- Taxonomy (τάξις=arrangement + νομία=method) is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a Biological classification
- Cladistics (κλάδος="branch"), aka phylogenetic systematics
- in Systematics, Clade is the only acceptable unit in Cladistics (κλάδος="branch")
- Crown group
- Phylogenetic nomenclature:
Phylogenetic nomenclature (PN) or phylogenetic Taxonomy is an alternative to rank-based nomenclature, applying definitions from cladistics (or phylogenetic systematics). Its two defining features are the use of phylogenetic definitions of biological taxon names, and the lack of obligatory ranks. It is currently not regulated, but the PhyloCode (International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature) is intended to regulate it once it is ratified.
The terms cladism and cladist were first introduced by Ernst W. Mayr in 1965. They sometimes refer to cladistics as a whole.
- Biological classification, Taxonomic rank, Tribe (biology)
- Nomenclature codes
- International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
- International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
- International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria
- International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Virus classification
- Linnaean taxonomy
- Species Plantarum, Genera Plantarum
- Carl Linnaeus's Aptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, 10th edition of Systema Naturae
- Precambrian, the large span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon:
- Precambrian (4.57 Gya – 542 Mya), Phanerozoic (542 – 0 Mya)
- The Cambrian period was named after Cambria, the Latin name for Wales, where Britain's Cambrian rocks are best exposed.
- The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, which is the first era of the current Phanerozoic Eon
|Preceded by Proterozoic Eon||Phanerozoic Eon|
|Paleozoic Era||Mesozoic Era||Cenozoic Era|
- Phanerozoic φανερός + ζωή, meaning "visible life"
- Paleozoic παλαιός="old" + ζωή="life", meaning "ancient life"
- Deep-sea gigantism
- The Blue whale is the heaviest animal ever known.
- The largest fish is the Whale shark, a slow-moving filter feeding shark.
- The Orca is the largest Oceanic dolphin, Delphinidae family of order Cetacea
Ungulate means, roughly, "being hoofed" or "hoofed animal". They make up several orders of mammals, of which six to eight survive. There is some dispute as to whether Ungulata is a cladistic (evolution-based) group, or merely a phenetic group or folk taxon (similar, but not necessarily related), because not all ungulates appear as closely related as once believed. Ungulata was formerly considered an order which has since been split into:
- Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates),
- Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates),
- Tubulidentata (aardvarks),
- Hyracoidea (hyraxes),
- Sirenia (dugongs and manatees)
- Proboscidea (elephants).
As a descriptive term, "ungulate" normally excludes cetaceans, which are now known to share a common ancestor with Artiodactyla and form the clade Cetartiodactyla with them. Members of the orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla are called the 'true ungulates' to distinguish them from 'subungulates' (Paenungulata) which include members from the afrotherian orders Proboscidea, Sirenia and Hyracoidea.
The Giant salamander (4.7-5.9ft) is the largest surviving Amphibian. Suborder Cryptobranchoidea (krypto="hidden" + branch="lung", a reference to how the members absorb oxygen — through capillaries of their side-frills.)
- Scolopendra gigantea (Amazonian giant centipede). Scolopendra is a genus of centipedes of the family Scolopendridae.
- Ceroxylon quindiuense (Wax palm tree of Colombia), the tallest Monocotyledon
It is known to be one of the largest living organisms. Scientists have estimated that a single specimen found in Malheur National Forest in Oregon has been growing for some 2,400 years, covering 3.4 square miles. Armillaria solidipes grows and spreads primarily underground and the bulk of the organism lies in the ground, out of sight. It is only visible in the autumn, when it blooms “honey mushrooms”. Low competition for land and nutrients have allowed this organism to grow so huge; it possibly covers more geographical area than any other living organism.
