User:Wiki User 68/My Portal

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Wiki User 68/My Portal

Flag of England
English Coat of arms
Location on the world map
Location on the world map

Wiki User 68 hails from the Great British Isles specifically England About this sound /ˈɪŋɡlənd/  which is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[1][2][3] Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population,[4] whilst its mainland territory occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain. England shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west and elsewhere is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Bristol Channel and English Channel. The capital is London, the largest urban area in Great Britain, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most, but not all, measures.[5]

England became a unified state in the year 927 and takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled there during the 5th and 6th centuries. It has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world[6] being the place of origin of the English language, the Church of England, and English law, which forms the basis of the common law legal systems of countries around the world. In addition, England was the birth place of the Industrial Revolution and the first country in the world to industrialise.[7] It is home to the Royal Society, which laid the foundations of modern experimental science.[8] England is the world's oldest parliamentary system[9] and consequently constitutional, governmental and legal innovations that had their origin in England have been widely adopted by other nations.

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Selected Panorama

The Cairngorms from Càrn Liath in the Grampians

Selected Article

The Great Depression - (Lange) a Migrant Mother

The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries.[10] It was the largest and most important economic depression in the 20th century, and is used in the 21st century as an example of how far the world's economy can fall.[11] The Great Depression originated in the United States; historians most often use as a starting date the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday.

The depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich or poor. International trade plunged by half to two-thirds, as did personal income, tax revenue, prices and profits. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by roughly 60 percent.[12][13][14] Facing plummeting demand with few alternate sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as farming, mining and logging suffered the most.[15] However, even shortly after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, optimism persisted; John D. Rockefeller said that "These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come and gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again."[16]

Selected Picture

Minimum (interglacial, black) and maximum (glacial, grey) glaciation of the northern hemisphere

Selected Natural History

The Daintree Rainforest, Australia

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches).

From 40 to 75% of all species on Earth are indigenous to the rainforests.[17] It has been estimated that many millions of species of plants, insects, and microorganisms are still undiscovered. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth", and the "world's largest pharmacy", because of the large number of natural medicines discovered there.[18] Rainforests also supply 28% of the worlds oxygen,[19] processing it through photosynthesis from carbon dioxide.

The undergrowth in a rainforest is restricted in many areas by the lack of sunlight at ground level. This makes it possible to walk through the forest. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense, tangled growth of vines, shrubs, and small trees called a jungle. There are two types of rainforest, tropical rainforest and temperate rainforest.

Selected Technology

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The Seawater Greenhouse is an established technology with the potential to create surplus fresh water from seawater, using a novel form of greenhouse that also provides suitable food-growing conditions in arid regions. Three such units have been built so far. The technique is applicable to only a very limited number of world sites due to the topographic elements essential to the process. The technology won the Tech Museum Award for a 2006 project in Oman,[20] and was a finalist in the 2007 St Andrews Prize for the Environment.[21]

Proposals for the Seawater Greenhouse include the Sahara Forest Project[22][23][24], a scheme that aims to provide fresh water, food and renewable energy in hot arid regions as well as re-vegetating areas of uninhabited desert. This ambitious proposal combines the Seawater Greenhouse and concentrating solar power (CSP) to achieve highly efficient synergies. CSP is increasingly seen as a promising form of renewable energy, producing electricity from sunlight at a fraction of the cost of photovoltaics. By combining these technologies there is huge commercial potential to create a sustainable source of energy, food and water.

The scheme is proposed at a significant scale such that very large quantities of seawater can be evaporated. By using a location that lies below sea level, this can be achieved without pumping and there is an opportunity to capture some of the substantial volumes of residual humidity that leave the greenhouses. A 20,000 hectare area of Seawater Greenhouses will evaporate a million tonnes of seawater per day. If the scheme were located upwind of higher terrain then the air carrying this ‘lost’ humidity would rise and contribute to forming mist, cloud and dew. It would then be possible to harvest this precipitate using fog-nets that can supply tree saplings with water and thereby reverse the process of desertification, returning barren land to forest[25].

