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Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA)
Leader(s) Hagop Hagopian (1975-1988)
Monte Melkonian (1983-)
Dates of operation January 20, 1975 (1975-01-20)–January 1, 1991 (1991-01-01)
Motives "To compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its responsibility for the Armenian Genocide in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland."[1]
Active region(s) Lebanon, Western Europe, Greece, Turkey
Ideology Armenian nationalism
United Armenia
Major actions
  • Assassination of a number of Turkish diplomats and their relatives.
  • Bombing of Turkish, French and Swiss targets for varying motives.
  • Several minor bombing attacks against US airline offices in Western Europe.
Notable attacks Paris Turkish consulate attack (1981)
Esenboğa Airport attack (1982)
Orly Airport attack (1983)
Status Inactive, dissolved
The approximate territory claimed by the ASALA.

The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Armenian: Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ) was a Lebanese-based Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975 to early 1990s.

The principal goal of ASALA was to establish United Armenia that would include eastern Turkey and Soviet Armenia.


The territory to be ceded would be the area promised to the Armenians at the never-ratified Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 by US President Woodrow Wilson, "Wilsonian Armenia".[3]

The group received considerable clandestine support from Armenian diaspora in Europe and in the United States.


Suffering from internal schisms, the group was relatively inactive in the 1990s, although in 1991 it claimed an unsuccessful attack on the Turkish ambassador to Hungary. The organization has not engaged in militant activity since then.


The group's mottos were "The armed struggle and right political line are the way to Armenia" and "Viva the revolutionary solidarity of oppressed people!".[6]


It was considered a terrorist organization by some sources,


other sources describe it as guerrilla


and armed organization.[14]

ASALA was listed as a terrorist organization by the United States in the 1980s.

[15] 46 people were killed and 299 injured as a result of ASALA attacks and assassinations. The stated intention of ASALA was "to compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its responsibility for the Armenian Genocide in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland".[16]




Over 60 years had passed since the Ottoman Empire had embarked on the campaign to exterminate its Armenian population, which was largely concentrated in its eastern provinces and referred to at the time as Western Armenia. The survivors of the massacres and deprivations commonly seen in the death marches found refuge in countries in the Middle East and in Western Europe and the USA. While the key ringleaders of the genocide were executed in the 1920s by Armenians (see Operation Nemesis), the Ottoman Empire's successor, the Republic of Turkey, effectively took a hold of all the possessions Armenians left behind and for decades vociferously insisted that a genocide had not taken place. It actively campaigned against any and all attempts to publicise the events and bring forward recognition in the West. It, in fact, blamed Armenians for instigating the violence and alleged that Armenians had massacred thousands of Turks, prompting the commencement of their deportations. In 1965, Armenians around the world publicly marked the 50th anniversary and began to campaign for world recognition. As peaceful marches and demonstrations failed to move an intransigent Turkey, the younger generation of Armenians, resentful at the denial by Turkey and the failure by their parents' generation to effect change, sought new approaches to bringing about recognition and reparations.

In 1973 two Turkish diplomats were assassinated in Los Angeles by Gourgen Yanikian, an elderly man who survived the Armenian Genocide. Behind this act of retribution lay a national reawakening among the scattered Armenians in the world, which had begun in the end of the 1960s and early 1970s. This event might have been progressively forgotten, had it not initiated a chain of events which turned it, and its perpetrator, into a symbol representing the end of the conspiracy of silence which since 1915 had surrounded the Armenian Genocide.[17] ASALA was founded in 1975 in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War by Hagop Hagopian (Harutiun Tagushian), pastor Rev. James Karnusian[18] and Kevork Ajemian,[19] a prominent contemporary writer, with the help of sympathetic Palestinians.[20] At the beginning, ASALA bore the name of "The Prisoner Kurken Yanikian Group".[21] Consisting primarily of Lebanese-born Armenians of the Diaspora (whose parents and/or grandparents were survivors of the Armenian Genocide), the organization followed a theoretical model based on leftist ideology.[22] The apex of group's structure was the General Command of the People of Armenia (VAN).[23] The group's activities were primarily assassinations of Turkish diplomats and politicians in Western Europe, in the United States and the Middle East.[20] Their first acknowledged killing was the assassination of the Turkish diplomat, Daniş Tunalıgil, in Vienna on October 22, 1975. A failed attack in Geneva on October 3, 1980, in which two Armenian militants were injured resulted in a new nickname for the group, the 3 October Organization. The ASALA's eight point manifesto was published in 1981.

