User:Stephen2nd/Sandbox (c)

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The St. George Flag of England.

NB: This page is an extended reference source for: User talk:Stephen2nd/Sandbox (c)


In 1989, a person with the birth-name of Stephen Mowbray McDermott, whilst researching his family history, accidentally discovered the names of "STEPHEN" and "DERMOTT" en-Cyphered in the Garter and motto of the: Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. Royal Arms of Great Britain, contains a bulleted list of citations, representing a brief armorial reference history of Stephen Mowbray McDermott (29-06-1952): Combined with numerous historical references and images of this science of heraldry, to define the many; Cyphers in the Royal Arms. Stephen2nd (talk) 02:00, 19 January 2009 (UTC)

DIEU ET MON DROIT[edit]

REF: Translations: DIEU ET MON DROIT: (Meanings): (1): God and my right: (2): God and my right hand: [7][8][9][10][11] (3): God and my lawful right: [12] (4): God and my right shall me defend: [13]The meaning of Dieu et mon droit is God and my right. However, according to “Kearsley’s Complete Peerage” (1799): Dieu et mon Droit meaning “God and my right hand” was the motto of King George III. Kearsley’s Peerage; printed June 1799, appeared during publication of the 1st Edition (1796-1808): of the German “Brockhaus Encyclopedia;” emphasizing the raising of the ‘Right Hand’ during installations and coronations of German Kings. Later interpretations quote Dieu et mon droit, stands for "God and my lawful right" and not "God and my right hand.":Heraldic Usage: DIEU ET -&- MON DROIT: Most depictions of the Royal Arms separate the DIEU ET from the MON DROIT: The DIEU ET is always depicted beneath the rear/bottom feet (paws: hooves: claws) of the dexter (right) Royal supporter i.e. The Lion or Boar. The MON DROIT is always depicted beneath the rear feet of the sinister Royal supporter i.e. The Greyhound, Dragon or Unicorn. The DIEU ET (on its own) is also listed among terminologies of giving an oath. [14] The MON DROIT (on its own) is further quoted in terminology meaning: " My right hand ":[15] The DROIT (on its own) is quoted as meaning in French; law; a legal title, claim or due.[16]:Royal Banners: DIEU ET MON –&- DROYT: (SEE: Royal Standard of England): (Banners: [17]): All Royal Standards separate the DIEU ET MON from the DROYT. As can be seen in the Banners of Edward III: Richard II: Edward IV: Henry V ( 2 ): Henry VII ( 2 ): NB: Under Cromwell, (Commonwealth) his motto separates PAX QUAERITUR from BELLO: NB: The Earl of Mar (Scotland) motto separates JE PENSE from PLUS: The "ET MON DROIT" contains the D:E:R:M:O:T:T cypher, as exemplified in: Talk:Dieu et mon droit and User talk:Stephen2nd/Sandbox (c)

MacDiarmid: ("dia = god; armaid = of arms"):[edit]

