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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust is a tragic play in two parts: Faust. Der Tragödie erster Teil (translated as: Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy) and Faust. Der Tragödie zweiter Teil (Faust: The Second Part of the Tragedy). Although written as a closet drama, it is the play with the largest audience numbers on German-language stages. Faust is Goethe's most famous work and considered by many to be one of the greatest works of German literature.
Goethe completed a preliminary version of Part One in 1806. The 1808 publication was followed by the revised 1828–1829 edition, which was the last to be edited by Goethe himself. Prior to these appeared a partial printing in 1790 of Faust, a Fragment. The earliest forms of the work, known as the Urfaust, were developed between 1772 and 1775; however, the details of that development are no longer entirely clear.
Goethe finished writing Faust Part Two in 1832, the year of his death. In contrast to Faust Part One, the focus here is no longer on the soul of Faust, which has been sold to the devil, but rather on social phenomena such as psychology, history and politics, in addition to mystical and philosophical topics. The second part formed the principal occupation of Goethe's last years, and he died before he was able to trim it down as he had intended. Part Two appeared only posthumously in 1832.
- 1 The First Part of the Tragedy
- 2 The Second Part of the Tragedy
- 3 Relationship between the parts
- 4 Influence
- 5 Translations
- 6 Historic productions
- 7 Later derivative works
- 8 Gallery
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The First Part of the Tragedy
The principal characters of Faust Part One include:
- Heinrich Faust, a scholar, sometimes said to be based on the real life of Johann Georg Faust, or on Jacob Bidermann's dramatized account of the Legend of the Doctor of Paris, Cenodoxus
- Mephistopheles, a Devil
- Gretchen, Faust's love (short for Margarete; Goethe uses both forms)
- Marthe, Gretchen's neighbour
- Valentin, Gretchen's brother
- Wagner, Faust's famulus
Faust Part One is a complex story. It takes place in multiple settings, the first of which is heaven. Mephistopheles makes a bet with God: he says that he can deflect God's favourite human being (Faust), who is striving to learn everything that can be known, away from righteous pursuits. The next scene takes place in Faust's study where Faust, despairing at the vanity of scientific, humanitarian and religious learning, turns to magic for the showering of infinite knowledge. He suspects, however, that his attempts are failing. Frustrated, he ponders suicide, but rejects it as he hears the echo of nearby Easter celebrations begin. He goes for a walk with his assistant Wagner and is followed home by a stray poodle (the term then meant a medium-to-big-size dog, similar to a sheep dog).
In Faust's study, the poodle transforms into the devil (Mephistopheles). Faust makes an arrangement with the devil: the devil will do everything that Faust wants while he is here on Earth, and in exchange Faust will serve the devil in Hell. Faust's arrangement is that if during the time while Mephistopheles is serving Faust, Faust is so pleased with anything the devil gives him that he wants to stay in that moment forever, he will die in that instant.
When the devil tells Faust to sign the pact with blood, Faust complains that the devil does not trust Faust's word of honor. In the end, Mephistopheles wins the argument and Faust signs the contract with a drop of his own blood. Faust has a few excursions and then meets Margaret (also known as Gretchen). He is attracted to her and with jewellery and help from a neighbor, Martha, the devil draws Gretchen into Faust's arms. With influence from the devil, Faust seduces Gretchen. Gretchen's mother dies from a sleeping potion, administered by Gretchen to obtain privacy so that Faust could visit her. Gretchen discovers she is pregnant. Gretchen's brother condemns Faust, challenges him and falls dead at the hands of Faust and Mephistopheles. Gretchen drowns her illegitimate child and is convicted of the murder. Faust tries to save Gretchen from death by attempting to free her from prison. Finding that she refuses to escape, Faust and the devil flee the dungeon, while voices from Heaven announce that Gretchen shall be saved.
The Second Part of the Tragedy
Rich in classical allusion, in Part Two the romantic story of the first Faust is forgotten, and Faust wakes in a field of fairies to initiate a new cycle of adventures and purpose. The piece consists of five acts (relatively isolated episodes) each representing a different theme. Ultimately, Faust goes to heaven, for he loses only half of the bet. Angels, who arrive as messengers of divine mercy, declare at the end of Act V: "He who strives on and lives to strive/ Can earn redemption still" (V, 11936–7).
