User:Tomruen/uniform polychoron

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Operation Johnson Notation Coxeter-Stott notation Cell
(3)
Cell
(2)
Cell
(1)
Cell
(0)
Parent {p,q,r} t0{p,q,r} -- -- --
Truncated t{p,q,r} t0,1{p,q,r} -- --
Rectified r{p,q,r} t1{p,q,r} -- --
Cantellated c{p,q,r} t0,2{p,q,r} --
Cantitruncated ct{p,q,r} t0,1,2{p,q,r} --
Bitruncated bt{p,q,r} t1,2{p,q,r} -- --
Cantitruncated dual ct{r,q,p} t1,2,3{p,q,r} --
Cantellated dual c{r,q,p} t1,3{p,q,r} --
Rectified dual r{r,q,p} t2{p,q,r} -- --
Truncated dual t{r,q,p} t2,3{p,q,r} -- --
Dual {r,q,p} t3{p,q,r} -- -- --
Runcinated rr{p,q,r} t0,3{p,q,r}
Runcitruncated rt{p,q,r} t0,1,3{p,q,r}
Runcitruncated dual rt{r,q,p} t0,2,3{p,q,r}
Omnitruncated ot{p,q,r} t0,1,2,3{p,q,r}
  • External link for Coxeter-Stott notation:

summary[edit]

Parent Truncated Rectified Bitruncated Runcinated Omnitruncated Runcitruncated Cantellated Cantitruncated
Schläfli symbol t0{p,q,r} t0,1{p,q,r} t1{p,q,r} t1,2{p,q,r} t0,3{p,q,r} t0,1,2,3{p,q,r} t0,1,3{p,q,r} t0,2{p,q,r} t0,1,2{p,q,r}
{3,3,3} 5-cell
Tetrahedron.png
Truncated 5-cell
Truncated tetrahedron.pngTetrahedron.png
Rectified 5-cell
Rectified tetrahedron.pngTetrahedron.png
Bitruncated 5-cell
Truncated tetrahedron.pngTruncated tetrahedron.png
Runcinated 5-cell
Triangular prism.pngTetrahedron.pngTetrahedron.pngTriangular prism.png
Omnitruncated 5-cell
Truncated octahedron.pngHexagonal prism.pngHexagonal prism.pngTruncated octahedron.png
Runcitruncated 5-cell
Rectified tetrahedron.pngTruncated tetrahedron.pngHexagonal prism.pngTriangular prism.png
Cantellated 5-cell
Cuboctahedron.pngOctahedron.pngTriangular prism.png
Omnitruncated 5-cell
Truncated octahedron.pngTriangular prism.pngTetrahedron.png
{4,3,3} 8-cell Truncated 8-cell Rectified 8-cell Bitruncated 8-cell Runcinated 8-cell Omnitruncated 8-cell Runcitruncated 8-cell Cantitruncated 8-cell Omnitruncated 8-cell
{3,3,4} 16-cell Truncated 16-cell Rectified 16-cell Bitruncated 16-cell Runcinated 16-cell Omnitruncated 16-cell Runcitruncated 16-cell Cantitruncated 16-cell Omnitruncated 16-cell
{3,4,3} 24-cell Truncated 24-cell Rectified 24-cell Bitruncated 24-cell Runcinated 24-cell Omnitruncated 24-cell Runcitruncated 24-cell Cantitruncated 24-cell Omnitruncated 24-cell
{5,3,3} 120-cell Truncated 120-cell Rectified 120-cell Bitruncated 120-cell Runcinated 120-cell Omnitruncated 120-cell Runcitruncated 120-cell Cantitruncated 120-cell Omnitruncated 120-cell
{3,3,5} 600-cell Truncated 600-cell Rectified 600-cell Bitruncated 600-cell Runcinated 600-cell Omnitruncated 600-cell Runcitruncated 600-cell Cantitruncated 600-cell Omnitruncated 600-cell
{4,3,4} Cubic honeycomb Truncated cubic honeycomb Rectified cubic honeycomb Bitruncated cubic honeycomb Runcinated cubic honeycomb Omnitruncated cubic honeycomb Runcitruncated cubic honeycomb Cantitruncated cubic honeycomb Omnitruncated cubic honeycomb

Geometric derivations[edit]

The 46 Wythoffian polychora include the six convex regular polychora. The other forty can be derived from the regular polychora by geometric operations which preserve most
all of their symmetries, and therefore may be classified by the symmetry groups that they have in common.

The geometric operations that derive the 40 uniform polychora from the regular polychora are truncating operations. A polychoron may be truncated at the vertices, edges
faces, leading to addition of cells corresponding to those elements, as shown in the columns of the tables below. (Note: the following definitions use the word facet, which must be distinguished from face. A facet of a polytope is an element of the next lower dimension; a face is two-dimensional. A facet of a polyhedron (3D polytope) is a face; a facet of a polychoron (4D polytope) is a cell.)