King Caradoc Caratacus before the Emperor Claudius: Circa 50ad.
Beauchamp (1344): Checky Arms: Earl Mar: & Duke Rothesay: & Mowbray.
Beauchamp
  • Armorial bearings of H. T. McDermott: St. Leonards on Sea:[1] (Place on c):
  • Shield: Sinister-chief-angle: Arms: Party per pale chevron argent & or, on chevron gules, between in chief three boars’ heads erased at the neck, and in base a cross crosslet azure, three trefoils or slipped of the second: Crest: demi lion rampant or, holding between the paws a boars head erased: Motto: HONOR VIRTUTIS PRAEMIUM: (Honour & virtue its own reward.)[2]
  • Mr. Wimberley Heraldry Lecture: (Re: Peerage listing): Doncaster: December 11, 1841:
  1. Dauntless on his native sands
    The dragon- son of MON-a stands:
    In glittering arms and glory drest,
    High he rears his ruby crest.
The three wheat-sheaves (Earl of Chester) represent abundance and hospitality: Three boars’ heads (McDermott ) the ancient roast beef of old England, is found on many shields of the old families of Anglia, Cambria, and Caledonia. In Scotland, it was sometimes surrounded by little banners, displaying the colours and achievements of the hospitable baron".
  • Caradoc Caratacus: (10 AD – 50 AD): (Pre-Iceni; Celtic Brigantes tribe): Reign C1st, to circa 50 AD: Born c. 10 AD ?: Died after c. 50 AD:
  • Arms: Party per pale chevron argent, on a chevron gules, between in chief two boars’ heads, and in base one boars’ head azure, three wheat-sheaves or: Motto: CARADOC in chief: TRADITUS NON VICTUS in base: (Betrayed not conquered):
  • Crest 1: Caratacus fully armoured & Crowned or, kneeling one knee, oval Shield on left arm, and holding a Sword by blade in right hand, presented handle tipped with Ruby crest:
  • Crest 2: Caratacus wearing a Kilt & Crowned or, kneeling one knee, oval Shield on left arm, and holding a Sword by blade in right hand, presented handle tipped with Ruby crest:
  • NB: Caratacus: Party per pale chevron: Chevron gules: Three Boars heads: Three Wheat-sheaves or: (NB: Earl of Chester):
  • NB: McDermott: Party per pale chevron: Chevron gules: Four Boars heads: Three Trefoils or: (NB: Royal Arms - Royal Badge):
  • Rockingham: Patent 12 James I.; illuminated patent: Indented Deed dated 1640ad: Patrimony of MacDermot lineage, including 389 quarters, extending over eight centuries: Last record: per se as “Driven from his ancient patrimony during Cromwellian Wars.”
  • Campbell - MacDiarmid: Malcolm of the clan went to Norman France where he married an heiress of the Beauchamp family and adopted that name. A son Archibald accompanied the Conqueror (1066) becoming founder to several English lines. [3]
  • 35 Hen. VIII, c. 1 (1544): Succession determined by last Will (1546) of Henry VIII. Settling the Crown of England upon his children, after extinction of her legitimate descendants, the succession "shall wholly remain and come to the next rightful heirs." Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp (b.1561), his 3 sons; 3 daughters and brother, were all named as successors to the English Crown and English Throne.

Mowbray (2nd Plantaganet) Royal Family:[edit]

Duke Normandy
Mowbray Label three points 1st born son
  • Letters Patent granted to Thomas Mowbray and to his heirs (Earl Marshal) Statute 1397. Earl of Chester: Prince of Wales; Heir Apparent; (titles linked): Statute: 1398 Richard II; Royal Arms inc; Edward the Confessor: Three Lions: (NB: England; Duke of Lancaster & Brotherton ): Two Lions Rampant: Royal Crest: ("of the King"): "Two" Ostrich Feathers: Mowbray Duke of Norfolk: (d.1400): Heraldic Achievements originally outside Doges Palace, Venice: NB: Ref: Doge: "Rank of a Sovereign Prince": Ref: “Three” Ostrich Feathers: [4] NB: Ostrich feather silver & pen gold is the King’s: Feather all silver is the Prince of Wales: Feather gold & pen ermine is the Duke of Lancaster’s: [A C F-D]:
  • Richard Duke of Normandy’s daughter Harwise, was Geofrey Duke of Brittany’s wife. Their son Eudon, was father of Hawise, wife of Stephen (Comes Britannia), Lord of Richmond. Stephen was father of Maud, the mother of Alice, wife of Roger de Mowbray; son of Robert Mowbray and Maud the daughter of Judith, daughter of the Earl of Chester. NB: Earl of Chester & Caratacus: Arms: three Wheat-sheaves or:
  • The son of Edward I. was Thomas Brotherton, who’s daughter Margaret was wife of John Segrave. Their daughter Elizabeth, was wife of John Mowbray, who was son of John Mowbray and Joan, the daughter of Henry Duke of Lancaster, the grandson of Henry III.
  • Usurped again @ (McDermott) Roscommon Case: (1828); (McDermott & Mowbray) Earldom of Mar Case (1875); Mowbray Segrave Case 1877 ( Mowbray as Earl of March & etc) (1877); (Mowbray) "Earldom of Norfolk Case" (1907); and (100 years after (McDermott) "Roscommon Case" ); again in (Catholic - hereditory; Mowbray McDermott) "Beauchamp Case" (1925).
  • Mowbray-Segrave Case Committee 1877:

