User:ZanderSchubert/History Outline

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After doing the online quizes, I realised I needed to have a corporeal note system in comparison to the mental one I already have. This is going to be a very rough listing of info from Traditions & Encounters and parts of the lectures, because they is of teh importence!!!!!1111 um, Anyway, this is going to be a rough factoid list. I may update this (ir)regularly.

Relation to Europe Empire and the World Lectures and Tutorials[edit]

I've decided to reformat this page slightly so I can keep track of where information is, rather than just having the bland "Chapter 22" without any context, so not only have I put the chapter names but also the lectures the textbook suppliment (or is it the other way round?)

I might re-correct the people's name links or change them to the actual sources, but I'll do that tomorrow... so, when you see me in a time you'd call tomorrow, I'll do it then.

Week Lectures Reading for following weeks tutorials
1 Course Overview and What Historians Do Chapter 22, the Kerr Letter and the Maps
2 Europe: The Idea and The Expansion of Europe Chapter 23 and Azurara
3 The Renaissance and The Reformation and Social Change Chapter 24, Vergerius, Bruni d'Arezzo, Luther, Calvin and Loyola
4 Science and Sorcery and The Enlightenment Chapter 24 (again), Innocent VIII Papal Bull, Nider, Malleus Maleficarum and Galileo
5 American Empires and European Empires in the Americas Chapter 25, Columbus, Cortés, Sepúlveda, de las Casas, The New Laws of the Indies and The Siege of Tenochtitlan
6 Africa and Slavery and Revolutions and National States I Chapter 26, Olaudah Equiano
7 Revolutions and National States II Chapter 29, Voltaire, Rousseau, Kant, Salon Life and Wollstonecraft
8 Industrial Societies I and II Chapter 30, Marx, Lucy Luck and Bromme
9

Nineteenth Century United States and Latin America

Chapter 31, American Declaration of Independence, Bolívar, Monroe, Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation
10 Russia, the Ottoman Empire, China and Japan Chapter 32, Kropotkin, Kanatchikov and Witte
11 The New Imperialism I and II Chapter 33, Kipling, Lord Lugard, Hobson, Ferry, Clemenceau and Morel
12 Technology and A World on the Brink  

Term One - Part V - The Origins of Global Interdependence, 1500 to 1800[edit]

Week One - Chapter 22 - Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions[edit]

NB: This is from the course reader, not the text book, but it is from Volume I of the same textbook series as the textbook, so it's from Part IV - An Age of Cross-Cultural Interaction, 1000 to 1500 C.E., not Part V. Just letting you know, y'know...?
Ibn Battuta from Morocco was one of the most travelled person of all time: in brief (click on his name for the complete travels!) went on his Hajj, then down the east coast of Africa, then India, for eight years as a qadi, then then China, then back home, then to Granada, Mali, and finally back home.
Long distant routes of travel for trade of commodoties and ideas, including the cities of Khanbaliq, Hangzhou, Quangzhou, Melaka, Cambay, Samarkand, Hormuz, Baghdad, Caffa, Cairo, Alexandria, Kilwa, Constantinople, Venice and Timbuktu, which had huge trade centres. Political unification under the Mongols helped keep trade lines clear of banditry and political turbulance.
A well known traveller on the new routes was Marco Polo, who met Khubilai Khan, who set him up as governor of Yangzhou, apparently, as he didn't trust his own subjects, and sent him on diplomatic missions.
Pope Innocent IV wanted the Mongols to join in Christianity and antiislamness, but they refused, wanting them to bow to the Mongol will instead.
Rabban Sauma was sent as a Nestorian priest to act as a helper between Pesria and Europe before they Islamicised themselves.
The Sufis converted many to Islam between 1000 and 1500 through flexibility, and Roman Catholics as well.
Citrus, cotton, sugarcane and gunpowder were spread along these lines.
The Bubonic Plague: came from Hebei in 1331, killing 90% there, spread by travellers, reaching the Black Sea by 1346, spread to the Mediterranean the next year, spreading to northern Europe by 1348, killing 60-70%, wiping out entire populations, and taking a century to recover: Europe went from 79M in 1300 to 60M in 1400.
The Yuan Dynasty collapsed in 1368, followed by the Ming Dynasty founded by Hongwu, centralising, and causing a cultural revolution, by deMongolising and creating the Yongle Encyclopedia, a compendium of Chinesehistory, philosophy and literature.
State building, especially in England, France and Spain, followed by the Renaissance.
Zheng He amassed 317 ships and explored southern Asia, India and Africa, until 1433

Week Two - Chapter 23 - Transoceanic Enounters and Global Connections[edit]

Vasco da Gama left Lisbon in four ships on 8 July 1497, sailing south to Cape Verde, then into the Atlantic on 3 August, only sighting land again on reaching the Cape of Good Hope in October, rounding up Mozambique and Mombasa, reaching Calicut on 20 May 1498. After exchanging gold for pepper and cinnamon, they reached Lisbon in August 1499.
Portugal had been the first to explore overseas, and wanted to plant eagerly wanted sugar as well as obtaining Indian pepper, Chinese ginger, cloves, nutmeg, African ivory and gold.
Exploration/conquering instinct strong in Portugal and Spain due to the reconquista.
New ship designs (square and lateen sails) helped with travelling, the Chinese compass and Arabian astrolabe helped for navigation. Note the volta do mar
Portuguese (under Prince Henry the Navigator) conquered Ceuta and set up ports as São Jorge da Mina et al, as well as Bartolomeu Dias's rounding the Cape of Good Hope, and, after da Gama, set up ports at Calicut and others in the Indian ocean.
Crostoforo Colombo's reaching of San Salvador, thinking it was India or Japan. They were afeared of the Europeans arriving.
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa become the first person to sight the Pacific in 1513, but was better explored by Fernão de Magalhães as he circumnavigated the world from 1519 to 1522, even though he was killed in the Phillipines. Other important explorers of the era were Vitus Bering and James Cook.
The Portuguese set up ports in order to control trade in Calicut, São Paulo da Mina (slaves), Mozambique (gold), Hormuz (for the Persian Gulf), Goa (pepper), Macau (China) and Nagasaki (Japan), being taken over by Afonso d'Alboquerque's forces, while still being a weak, small country.
English and Dutch could sail faster and cheaper and were advantaged in the English East India Company and the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (founded by Jan Pieterszoon Coen in Batavia in 1619), the Spanish conquered the Phillipines with Miguel López de Legazpi in 1565 imposing Christianity and centralised in Manila, and the Russians expanded into central Asia where they found fur and 26 major tribes that they later converted
Fierce competition in the east Indies: the French took over Madras in 1746, eventually leading up to the Seven Years' War, Britain and Prussia vs France, Austria and Russia, ending up with British [[hegemony], outsting French in India and Canada
Beginning in the early 16th century, diseases struck the Amerindian peoples, crumbling the Aztec empire, but later introduction of supplies (wheat, vines, livestock, horses) helped increase American populations, and conversly maize, potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, pineapples and heaps more took root in Africa, Asia and Europe.
Eurasian population: 1500: 425 million. 1600: 545 million, a 25% increase. 1700: 610 million. 1750: 720 million. 1800: 900 million. Mostly due to new crops and increase of healthy diets.
The Manila galleons helped take Asian goods to Mexico, run on Chinese desire of silver.