- poisonous Hypholoma fasciculare (Nigakuritake 苦栗茸), Cryptogam
- Pelvetia canaliculata, Brown algae, Cryptogam
- Spider anatomy, Simple eyes of Jumping spider
- Phidippus mystaceus Jumping spider, mystaceus < Gk. mystax=moustache
- Phidippus mystaceus
- Yellow-winged darter (Sympetrum flaveolum) Dragonfly
- Bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata, a Polychaete (Bristleworm with many Chaeta), Chaetotaxy
- Liocarcinus vernalis, the grey swimming crab
- Grapsus grapsus
- Allacma fusca, a Springtail (Hexapoda that are no longer considered Insects)
- Pediculosis, Obligate parasite, Hematophagy
- Head louse Pediculus humanus (Pediculus humanus capitis), Pediculosis capitis
- Body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus, sometimes called Pediculus humanus corporis), Pediculosis corporis, Paraneoptera
- Cicada, Hemiptera, Paraneoptera, Magicicada septendecim, Magicicada tredecim, Magicicada neotredecim, Decim periodical cicadas
- Tibicen linnei (Linne's Cicada), an Annual cicada, not a Periodical cicada
- Araniella cucurbitina (cucumber green spider), an Orb-weaver spider (family Araneidae)
- Hawthorn shield bug (Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale)
- Aphids, also known as plant lice
- Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid) sap-sucking insect of the Aphididae family
- Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of Crustaceans. μαλακός and ὄστρακον="shell", but the shell is only soft after Ecdysis (moulting)
- Grimmia, a Genus of Mosses (Bryophyta), a Cryptogam
Cryptogam means hidden reproduction, as no seed is produced. Cryptogams reproduce by Spores
Cryptogams are the opposite of the Phanerogamae (Spermatophytes)
The classification is now deprecated in Linnaean taxonomy
Spermatophytes are seed plants, comprising Cycads, Ginkgo, Pinophyta (Conifers), Gnetophyta (Woody plants grouped in the Gymnosperms), Angiosperms (Flowering plants)
- Gymnosperm γυμνόσπερμος="naked seeds" (not enclosed within an ovary, as are Angiosperms)
- the Angiosperm Aesculus hippocastanum. Angiosperms (Flowering plants) and Gymnosperms are Spermatophytes
- Ginkgo biloba (銀杏) is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives.
Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants with one extant species, G. biloba, which is regarded as a living fossil.
- Welwitschia, a monotypic Genus of Gymnosperm Plant
- Bryophyte (mosses), an Embryophyte (land plants, i.e. not aquatic)
- Cycad Cycas rumphii (Queen Sago Palm), a Dioecious Gymnosperm
- Flowering plant (Angiosperm)
- Helix pomatia (Roman snail), a Land snail, Gastropoda, Mollusca
- Pseudoceros dimidiatus, a species of Flatworm in the genus Pseudoceros, Turbellaria
- Ceriana vespiformis, a Hoverfly wasp mimic
- Longhorn beetle Clytus arietis, a Beetle wasp mimic
- Coccinella septempunctata (seven-spotted ladybug), with red Elytra
- a larva of Coccinella septempunctata
- Cephalopod intelligence
- Acanthocephala (ἄκανθος=thorn), parasitic worm, perhaps a highly modified Rotifer, according to Molecular phylogenetics
- Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), of family Corvidae, order Passeriformes (Passerine means perching birds)
- Green Violetear Hummingbird, Ornithophily
- Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher, Ceyx (bird), Coraciiformes (Raven like)
- Fulvous Whistling Duck
- Black Swan, Moulting Lagoon Important Bird Area
- Bdelloidea Rotifer (βδελλα=leech) They take alternate steps with the head and tail, as do certain Leeches
Evolution of sexual reproduction: Bdelloids reproduce by Parthenogenesis (no males). "Despite the fact that they have been asexual for millions of years, they have diversified into more than 300 species and are fairly similar to other sexually-reproducting rotifer species."
- SEM of Soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, plant-parasitic Nematode that produces Chlorosis and root necrosis of Soybean.
Heteroderidae from heteros=other, deras=skin (derm). This refers to the different 'skins' of female and cyst.
- Chrysaora fuscescens (Pacific sea nettle), Scyphozoa (shaped like σκύφος=a kind of drinking cup) is a Class within Phylum Cnidaria
- Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), Shark, Gigantothermy
- Holocephali ("complete heads") (Chondrichthyes is Elasmobranchii and Holocephali)
- Golden toad (Bufo periglenes), suffered extinction by fungus Chytridiomycota (chytridion="little pot") and Habitat destruction
- Pseudotrapelus sinaitus, Agamidae Lizard
- Oscar (fish) (Astronotus ocellatus), Astronotus Genus of Family Cichlidae
- Siberian tiger, Genus Panthera of Family Felidae
- Nuda, a class of Ctenophora (comb jellies) κτείς kteis=comb, φέρω=carry
- SEM of Pollen from a variety of common plants:
sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory Ipomoea purpurea, hollyhock (Sildalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). The image is magnified some x500, so the bean shaped grain in the bottom left corner is about 50 μm long.