  • A truncated polytope has each original vertex cut off so that the middle of each original edge remains. Where the vertex was, there appears a new facet, the parent's vertex figure. Each original facet is likewise truncated.
  • A rectified polytope is similar, but the truncation is carried further so that the new facets meet at the center of each original edge. The cuboctahedron, which may be called rectified cube, illustrates the process in three dimensions.
  • A bitruncated polychoron, as the name suggests, has the truncation carried further still: the parent's cell is reduced to its truncated dual. The growing vertex cell now collides with its siblings, so it too is truncated at the plane which bisected the parent's edge.
  • In a runcinated polytope the parent's facets are reduced to make room for those of its dual, without changing the shape
    orientation of either. This leaves gaps corresponding to the parent's faces and edges, which are filled with prisms. The process is illustrated in three dimensions by the small rhombicosidodecahedron, whose squares can be considered two-dimensional prisms.
  • A cantitruncated polytope is rectified and then truncated.
  • A cantellated polytope is twice rectified.
  • Omnitruncation is similar to runcination, except that the facets of the parents are first cantitruncated.
  • TO DO: explain runcitruncation

See also uniform honeycombs, some of which illustrate these operations as applied to the regular cubic honeycomb.

If two polychora are duals of each other (such as the 16-cell and 16-cell,
the 120-cell and 600-cell), then bitruncating, runcinating
omnitruncating either produces the same figure as the same operation to the other.

The 5-cell family {3,3,3}[edit]

# Name 5
(C)
10
(F)
10
(E)
5
(V)
1 5-cell Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
triangles (threefold edges) (vertices)
3 truncated 5-cell Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
2 rectified 5-cell Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
(vertices) Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
6* bitruncated 5-cell Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
4 cantellated 5-cell Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
7 cantitruncated 5-cell Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
5* runcinated 5-cell Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
8 runcitruncated 5-cell Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
9* omnitruncated 5-cell Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)

The 5-cell has diploid pentachoric symmetry, of order 120, isomorphic to the permutations of five elements, because all pairs of vertices are related in the same way.

The three forms marked with an asterisk have the higher extended pentachoric symmetry, of order 240, because the element corresponding to any element of the underlying 5-cell can be exchanged with one of those corresponding to an element of its dual.

The 8-cell/16-cell family {4,3,3} and {3,3,4}[edit]

{3,3,4} 16-cell

# Name 8
(V)
24
(E)
32
(F)
16
(C)
12 16-cell (vertices) (fourfold edges) triangles Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
17 truncated 16-cell Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
** rectified 16-cell Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
(vertices) Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
16 bitruncated 16-cell Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
** cantellated 16-cell Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
** cantitruncated 16-cell Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
15 runcinated 16-cell Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
20 runcitruncated 16-cell Small rhombicuboctahedron.png
(3.4.4.4)
Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
21 omnitruncated 16-cell Great rhombicuboctahedron.png
(4.6.8)
Octagonal prism.png
(4.4.8)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)

{4,3,3}

# Name 8
(C)
24
(F)
32
(E)
16
(V)
10 8-cell Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
squares (threefold edges) (vertices)
13 truncated 8-cell Truncated hexahedron.png
(3.8.8)
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
11 rectified 8-cell Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
(vertices) Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
16 bitruncated 8-cell Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
14 cantellated 8-cell Small rhombicuboctahedron.png
(3.4.4.4)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
18 cantitruncated 8-cell Great rhombicuboctahedron.png
(4.6.8)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
15 runcinated 8-cell Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
19 runcitruncated 8-cell Truncated hexahedron.png
(3.8.8)
Octagonal prism.png
(4.4.8)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
21 omnitruncated 8-cell Great rhombicuboctahedron.png
(4.6.8)
Octagonal prism.png
(4.4.8)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)

This family has diploid hexadecachoric symmetry, of order 24*16=384: 4!=24 permutations of the four axes, 24=16 for reflection in each axis.

Just as rectifying the tetrahedron produces the octahedron, rectifying the 16-cell produces the 24-cell, the regular member of the following family.

The 24-cell family {3,4,3}[edit]

# Name 24 96 96 24
22 24-cell Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
(triangles) (fourfold edges) (vertices)
24 truncated 24-cell Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
23 rectified 24-cell Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
(vertices) Hexahedron.png
(4.4.4)
27* bitruncated 24-cell Truncated hexahedron.png
(3.8.8)
Truncated hexahedron.png
(3.8.8)
25 cantellated 24-cell Small rhombicuboctahedron.png
(3.4.4.4)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
28 cantitruncated 24-cell Great rhombicuboctahedron.png
(4.6.8)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Truncated hexahedron.png
(3.8.8)
26* runcinated 24-cell Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
29 runcitruncated 24-cell Truncated hexahedron.png
(4.6.6)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Small rhombicuboctahedron.png
(3.4.4.4)
30* omnitruncated 24-cell Great rhombicuboctahedron.png
(4.6.8)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Great rhombicuboctahedron.png
(4.6.8)
31† snub 24-cell Icosahedron.png
(3.3.3.3.3)
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3) (oblique)
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)

This family has diploid icositetrachoric symmetry, of order 24*48=1152: the 48 symmetries of the octahedron for each of the 24 cells.