Week Three - Chapter 24 - The Transformation of Europe[edit]

In 1517, Martin Luther of Wittenburg denounced use of indulgences to fund St. Peter's Basilica in his Ninety-Five Theses, which flowed quickly due to the printing press, and created movements in France, England and the Netherlands, even in Italy and Spain.
During the 1520s-1530s, Strasbourg, Nuremberg, Augsburg and others banned Roman Catholicism, by the mid-15th century, half of Germany was Protestant, and Swiss cities like Zurich, Basel and Geneva. Henry VIII also created Anglicanism. John Calvin also was important to Protestantism with his Institutes of the Christian Religion and created a Protestant group in Geneva.
The Catholic church reformed as well, with the Council of Trent and the Society of Jesus, founded by St. Ignatius Loyola and used as good missionaries.
Witches and witchhunts caused 110,000 people tried, 60,000 of them killed, 95% of them women, many poor, old, single or widowed, therefore marginal. In New England, 234 witches were found in 100,000 people and 36 were hung. Witchhunting lessened by 1700.
France was pwnd by religious wars from 1562-1598, the Spanish tried making the British Catholic by sending the Spanish Armada to conquer them, and the Netherlands split by war in 1610 into the northern Protestant, modern Netherlands, and the southern Catholic, modern Belgium. The Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 involed most of Europe and was the most destructive war until the 20th century
The Habsburgs dominated most of the Holy Roman Empire, inherited by Charles V, then inheriting Burgundy and Spain and her possessions whilst not wanting to extend farther or centralise. France wanted to rid the Habsburgs, so allied with the Ottoman Empire to conquer Hungary.
Nationalism: individual countries gaining more power, like Henry VIII's England, Louis XI's or Francis I's France, or Fernando and Isabel's Spain, and helped built powerful standing armies.
The Spanish Inquisition was started in 1478 to target heresy, mostly targeting Muslims but later witches.
The English Civil War: Charles I was tried with tyranny, then taken over by a Puritan regime, became a dictatorship then dissolved by the Glorious Revolution.
The United Dutch Provinces wished to be rid of Spanish and were only recognised after the Thirty Years' War.
Alsolute monarchy: charged by God, most noticeable being France: Louis XIII of France with the help of Cardinal Richelieu, then Louis XIV's l'état, c'est moi from his court in Versailles. Russia also their Romanov dynasty which expanded, modernised and Europeanised under Peter I.
The Peace of Westphalia occurred at the end of the Thirty Years' War, but didn't cause peace (the wars of Louis XIV and the Seven Years' War), but were conducted so that no power was more powerful than another.
Exchange between America and Europe benefited Europen diets, especially the potato, although maize, tomatoes and peppers made their mark as well, and helped stem smallpox growth.
Rapid urbanisation during the 17th century, especially in capital cities (Madrid, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin, Copenhagen, Dublin, Stockholm, Vienna etal).
Capitalism grew and companies like the VOC and the East India Company grew. Some people used a "putting out system" and moved to the country, most of Russia became a serfdom, and Adam Smith published his Wealth of Nations.
Reconception of the universe, from multi-sphered geocentric view from Ptolemy's Almagest to the heliocentric view from Copernicus's On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, as well as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton.
The Enlightenment: the new thinkers like John Locke and the philosophes including Voltaire.

Week Five - Chapter 25 - New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania[edit]

Doña Marina was Mayan-Nahuatl bilingual who was used as a translator for Hernán Cortés's men via a soldier who knew Mayan, although she later learnt Spanish to shorten the chain. She also bore some of the first mestizos in Mexico.
First Euro-American relations between Columbus and Tainos on Hispaniola, and, although he wanted it as a trading post, little spices or silk wiped that idea. They started mining gold, using the encomienda system where Spanish settlers (encomenderos) compelled Tainos to mine while providing their conversion to Christianity. Any rebellions, and most died from smallpox. Europeans later gave up mining and turned the Caribbean into a cash crop region, especially for sugar and tobacco.
Cortés started from Veracruz, which he founded, to Tenochtitlan, in the search for gold, but helped irradicate the Aztecs with smallpox.
Francisco Pizarro took Cuzco in 1533 and decapitated the Inca leader Atuhualpa.
The two main Spanish centres were in New Spain and New Castile, centring on Mexico City and Lima, because of Cuzco's inaccessibility. Viceroys ruled the countries and were subject to audiencias, which reviewed the courts.
Portuguese Brazil: east of the Tordesillas Line. First a sugar plantation on the coast, but had little effect inland due to lack of minerals or other worth, but borrowing occurred from the Guaraní and Tupí. There is still local language use in Latin America.
Spanish settled as far north as Florida. French started in Nova Scotia and settled throughout eastern Canada. English started settling in Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay Colony, eventually settling what would become the Thirteen Colonies. Hard life left only sixty of the 500 inhabitants in Jamestown after the 1609-1610 winter. Private investers more common in French and English settlements than in Spanish or Portuguese ones, and were more clashing with native tribes and had problems with traditional tribes, especially in the Chesapeake region.
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca were exploring Florida in 1527, but clashed with natives and tried heading back across the Gulf of Mexico, but strom destroyed the boats, they landed in modern Texas and, over the next eight years, was either a slave or physician in many tribes until reaching Mexico in 1536.
85% male migration to the Iberian colonies led to many indigenous women becoming wives, creating mestizos and zambos: there was a rough ranking of peninsulares (Iberian birth), criollos (locally born Iberians) then mixeds. There were more women in French and English settlements than Iberian ones, leading to little métis or mestizos.
Silver was easily found, especially in the Mexican north, around Zacatecas and the Andes, especially Potosí, taking natives as labour under a mita system of one-seventh of natives to work in mines. A quinta, or a fifth of all silver, was went to the Spanish crown, and was useful for Asian trade.
The Pueblo revolt occurred in modern day New Mexico. Peruvian Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala also asked for protection of his native people.
The Brazilian sugar mill, the [[engenho] was one of the most complex business systems in the Americas, and was also land, labour and capital. A large level of labour had to be imported from Africa, especially because they lost 5-10% of their slaves annually due to overwork or disease.
Fur trading became powerful in the Hudson Bay, and the cash crop of tobacco, originally considered an immoral weed, grew Virginia's wealth. There were little slaves in the North, but slaves were so ingrained in the South, all blacks in Virginia had to be slaves.
Spanish missionaries taught in the native people's own languages, Bernardino de Sahagún preserved volumes of books on the native people's culture, and native religions fused with Catholicism, so that, for example, a traditional feast day became associated with a saints day, and due to Guadalupe. In contrast, French and English missionaries weren't as successful.
Australia was first sighted by Dutch seamen en route to the VOC, and called it New Holland, but first colonised in 1788 after James Cook discovered New South Wales.
The Manila galleons went from Manila to Acalpuco and were useful for Asian trade, but didn't explore the islands much. The only regular interest was Guam, where they converted and smallpoxed the native Chomorro.
Cook sailed continually through, and was later killed in, Hawaii.