ASALA, trained in the Beirut camps of Palestine Liberation Organization, is the best known of the guerrilla groups responsible for assassinations of at least 36 Turkish diplomats.[24] Since 1975, a couple of dozen Turkish diplomats or members of their families had been targeted in a couple of dozens of attacks, with the outcome that the Armenian revenge, as well as the background to the Armenian struggle, have made it through the world press. These notable acts, while practically carried out by a small group, were successful in conveying the Armenian Genocide and its silence to the forefront of international awareness.[17]

Political objectives[edit]

  1. Force an end to Turkish colonialism, NATO imperialism and Zionism by using revolutionary violence
  2. Attack institutions and representatives of Turkey and of countries supporting Turkey
  3. Affirm Scientific socialism as the main ideology of Armenia[2]


According to the MIPT website, there had been 84 incidents involving ASALA leaving 46 dead and 299 injured, including the following:[25]

On October 22, 1975, Turkish Ambassador in Austria, Danis Tunaligil was assassinated by three members of ASALA. Two days later, Turkish Ambassador in France, Ismail Erez and his chauffeur were killed. Both ASALA and JCAG claimed responsibility.

The first two ASALA militants, arrested on October 3, 1980, were Alex Yenikomshian and Suzy Mahserejian, who were wounded after the accidental explosion of a bomb in a hotel in Geneva.[26]

During the 1981 Turkish consulate attack in Paris (Van operation) ASALA militants held 56 hostages for fifteen hours, it became the first operation of its kind. Militants demanded to release political prisoners in Turkey including two Armenian clergymen, 5 Turks and 5 Kurds.[27] Coverage of takeover received one of the highest television ratings in France in 1981.[28] Among those who supported the militants during the trial were Henri Verneuil,[29] Mélinée Manouchian, the widow of the French resistance hero, Missak Manouchian, and singer Liz Sarian.

One of the most known attacks of ASALA was Esenboga airport attack on August 7, 1982 in Ankara, when its members targeted non-diplomat civilians for the first time. Two militants opened fire in a crowded passenger waiting room. One of the shooters took more than 20 hostages while the second was apprehended by police. Altogether, nine people died and 82 were injured. The arrested militant Levon Ekmekjian condemned the attack in its aftermath and appealed to other members of ASALA to stop the violence.

On August 10, 1982, Artin Penik a Turk of Armenian descent, set himself on fire in protest of this attack.[30][31][32][33]

On July 15, 1983, the ASALA carried out another attack at the Orly Airport near Paris, in which 8 people were killed, most of them not being Turks.[34][35] The attack resulted in a split in ASALA, between those individuals who carried it out, and those who believed the attack to be counter productive.[36] The split resulted in emergence of two groups, the ASALA-Militant led by Hagopian and the 'Revolutionary Movement' (ASALA-Mouvement Révolutionnaire) led by Monte Melkonian.[37] While Melkonian's faction insisted on attacks strictly against Turkish officials and the Turkish government, Hagopian's group disregarded the losses of unintended victims and regularly executed dissenting members.

Afterwards, French forces promptly arrested those involved.[38] Moreover, this attack eliminated the suspected secret agreement that the French socialist government made with ASALA, in which the government would allow ASALA to use France as a base of operations in exchange for refraining from launching attacks on French soil. Belief in this suspected agreement was further bolstered after "Interior Minister Gaston Defferre called [ASALA's] cause "just", and four Armenians arrested for taking hostages at the Turkish Embassy in September 1981 were given light sentences."[39]


