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Functional Groups
Hydrocarbons
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Functional Groups[edit]

Hydrocarbons[edit]

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Alkane Alkyl RH Alkyl alkyl- -ane methane
Ethane
Alkene Alkenyl R2C=CR2 Alkene alkenyl- -ene ethylene
Ethylene
(Ethene)
Alkyne Alkynyl RC=CR' Alkyne alkynyl- -yne acetylene
Acetylene
(Ethyne)
Benzene derivative Phenyl RC6H5
RPh
Phenyl phenyl- -benzene Cumene
Cumene
(2-phenylpropane)
Toluene derivative Benzyl RCH2C6H5
RBn
Benzyl benzyl- 1-(substituent)toluene Benzyl bromide
Benzyl bromide
(1-Bromotoluene)

Groups containing halogens[edit]

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
haloalkane halo RX Halide group halo- alkyl halide Chloroethane
Chloroethane
(Ethyl chloride)
chloroalkane chloro RCl Chloro group chloro- alkyl chloride Chloromethane
Chloromethane
(Methyl chloride)

Groups containing oxygen[edit]

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Acyl halide Haloformyl RCOX Acyl halide haloformyl- -oyl halide Acetyl chloride
Acetyl chloride
(Ethanoyl chloride)
Alcohol Hydroxyl ROH Hydroxyl hydroxy- -ol methanol
Methanol
Ketone Carbonyl RCOR' Ketone keto-, oxo- -one Butanone
Methyl ethyl ketone
(Butanone)
Aldehyde Aldehyde RCHO Aldehyde aldo- -al acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
(Ethanal)
Carbonate Carbonate ester ROCOOR Carbonate alkyl carbonate
Carboxylate Carboxylate RCOO- Carboxylate

Carboxylate

carboxy- -oate Sodium acetate
Sodium acetate
(Sodium ethanoate)
Carboxylic acid Carboxyl RCOOH Carboxylic acid carboxy- -oic acid Acetic acid
Acetic acid
(Ethanoic acid)
Ether Ether ROR' Ether alkoxy- alkyl alkyl ether Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
(Ethoxyethane)
Ester Ester RCOOR' Ester alkyl alkanoate Ethyl butyrate
Ethyl butyrate
(Ethyl butanoate)
Hydroperoxide Hydroperoxy ROOH Hydroperoxy hydroperoxy- alkyl hydroperoxide Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Peroxide Peroxy ROOR Peroxy peroxy- alkyl peroxide Di-tert-butyl peroxide
Di-tert-butyl peroxide

Groups containing nitrogen[edit]

Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
Amide Carboxamide RCONR2 Amide carboxamido- -amide acetamide
Acetamide
(Ethanamide)
Amines Primary amine RNH2 Primary amine amino- -amine methylamine
Methylamine
(Methanamine)
Secondary amine R2NH Secondary amine amino- -amine dimethylamine
Dimethylamine
Tertiary amine R3N Tertiary amine amino- -amine trimethylamine
Trimethylamine
4° ammonium ion R4N+ Quaternary ammonium cation ammonio- -ammonium choline
Choline
Azo compound Azo
(Diimide)
RN2R' Azo.pngl azo- -diazene Methyl orange
Methyl orange
(p-dimethylamino-azobenzenesulfonic acid)
Nitrate Nitrate RONO2 Nitrate nitrooxy-, nitroxy-

alkyl nitrate

Amyl nitrate
Amyl nitrate
(1-nitrooxypentane)
Nitrile Nitrile RCN Nitrile cyano-

alkanenitrile
alkyl cyanide

Benzonitrile
Benzonitrile
(Phenyl cyanide)
Nitrite Nitrosooxy RONO Nitrite nitrosooxy-

alkyl nitrite

Amyl nitrite
Isoamyl nitrite
(3-methyl-1-nitrosooxybutane)
Nitro compound Nitro RNO2 Nitro nitro-   Nitromethane
Nitromethane