Like the 5-cell, the 24-cell is self-dual, and so the three asterisked forms have twice as many symmetries, bringing their total to 2304 (the extended icositetrachoric group).

The †snub 24-cell, despite its common name, is not analogous to the snub cube; rather, it is derived by asymmetric rectification: each of its 96 vertices cuts an edge of the parent 24-cell in the golden ratio. Because of this skew, its symmetry number is only 576 (the ionic diminished icositetrachoric group). Of all regular polychora only the 24-cell can be treated in this way while preserving uniformity, because only it has a vertex figure in which edges can alternate.

The 120-cell/600-cell family {5,3,3} and {3,3,5}[edit]

{3,3,5}

# Name 120
(V)
720
(E)
1200
(F)
600
(C)
35 600-cell (vertices) (fivefold edges) triangles Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
41 truncated 600-cell Icosahedron.png
(3.3.3.3.3)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
34 rectified 600-cell Icosahedron.png
(3.3.3.3.3)
(vertices) Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
39 bitruncated 600-cell Truncated icosahedron.png
(5.6.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
40 cantellated 600-cell Icosidodecahedron.png
(3.5.3.5)
Pentagonal prism.png
(4.4.5)
Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
45 cantitruncated 600-cell Truncated icosahedron.png
(5.6.6)
Pentagonal prism.png
(4.4.5)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)
38 runcinated 600-cell Dodecahedron.png
(5.5.5)
Pentagonal prism.png
(4.4.5)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
44 runcitruncated 600-cell Small rhombicosidodecahedron.png
(3.4.5.4)
Pentagonal prism.png
(4.4.5)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
46 omnitruncated 600-cell Great rhombicosidodecahedron.png
(4.6.10)
Decagonal prism.png
(4.4.10)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)

{5,3,3}

# Name 120
(C)
720
(F)
1200
(E)
600
(V)
32 120-cell Dodecahedron.png
(5.5.5)
pentagons (threefold edges) (vertices)
36 truncated 120-cell Truncated dodecahedron.png
(3.10.10)
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
33 rectified 120-cell Icosidodecahedron.png
(3.5.3.5)
(vertices) Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
39 bitruncated 120-cell Truncated icosahedron.png
(5.6.6)
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
37 cantellated 120-cell Small rhombicosidodecahedron.png
(3.4.5.4)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Octahedron.png
(3.3.3.3)
42 cantitruncated 120-cell Great rhombicosidodecahedron.png
(4.6.10)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Truncated tetrahedron.png
(3.6.6)
38 runcinated 120-cell Dodecahedron.png
(5.5.5)
Pentagonal prism.png
(4.4.5)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Tetrahedron.png
(3.3.3)
43 runcitruncated 120-cell Truncated dodecahedron.png
(3.10.10)
Decagonal prism.png
(4.4.10)
Triangular prism.png
3.4.4
Cuboctahedron.png
(3.4.3.4)
46 omnitruncated 120-cell Great rhombicosidodecahedron.png
(4.6.10)
Decagonal prism.png
(4.4.10)
Hexagonal prism.png
(4.4.6)
Truncated octahedron.png
(4.6.6)


This family has diploid hexacosichoric symmetry, of order 120*120=24*600=14400: 120 for each of the 120 dodecahedra,
24 for each of the 600 tetrahedra.

The grand antiprism[edit]

The anomalous forty-seventh non-Wythoffian polychoron is known as the grand antiprism, and consists of 20 pentagonal antiprisms forming two perpendicular rings joined by 300 (3.3.3). This is analogous to the band of triangles joining the two opposite faces in an antiprism. However, the grand antiprism is not a member of an infinite family of uniform polychora.

Its symmetry number is 400 (the ionic diminished Coxeter group).

Prismatic uniform polychora[edit]

There are two infinite families of uniform polychora that are considered prismatic, in that they generalize the properties of the 3-dimensional prisms. A prismatic polytope is a Cartesian product of two polytopes of lower dimension.

The more obvious family of prismatic polychora is the polyhedral prisms, i.e. products of a polyhedron with a line segment. The cells of such a polychoron are two identical uniform polyhedra lying in parallel hyperplanes (the base cells) and a layer of prisms joining them (the lateral cells). This family includes prisms for the 75 nonprismatic uniform polyhedra (one of which, the cube-prism, is listed above as the 16-cell), as well as for the infinite families of three-dimensional prisms and antiprisms. The symmetry number of a polyhedral prism is twice that of the base polyhedron.

The second is the infinite family of duoprisms, products of two polygons. Note that this family overlaps with the first: when one of the two "factor" polygons is a square, the product is equivalent to a hyperprism whose base is a three-dimensional prism. The symmetry number of a duoprism whose factors are a p-gon and a q-gon (a "p,q-duoprism") is 4pq if pq; if the factors are both p-gons, the symmetry number is 8p2. (The 16-cell can be considered a 4,4-duoprism, though its symmetry is higher than that implies.)

There is no uniform analogue in four dimensions to the infinite family of three-dimensional antiprisms.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]