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Water carries the eggs shed from an infected ranid frog to snails, acting as the worm's intermediate host. An Ostracod acts as the second intermediate host after picking up the worm's cercaria. Odonate naiads then ingest the infected ostracod acting as a paratenic host before being consumed by a ranid frog. Ranid frogs are the worm's definitive host and can be found reproducing in the the buccal cavity of an adult frog. Fertilized eggs are passed through the feces to continue the cycle.
- Albert O. Bush, Jacqueline C. Fernandez, Gerald W. Esch, and J. Richard Seed (2001). Parasitism: The diversity and ecology of animal parasites. Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–117, 316–317.
- Derek A. Zelmer and Gerald W. Esch (1998). "INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HALIPEGUS OCCIDUALIS AND ITS OSTRACOD SECOND INTERMEDIATE HOST: EVIDENCE FOR CASTRATION?". Journal of Parasitology. 84 (4): 778–782. line feed character in
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