User:Wikibiohistory/Sandbox2/Draft of Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 205 BC)

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Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Pontifex Maximus (d. 183 BC) was consul in 205 BC with Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (Scipio Africanus Major); he was also Pontifex Maximus since 213 or 212 BC (until his death), and held several other important positions. Licinius Crassus is mentioned several times (sometimes as Licinius Crassus or as Publius Crassus) in Livy's Histories. He is first mentioned in connection with his surprising election as Pontifex Maximus, and then several times since in various other capacities.

Publius Licinius Crassus, otherwise called Licinius Crassus or Licinius in Livy's Histories, was a handsome, amiable man of a distinguished plebeian family, who rose relatively young to the position of Pontifex Maximus (chief priest of Rome) before he had been elected curule aedile.

Licinius Crassus, known also as Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (for his great wealth), was the direct patrilineal ancestor of two consuls and censors - Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 97 BC) (censor in 89 BC who was killed or died in December 87 BC) and his son Marcus Licinius Crassus the triumvir (consul 70 and 55 BC, censor 65 BC, who was killed in 53 BC in a disastrous war against the Parthians).

Family background[edit]

Publius Licinius Crassus was the son of Publius Licinius Crassus, whose ancestry is unknown. It is possible that he was related to the consul Gaius Licinius Varus (consul in 236 BC) whose grandson was Publius Licinius Crassus (consul 171 BC) and whose great-grandson was Publius Licinius Crassus Mucianus, also consul and Pontifex Maximus. The connections between these Licinii and the earliest mentioned plebeian consul Licinius and the more famous Gaius Licinius Stolo are not clear. Licinius Crassus is later described as "Dives" (or rich, an additional cognomen) indicating that he was particularly wealthy among Romans of his day. (The family tradition of wealth continued, with several of his descendants, notably the triumvir, being nicknamed "Dives" as well).

Nothing is known of Licinius Crassus's mother or his childhood or early youth, or for that matter, his year of birth. He was probably born during the First Punic War (circa 250-245 BC), and educated and trained much like noble Romans of his day.

Career as a priest[edit]

He is first mentioned by Livy in his Histories in connection with the death of the Pontifex Maximus Lentulus in 213 BC. In the election for Pontifex Maximus (apparently a rare popular election, instead of cooption from among the members of the pontifical college)[1], two censors - the patrician Titus Manlius Torquatus and the plebeian Quintus Fulvius Flaccus -- were suddenly joined by Licinius Crassus, who was then standing for election as curule aedile. Presumably, by this time, he was already a pontiff or priest, in order to be eligible for election, since Livy does not mention otherwise. Surprisingly, the two eminent censors were defeated by a younger virtually unknown man.

Livy does not mention the details of this election, but does later mention that Licinius Crassus was handsome, amiable, rich, and well-connected. All of these might have helped him win popular support; it is also possible that the two eminent senior candidates cancelled each others's votes out, thus allowing the unknown third candidate to slip through.

Licinius Crassus is described as being well-versed in pontifical law; he is shown by Livy as reminding Romans of their religious duties repeatedly (particularly after the conclusion of the Second Punic War). As Pontifex Maximus and as consul, he also reminded the elderly Princeps Senatus Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus in 205 BC during a debate that he (Licinius) could not leave Italy, whereas his co-consul Scipio suffered no such religious disability.

Political career[edit]

Licinius Crassus's early political career is not known. However, like his future political ally Scipio (and a few other young Roman aristocrats of the same era such as Publius Sempronius Tuditanus), Licinius Crassus was elected young to important positions, being chosen to certain positions over those of greater age and seniority in the political arena. He was known for his learning in pontifical law, his great bodily strength, and his military skills (although he never won a triumph). Licinius Crassus is perhaps best known for his refusal to leave Italy (as Fabius Maximus wanted) which allowed his co-consul Scipio to take Sicily as his province and eventually invade Africa.

Licinius Crassus was elected to the following positions

  • Pontifex Maximus circa 212 BC (held that position until his death 183 BC)
  • curule aedile circa 212/211 BC
  • censor in 210 BC, resigned without starting the lustrum, when his colleague died immediately
  • Master of the Horse (Magister equitum) to the dictator Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, proconsul and former consul and censor (and his unsuccessful rival in the pontifical election) in 210/209 BC
  • Praetor in 208 BC, elected the same year as Publius Licinius Varus (possibly son of the consul Gaius Licinius Varus).
  • Consul in 205 BC, elected along with his political ally Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus

During his consulship, Licinius Crassus remained in Bruttium, prosecuting the war against Hannibal, by then penned up in that corner of Italy. He was ill at the end of his year, and so requested that a dictator be appointed to conduct elections since neither consul was able to be present. Licinius Crassus was appointed proconsul for the following year by the Senate; he was presumably relieved of his duties in 203 BC when Hannibal evacuated all his troops back home.