ASALA is blamed by international society especially after the Esenboga airport attack which ASALA militants attacked the passengers waiting at the restaurant of the airport and killed 9 passengers. Continuous attacks prompted Turkey to accuse Cyprus, Greece, Syria, Lebanon, and the Soviet Union of provoking or possibly funding the ASALA.[20] Although they publicly distanced themselves from the ASALA,[20] Turkey's Armenian community came under attack by Turkish nationalists in reaction to the group's actions. This became apparent after the assassination of Ahmet Benler on October 12, 1979 by Armenian militants in the Hague. The reaction to the attack led to the bombing of the church of the Armenian Apostolic Patriarchate in Istanbul on October 19 in retaliation.[40] In 1980, the Turkish government arrested Armenian priest Fr. Manuel Yergatian at the Istanbul airport for the alleged possession of maps that indicated Armenian territory within modern day Turkey and was sentenced to 14 years in prison for possible ties with ASALA. Amnesty International adopted him as a prisoner of conscience, concluding that the evidence against him was baseless.[40] According to Tessa Hofmann, Turkish officials frequently used the accusation of collaboration with the ASALA and foreign Armenian circles to incriminate extreme left-wing Turkish opposition groups.[40]

In April, 2000 the opening ceremony of "In Memory of killed ASALA commandos" monument took place at Armenian military pantheon with participation of Greek anti-fascist resistance leader Manolis Glezos and other special guests.[41]


After the ASALA attack against the Esenboğa International Airport in August 1982 the then President of Turkey Kenan Evren issued a decree for the elimination of ASALA. The task was given to the National Intelligence Organization's Foreign Operations Department. Evren's own daughter, a member of the MİT, ran the operation together with Foreign Intelligence Department chief Metin (Mete) Günyol, and Istanbul region director Nuri Gündeş.[42][43]

Levon Ekmekjian was captured and placed in Ankara's Mamak Prison. He was told that he had to choose between confessing and being executed. After being promised that his comrades would not be harmed, he revealed how the ASALA worked to a team led by MİT's Presidential Liaison and Evren's son-in-law, Erkan Gürvit. He was tried by Ankara martial law command military court, and sentenced to death. His appeal of the sentence was declined, and he was hanged on 29 January 1983.[44][45][46]

In the early Spring of 1983 two teams were sent to France and Lebanon. Günyol tapped contract killer Abdullah Çatlı, who had just finished serving a prison sentence in Switzerland for drug trafficking, to lead the French contingent. Günyol says he did not reveal his identity to Çatlı, who referred to him as "Colonel", thinking Günyol used to be a soldier.[47]

A second French unit was assembled under MİT operative Sabah Ketene. The Lebanese contingent, consisting only of MİT operatives and members of the "Special Warfare Department" (special forces), was led by MİT officer Hiram Abas.[46]

Çatlı's team was planted in Ara Toranyan's car on 22 March 1983 did not explode. A follow-up attempt also failed. Toranyan said they had planted the bomb in the wrong car. Likewise, Henri Papazyan's car bomb on 1 May 1984 did not explode. Çatlı claimed credit for killing Hagop Hagopian, however he was in a French prison (again, on narcotics charges) at the time of the attack. Papazyan is now believed to have been killed as a result of infighting. The second French team (led by Ketene) did carry out some attacks (which Çatlı also claimed credit for), such as the 1984 Alfortville monument and Salle Pleyel concert room attacks. It is unknown whether the Lebanese contingent did anything at all.[48]


With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 the group lost much of its organization and support. Sympathetic Palestinian organizations including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) withdrew their support and passed materials to the French intelligence services in 1983, detailing ASALA operatives. The last attack, on 19 December 1991, targeted the bullet-proof limousine carrying the Turkish Ambassador to Budapest. The ambassador was not injured in the attack, which was claimed by ASALA in Paris.[49]

ASALA's founder Hagop Hagopian was assassinated on a sidewalk in an affluent neighborhood in Athens, Greece on April 28, 1988. He was shot several times while he was walking with two women at 4:30 in the morning.[50][51] Tarakchian[who?] died of cancer in 1980. Assassinations of former members continued in Armenia into the late 1990s.[52]

According to Turkish National Intelligence Organization official Nuri Gündeş, ASALA was dissolved after the assassination of Hagopian. According to Turkish sources, another reason is that financial backing was withdrawn by the Armenian diaspora after the 1983 Orly airport attack.[53]

In Culture[edit]

  • Armenian poetess Silva Kaputikyan wrote a poem It's raining my sonny dedicated to the memory of Levon Ekmekjian, an ASALA member, one of two perpetrators of the Esenboğa International Airport attack in 1983.[54]
  • Spanish journalist, assistant director of the "Pueblo" newspaper, José Antonio Gurriarán was accidentally injured during an ASALA October 3 group attack in 1980. Then Gurriarán was interested what the group's purposes were; he found and interviewed ASALA members.[55] In 1982 his book, "La Bomba" was published, dedicated to the Armenian cause and Armenian militant's struggle.