Relationship between the parts
Throughout Part One, Faust remains unsatisfied; the ultimate conclusion of the tragedy and the outcome of the wagers are only revealed in Faust Part Two. The first part represents the "small world" and takes place in Faust's own local, temporal milieu. In contrast, Part Two takes place in the "wide world" or macrocosmos.
The story of Faust inspired a great deal of literature, music and illustration.
Although today many of the classical and Central European themes may be hard for the modern reader to grasp, the work remains a resonant parable on scientific learning and religion, passion and seduction, independence and love, as well as other subjects. In poetic terms, Goethe places science and power in the context of a morally-interested metaphysics. Faust is a scientific empiricist who is forced to confront questions of good and evil, God and the devil, sexuality and mortality.
In the fourth book of his main work, Schopenhauer praised Goethe's portrayal of Gretchen and her suffering. In Schopenhauer's consideration of salvation from suffering, he cited this section of Faust as exemplifying one of the ways to sanctity.
The great Goethe has given us a distinct and visible description of this denial of the will, brought about by great misfortune and by the despair of all deliverance, in his immortal masterpiece Faust, in the story of the sufferings of Gretchen. I know of no other description in poetry. It is a perfect specimen of the second path, which leads to the denial of the will not, like the first, through the mere knowledge of the suffering of the whole world which one acquires voluntarily, but through the excessive pain felt in one's own person. It is true that many tragedies bring their violently willing heroes ultimately to this point of complete resignation, and then the will-to-live and its phenomenon usually end at the same time. But no description known to me brings to us the essential point of that conversion so distinctly and so free from everything extraneous as the one mentioned in Faust.— The World as Will and Representation, Vol. I, §68
The German language has itself been influenced by Goethe's Faust, particularly by the first part. One example of this is the phrase "des Pudels Kern", which means the real nature or deeper meaning of something (that was not evident before). The literal translation of "des Pudels Kern" is "the core of the poodle", and it originates from Faust's exclamation upon seeing the poodle (which followed him home) turn into Mephistopheles. Another instance originates in the scene wherein Gretchen asks Faust if he is religious. In German, the word "Gretchenfrage" (literally "Gretchen question") refers to a question aiming at the core of the issue, often forcing the answering person to make a confession or a difficult decision.
Reference to "The portrait of Dorian Gray"
In 1821, a partial English verse translation of Faust (Part One) was published anonymously by the London publisher Thomas Boosey and Sons, with illustrations by the German engraver Moritz Retzsch. This translation was attributed to the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge by Frederick Burwick and James C. McKusick in their 2007 Oxford University Press edition, Faustus: From the German of Goethe, Translated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. In a letter dated 4 September 1820, Goethe wrote to his son August that Coleridge was translating Faust. However, this attribution is controversial.
In 1828, at the age of twenty, Gérard de Nerval published a French translation of J.W. von Goethe's Faust, which given his tender age and the complexity of the text is regarded as a remarkable feat, all the more so considering the praise it received from the German author himself.
In 1870–71, Bayard Taylor published an English translation in the original metres.
Philosopher Walter Kaufmann was also known for an English translations of Faust.
- May 24, 1819: Premiere of selected scenes. Castle Monbijou, Berlin.
- January 29, 1829: Premiere of the complete Part One. Braunschweig.
- 1960: Deutsches Schauspielhaus, Hamburg : Directed by Peter Gorski, and produced by Gustaf Gründgens (who also played Mephistopheles), with Will Quadflieg (Faust), Ella Büchi (Gretchen), Elisabeth Flickenschildt (Martha), Max Eckard (Valentin), Eduard Marks (Wagner), Uwe Friedrichsen (Student). The film of this performance was very successful.
- October 26, 2006: Teatro Comunale Modena, Italy: Directed by Eimuntas Nekrošius; complete playing length (with intervals): 4½ hours.
- 1989: fragments from 1st part. Piccolo Teatro di Milano: Director Giorgio Strehler, scenographer Josef Svoboda.