Week Six - Chapter 26 - Africa and the Atlantic World[edit]

Thomas Peters crossed the Atlantic four times: captured by French merchants, sold in Louisiana, eventually being owned by a North Carolinan before the Revolutionary War, joined the Black Pioneers during it, and escaped to Nova Scotia after with many freed slaves. As a spokesman to the blacks there, who wanted theire segregated/marginalised life improved, he went to London, and in 1790 established a freed-slave colony in Sierra Leone with 1196 other blacks.
Port cities grew, but trans-Saharan trade routes were still used and important.
Africans had slavery in their own societies, but was more substantial with Europeans, due to the millions transported.
Bantu tribes were more village based with kinship groups than state based, but chieftans and cities grew after the eighth century creating many city states. The Portuguese controlled many east African cities for trade purposes.
The Kingdom of Ghana, from 4th-5th century, controlled trans-Saharan trade routes to become rich, and were replaced by the Mali Empire in the 13th century. When the Malians weakened in the fifteenth century, the Songhay Empire, based in the trading sity of Gao (not to be confused with Goa), became powerful under the rule of Sunni Ali with Timbuktu and Jenne as well as a navy along the Niger river. The Empirors were Muslim, Goa was 75k strong and traded salt, textiles, metal, gold and slaves. The Songhay crumbled due to musket-bearing Moroccans' invasion in 1591.
Other empires in West Africa are the Kingdom of Kanem-Bornu around lake Chad, the Hausa in the west, the Oyo and Asante farther south, and cities including Duila and Mande on the coast.
In Central Africa, major kingdoms are the Kongo, Ndongo, Luba and Lunda around the Congo/Zaire River, but the most knowledge is about the Kongo due to strong records, and controlled most of modern Angola and Congo-Brazzaville. Portugal set up relations with the Kongo in the late 15th century, and they converted to Christianity, partly due to the work of King Mzinga Mbemba a.k.a. King Afonso I, creating the "Kongo of the Bell" in the capital Mbanza/São Salvador. They traded textiles, weapons, advisors and artisans with copper, ivory and slaves. Eventually Luso-Kongolese relations weakened and the Portuguese left. They developed a better trade with the Ndongo in modern Angola, and eventually conquered it, although there was harsh resistance by the resistance ruled by Queen Nzinga.
Info on South African empires less strong, but major peoples include Swahili city states, Great Zimbabwe and the Khoikhoi hunter-gatherers.
Islam grew popular in commercial centres of west Africa and Swahili states, which was bended to indegenous beliefs, although some considered this impurifying Islam. The Fulani were most upset at this and tried creating Islamic states in modern Guinea, Senegal, Mali and northern Nigeria. Christianity in Africa was also warped, such as by the Kongo, and the Antonian Movement created a black face to Christianity, thanks to Dona Beatriz, although they burnt her at the stake for heresy.
New crops arrived in sub-Saharan Africa, such as manioc, maize and peanuts. By the 18th century, bread became part of the staple diet in SSA, increasing population: in 1500, 34M, in 1600, 44M, in 1700, 52M, in 1800, 60M. Remarkable considering millions being enslaved and taken to the Caribbean and Americas.
Slaves were part of many African societies until the 19th century, but due to different belief systems to Europe, namely that there was no such thing as private property, this was alright: the measure of wealth was people, not things. Trading of slaves began with Muslim merchants from the eighth century, with as many as 20M Africans over the millennium. European slave trading increased the slavery levels dramatically.
Portuguese traded 500 slaves annually by 1460, and were needed for the uninhabited Azores, Madeiras, Cape Verde and São Tomé, as well as to Brazil. Spanish needed slaves in South America due to disease killing off most people and leaving rest to revolt. The triangular trade brought European goods that they exchanged in Africa for people, which they took to the Americas for sugar before returning.
Brutal: often taken through wars or raiding parties, and taken in filthy and crowded ships over four to six weeks with a mortality rate of 50%, although this was improved to only 5%, and in total a quater of slaves taken to the Americas didn't survive the journey.
Tribes such as the Rwanda and Bugundu escaped enslavement due to being far from major ports, and ports in the lands of the Asante, Dahomey and [[Oyo] took part quite successfully, and the tribes of Senegal and Angola lost out the most due to them becoming slaves.
Majority of slaves used for agricultural work, such as plantations on Hispaniola, Mexico and Brazil on cash crops like sugar, tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton and coffee. Afro-Americans performed all labour with Europeans supervising.
Consoderable variety occurred in plantations from region to region: in the Caribbean and South America, disease killed off significant numbers, and low repoduction rates due to mostly male slaves meant requiring more imports, but North American slaves were less diseased and were allowed to make families.
Subversion common, such as sabotaging farm equipment, and running away, becoming 'maroons'. Revolts occurred, and although they had a huge majority in numbers, the elite had access to arms and forces to quash and uprising. The only exception was French Saint Domingue, forming Haiti in 1804.
Some mixing of traditional African culture and European culture in slaves, creating creoles from many European and African languages, and new religions, such as Vodou in Haiti, Santeria in Cuba and Candomblé in Brazil which mixed Christianity and African paganism.
African culture has affected food, such as okra and gumbo, and, of course, music. (We are indebted to the slaves for our music)
Abolition of slaves suggested by revolutions in US and France, and freed slaves like Olaudah Equiano wrote about reasons why they needed to be freed. Economic reasons also stopped slave trading due to high prices of slaves and greater iffiency found in manufacturing industries.
Slavery was abolished in Denmark in 1803, UK in 1807, US in 1808, France in 1814, the Netherlands in 1817, Spain in 1845. The last documented slave ship arived in Cuba in 1867

Term Two - An Age of Revolution, Industry and Empire, 1750 to 1914[edit]

Week Seven - Chapter 29 - Revolutions and Nation States[edit]