ASALA a leftist separatist terrorist group that, before 1984, was quite active in the European areas, ASALA began its operations before 1975.

Between 1975 and 1983, it claimed credit for or was blamed for attacks on Turkish diplomats in 16 different countries. In 1981, ASALA carried out more international attacks than any other terrorist organization. Its primary targets were Turkish diplomats and diplomatic facilities. ASALA also operated under a number of cover names. Using the name "Orly Organization", for example, ASALA attacked French interests after the arrest of one of their members (November 1981), who attempted to enter France with a false passport through Orly Airport. In 1981, ASALA carried out 40 attacks in 11 countries. While most of these attacks were against Swiss and French targets, the most serious were against Turkish diplomats. On 24 September 1981, for instance, the Turkish Embassy in Paris was seized by ASALA terrorist claiming to be the "Armenian Suicide Commando Yeghia Kechichian, Van Operaton." A number of Turkish diplomats were assassinated by ASALA in Switzerland, Denmark, and France. In the last incident, the Turkish ambassador and his chauffeur were killed while driving to their embassy in Paris from a luncheon at the Austrian embassy, by two gunmen using submachineguns. On 16 June 1983, ASALA terrorists bombed a bazaar in Istanbul, Turkey, killing two and injuring 23 others. Also in 1983. ASALA attacked Orly Airport (15 July) outside Paris with a bomb that killed five and injured 50 more. The bomb was hidden in baggage deposited at the Turkish Airlines check-in counter. On 27 July 1983, five ASALA members shot their way into the Turkish embassy in Lisbon, Portugal, where they blew up the building and themselves. One terrorist was shot to death before the explosion and four were killed, along with a police officer and a civilian, in the blast. During the mid-1980s the group apparently suffered serious internal division over the indiscriminate use of violence.[57]

ASALA was a terrorist group formed in 1975 o force to admit its guilt for the Armenian genocide of 1915.

In 1915, the government of what is now Turkey engaged in a deliberate campaign to expel the Christian Armenian minority from their homes; this campaign resulted in an Armenian diaspora that continues to this day. The current Turkish government insists that this campaign was not a genocide, while Armenian contend that 1.5 million of their compatriots were massacred. ASALA's stated goals are to force the Turkish government to acknowledge the genocide, pay reparations, and support the creation of an Armenian state.

The group was founded in 1975 by Hagop Hagopian, a Lebanese-born Armenian who had become involved with Palestinian resistance groups in the early 1970s.

ASALA's first attack was the bombing of the World Council of Churches office in Beirut, Lebanon, in January 1975; no one was hurt. The group's next attack, the assassination of Otkay Cirit, the first secretary of the Turkish embassy in Beirut in 1976, established assassination as a primary tactic. Throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, ASALA perpetuated a series of attacks on Turkish diplomats around the world-more than 30 diplomats and members of their families were assassinated between 1975 and 1984.

The assassination campaign attracted international attention to the claimed Armenian genocide, and by 1980 ASALA had begun to receive considerable clandestine support from the Armenian community in the United Stats and Europe.

ASALA started with six or seven members; at the height of its support in the early 1980s it may have had about 1000 active member and sympathizers.

