User:Zoupan/Serbian Chetnik Movement

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Zoupan/Serbian Chetnik Movement is located in Republic of Macedonia
Skopje
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Kumanovo
Kumanovo
Ohrid
Ohrid
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Prilep
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Bitola
Kičevo
Kičevo
Kratovo
Kratovo
Demir Hisar
Demir Hisar
Kozjak
Kozjak
Locations in the Republic of Macedonia

1904[edit]

Second wave[edit]

After receiving the news in Belgrade, the Chetnik activity did no stop; four new bands were prepared for crossing the border.[1] Veljko Mandarčević, from the Skopje field, became the voivode of a band that moved into Skopska Crna Gora.[1] The experienced and bold Gligor Sokolović became the voivode of a band that would fight in the Prilep region (Prilepska četa).[1][2] Rista Cvetković-Sušički, a former friend and voivode of Zafirov, was sent for Poreče where Micko Krstić impatiently waited for him with the band.[1] Poreče was a source for the rebels; every villager was a martyr and hero, and although Poreče was small, it beat off all attacks, and from it, troops entered all sides, as an effectuation for the struggle.[1] The fourth band was firstly sent to Drimkol, Ohrid, its voivodes being Đorđe Cvetković and Vasilije Trbić.[1]

On the night of 19 July, the four bands crossed the border.[1] They went a secure route which had been put forward by Trbić and Anđelko.[1] They did not rush, and spent days in Kozjak and villages of the Pčinja.[1] They went fast and lightly in the night, and carefully descended towards the Vardar transition.[1] In the village of Živinj, in the middle of the junction, they encountered Bulgarian Voivode Bobev, which meeting at first was sudden and unpleasant, but quickly became friendly and of festivity.[1] Voivode Bobev assured them that he was happy that they would fight together, and took the bands to the village of Lisičja, where they would cross over the Vardar.[1] Only Sokolović suspected a fraud, but went reluctantly.[1] A sudden Ottoman chase urged them to abandon the route on the rivercoast of Pčinja, and to cross Vardar at one of its confluences, as they had intended at first.[1] On the night of 31 July, in the village of Lisičja, to no avail, a large Bulgarian ambush awaited for Bobev to lead the Serbs to their hands - to terminate the Serbian Chetnik Movement.[3]

In the village of Solpa, they dried their clothes on the warm summer morning, and rested in the Boxwood shrubs and ate wet bread.[3] Bobev, who was not allowed leave them as part of the ambush, was still with them.[3] On the next day, 2 August, the bands crossed through Drenovo, and climbed the Šipočar mountain in a long line, where they would rest and drink fragrant milk of the Vlachs.[3] For three days they freely stayed in the mountain and watched the horizon, and routinely looked out, and then climbed to the higher Dautica mountain.[3]

Sokolović, troubled and bothered by Bobev's presence, did not want to go further and took his band towards Babuna.[3] The three bands that stayed, followed by Bobev, descended into Belica.[3] There they found a number of Bulgarian bands, led by Voivode Banča, who told them to call on Micko, a lord of Poreče.[3] The Serbs awaited him, not sensing a deceit.[3] But Trbić, who had always sought the background in things, found out from a drunk Bulgarian friend, whom he had been drinking with for an hour, that there was a plot against them.[3] Trbić told a villager assistant to report to Micko not to come.[3] After learning this, the band of Trbić and Đorđe Cvetković turned to Demir-Hisar.[3] Mandarčević and Sušički stayed in Belica, ready for betrayal.[3] In the mountain village of Slansko they found yet another Bulgarian band, of Voivode Đurčin, who kindly, but with the intent to follow them, sent with them two followers to Cer, in Demir-Hisar.[3]

In the meantime, in Belgrade, there was still hope that the Serbs and Bulgarians would work together in Macedonia, however, in Macedonian villages, there began massacres. On the night of August 6, Bulgarian major Atanas Bobota and his band entered the Serbian village of Kokošinje, where they were searching for people that were condemned to death by the Bulgarian Committee. The Bulgarian band demanded that the village priests and teachers renounce their Serbian identity, but they refused, and they massacred over 53 people. A servant of one of the teachers, who had managed to hide, set out to find the band of Jovan Dovezenski, who he had heard was crossing the border. The teacher's servant found another Serbian band, that of Jovan Pešić-Strelac, which had learnt of the Bulgarian atrocities of Babota, but also of those of Jordan Spasev, who had killed members of the notable Dunković family on August 11.[a]

