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The Giordano Memorization System is a modern memory-improvement system designed to be specifically applicable to many different types of information. It works by transforming information elements into visual pictures which can be easily memorized.

The system[edit]

Alpha-Numeric Code[edit]

Information is converted into visual images following specific techniques, depending on the type of information. Numbers are converted using the following alpha-numeric system:

Number To Be Memorized Letter Used
0 m
1 n
2 t, h, z
3 b
4 w, v, k
5 f, r
6 j, p, x
7 s, d
8 g, q, l
9 c

Using this code, any number can be turned into a word, and then into a visual image. For example, the number 25 is encoded as: 2/5 = THZ/FR.

A word would then be selected based of of the possible combination of the first and second consonants. The consonants chosen should respectively be the first two consonants of the word: THZ/FR = H/R = HaRe

Three-digit numbers are handled the same way. The number 457 is encoded in the following way: 4/5/7 = WVK/FR/SD = W/R/S = WiReS

When a suitable word isn't found, three digit numbers can be split into two words, and adjective and a noun. The first consonant of the adjective is used, and the first two consonants of the noun are used. For example, the number 444 could be encoded as: 4/4/4 = WVK/WVK/WVK = W/W/W = Wood WaVe.

Chain Method[edit]

In the Chain Method, visual representations of information are directly connected together, one after another. This is useful for memorizing lists and connected pieces of information.

A few rules need to be followed to ensure that all information is memorized correctly. First, only two items are visualized in the mind at a time. Both images need to be visualized largely, colorfully, and in great detail. To ensure that the order of items is not confused, the second image is always placed, in the imagination, above, on the right side of, or piercing, the previous image.

Example: Milk, butter, eggs, mustard, celery, cheese.

Imagine a jug of milk. The milk should be visualized largely, like the size of a TV. On top of the milk, visualize a stick of butter. The eggs would go on top of the butter, the mustard on top of the eggs, and so on. Now to recall the entire list, one needs to only imagine the milk again. The butter image will appear with the milk, and the eggs with the butter, and so on.

This method is very good for quick memorization of simple information. One of the weaknesses of the method is it's dependency on itself. If one of the connections is broken, it is very difficult to recall the rest of the list.

Russian Doll Method[edit]

In the Russian Doll Method, visual representations of information are connected to each other in a way to create organizational levels.

A few rules need to be followed to ensure that all information is memorized correctly. The first image is imagined largely, and a detail or part of the image is selected. The visualized image should be zoomed-in on this detail, and the second image is connected to the detail. This allows for information to be organized into groups on different levels.

Example: Car, lawnmower, bed, microwave, refrigerator, stove.

Imagine a car. The car should be visualized largely, like the size of a TV. Now, a detail is selected, head-light. Zoom-in on the headlight until it is very large in the imagination. Sticking out of the headlight is a lawnmower. Now a detail of the lawnmower is selected, pull-cord. Zoom in on the pull-cord and connect a bed to it. Etc... Now to recall the entire list, one needs to only imagine the car again, and focus on the detail where the information is. Upon zooming-in on the head-light, the lawnmower image will appear, and so on.

This method, combined with the Chain Method and Cicero Method allows for the structured organization of information that is needed to memorize complex material, such as textbooks.

Cicero Method[edit]

The Cicero Method is a technique based off of the method of loci, which allows memorization of sequential information.

Cicero support images are created by mentally 'walking around' a location you are familiar with. Objects are selected in clock-wise or counter-clockwise order, yielding a set of support images which are naturally memorized in order already. Visual informational elements are then attached to these locations.

Example: In your living room you might have a lamp, chair, table, bookshelf, and mirror. To memorize the list 'Paper towels - chocolate - carrot - apple - plate' you would imagine paper towels on a lamp, chocolate on the chair, a carrot on the table, etc... All of these images would be connected following the guidelines set forth in the Chain Method

The greatest strength of this method is that information is connected independently of other elements. So if one connection is forgotten, the rest remain intact.


The Giordano Memorization System began development in 1990 under the lead of Vladimir Alekseyevich Kozarenko. A team of researchers examined common and obscure mnemonic techniques to test which were most effective, developed new techniques, and integrated all of these into a comprehensive memorization system.

See also[edit]

Category:Mnemonics The author of the GMS system as described above uses a number of psudonyms two being Vladimir Kozarenko and Russlan M