Lord Chancellor, Earl De La Warr ; Lord Hastings; After the title had been dormant for 452 years, in 1841 House of Lords decided that the rightful successor to the third Earl of Pembroke and fifth Baron Hastings was his kinsman John Hastings, de jure 6th Baron Hastings. He was the eldest son of Sir Hugh Hastings, younger son of the first Baron. Henry Thomas Foley, 5th Baron Foley; Howard/Fitzgerald claimant. Lord Wenlock; title re-created after 360 years. Marquess of Abergavenny; title created 1876. Earl of Powis; Edward James Herbert, 3rd Earl of Powis (1818–1891) Earl of Feversham; 3rd creation 1868 William Ernest Duncombe, 3rd Baron Feversham, Earl of Redesdale; created 1877; John Freeman-Mitford, 1st Earl of Redesdale (1805–1886) Lord Stourton; Earl Amherst; cr 1826 Earl of Morton; Lord Lovat; re-cre after 100 year in 1854 Lord Lurgan; created 1939Charles Brownlow, 2nd Baron Lurgan Lord Hatherley; ex-lord chancellor cr 1868 ext 1881 Lord Blackburn; cr 1876Colin Blackburn, Baron Blackburn Lord Gormanston; succ 1876 Earl of Mar and Kellie; 1875 Earldom of Mar Restitution Act Lord Colchester; created 1817 Lord Chelmsford; created 1858 Lord Acton; created 1869 Viscount Bridport; Lord Sinclair; Viscount Hawarden; Viscount Gough; Lord Clifford of Chudleigh]]; John Thomas Freeman-Mitford 2nd Baron Redesdale; Lord Camoys; 4th Baron Camoys Francis Stonor Lord Vaux of Harrowden, 6th baron George Charles Mostyn Lord Petre Lord O’ Hagan Lord Cottesloe Lord Gordon of Drumearn]] Lord Emly Lord Talbot of Malahide Lord De Freyn Lord Bolton Lord Bagot Lord Gerard Lord Hammond


  • Following the "Norfolk Case" (1907); in 1909 Fox –Davis published ‘Complete Guide to Heraldry’: (Page 466). Ref; "Mowbray Segrave Case" (1877) Quote Ref: “Brotherton; and Mowbray Segrave; The Mowbrays, as recognised members of the Royal Family.[7]

Mowbray McDermott: Records: (C19th - C20th)[edit]

King Edward the Confessor.
Richard II: Mowbray's cousin
  • Successive; patrilineal; eldest (1st born McDermott) sons, James McDermott: (b.1920: m.1951: d.1986): Recorded (Brotherton witness) as 1st born; Mowbray & McDermott heir.
  • By James’s (1st) marriage; his first (1st born) son; also James, (b.1948): (d.1965) aged 17. By (2nd) marriage; succeeded by surviving second (1st born) son & heir; Stephen 2nd:
  • MacDonnel m. Connor: Son: Connor MacDonnel (Named: McDonald) (b.1891): Drummond m. Campbell: Dau: Campbell Drummond (b.1875): Nicholson m. Drummond: (m.1926):
  • McDermott m. Mowbray (m.1919) = Son: James McDermott m. Kathleen McDonald (b.1928: m.1951)
  • Stephen (1st born son.) (b.29 June 1952): Peter; (b. 4 August 1953): Anthony; (b. 4 August 1953: d.26 December 1988):

Arms of Newcastle upon Tyne: England:[edit]

Newcastle
  • Ref: College of Arms: Exemplification 1954: Newcastle upon Tyne: Arms: Gules '''Three Castles triple towered''' argent: Crest: On a wreath of the colours: A Castle as in the arms & issuant a Demi Lion guardant supporting a flagstaff or flying a forked pennon of the arms of St. George: Motto: FORTITER DEFENDIT TRIUMPANS: Triumphing by brave defence[8]: NB: Ref: Norroy CoA (1575): “The most ancient insignia.”
  • Newcastle Arms: Demi Lion: England: St. George: Three Castles triple towered: NB: (Newcastle Museum exhibit): (same crest but) Demi Lion flying Saltire of Scotland:
William Conqueror