- 2003 of Ingmar Thilo; with Antonios Safralis (Faust), Raphaela Zick (Mephisto), Ulrike Dostal (Helena), Max Friedmann (Lynceus), and others.
- 2005 Michael Thalheimer at Deutsches Theater with a.o. Ingo Hülsmann, Sven Lehmann, Nina Hoss and Inge Keller
- 1990: fragments from 2nd part. Piccolo Teatro di Milano: Director Giorgio Strehler, scenographer Josef Svoboda.
- 1938: World premiere of both parts, unabridged, at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland.
- July 22–23, 2000: The Expo 2000 Hanover performance: Directed by Peter Stein; both parts in their complete version, with Bruno Ganz and Christian Nickel (the young and the old Faust), Johann Adam Oest (Mephistopheles), Dorothée Hartinger, Corinna Kirchhoff and Elke Petri. Complete playing length (with intervals): 21 hours.
Later derivative works
- Franz Schubert's first successful song Gretchen am Spinnrade is a setting of lines spoken by Gretchen in Faust Part I.
- The second section of Mahler's Symphony No. 8 is a cantata for the last scene in part II of Goethe's Faust.
- Randy Newman's musical Faust (1993)
- Kamelot's albums Epica (2003) and The Black Halo (2005)
Faust spricht mit dem Erdgeist, Öl, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Des Pudels Kern, Aquarell, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Mephisto und Schüler, Mischtechnik, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Hexe kommt durch den Schornstein, Mischtechnik, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Mephisto und Hexe, Aquarell, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Hexentanz, Aquarell (3. Reihe), Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Trödelhexe (auf dem Blocksberg), Öl, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Gretchen im Kerker, Linolschnitt, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Zauberpferde, Öl, Margret Hofheinz-Döring
Bei den Sirenen (Faust II), Margret Hofheinz-Döring
...die Kappe mitgebracht. (Faust II), Margret Hofheinz-Döring
|German Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|German Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Portor, Laura Spencer (1917). The Greatest Books in the World: Interpretative Studies. Chautauqua, NY: Chautauqua Press. p. 82.
- See E.A. Bucchianeri, "Faust: My Soul be Damned for the World" Vol. 2, (Batalha Publishers 2010).
- See de.Wiktionary entry "Gretchenfrage" and Gretchenfrage on de.Wikipedia (German)
- Grovier, Kelly (February 13, 2008). "Coleridge and Goethe together at last". The Times. London.
Much of the content of this article is translated from the equivalent German-language wikipedia article (retrieved November 6, 2005). The German articles Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Gustaf Gründgens, and Knittelvers were also referred to. The following references are cited by the German-language Faust I:
- H. Arens Kommentar zu Goethes Faust I. Heidelberg 1982, Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, ISBN 3-533-03184-5
- A. Schöne Faust. Kommentare. Enthalten in: Goethe Faust. Frankfurt am Main 1994, Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, ISBN 3-618-60270-7
- U. Gaier Faust-Dichtungen. Kommentar I. Enthalten in: Johann Wolfgang Goethe Faust-Dichtungen. Stuttgart 1999, Philipp Reclam jun. Verlag, ISBN 3-15-030019-3
- Gero von Wilpert: Goethe encyclopedia, Stuttgart, Kroener 1998, ISBN 3-520-40701-9
- Gerhard Kaiser, Ist der Mensch zu retten? Vision und Kritik der Moderne in Goethes Faust, Rombach Wissenschaft, ISBN 3-7930-9113-9 (German)
- Faust, Part 1 at Project Gutenberg (German)
- Faust, Part 2 at Project Gutenberg (German)
- Faust, Part 1 at Project Gutenberg (1912 English translation by Bayard Taylorl)
- Faust, Part 1 and 2 English translation from Project Gutenberg in a modern design
- Faust full text in German and English side-by-side (translations: Priest, Brooks and Coleridge)
- Faust available at Internet Archive, scanned illustrated books
- Faust, Part II available at digbib.org (German)
- Faust, Pt. 1 available at Google Books (1867 English translation by John Wynniatt Grant)
- Faust, Pt. 1 available at Google Books (1908 English translation by Abraham Hayward with illustrations by Willy Pogany)
- Notes, explanation, and commentary on the work In English, with excerpts from the German translated into English