Family and descendants[edit]

Licinius Crassus's wife is unknown, but he had a son living at his death, also named Publius Licinius Crassus, who organized magnificent funeral games in 183 BC. This son was ancestor of the future triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus.

Descendants include:

Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Pontifex Maximus (d. 183 BC), consul 205 BC

1. Publius Licinius Crassus, fl 183 BC, son of the Pontifex Maximus; who was father of

1.1. Marcus Licinius Crassus Agestalus

1.1.1. Marcus Licinius Crassus, praetor 107 BC

1.1.2. Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 97 BC), censor 89 BC (kd/d. 87 BC) Publius Licinius Crassus (killed circa 90 BC in Social War) Lucius Licinius Crassus (killed 87 BC) Marcus Licinius Crassus, triumvir (ca 115 BC - 53 BC, killed by Parthians) md 1stly (ca 86-80 BC) --------, his elder brother's widow, by whom issue; md 2ndly Terentia, daughter of Marcus Terentius Varro, consul 73 BC (himself patrilineal grandson of the consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus). Crassus's great-granddaughter was Caecilia Pilea cousin and wife of Titus Pomponius Atticus and mother by him of Caecilia Attica, first wife of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (Augustus's second-in-command and eventual son-in-law); through their daughter Vipsania (first wife of Tiberius), several descendants, including Julius Caesar Drusus (only surviving son of Tiberius), survived into the first century AD. Vipsania had several other descendants by her second husband as well. Publius Licinius Crassus (kd, or d by suicide 53 BC in war against Parthians) md 56/55 BC Cornelia Metella (herself great-granddaughter of Lucius Licinius Crassus), no issue. Marcus Licinius Crassus, quaestor to Julius Caesar Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 30 BC); who adopted a son from the Piso family. (adoptive) Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 14 BC), born a Calpurnius Frugi. For more on this adoptive descendant, and his own descendants, see the Frugi family.

Other famous Licinii such as Lucius Licinius Crassus (consul 95 BC, censor, d 91 BC) and Licinia Crassa (wife successively of two consuls, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex Maximus and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos, and mother of Mucia Tertia) may be descendants.

References in Livy[edit]

Livy, Histories of Rome. Bk III: 5 (Crassus becomes Master of the Horse)

Year: approximately 209 BC - Quintus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Fulvius Flaccus are inaugarated consuls; Scipio is in Spain

Bk III: 8 Publius Licinius, as chief pontiff, forces a dissolute aristocrat Gaius Valerius Flaccus (flamen dialis) to become priest of Jupiter (=flamen dialis), here translated as "flamen of Jupiter", although he is unwilling. This Flaccus was the younger brother of the future consul and censor Lucius Valerius Flaccus.

"Publius Licinius, chief pontiff, compelled Caius Valerius Flaccus to be inaugurated flamen of Jupiter, against his will....."


  1. ^ Thayer, Penelope. "Pontifex Maximus" on the Lacius Curtius website. <[1]> Accessed 14 May 2007


Livy, Histories of Rome. Bk III: 5 (Crassus becomes Master of the Horse)

William Smith. "Pontifex" in William Smith's Dictionary. Available online here as part of Lacius Curtius site, discusses unusual election in 212 BC.

Preceded by
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus
Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic
212 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Servilius Geminus
Preceded by
Caecilii Metelli and Lucius Veturius L.f. Philo
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus
205 BC
Succeeded by
Marcus Cornelius M.f. Cethegus
Publius Sempronius C.f. Tuditanus
Preceded by
Publius Furius Philus
(kd in battle 212 BC, while in office)
Marcus Atilius M.f. Regulus
(resigned 212 BC)
Censors of the Roman Republic
with Lucius Veturius L.f. Philo
210 BC
(resigned when his colleague died)
Succeeded by
Marcus Cornelius Cethegus
Publius Sempronius Tuditanus

[[Category:Roman Republican consuls]] [[Category:Roman censors]] [[Category:Republican holders of the role of pontifex maximus|Licinius]] [[Category:Ancient Roman generals]] [[Category:Licinii Crassi]]