Kings Statutes at large: (1177 – 1640):[edit]

John, Stephen and Mowbray signing Magna Carta: 15 June 1215.
Duke of Lancaster John of Gaunt Arms: Castle Triple Towered:
RICHARD III little finger Right hand
James I & IV
  • King John: Statute: Magna Carta: 15 June 1215ad:
  • Mowbray: "One of the 25 Barons appointed to enforce the provisions of Magna Carta": (NB: Letters Patent: "and to his heirs "":
  • By the Grace of God King of England: Know that before God: To all free men of our Kingdom: We have granted for us and our heirs forever:
  • No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights, or possessions, or outlawed, or exiled, or deprived of his standing:
  • Nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so: To no one will be sell, to no one deny right or justice:
  • That men in our Kingdom shall have and keep all these liberties, rights and concessions, well and peaceably in their fullness and entirety:
  • For them and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all things and all places; Forever.
  • John I: Statute Letters Patent: (9 John: 1207-08): Letters Patent: "BRAY" ( Mow ):– "CASTLE": - "DERMOTT": - "STEPHEN": [1177]:
  • Lord of Cork (grant) to Robert Fitz Stephen (1177): Stephen de Longue Espee: (NB: Arms: York Minster ):
  • Lord of Kerry (grant) to Earl of Desmond: (Fitz) Gerald [1450] by descent to Mc Dermot: NB: (Ref: Mc & Mac & Fitz = son of ):
  • Lord - Kingdom of Connaught [grant Hen II] to de Courcey. Earl of Ulster. [Grant 1175] to King of Connaught, [King under Henry II]: Hugh, King of Connaught to King John. [grant 1227] to de Burgh Lord of Connaught. s, Walt Earl of Ulster [1243] via Plantagenet; Mortimer; Mowbray [2nd] Plantagenet: Connaught descent to Edward IV:
  • Richard II: Statute: (grant): Royal Arms of England: Edward Confessor: Three Lions: Label of three points: NB: Duke of Lancaster: Brotherton:
  • Richard II: Statute: (grant) Arms: Two Lions Rampant: Royal Crest: ("of the King"): "Two" and "Three" Ostrich Feathers:
  • Richard II: Letters Patent: Mowbray Earl Marshal: Decree 1398: Earl of Chester: Prince of Wales: Heir apparent: Titles inseperatably linked:
  • Henry VI: Letters Patent: Palatine Honours: Barony by Writ: Irish Baronage composed exclusively of male heirs of Henry VII: recognised Peers [1489]: Peers enobled by Letters Patent: Lord-Earl Palatine (cinctus gladio) Ulster: Ulster Earl de Courcey [1181] de Lacy [1205] (NB: Mowbray): de Burgh [1264] Plantagenet [1354-1425] Margaret Brotherton (Wife; John Segrave) Duchess of Norfolk: Lady of Catherlogh - Honour of Carlow: Bigood = (NB: + D' Aubigny + Moubray = Royal Scots lion & tressure): [1245] Plantagenet [1306] Segrave [1397] Mowbray [1399]

Royal Standards: College of Heralds (MS. 1590):[edit]

Arms: King Robert I of Scotland: Queen Isabella of Mar.
Arms: King Robert III of Scotland: Queen Annabella Drummond: marriage records (C20th).
  • Henry V: Arms: The Cross of St. George: Argent and azure: A Swan with wings displayed argent, beaked gules, membered sable, ducally gorged and chained or, between three "STUMPS OF TREES ", one in dexter chief, and two in base of the last:
DIEU ET MON: Two stumps of trees in pale or:
DROYT: Five stumps of trees, three in chief, and two in base:
DIEU ET MON: A rose- gules in chief, rose- argent in base:
DROYT: In chief three roses gules, in base two argent:
Comptes de Mar
Aubigny=Moubray
JE PENSE: A hand from a Cap of Maintenance ermine, couped at the wrist, holding a dagger erect, it’s blade within an Earls coronet in chief: (NB: BADGE: it’s blade within the word PENSE on - two Ostrich feather - Mar Garter): (NB: PENSE: See Motto of the Order of the Garter ):
PLUS: Demi Lion in chief on Cap of Maintenance ermine in base:
  • Mowbray Arms: Demi lion augmentation: Royal Tressure of Scotland: upon arms of the Earl of Mar: NB: Checky Arms (3rd quarter) (NB: Beauchamp Seal ): Donald Earl of Mar: Stewart Earl of Galloway: Stewart de Rothesay: Duke of Rothesay:

Cipher Records: Heraldic (family) Trees:[edit]

Mowbray Howard (demi lion) Augmentation
Duke of Lancaster & St. George:
  • In 1897, Joseph Grego of the Kernoozer's Club; “Armour-club par excellence in the world;” published numerous Cipher references to dignitaries and royalty; "Duke of Wellington: Mr. Coffin: Mr. Graves: NB: 325g Carlyle Relic: James FitzJames Stephen KCSI 1st bt: Prince of Wales":[12]
  • Published two decades before my fathers birth; James: (Fitz) James: and Stephen, were the first names, of the three successive Mowbray McDermott; 1st born sons. Moreover, the “date of creation” of this (“Stephen”. KCSI (Cipher) 1st bart) was on 29 June 1852. Following James (Snr & Jnr); Stephen Mowbray McDermott was born on 29 June 1952. Parallels were also found in (McDermott) Mowbray; birth and marriage records, such as Prince Albert’s descendant's being named the same as (earlier) Mowbray birth names, also including the same parallel that Lord Stourton: (NB: Mowbray Segrave Case: 1877: Created Lord Mowbray and Segrave) also named his 1st born son Stephen in 1953.
  • 1852: Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg, appointed himself to several offices left vacant by the death of Duke of Wellington, including mastership of Trinity House[13]: (NB: Newcastle upon Tyne:[14] ): Arms: (St. George): Crest: demi-lion rampant: (NB: Demi Lion Crest: McDermott: [15]: Wellington: [16]: Newcastle upon Tyne:[17]): Prince Albert also determined the Wellington Augmentation:[18]: British Union Jack flag on shield, as a Royal Badge imperially crowned: As represented on: “The Royal Arms of Great Britain, as determined by the Warrant, in the reign of Queen Victoria.” [19]: "These badges which appear on the Sovereign’s warrant, are never assigned to any other member of the Royal Family, of whom the Prince of Wales is the only one who rejoices in the possession of officially assigned badges": NB: York Minster: Royal Harp Badge: On McDermott-Haig Cadet [20]:) Arms.
  • 29th June 1991: York Minster: Chapter Clerk: Signed statements: Quote: "The Duke of Wellingtons crest is a (Demi) Lion Rampant holding the flag of St. George". Also: "On the Duke of Wellingtons memorial brass in All Saints Chapel, the name J McDERMOTT appears." The All Saints Chapel, (Duke of Wellingtons Regimental Chapel), is above the Rockingham (McDermott) family vault, which is directly opposite (due north) the St. Stephen Chapel (Cipher-Key-Gate), being above the Mowbray family vault: The Mowbray and McDermott family vaults each being either side of the York Minster Main Altar: The Stained-Glass window in All Saints Chapel, depict Mowbray arms of the Howard Augmentation:
  • The 1919 Mowbray McDermott marriage certificate also contains numerous, personal and heraldic, references to SAW'S and TREE'S:

York Minster: The Red Dragon of Cadwallader:[edit]

YORK MINSTER. ENGLAND:
Stephen: STEP REG 19 AN.