The scheme was first publicly proposed to a group of energy specialists at the third Claverton Energy GroupConference held at the Headquarters of Wessex Water Plc on April 13 2008 updated [26]

In the news

Selected Biography

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was an author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. He was a prolific writer whose other works include science fiction stories, historical novels, plays and romances, poetry, and non-fiction.

Arthur Conan Doyle was born on 22 May 1859, in Edinburgh, Scotland, to an English father of Irish descent, Charles Altamont Doyle, and an Irish mother, née Mary Foley, who had married in 1855.[27] Although he is now referred to as "Conan Doyle", the origin of this compound surname is uncertain.[28] Conan Doyle's father was a chronic alcoholic, and was the only member of his family who, apart from fathering a brilliant son, never accomplished anything of note.

Selected Geography

Mount Erebus

Bouvet Island is located at 54°26′S 3°24′E. It is 49 km² in area, 93% of which is covered by glaciers which block the south and east coasts.[1]

Bouvet Island is the most remote island in the world. The nearest land is Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, over 1,600 km (1,000 miles) away to the south, which is itself uninhabited.

It has no ports or harbours, only offshore anchorages, and is therefore difficult to approach. Wave action has created a very steep coast. The easiest way to access the island is with a helicopter from a ship. The glaciers form a thick ice layer falling in high cliffs into the sea or onto the black beaches of volcanic sand. The 29.6 km (18.4 miles) of coastline are often surrounded by an ice pack. The highest point on the island is called Olavtoppen, whose peak is 780 m (2,559 ft) above sea level. A lava shelf on the island's west coast, which appeared between 1955 and 1958, provides a nesting site for birds.

Because of the harsh climate and ice-bound terrain, vegetation is limited to lichens and mosses. Seals, seabirds and penguins are the only fauna.

Despite being uninhabited, Bouvet Island has the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) .bv, though it is not used.[2] A handful of amateur radio expeditions have gone to this remote location (call signs used here begin with 3Y). There is no telephone country code or area code, and no telephone connection (except by satellite, but there is nothing installed). There is no postal code and no postal distribution. Ships approaching the Bouvet Island fall within the UTC Z time zone. There is a Norwegian law [3] saying that the time zone of Norway is UTC+1, except for a part of year (daylight saving time). This suggests that the legal time zone for the Bouvet Island also should be UTC+1. However, since this law does not apply for the Norwegian Antarctic territories (Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, Queen Maud Land), UTC Z is the proper time zone for Bouvet Island.


Selected quote

The tragedy of modern war is not so much that young men die but that they die fighting each other, instead of their real enemies back home in the capitals.

Edward Abbey
naturalist and author (1927-1989)

Did you know?

  • ...that optimistic estimations of peak oil production forecast the global decline will begin by 2020 or later, and assume major investments in alternatives will occur before a crisis, without requiring major changes in the lifestyle of heavily oil-consuming nations. These models show the price of oil at first escalating and then retreating as other types of fuel and energy sources are used.[29]
  • ...that if the Greenland ice-sheet melted through global warming, it would raise the global sea level by 7 meters, or 22 feet.


Cities: AmsterdamBangkokBarcelonaBrusselsCalcuttaCologneFlorenceGibraltarLas VegasLisbonLos AngelesLondonMaastrichtMarbellaMarrakechMumbaiOttawaPaphosSan FranciscoTokyoTorontoYokohama

Climate change: Global warmingGlobal dimmingFossil fuelsSea level riseGreenhouse gas

Conservation: The British IslesSpecies extinctionPollinator declineCoral bleachingHolocene extinction eventInvasive speciesPoachingEndangered species

Computer science: Artificial intelligenceCompilersComputer programmingCryptographyOperating systemsProgramming languages

Geography: GeologyClimateOceansIslandsRivers

History: Prehistoric BritainRoman BritainAnglo-Saxon EnglandHouse of LancasterHouse of Stuart