When Israel invaded Lebanon in June 1982, ASALA was forced to flee its Beirut headquarters. This shakeup exacerbated tensions within the group, and, following the Orly attack, the ASALA split in two. One faction, which felt that the group's attacks on civilians were hurting its cause, labeled itself the ASALA Revolutionary Movement (ASALA-RM) and vowed to pursue a more openly political path; the second faction, led by Hagopian remained committed to terrorist tactics and associated itself with the Abu Nidal Organization. The split weakened both groups considerably and the number of their attacks declined drastically. In 1988, Hagopian was killed in Athens, Greece. He is believed to have been assassinated by Turkish agents. ASALA's steady decline only worsened after is death, and, despite, 1991 and 1994 attacks claimed by the hgroup, most observers believe the group no longer poses a threat.[58]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hunsicker (2006). Understanding International Counter Terrorism. Universal-Publishers. pp. 431. ISBN 1-58112-905-X.
  2. ^ a b Terrorist Group Profiles. DIANE Publishing, 1989. p. 32
  3. ^ Pitman, Paul M. Turkey: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 283, 354-355 OCLC 17841957
  4. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism. Harvey W. Kushner. SAGE, 2003. p. 47
  5. ^ Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA).
  6. ^ (in Armenian) G. Yazchian, Thirty years ago this day was born ASALA, Azg daily, Yerevan, January 20, 2005
  7. ^ John E. Jessup. An encyclopedic dictionary of conflict and conflict resolution, 1945—1996. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. ISBN 0-313-28112-2, ISBN 978-0-313-28112-9, p. 39
  8. ^ Michel Wieviorka, David Gordon White. The making of terrorism. University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-89650-1, ISBN 978-0-226-89650-2, p. 256
  9. ^ Bruce Hoffman. Inside terrorism. Columbia University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-231-12699-9, ISBN 978-0-231-12699-1, p. 71
  10. ^ Political dissent: an international guide to dissident, extra-parliamentary, guerrilla, and illegal political movements, by Henry W. Degenhardt, Alan John Day, Gale Research Company, 1983, p. 489
  11. ^ Remembring with Vengeance, by Pico Iyer // Time magazine, № 32, 8 Aug, 1983
  12. ^ The Caucasus: an introduction, by Frederik Coene, 2009 - 238 pages, p. 221
  13. ^ The history of Turkey, by Douglas Arthur Howard - 2001 - 241 pages, p. 161
  14. ^ Untold Histories of the Middle East, by Amy Singer, Christoph Neumann, Selcuk Somel - 2010 - 240 pages, p. 27
  15. ^ United States Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: 1989, p 57
  16. ^ U.S. Department of State. "Appendix B". Patterns of Global Terrorism Report - 1996. 
  17. ^ a b Kurz & Merari, Anat & Ariel (1985). JCSS Study No. 2 ASALA - Irrational Terror or Political Tool. Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Post. p. 3. ISBN 0-8133-0324-9. 
  18. ^ Rev. James Karnusian, retired pastor and one of three persons to establish ASALA, dies in Switzerland // The Armenian Reporter International, 18 April 1998.
  19. ^ "Kevork Ajemian, Prominent Contemporary Writer and Surviving Member of Triumvirate Which Founded ASALA, Dies in Beirut, Lebanon", Armenian Reporter, 1999-02-01
  20. ^ a b c d "Political Interest Groups", Turkey: A Country Study ed. Helen Chapin Metz. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 283, 354-355 OCLC 17841957
  21. ^ Near East/South Asia Report‎, by United States Foreign Broadcast Information Service, United States Joint Publications Research Service, 1987, p. 3
  22. ^ Roy, Olivier. Turkey Today: A European Nation? p. 169.
  23. ^ The Middle East Annual: Issues & Events, 1984, edited by David H. Partington, p. 155
  24. ^ Iyer, Pico (1983-08-08). "Long Memories". TIME. 32. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  25. ^ Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  26. ^ Le Combat armenien: entre terrorisme et utopie : Lausanne, 1923-1983, by Armand Gaspard, L'AGE D'HOMME, 1984, p. 72
  27. ^ Guerilla threat to kill 40 in Paris siege, The Sydney Morning Herald, Sep. 25, 1981, p. 3
  28. ^ Children of Armenia, by M. Bobelian, Simon and Schuster, 2009, p. 159
  29. ^ Le procés des Arméniens, Paris, traduit du français par Grigor Djanikian, editions VMV-Print, Erevan, 2010, p. 200