The Serbian Chetniks in Poreče and Demir-Hisar, constantly followed by Bulgarians, did not know of the massacres.[4] The hungry and tired band of Đorđe Cvetković arrived at the village of Gornji Divjaci, where they were guested by the villagers who had brought cheese and rakija.[4] They rested in sheets of sheep skin, and the village children came with bread and listened to their stories.[4] Cvetković, Trbić and Stevan Ćela rested in the house of the village leader, and ate several meals.[4] In the next morning, Trbić walked through the yard and went down some stairs, and saw an Ottoman jandarma who he shot, who was then buried in the forest.[4] The rest ended and the band assembled and walked the river across the mountain.[4] They arrived at the village of Cer the next day where they also found Bulgarians, and the Bulgarian voivodes Hristo Uzunov and Georgi Sugarev joined their company.[4]

In the mountainous village of Mramorac, where Petar Chaulev had set up camp in the forest, Trbić band were told that the Bulgarian Committee had prohibited them to go to Drimkol.[5] On the same day, 14 August, the Bulgarians had killed Serbian priest Stavro Krstić, which the Chetniks later learnt from the villagers.[b] Far from the other bands, without help, tricked and surrounded, the band understood their situation.[5] Chaulev informed them of their disarmament and the Bulgarian Committee's verdict of crime against the Bulgarian organization.[5] They were only shouted at, as they were saved by some ethnic Serb voivodes in the Bulgarian bands: Tase and Dejan from Prisovjan and Cvetko from Jablanica in Debar, who were bound by oath to the Bulgarian Committee, but nevertheless openly defended the Serbian Chetniks, and friends, whom they had wintered together with in Belgrade.[5] They awaited Dame Gruev, the second leader of the Bulgarian Committee after Sarafov, who would arrive from Bitola.[5] Gruev and his escort arrived as village priests on a night.[5] Trbić knew Gruev from the Kruševo Uprising and from an encounter in Serava.[5] Trbić used their acquaintance and memories, reminding Gruev of the common revolutionary fight and his childhood, when Gruev was a cadet of the Society of Saint Sava in Belgrade, and an apprentice in the printing house of Pero Todorović, which was called Smiljevo after Gruev's birth place.[5]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ Massacres in Kokošinje and Rudar: In the meantime, in Belgrade, there was still hope that the Serbs and Bulgarians would work together in Macedonia, however, in Macedonian villages, there began massacres.[6] On the night of August 6, Bulgarian major Atanas Bobota and his band entered the Serbian village of Kokošinje, where they were searching for people that were condemned to death by the Bulgarian Committee.[6] Prota Aleksić stayed in his house, with Jovan Cvetković, the new village teacher from Kumanovo, and his nephew Milan Pop-Petrušinović.[6] Bobota entered the house, and Prota Aleksić's servant Mihajlo Miladinović hid on the attic, listening to the shouting and hearing that daskal Dovezenski had gathered a band in Serbia.[6] The three were taken out by the road, tied with kmet Trajko Car, elder Mita Pržo, and the elder's son Grozdan, and grandchild Gavo, and youngster Jovan Ivanović-Čekerenda.[7] Babota's soldiers awaited his further commands, he turned to the teacher: "Come on, tell me that you are Bulgarian, and you can continue be a Serb, and I will spare your life", but he refused.[7] Babota put his bayonnet to the breast of Cvetković, and to his astonishment, the teacher jumped on it with all his weight.[7] The massacre began, and 53 people were killed.[7] Babota then searched in the school, and on the second floor they found an old man, teacher Dane Stojanović, who also had been condemned to death by the Bulgarian Committee.[8] After Babota and his band had disappeared, the houses opened and the women screeched, and the silent villagers moved the bodies.[8] Servant Miladinović immediately left the village and began his search of Dovezenski.[8] The next day, Babota and his whole band returned, and he held feral speeches in the inn by the school, in front of all villagers, as Dane Stojanović, too, had refused renouncing his Serbian identity.[8] On this same day, 7 August, Dovezenski, code named Jovan Slovo Želigovac, had crossed the border.[8] Dovezenski, who had been to church school in Belgrade, and had been a teacher in his village, had for 7 years lost close people because of their identity (Serbian).[8] When in March 1904, Bulgarians killed his godfather Atanas Stojiljković in his birthvillage of Dovezance, Dovezenski closed his school and went to Vranje, where he demanded a permit to form a Chetnik band.[8] Servant Miladinović found the band of Jovan Pešić-Strelac, which was composed of Chetniks from Toplica, Vranje frontier soldiers, and people from Old Serbia.[8] While descending the Pčinja, they learnt of the Kokošinje massacre, which the whole Kratovo and Kumanovo regions uttered Babota's name, but also heard the name of Jordan Spasev, a Bulgarian reserve soldier.[8] The affluent Serb family Dunković, originally from Berovo, which had held the resistance of the Kratovo village of Rudar against the Bulgarian Exarchate and Bulgarians, had been condemned to death by the Bulgarian Committee.[9] In the dawn of August 11, Jordan Spasev and his 30 komiti surrounded the waqf mill of the Vakov-Nenovce village.[9] They tortured and killed the villagers.[4]
  2. ^ Murder of priest Stavro Krstić: On the same day as Trbić arrived at Mramorac, 14 August, the Bulgarians had killed Serbian priest Stavro Krstić, whose priest father Stojan had earlier been killed by Bulgarians.[5] The Bulgarians had found out that he would bless the house of his godfather in Podgorac on The Assumption.[5] The godfather was out, and they waited until the godfather's wife had left the house, and then entered the house where they found the priest reading prayers.[5] They shot him in the chest, and wounded he shut the door and went outside the house with a revolver, where he was shot a second time and died.[5] In Mramorac the Serbian Chetniks learnt of his death from the villagers.[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Krakov, p. 166
  2. ^ Živković 1998
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Krakov, p. 167
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Krakov, p. 172
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Krakov, p. 173
  6. ^ a b c d Krakov, p. 168
  7. ^ a b c d Krakov, p. 169
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Krakov, p. 170
  9. ^ a b Krakov, p. 171