Linguistics: Anthropological linguisticsEurolinguisticsWriting systems

Resource depletion: Acid mine drainageClearcuttingConsumerismOver-consumptionBlast fishingBottom trawlingCyanide fishingDeforestationGhost netsIllegal loggingIllegal, unreported and unregulated fishingLoggingMountaintop removal miningOverfishingShark finningWhaling

Science: AstronomyBiologyChemistryFormal scienceGeologyMathmaticsPhysics

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Things to do

Things you can do!
  • Keep finishing off the various Portals that need creating/completing and start writing content on the relevant interested issues.
  • Be bold. Wikipedia is for the people, by the people and needs YOU as a contributor to spread global knowledge.


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  1. ^ The Countries of the UK, accessed 10 October, 2008
  2. ^ "Countries within a country". 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 2007-09-10. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 
  3. ^ "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 2007-11-28 No I-9. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF). International Organisation for Standardisation codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions -- Part 2: Country subdivision codes. Retrieved 2008-05-31. ENG England country 
  4. ^ National Statistics Online - Population Estimates. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  5. ^ The official definition of LUZ (Larger Urban Zone) is used by the European Statistical Agency (Eurostat) when describing conurbations and areas of high population. This definition ranks London highest, above Paris (see Larger Urban Zones (LUZ) in the European Union); and a ranking of population within municipal boundaries also puts London on top (see Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits). However, research by the University of Avignon in France ranks Paris first and London second when including the whole urban area and hinterland, that is the outlying cities as well (see Largest urban areas of the European Union).
  6. ^ England - Culture. Britain USA. Retrieved 12 September 2006.
  7. ^ "Industrial Revolution". Retrieved 2008-04-27. 
  8. ^ "History of the Royal Society". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  9. ^ "Country profile: United Kingdom". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  10. ^ Great Depression, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  11. ^ Charles Duhigg, "Depression, You Say? Check Those Safety Nets," New York Times, March 23, 2008
  12. ^ "Commodity Data". US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  13. ^ Cochrane, Willard W. (1958). "Farm Prices, Myth and Reality": 15. 
  14. ^ "World Economic Survey 1932–33". League of Nations: 43. 
  15. ^ Mitchell, Depression Decade
  16. ^ Schultz, Stanley K. (1999). "Crashing Hopes: The Great Depression". American History 102: Civil War to the Present. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved 2008-03-13. .
  17. ^ " - Variables and Math". Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  18. ^ Rainforests at Animal Center
  19. ^ Killer Inhabitants of the Rainforests
  20. ^ Tech Museum Award 2006
  21. ^ St Andrews Prize for the Environment
  22. ^ The Sahara Forest Project
  23. ^ "Seawater greenhouses to bring life to the desert". The Guardian. 2008-08-03. 
  24. ^ Fourth World Conference on the Future of Science "Food and Water for Life" - Venice, September 24-27, 2008
  25. ^ The Sahara Forest Project - food, water, biomass from the uninhabited Sahara Desert
  26. ^
  27. ^ Lellenberg, Jon; Daniel Stashower and Charles Foley (2007). Arthur Conan Doyle: A Life in Letters. HarperPress. pp. pp. 8 – 9. ISBN 978-0-00-724759-2.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help) Stashower, Daniel (2000). Teller of Tales: The Life of Arthur Conan Doyle. Penguin Books. pp. pp. 20 – 21. ISBN 0-8050-5074-4. 
  28. ^ Stashower says that the name originated from his great-uncle Michael Conan, a distinguished journalist, from whom Arthur and his elder sister, Annette, received the compound surname of "Conan Doyle" (Stashower 20 – 21). The same source points out that in 1885 he was describing himself on the brass nameplate outside his house, and on his doctoral thesis, as "A. Conan Doyle". However, other sources (such as the 1901 census) indicate that Conan Doyle's surname was "Doyle", and that the form "Conan Doyle" was only used as a surname in his later years.[citation needed]
  29. ^ "CERA says peak oil theory is faulty". Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA). 2006-11-14. Retrieved 2008-07-27.