  30. ^ Oran, Baskın (2006-12-17). "The Reconstruction of Armenian Identity in Turkey and the Weekly Agos (Interview with Hrant Dink)". Nouvelles d'Armenie. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  31. ^ "Armenian Issue: Chronology". Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2007-02-21.  [dead link]
  32. ^ "He was an Armenian: Artin Penik". Turkish Journal. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  33. ^ "Armenian Dies from Self-Inflicted Burns". Associated Press. 1982-08-15. 
  34. ^ Brian Forst, Jack R. Greene, James P. Lynch. Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 0521899451, 9780521899451, p. 431
  35. ^ Council of Europe, Documents, Vol. 1, May 1984, Report by Amadei, p. 9
  36. ^ Baghdasaryan, Edik (2007-11-26). "He Was a Man Deeply Connected to the Natural World". Hetq Online. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  37. ^ Harvey W. Kushner. Encyclopedia of terrorism. SAGE, 2002. ISBN 0-7619-2408-6, ISBN 978-0-7619-2408-1, стр 47
  38. ^ "French Hold Armenians In Orly Airport Bombing", Associated Press, New York Times, October 9, 1983.
  39. ^ Echikson, William. "Armenian bombing at Orly ends pact between Socialists and terrorists", Christian Science Monitor, July 19, 1983.
  40. ^ a b c Tessa, Hofmann. Armenians in Turkey today
  41. ^ Arax Monthly, #4, 2000, Tehran, p. 4
  42. ^ Mercan, Faruk (2004-09-06). "Asala operasyonlarını Kenan Evren'in kızı yönetti". Aksiyon (in Turkish). Feza Gazetecilik A.Ş. 509. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  [dead link]
  43. ^ "Evren: Kızım MİT'te çalışıyordu". Sabah (in Turkish). 2004-09-08. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  [dead link]
  44. ^ BBC, February 2, 1983. Armenian terrorist executed in Turkey.
  45. ^ Reuters (30 January 1983). "Turkey Executes 5, Including an Armenian". The New York Times. Reuters. p. 5. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  46. ^ a b Kilic, Ecevit (2008-09-28). "ASALA operasyonları efsane mi?". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  47. ^ Erdem, Ali Kemal (2007-10-17). "Çatlı'yı kullandık ve başarılı oldu". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-02. Benim gerçek kimliğim mi? Bunu hiçbir zaman bilmedi. Bana 'Albayım' derdi, çünkü beni askerlikten ayrılmış sanıyordu 
  48. ^ Kilic, Ecevit (2008-09-28). "Boş konser salonu bombalandı". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  49. ^ "ASALA attacked Diplomatic target". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Hungary. 1981-12-19. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. 
  50. ^ Melkonian, Markar. My Brother's Road: An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 pg. 187.
  51. ^ "Gunmen Kill Man in Athens Identified as Armenian Terrorist Chief". Associated Press News Archive. The Associated Press. 28 April 1988. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  52. ^ Melkonian, Markar. My Brother's Road: An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp. 277-278.
  53. ^ Birand, Mehmet Ali (2008-12-21). "Thanks to Nuri Gündeş". Turkish Daily News. Hürriyet. Retrieved 2008-12-21. It was the raid of Paris's Orly Airport in 1983 that finished the ASALA off. Feeling ill at ease by the raid, the French and U.S. Armenians who used to support ASALA monetarily stopped the aid and the issue was closed. I know this through French authorities that were involved. The ones that were instrumental in the stopping of the aid were MİT and the Foreign Ministry. Otherwise, ASALA did not yield because it was afraid of the Turkish bullies. They were stopped because they had gone too far with their murders. 
  54. ^ Spurk Journal, #1-12, 2005, Beirut, p. 35.
  55. ^ José Antonio Gurriarán, by El Pais, 4 April 1982
  56. ^ Roy, Olivier. Turkey Today: A European Nation? p. 170. Roy suggests that the Orly incident led to "dissension end[ing] in the settling of scores in which ASALA militants killed each other in their camp at Bekaa (Al-Biqa, Lebanon)... (It) practically disappeared. It resurfaced once again, however, to assassinate important members of the Lebanese section of the Dashnak Party (March 1985 - May 1986)."
  57. ^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 39-40. ISBN 9780313281129. 
  58. ^ Kushner, Harvey W. (2003). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9780761924081. 

Category:1975 establishments Category:Armenian Genocide Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia Category:Guerrilla organizations Category:Defunct Armenian paramilitary organizations Category:Terrorist attacks attributed to Armenian militant groups