  • Following the “Aylesford Case” (1885); George Cokayne published Volume 1. of the 'Complete Peerage' books: (A – Bo) (1887); the "Earldom of Mar Case" (1875); and "Mowbray Segrave Case" (1877) were published by Cokayne; Volume 5. (L - M) 1893.
  • Royal family to McDermott: 12 April 1954: "McDermott children - An organisation (Ref: Privy Council) will look into your case and see whether there is anything that can be done." (Re: BBM.): NB: James Mowbray McDermott Jnr; Born 1st August 1948. (Re: BBM: died in Australia on 28th July 1965, aged 17.)
  • "Daily Mirror" 28 September 1991. Lord Chamberlain (Quote: 1969) "Bury the King (?) and prepare Charles as Prince of Wales."
  • York: 11 December 1969: Mowbray# & McDermott#: Family vaults# in York Minster: Prince of Wales Official Visit. "The Minster was very glad to welcome the prince of wales (NB: and his High Steward, Lord Halifax) on Friday 11 December, in the course of his official visit. He spent over an hour in the Minster. At his own request his visit was primarily to see the archaelogical excavations#, in all of this he showed great interest."
  • "Plate III: Royal Commission: Archaelogical excavations#; Photography down there was not easy. But time was against us, not only were the Dean and Chapter quite naturally anxious for us to vacate the vault#, but with the change in equilibrium caused by the chamber being newly reopened, the coffins had begun to leak. Working fast together, the RCHM photographer, John Bassham and I completed the photographs. Even so, before we had finished, our feet were paddling in the unpleasentness leaking from the coffins."
  • 13 June 1991: Narroy and Ulster King of Arms: College of Arms: “Stephen McDermott's Red Dragon of Cadwallader has a label of three points." NB: 15 June 1991: Trooping the Colour: Notified; CoA: Inner & Middle Temple; NSY; Displayed my Red Dragon banner, fitted with its corresponding Royal Arms standard (“Flag of the Prince” – R-W-B & Royal Arms) before all assembled public and military witnesses, to Queen Elizabeth II, her family and dignitaries, at Trooping the Colour parade in London. NB: Being one year prior, to the 777th anniversary of (Mowbray) signing Magna Carta (15 June 1215): NB: I was born two weeks after 737th Magna Carta: 1952 Year of the Dragon:
  • 29th June 1991: York Minster: Chapter Clerk: Signed statement: Quote:
"Mr Stephen McDermot displayed the Royal Arms of the Red Dragon of Cadwallader in St. George Chapel, York Minster, on Saturday 29 June 1991."

Mowbray Segrave Case: House of Lords 1877:[edit]

Royal Arms England: Label three points: (1st born son).


  • Quote: “The findings of any Committee for Privileges or the decision of the House itself are not necessarily binding on their successors in other cases ("there are good precedents for this contention".) But it may be still open to the Crown to ""try it on again"" in precisely the same form, that a Committee for Privileges and a House with a different personnel, and in the altered circumstances of the status and powers of the Chamber, would come to a different decision.”


  • Affidavit of Throne Succession: (prior claim): 1994:


ISBN: References:[edit]

  1. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  2. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  3. ^ Campbell. p55: Collins Guide: Scots Kith and King: A Guide to the Clans and Surnames of Scotland. ISBN: 0004356659.
  4. ^ Archaeologia: (1842): Vol. XXIX: App. 387:
  5. ^ The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.
  6. ^ Heraldry. Sources, Symbols and Meaning. Neubecker (1977). ISBN: 0316641413. pg 164.
  7. ^ A C Fox-Davis: (1909): A Complete Guide to Heraldry:
  8. ^ City and County of Newcastle upon Tyne: College of Arms: (Exemplification 1954):
  9. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  10. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  11. ^ G.E. Cokayne: The Complete Peerage: 2nd Edition:
  12. ^ Victoria Era Exhibition (catalogue. pg 45: 325a to 325h: 1897):
  13. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  14. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  15. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 906223342.
  16. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  17. ^ City and County of Newcastle upon Tyne: College of Arms: (Exemplification 1954):
  18. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  19. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  20. ^ Art of Heraldry; Encyclopedia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davis. (1908) ISBN: 0906223342.
  21. ^ Heraldry. Sources, Symbols and Meaning. Neubecker (1977). ISBN: 0316641413. pg 164.
  22. ^ Heraldry. Sources, Symbols and Meaning. Neubecker (1977). ISBN: 0316641413. pg 164.