Charismatic Christianity, Sociological Perspectives (Basingstoke: Macmillan and New York: St. Martin's Press), 236pp. ISBN 978 0 33366 598 5.
- Saxby, Trevor (1987). Pilgrims of a Common Life: Christian Community of Goods Through the Ages. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. pp. 208pp. ISBN 0836134265.
- Scotland, Nigel (2000). Charismatics and the New Millennium (2nd ed). Guildford: Eagle. pp. 350pp. ISBN 0 86347 370 9.
- Wright, Nigel (1997) "The Nature and Variety of Restorationism and the 'House Church' Movement", in S. Hunt, M. Hamilton & T. Walter (eds), Charismatic Christianity, Sociological Perspectives (Basingstoke: Macmillan and New York: St. Martin's Press), 236pp. ISBN 978 0 33366 598 5.