Marie Gouze, better known as Olympe de Gouges, wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in 17971 in response to the sexist Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. She initially didn't receive support and was executed in 1793, but illustrated power of ideals of freedom and equality.
Kings justified power by "divine right of kings", but philosophes and others of the Enlightenment challenged the rule. John Locke wrote the Second Treatise of Civil Government in 1690 and said people have rights to replace their rulers. Voltaire also resented persecution of religious minorities and censorship powers. Jean-Jacques Rousseau advocated for political equality, in his 1762 work The Social Contract, saying everyone is collectively the sovereign. Rights were usually not thought of for women, children, peasants, slaves or non-whites.
American Revolution: tazes from London were unpopular, such as the Sugar Act of 1964, the Tea Act in 1773 and the Quartering Act in 1765, which required providing housing for British troops (see also). The Boston Tea Party in 1773 and "no taxation without representation". The Continental Congress formed in 1774 to organise resistance.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4 1776. During the war, Britain had a benefit of centralises government, but the colonies had a benefit of being too distant for forces to travel. The Constitution was drafted in 1787 and emphasised individual rights, but originally only to landowners and not including women, slaves or Amerindians.
The French Revolution: Before, during the ancien régime, Louis XVI wanted to raise revenue for his army, so raised aristocratic taxes. They didn't want the new taxes, so they called the Estates General, which had last met in 1614, where the third estate claimed rights. On 17 June 1789, they seceded becoming the Nation Assembly. On 14 June 1789 the Bastille was stormed, sparking insurrection. Liberté, égalité, fraternité. Reduced church's role and created a constitutional monarchy.
Wars were claimed on Spain, Britain and Holland, created the Convention to recrute people by levée en masse, Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette were guillotined. The major Jacobin campaigned terror for their agenda. Priests were forced to have wives. Year I was proclaimed starting 22 September 1792.
Napoleon: overthrew the government and named himself emperor in 1802. Undid some of the revolutions work, such as making peace with the Catholic Church, and created the Civil Code to create stability. He limited free speech, used propaganda to manipulate the public.
Conquered most of Europe (Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Austraia, Prussia), but his empire started collapsing when, after capturing Moscow, the Tsar has it razed, not leaving enough supplies or shelter, making them retreat. His enemies then joined together and forced him to apdicate in 1814, exiling him to the Isle of Elba near Corsica, although he escaped, formed another army, but was defeated at Waterloo.
Revolutions in US and France brought ideas for independence in Latin America. Hispaniola was owned by French on the west as Saint-Domingue and Spain on the east as Santo Domingo. Saint Domingue accounted for a third of France's foreign wealth and grew sugar, coffe and cotton. Due to French support for the US vs Britain, 500 gens de couleur (freed slaves, mestizos and mullatoes) were sent to help their independence. Whites wanted to govern themselves after the revolution and war broke out between the whites and gens de couleur and headed by Vodou priest Boukman organised revolts and in August 1791 ten thousand slaves started killing settlers, burning down houses and destroying crops. French troops came to control the slaves (and British and Spanish to help them). Francois-Dominique Toussaint, or Louverture, helped bring success. By 1797, the army was 100K strong. A Constitution was announced in 1801, but didn't want proclaim independence to prevent Napoleon invading, but he did with 4000 troops in 1802, but yellow fever got rid of many of them. Haiti, meaning land of the mountains, was proclaimed indepent in 1803 and was the second independent American nation.
Between 1805 and 1820, all Latin America, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, became independent. By 1810, revolts began in Argentina, Venezuela and Mexico. Mexico, led by Miguel de Hidalgo, gained independence in 1821, and Augustín de Iturbide proclaimed himself Emperor of Mexico, but his incomitence led to him being deposed, creating a republic, and in 1825 the south split becoming Central American Federation, split in 1838 into Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
Simón Bolívar, born in Caracas, led movements to get independence to Columbia, crushing the Spanish in 1819, forming Gran Columbia from Venezuela, Columbia and Ecuador, and wanted Peru and Bolivia to join, but it split in 1830 due to regional differences.
Portugal ruled in exile from Rio de Janeiro when Napoleon conquered it in 1807, and when Portugal was restored in 1821, Dom Pedro, son of the king, was left in charge, creating the Brazilian Empire.
Ideology: a coherent vision of human nature, human society and the larger world that proposes some particular form of political and social organisation as ideal. Conservatism: response to challenges, believes that social change is gradual (Edmund Burke). Revolution would lead to anarchy. Liberalism: change is normal, believes conservativism is just maintenance of status quo. Freedom and equaility would lead to morality and prosperity (John Stuart Mill). Powerful minorities wouldn't have power over majorities.
Olaudah Equiano was one of the earliest critics of slavery, but leading spokesman was William Wilberforce, criticising on religious and moral grounds. However, although slavery was banned (see Chapter 26), many slaves were still property, and therefore had property rights to them, and it did not bring equality other than in Haiti.
Women helped with movements and claimed that they had the same legal disabilities as men: little education access, not allowed professional work and couldn't vote. They didn't have success until the 20th century, even though they had support from Mill. A promenant writer was Mary Wollstonecraft with A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Women were an important part of the French Revolution with support. The National Assembly and Convention increased women's rights, but Napoleon removed them again, and other states in the Americas didn't have that much increase of rights to start with. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a promenant figure for women's and slaves' rights, and, finding the anitslavery conference in 1840 in London banned women, formed a group of femenists in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York demanding equal rights to men.
Nationalism grew, especially during the French Revolution for French and the rest of Europe through wartimes, and throughout the 19th century leaders worked to fashion states based on identity. Until nationalism, people thought of themselves more in family, clan, city, regional or religious groups, but became nations due to common identity: language, custom and similar history.
Cultural Nationalism used to link people, such as Johann Gottfried von Herder for the German Volk, praising German cultural literature (Volkgeist), such as the Brother Grimm collecting stories, songs, poems and tales. Political Nationalism came later, to unite people through loyalty, such as Giuseppe Mazzini promoting an independant Italy free from Spanish and Austrian rule, inspiring similar movements in Ireland, Switzerland and Hungary.
Zionism, or Jewish nationalism, grew, despite not being centred in a specific region, and anti-Semitism grew as well, causing violence and emigration to North America. Alfred Dreyfus was charged with spying for Germany in 1894, and out of it journalist Theodor Herzl created the Zionist pamphlet Judenstaat suggesting creation of a Jewish state and homeland, in Palestine, eventually creating Israel in 1948.
Conservatives after Napoleon's fall thought that revolutions could indermine Europe's stability and, at the Congress of Vienna in 1814, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria set to dismantle the Napoleonic Empire and restore the balence to what it was before. The balence of power continued in place until 1914, but nationalism couldn't be suppressed.
Greek independence from the Turks was supported hugely by some European countries, forming the country in 1830, other independence causes came up in Italy, Belgium and Poland, liberalism grew in Germany, Spain, Portugal and France.
Germany and Italy had been separated into small multitudes of lands since the Roman Empire fell. Italy began uniting with Mazzini's Young Italy, but was unified under Count Camillo di Cavour, prime minister to the king of Piedmont and Sardinia, and Giuseppe Garibaldi who gained the support of Sicily and southern Italy. Following this, Rome, Venice and others joined the new Italy. The German Confederation created at the Congress of Vienna was comprised of 39 states with Austria most powerful, but left many German nationalists frustrated, and Otto von Bismarck under King Wilhelm I of Prussia united German speaking states outside of Austia and Swizterland, the Second Reich, in 1871

