User:VsevolodKrolikov/Creativity testing

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Measuring creativity[edit]

Creativity quotient[edit]

Several attempts have been made to develop a creativity quotient of an individual similar to the intelligence quotient (IQ), however these have been unsuccessful.[1]

Psychometric approach[edit]

J. P. Guilford's group,[2] which pioneered the modern psychometric study of creativity, constructed several tests to measure creativity in 1967:

  • Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles.
  • Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness.
  • Figure Concepts, where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings; these were scored for uncommonness.
  • Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks.
  • Remote Associations, where participants are asked to find a word between two given words (e.g. Hand _____ Call)
  • Remote Consequences, where participants are asked to generate a list of consequences of unexpected events (e.g. loss of gravity)

Building on Guilford's work, Torrance[3] developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966. They involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills, which were scored on:

  • Fluency – The total number of interpretable, meaningful and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.
  • Originality – The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects.
  • Elaboration – The amount of detail in the responses.

The Creativity Achievement Questionnaire, a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in 2005 and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output.[4]

Such tests, sometimes called Divergent Thinking (DT) tests have been both supported[5] and criticized.[6]

Social-personality approach[edit]

Some researchers have taken a social-personality approach to the measurement of creativity. In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals.[7] Other researchers[8] have related creativity to the trait, openness to experience.

As the research into the relationship between personality traits and creativity continues to grow, a more complete picture has developed. Within the framework of the Big Five model of personality some consistent traits have emerged.[9] Openness to experience has been shown to be consistently related to a whole host of different assessments of creativity.[10] Among the other Big Five traits, research has demonstrated subtle differences between different domains of creativity. A meta-analysis by Gregory Feist showed that artists tend to have higher levels of neuroticism and introversion, while scientists are more conscientious.[11]

Other approaches to measurement[edit]

Howard Gruber insisted on a case-study approach that expresses the existential and unique quality of the creator. Creativity to Gruber was the product of purposeful work and this work could be described only as a confluence of forces in the specifics of the case.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Kraft, 2005)
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guilford67 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ (Torrance, 1974)
  4. ^ (Carson, 2005)
  5. ^ Kim, K. H. (2006). "Can We Trust Creativity Tests? A Review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)". Creativity Research Journal. 18: 3–1. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1801_2. 
  6. ^ Zeng, L.; Proctor, R. W.; Salvendy, G. (2011). "Can Traditional Divergent Thinking Tests Be Trusted in Measuring and Predicting Real-World Creativity?". Creativity Research Journal. 23: 24. doi:10.1080/10400419.2011.545713. 
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sternberg99 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ for example McCrae (1987)
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Batey, M. 2006 p. 355-429 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Batey, M., Furnham, A. F. & Safiullina, X. (2010). Intelligence, General Knowledge and Personality as Predictors of Creativity. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, p. 532-535.
  11. ^ Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of the impact of personality on scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychological Review, 2, 290–309.