- Alitta succinea, marine Annelid of the Nereididae family of Polychaete worms
- Clavelina moluccensis, blue bell Tunicate (sea squirt) in the genus Clavelina (the "little bottles").
- Tardigrade (waterbear), phylum Tardigrada, superphylum Ecdysozoa
- freshwater Bryozoan with Lophophore extended
- A fossil Jurassic Brachiopod Spiriferina rostrata with visible skeleton of the Lophophore intact
- Marine Sponge, phylum Porifera="pore bearer", Sponge reef
- Greek (Anemone blanda), Genus Anemone, Family Ranunculaceae (Latin rānunculus "little frog")
- Sea anemone, named after the flower Anemone
- Coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Gephyrocapsa is a genus of Haptophytes (a division of Algae)
- Coccolithus pelagicus, a Coccolithophore of class Prymnesiophyceae in division Haptophyta
- Venus flytrap sea anemone (Actinoscyphia aurelia) in the Gulf of Mexico.
- Virginia opossum,the only marsupial found in North America north of Mexico.
Opossums make up the largest Order of Marsupials in the Western Hemisphere
- Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus "sea eagle" Greek hali=salt, aeetus=eagle, leuco=white, cephalis=head)
- Fangtooth moray, Moray eel
- Bigfin reef squid at Komodo National Park, showing Iridescence ἶρις (gen. ἴριδος=rainbow), from Iris (mythology)
- White-lipped snail (Cepaea hortensis), a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc, Eupulmonata, Helicoidea within Stylommatophora
- Granular poison frog, Aposematism (warning colouration). cf. Apotropaic magic
- sessile Entoprocta "anus inside", contrasts with Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) having the anus outside a "crown" of hollow tentacles
- Giant clam (Tridacna gigas), the largest living bivalve mollusc
- Giant clam
- Hermaphrodite Scallops have up to 100 simple eyes, Bivalvia Mollusca, family Pectinidae (Latin "comb")
- Ceratium furca, Dinoflagellate (δῖνος="whirling", Latin flagellum="whip, scourge"), Alveolate ("with cavities"), Protist, Eukaryote, Zooxanthella
- Pyrosome, planktonic Tunicate. Plankton πλαγκτός="errant", and by extension "wanderer" or "drifter"
- Chromodoris quadricolor sea Slug, Nudibranch (Latin nudus=naked, Greek βραγχια=gills), Heterobranchia ("different-gilled" snails)
a marine opisthobranch gastropod Mollusca. Opisthobranch means "gills behind" (and to the right of the heart). In contrast, Prosobranch means gills in front (of the heart). Opisthobranchs are characterized by two pairs of tentacles and a single gill behind and to the right of the heart. Heterobranchia=Euthyneura (q.v)
- Sepiola atlantica Bobtail squid, Cephalopod (Κεφαλόποδα="head-feet") related to Cuttlefish
- Phoronid, a Filter feeder with a Lophophore. Superphylum Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals")
- Bryozoan with Lophophore extended
- Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish). Aurelia (genus) is a genus of Scyphozoan (σκύφος=drinking cup) Jellyfish.
- Tunicate (Sea squirt) Polycarpa aurata, in Komodo National Park
- Lamprey ("stone licker", from Latin lambere=to lick, Greek petra=stone). Family of jawless fish Agnatha (cf. Gnathostomata)
- Frilled shark, an uncommon species of shark in genus Chlamydoselachus
- Giant Oceanic Manta Ray, the largest ray in the world.
The largest recorded specimen was more than 7.6 metres (25 ft) across, and weighed about 2,400 kilograms (5,300 lb).
- Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second largest living fish, after the Whale shark.
- Broadnose sevengill shark, in the order Hexanchiformes: primitive types of sharks with only six extant species.
- Humpback whale, a Baleen whale, see Cetacea (κητος="whale")
- African elephant, family Elephant, Elephantidae, order Proboscidea
- Rhinoceros, an Odd-toed ungulate (Perissodactyl, περισσός="uneven" + δάκτυλος="finger/toe")
- Platypus, an egg-laying mammal: Monotreme (μονός="single" + τρῆμα="hole")
- Black and Rufous Elephant Shrew, Elephant shrew
- Crested Porcupine, a Rodent, genus Hystrix of the Hystricidae family