Week Eight - Chapter 30 - The Making of Industrial Society[edit]

Betty Harris, a worker in a coal mine near Manchester from 1827, had been under tiring working conditions: twelve-hour shifts, uncomfortable belts and chains to connect workers to minecarts, and constant heat.
Technological change and factory growth began transforming western Europe, North America, Russia and Japan, increasing productivity and raising wuality of goods, but also changed countries socially, such as altering domestic patterns and urbanisation.
By the mid-18th century, dynamic economies grew in Great Britain, the Yangzi Delta and in Japan. Coal played an crucial role as a fuel source, helping advantage Great Britain over China due to geography and ease of access/transportation of the fuel. Colonies also helped increase economies in Europe due to increasing produce available. Cotton imports from India as calicoes lost Britain money, so wool producers helped pass a restrictive Calico Act. Demand eventually led to increased production. John Kay's flying shuttle helped speed production, and other devices included spinning machines were produced. By 1830, cotton became 40% of UK exports and had a half million workers nationally.
James Watt's team engine was the most important breakthrough of the early industrial era. Iron and steel industries benefitted from technelogical advancement as well, such as coke for iron and the Bessemer converter for steel.
George Stevenson created the first steam locomotive in 1815, and between 1830 and 1870, entrepreneurs laid 20,000km of rail across Britain, and the steamboat were used in watercourses untravelable by sail.
Early demand for certain products led to creations of factories, where large machines which couldn't be put into the house for personal use could be created on a large scale. Unskilled migrants from the country to fill factory positions, and specification grew. Managers were then able to impose strict work discipline, and work conditions were repetetive, clock-controlled, unsafe and impossible to do anything other than work in due to intense supervision. Luddites between 1811 and 1816 were part of violent protests, destroying machines, but the movement died out with fourteen Luddites hung in 1813.
Indrustrialisation was purely British for the first half-century, but Europeans and North Americans quickly wanted similar opportunities, trying to get British engineers and experts, sometimes by kidnapping, but often getting second-rate specialists who created little progress. By the mid-19th century, industrialisation expanded to Germany, Belgium, France and the US. The French were devising refinements especially metalurgically, Bismarck's government supported massive industrialisation, and the US grew to a powerhouse economy by 1900.
Mass Production, partially created by Eli Whitney's idea of universal interchangeability and standardisation of parts, and Henry Ford eventually (in 1913) created the assembly line.
Private business grew, creating huge companies and corporations, and sometimes monopolies, trusts and cartels.
New goods became available cheaply, such as multiple changes of clothes and the creation of underwear, and food prices fell. Population growth increased (Europe from 105-180M in 1700 to 390M in 1800, the Americas from 13M in 1700 to 24M in 1800 and 145M by 1900, Argentina had a 1583% increase from 300,000 in 1800 to 4.75M in 1900, UK from 10.5M in 1800 to 37.5M in 1900, Germany from 18M in 1800 to 43M in 1900), mortality and fertility fell.
Heavy urbanisation: UK went from 20% urban in 1800 to 75% urban in 1900, 150 large towns in Europe and North America by 1900, headed by London, New York, Paris and Berlin. Cities grew polution levels, work practices created health problems and death rates often exceeded birth rates. Wealth often created health, the rich retreating to the suburbs, the poor cramped in overcrowded apartments.
Migration from Europe to the Americas common, many to get money and return, but most stayed. Germans, Irish and Scandanavians moved during the mid-19th century, southern Europeans during later during the century. Irish left due to the potato famines, Jews left Russia due to the tsar's anti-Semitic policy.
New social classes, such as the middle class, were created, leaving the rest a working class. The whole family usually worked, and pooled their money together, leadding more separate lives than before.
Professionals who had leisure time often read and forced their views on their underlings, and sport became more common weekend pastime when the weekend was created. While women worked, they eventually were led back into the home by the late 19th century. Employers became guardians to children more than parents until child labour laws were introduced in Britain in the 1840s and mandatory education was enforced in 1881.
Socialism first appeared as a word in 1830, used for utopians like Charles Fourier, who wanted to create a community held by love, not coercion, and Robert Owen, who reduced working hours to 10-hour-days in the town of New Lanark, and other experimental communities were created, but often folded.
The most important socialists were Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who attributed social problems to capitalism: capitalist owners, proletariate wageworkers, the law ruled by the capitalists and the opiate religion. Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848, wanting to abolish private property, and figuring overproduction and underconsumption would ruin the capitalist system.
Social reform led to universal male suffrage, medical insurance and social security. Trade unions also wanted worker equality.
Russia and Japan embarked on industrialisation after 1870. Russia went from 1.1Mm of rail to 58Mm or rail, most remarkably the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moskow to Vladivostok, allowing a commercial link between Europe and Asia, produced half the worlds oil by 1900, and fourth in the world for steel production after the US, Germany and the UK. Japan created banking, education, mechanised industry and produced the zaibatsus.
Natural resource demand grew, such as of cotton from India, Egypt and the US and rubber from from Brazil, Malaya and the Congo. Specialisation in primary goods occurred in Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

Week Nine - Chapter 31 - The Americas in the Age of Independence[edit]

Nearly all the Americas became independent by the early 19th century, and throughout that century they struggled to build states and societies. The US became the most powerful, pushing west, Canada became a federal state, and Latin America became small, military controlled states.
Despite "all men are equal", US states limited voting rights to property owners, although these restrictions disappeared. Post revolution, Britain ceded land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi, then the Louisiana Purchase doubled the US's size and taking territory up to the Rocky Mountains. From 1803 to 1806, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark mapped much of the new territory. By the 1840s, expansion westward was underway, with a 'manifest destiny' to occupy land from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Conflicts with the indigenous peoples were common, eventually prompting the Indian Removal Act to transport them to the Indian Territory, such as the Cherokees having to travel along the 800km Trail of Tears. Further west, tribes were able to defend themselves by having horses and firearms, and the Lakota Sioux were able to destoy Colonel Custer's army at Little Big Horn in 1876, but eventually lost out, and were symbolically defeated at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota in 1890.
Tension between US and Mexico, who at the timed owned Texas, California and New Mexico. Texas claimed independence in 1836, but was integrated into the US in 1845, leading to the Mexican-American War from 1845 to 1848, which ended in the US taking all its modern territory except what would be the Gadsden Purchase in 1853.
Slavery's opponents assumed the failing of tobacco would fail slavery, but slave populations increased to two million by 1820, and the Missouri Compromise prevented slavery from spreading to maintain balence between slave and slave-free states. Abraham Lincoln became president in 1860, and his stance on slavery led to the American Civil War, which became a war based on not only slavery, but also the states' right to succeed and the growing industrial system in the north. Eleven states separated in 1860 and 1861 becoming the Confederate States of America. The Northerners felt that this was an illegal act, and the Southerners felt that they could be self-sufficient. The first two years was a stalemate, but with the introduction of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war became about slavery. The North had victory, and helped the nation keep unity.
New France was taken by the British after the Seven Years War to form part of Canada, but still allowed French culture, and the War of 1812 was fought between Britain/Canada and the US, but Canada managed to repel US forces, creating Canadian nationalist pride. In order to not have other revolutionary war, after 1840 Britain allowed home rule, and the Dominion of Canada was proclaimed in 1867, partly to protect itself from the US. The first Canadian Prime Minister, John A. Macdonald moved to incorporate all British North America into the Dominion, persuading the joining of Manitoba, British Columbia and Prince Edward Island and purchasing the North West Territories.
Bolívar's Gran Colombia collapsed into Venezuela, Columbia and Ecuador, and the rest of Latin America was fragmented. Due to lack of self government, elites in Latin America couldn't create constitutions as good as North America, and instability was common. Latin Americas also conflicted with the indigenous populations, forcing them to be assimilated.
Many military rules began in Latin America due to wars of independence. Juan Manuel de Rosas ruled Argentina from 1835 to 1852, becoming the 'Machiavelli of the pampas' by restoring order bloodily. The Mexican-American War brought Antonio López Santa Anna and Benito Juárez into power and their Reforma, which challenged conservative Mexican culture, leading to the government's exile. France tried taking over under Napoleon III, and eventually the Mexican Revolution began in 1911 to overthrow the current dictator Porfirio Díaz with Emiliano Zapata and Emiliano Villa, better known as Pancho Villa. Despite gaining popular support, the revolution failed to control any cities, and ended when Zapata was killed in 1919.
Migration has been important to the economy of the Americas: The Californian Gold Rush drew the largest level of immigrants, but other gold in Canada lured tens of thousands as well. Unskilled labour was attractive to factory owners. Many immigrants came from Ireland, Scotland, Germany and Scandanavia due to increased rent in their homelands, by the late 19th century many Poles, Russian Jews, Slavs, Italians, Greeks and Portuguese arrived as well, and 200,000 Chinese migrated to California after the Qing government policy of opening to outsiders. After the middle of the 19th century, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino and Korean migration to Hawaii was common. Migrants to Latin America worked more on plantations and were called golodrinas, or swallows, due to their migration.
British investment was crucial to US industrialisation, and after the Civil War helped the nation recover. The most important development economically was the railroad to integrate the American economy, the most prominent being the transcontinental route from Omaha to San Francisco completed in 1869. They not only helped transport goods quicker, but spurred production to make the rail lines, and land which the rail allowed access to grew with farming opportunities, damage to the environment and further problems to indigenous peoples. Rail even caused the standardisation of American time zones. There were union booms who often opposed the big business that grew, and in 1877, a coordinated strike shut down 2/3 of rail lines.
The Canadian National Policy wanted to attract immigrants, protect national industries through tariffs and build new national transport systems, like the Canadian Pacific Railroad, but was resisted by native peoples. The Policy caused an agricultural, powerful mineral production and hydroelectric plants. There was also investment by the US, gradually makjing the two economies interdependant.
Latin American countries couldn't provide enough goods to meet colonial demands, and did not undergo industrialisation. Elites had control over the economy, and had little incentive to look for diversification or different economic policies. Their little economies had limited foreign influence, meaning that there was less foreign investment. However, there was British investment which which helped Argentina's and Buenos Aires's growth. The only major industrialisation occurred in Mexico, but failed to properly help the nation due to oligarchies pokceting profits.
The US became a multicultural society by the late 19th century, although power was still held by white males. Indigenous peoples were forces off most of their land by development, and policies were created to assimilate them into the population. Native economies based on the bison were destroyed when bison was nearly irradicated, young children were taken away to be educated away from their tribes, and traditional tribal activities and languages were banned. African-Americans gradually gained rights during the Reconstruction, but these soon had backlash and were dismantled, and some states, especially in the South created strict segregational laws.
Growing women's rights movements, with the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 creating a declaration of sentiments, and gradual inclusion of rights for education and jobs, but meaningful opportunities only began during the 20th century.
Between 1840 and 1914, about twenty-five million European migrant arrived in the US. Migrants tended to concentrate in areas like Little Italy and China Town and locals had a distaste for the large quantity of arrivals. The government even stopped immigration from China in 1882.
British and French were both founders of Canada, but other groups weren't noticed, even though major groups of Chinese and Europeans immigrated. A major indigenous and métis outcry came during the 1870s and 1880s headed by Louis Riel.
Hierarchal systems based on race and ethnicity was created in Latin America, and most migrants were assimilated into the nations without adding anything culturally. Intellectuals searching for identy either as descendents of Europe, like Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, or were products of the American environment, like the gauchos. Latin America was also more male centred then North Americans

Week Ten - Chapter 32 - Societies at Crossroads[edit]

Hong Ziuqian, after becoming a teacher, failed trying to enter the Chinese bureacracy and studying Christian missionary tracts, learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, eventually giving himself the title of Heavenly King proclaiming the dynasty Taiping tiangguo, or Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. Russia, the Ottoman Empire and Tokugawa Japan also had similar problems: they were weak militarily, fought with industrial Europe and the United States and some were occasionally absorbed by Europe, problems with internal productivity, so they all created programs of reform.
The Ottoman Empire: by the late 17th century, the empire reached its limits, being defeated by Russia and Austria, and semi-independent governers had a level of autonomy. Authority was maintained in Anatolia and Iraq, but lost in the Caucasus central Asia, Greece, Serbia and Egypt, where leader Muhammed Ali had become the effective ruler and nearly controlled other parts of the empire. Ocean trading circumventing Ottoman lands left economic problems, eventually creating a foreign dependency. Capitulations eventually humiliated Ottoman officials, and gradually less resources were available for the bureaucracy.
Reform began in the 17th century, continuing under Sultan Selim III with a remodeling of forces, but Janissaries rampaged, killing all the dynasty except Mahmud II, who later massacred them. Military and education was Europeanised, and more reform came during the Tanzimat era, basing on the French legal system, with freedom of religion and education reforms. Equality angered Islamic groups because they claimed equality of Jews and Christians was against Islamic law. In 1876, radical dissidents from the bureaucracy seized power and installed Abdül Hamid as Sultan, dissolving parliament, exiling liberals and ruled autocratically. Many dissidents wanted reform, and the most active group, the Young Turk Party, wanted secularisation, emancipation of women and universal suffrage, and inspired a coup in 1908 that reinstalled the parliament and deposed the sultan, replacing him with Mehmed V Rashid as a puppet. The Young Turks also sought to create hegemony, making Turkish the official language, creating tension in Syria and Iraq.
Russian Empire: The tsars were determined to make Russia a major power, but political liberalisation wasn't met with social or economic reform. Russia was multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-cultural, stretching from Poland to the Pacific, with only half being Russian or Orthodox. Peasants made up a majority of the population as serfs. After defeating Turkish forces, an attempt to control the weakened Ottoman empire led to the Crimean War to prevent Russia from being too powerful. The Russian economy could not support the expansion or military, so there had to be reform, with one key restructure: emancipation of the serfs, which Alexander II did in 1861. Although they gained the opportunity to own land, they gained little political rights, and most found themselves in debt for their entire lives. The government also created zemstvos, or directly elected assemblies, to deal with local health, education and welfare, and an independent judiciary. Other reforms were on industrialisation, but the driving force was political and military based, with the prime mover being Count Sergei Witte, creating, among other things, the Trans-Siberian Railway and other rail around the nation. Large discontent arose from the factory workers, forcing the government to ban striking or unions. Intelligensia travelling around industrialised areas spread rebellious ideas for reform, many of which were anarchists. Those who tried rousing rural citizens were arrested, causing them to be sent to isolated parts of Siberia and publications censored. In the Baltic provinces, Poland, the Ukraine, Georgia and central Asia, separatist or autonomy movements were often based on ethnicity, prompting banning on all languages apart from Russian, and Jews were targeted with suspicion, making them migrate to western Europe and the US. A fractional terrorist party tried to assassinate the tsar in 1879, but eventually killed him with a bomb in 1881, prompting an era of repression by Nicholas II, who also tried expanding itno Asia. In 1905, workers stromed the Winter Palace to petition the tsar for a popularly elected government, resulting in 130 deaths, resulting in uproar, mutinies and revolutionary turmoil. The tsar reluctantly created the Duma as a parliament, but it was quite weak.
Qing Dynasty China (not to be confused with the Qin Dynasty): Military defeats and economic exploitation, and internal upheavals. The Qianlong Emperor restricted European trading to Canton, or Guanzhou, with strict regulation by the cohongs under control of the government. Due to little demand for European products in China, trade for porcelain, silk and tea was done with silver, but as an alternative, Indian grown opium was traded for silver. Opium trade was illegal, but unenforced, in China, but in 1838 uncorruptable Commissioner Lin Zexu was set with the task of destroying the opium trade. In response, the British started the Opium Wars, winning them then inforsing the Treaty of Nanjing, ceding Hong Kong to the British and opening five Chinese ports including Shanghai and Guanzhou, and by 1900 ninety Chinese ports were under control of foreign power.
Concentation of land by the wealthy elites and government corruption led to peasant discontent, resulting in rebellions such as the Nian Rebellion in the northeast, the Muslim Rebellion in the northwest, the Tungan Rebellion in the southwest, and the most important the Taiping Rebellion, bring the Qing dynasty to collapse. The called for abolition of private property, free public education, equality of women and many other acts. They took Nanjing as the capital of their Taiping kingdom, then gaining one million Taipings to attack Beijing or Shanghai. The Qing government eventually defeated them, but at a cost of about twenty to thirty million lives.
The dynasty knew they needed to solve economic and political problems, and did so through the Self-Strengthening Movement to blend Chinese and European culture, laying a foundation for industrialisation. This didn't prevent foreign powers, the French, British, Japanese, and Russians, carving up the country, forcing the Hundred Days reforms of 1898 in order to reform to a modern nation, but after 103 days, the laws were nullified and the emperor imprisoned. Emperess Dowager Cixi then incited the Boxer Rebellion to remove foreign 'devils', but were crushed, destroying the Qing dynasty, with the last Qing emperor abdicating in 1912.
Japan: During the early 19th century, Japan was in turmoil due to poor agriculture and high taxation, and peasant rebellins were common. The Tokugawa bakufu tried creating conservative reforms, but they didn't succeed. Trade and diplomatic relations with British, French and Americans were refused, excluding all European and American traders, escept a carefully controlled Dutch trade in Nagasaki. An arrival of a US naval squadron into Tokyo Bay in 1853 under Commodore Matthew Perry, demanding the shogun open the country, creating similar treaties to those to the Qing empire. The shogun's compliancy to European and American offers were opposed, with a focal point at the imperial court in Kyoto. "Revere the emperor, expel the barbarians." This resulted in a brief civil war, the Tokugawa resigned office and the Meiji rule began.
The Meiji period was a Japanese rebirth, with the government's aim of a rich country and a strong army. The government sent many people to learn how to improve their country, including Fukuzawa Yukichi and Ito Hirobumi. Power was centralised, removed the samurai, revamped the tax system, created a constitutional government, and remodeling the economy by creating infrastructure, abolishing internal tariffs and improving education. However, taxes cost peasants half their crop earnings, resulting in revolts, and many lived in destitution. Japan, seeking an end to the humiliating treaties, expanded and gained military victories over Russia and China

Week Eleven - Chapter 33 - The Building of Global Empires[edit]

Cecil John Rhodes went to South Africa in 1871, and eventually headed the largest diamond producer in the world, with 90%. He became Prime Minister of the British Cape Colony, and desired for a British controlled Africa from Cape to Cairo, and also overseas, considering the British to be the most noble and honourable people in the world. Motives for Imperialism: Imperialism became the word to destribe European (and US and Japanese) domination over the world, in comparison to colonialism which also required settlement. Some believed that expansion was the only way to survive. Economically, colonies could be a reliable source of raw materials, such as metals, rubber and petroleum, and be able to consume manufactured goods, despite this not actually happening. Politically, Europeans wanted to extend their influece and to occupy crucial stategic sites, even if they weren't economcally viable. Culturally, religious justification to imperialism was created, with the White Man's Burden. Technology helped realise the imperialistic goals. Transportation, including steamships, faster and betterly armed than sailing vessels, such as the [[[Nemesis]] which travelled up the Yasngzi to conclude the Opium Wars, and the Suez and Panama Canals helped speed travel, as well as rail. Military technology also benefitted, with muskets and the Maxim gun, which helped with the Battle of Omdurman, and communication ease, not only with transport but also with telegraph, with lines set up in 1870 being able to transmit a message from Britain to India in five hours, and by 1902 all the British Empire was accessible by telegraph.
Frenzied expansion occurred during the 1880s after most major lands were taken. The British consolidated their mercantile colonies under the East India Company. After the decline of the Mughals under emperor Aurangzeb, the East India Co. strengthened and enlarged their trading posts, conquering parts using British troops and sepoys, or local armies. Bullet cartridges incased with animal fat to protect them from moisture were outcried at by locals, who then staged a mutiny May 1857 which nearly threatened British rule. At Cawnpore, all the British garrison were killed, but reinforcements killed all resistance. To prevent future, rule came directly from England, with Queen Victoria and British buereauracy, declaring authority over all India and Ceylon. They encouraged cash crops, like tea, coffee and opium, and tightened India's links to the world economy. They also suppressed Indian customs that conflicted with European customs, such as the banning of sati.
Russia expanded into central Asia, trying to reach south of the Caucasus and reaching the British Indian border. Alliances were being sought between Britain and Russia and local rulers. The Phillipines came under Spanish rule, most of the south Indies came under Dutch control, conflicts with Burman kings and Britain from the 1820s led to a takeover by the 1880s, creating a source for teak, ivory, rubies and jade. Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore in 1824, becoming a thriving port and a centre for British conquest of Malaya. The French created the colony of French Indochina establishing close connections with locals by education and conversion to Catholicism. By the end of the century, only Siam was left independent.
The Scramble for Africa: In 1875, there was limited presence in Africa by Europeans, with Angola, Mozambique, Algeria and South Africa being the only major settlements. By the century's end, nationalism and resource grabbing took most of the rest of Africa. Europeans travelling there included missionaries, such as Dr. David Livingstone, adventurers such as Henry Stanley and explorers such as Richard Burton and John Speke who search for the source of the Nile, many of whom created great information about Africa's rivers that provided access inland. King Leopold II of Belgium founded the Congo Free State in the 1870s with Stanley, making it a free trade zone but exploiting workers, event causing 4-8M deaths, but it was taken over by the Belgian Government, creating the Belgian Congo. Britain hoped to expand its Egyptian territory, being able to hold onto the Suez Canal. South African settlement by the Boers, later Afrikaners, grew by immigration by Dutch, German and French Huguenots, encroaching on Khoikhoi and Xhosa lands, leading to brutal warfare. The British takeover caused problems between British and Afrikaners, leading to the Great Trek to found the Orange Free State, Transvaal and Natal. The Boer War began when gold and diamonds were found there and incoming British clashed with Afrikaners, but by 1902 the Afrikaners conceded, and 1910 saw the founding of the Union of South Africa, British dominated.
International tensions led to the Berlin West Africa Conference from 1884 to 1885 where 14 European states and the US created ground rules for African colonisation, leading to carving up the continent, easily defeating native tribes, leaving only Ethiopia and Liberia independent. Due to the cost, countries allowed private companies to rule the colonies, but brital techniques and low profit led to direct or indirect rule. Colonies' borders intentionally divided indigenous groups to prevent resistance, 'civilising' missions aimed to control the populace, but lack of communication led to undermining of control. Frederick D. Lugard was a proponent of indirect rule, in The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, using tribal laws and authorities, despite an absence of tribal authorities, as the British saw them, in African cultures.
The Pacific: Australia was only settled after Captain Cook's discovery of the firtile east coast, leading to the First Fleet, and the gold rushes in the 1850s brought many immigrants, and New Zealand was used to hunt seals and whales until the discovery of firtile soil and good timber promoted settlement. Diseases destroyed native inhabitants, with Aboriginees dropping from 650,000 in 1800 to 90,000 in 1900 and Maori from 200,000 to 45,000 at the same time, but European populations grew to 4.5M in both countries. Terra nullius lead to evictions of Aboriginals from their land, and the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 led to colonial control over New Zealand and wars over land control, creating the Kingitanga Movement. Stations constructed throughout the Pacific caused control grabbing only by the late 19th century, with France taking Tahiti, the Society Islands, the Marquesas and New Caledonia, Britain controlling Fiji, Germany taking the Marshall Islands, eventually leaving Tonga the only independent nation in the Pacific, even then under British protection.
American imperialism grew across North America, and considered themselves protectors of the Americas under the Monroe Doctrine. They purchased Alaska of Russia in 1867, became the protectorate of Hawaii in 1875, which was annexed in 1898 after the monarchy undeQueen Lili`uokalina was overthrown by angry sugarcane planters and businesspeople. The Cuban-American War broke out between the last Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico, ending up taking possession of Guam and the Phillipines, which was helped by a Filipino wish for independence that was not realised leading to a bloody war by Filipino rebels under Emilio Aguinaldo, and to keep control throughout the regions, installed troops in many Caribbean and Central American countries. The Panama Canal was created to ease communication, which helped create the nation of Panama independent from Colombia.
Japan's Empire grew to gain recognition by Europe, taking hold of Hokkaido and the Kurile Islands to prevent Russian growth there, Ryukyu and Okinawa, and took over Korea after purchasing modern warships off of Britain, submitting it to similar inequal rules as those applied to Tokugawa by the Americans, and planned to invade China. After instability in Korea in 1894, Qing invasion to help stabilise the region led to war being declared by Japan, easily demolishing the Chinese fleet in a matter of hours, leading to the 'independence' of Korea and control over Taiwan, the Pescadores Islands, and the Liaodong Peninsula and tension between Japan and Russia over control over Manchuria, but destruction of the Russian Baltic fleet led to control of Sakhalin and part of Manchuria.
Imperialism was primarily motivated by the economy, to gain control of resources and products, such as timber, rubber, petroleun, gold, silver, diamonds, tea, coffee, cacao and many others, benefitting European, American and Japanese societies. Cotton in India, being produced since 5000 BCE, became undermined by British imports, becoming a mass producer and mass consumer of textiles at the same time. New crops such as tea in Ceylon and rubber in Malaya and SUmatra changed the countries as well. Migration was prominent: 40M Europeans left their homes between 1800 and 1914, a majority heading to the US providing labour for industrialisation, but also to Canada, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa to become skilled labourers, cultivators, herders or miners. Asian, African and Pacific Island labourers were being used as indentured labourers, in total 2.5M between 1820 and 1914. Most came from India, China, Japan, Java, Africa and the Pacific Islands, and were taken to tropical and subtropical lands in the Americas, the Caribbean, Africa and Oceania.
Conflict was common between locals and Europeans, such as the sepoy rebellion, the Maji Maji Rebellion in Tanganyika 1905-06, and conflict also occurred between different labourer cultural groups. Scientific Racism grew, such as in pieces like Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau's Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, dividing the world into the unintelligent and lazy Africans, smart yet docile Asians, dull and arrogant Amerindians and the intelligent and noble Europeans, seeking to divide based on skin colour, bone structure, cranial capacity and other physical characteristics. Darwinism, the 'survival of the fittest', became used to justify superiority of the Europeans, and racism grew to the effect that Europeans, or the Japanese in Japan's case, were more noble and others were more backward. Nationalism and anticolonial movements grew, such as Ram Mohan Roy who sought to mobilise Hindus to social reform, and the Indian National Congress was formed in 1885, which eventually gained a self-rule platform, and joined with the All-India Muslim League to make it a reality, eventually gaining independence in 1947