References[edit]

  • Krakov, Stanislav (1990) [1930]. Plamen četništva (in Serbian). Belgrade: Hipnos. 
  • Živković, Simo (December 1998), "SAKUPI SE JEDNA ČETA MALA", SRPSKO NASLEĐE ISTORIJSKE SVESKE, Belgrade: PREDUZEĆE ZA NOVINSKO IZDAVAČKU DELATNOST „GLAS“ d.d.o. (12) 
  • Paunović, Marinko (1998). Srbi: biografije znamenitih: A-Š. Belgrade: Emka. pp. 231–232. Глигор Соколовић 
  • Nušić, Branislav Đ (1966). Sabrana dela. Belgrade: NIP "Jež,". p. 134. Глигор Соколовић  Unknown parameter |Volume= ignored (|volume= suggested) (help)
  • VESTI online (18. 12. 2011), Prvi beogradski četnici, Belgrade  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Vučetić, B. 2006, "Srpska revolucionarna organizacija u Osmanskom carstvu na početku XX veka", Istorijski časopis, no. 53, pp. 359-374.
  • Simijanović, J. 2008, "Okolnosti na početku srpske četničke akcije - neki pokušaji saradnje i sukobi četnika i komita u Makedoniji", Baština, no. 25, pp. 239-250.
  • Rastović, A. 2010, "Macedonian issue in the British Parliament 1903-1908", Istorijski časopis, no. 59, pp. 365-386.
  • Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (1998), Balcanica, Issue 29 (in Serbian), Belgrade: Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti, Balkanolos̆ki Institut 
  • Вељко Ђурић, Илустрованој историји четничког покрета
  • Српски четнички покрет у Старој Србији и Маћедонији од 1903-1912. Ј. (Из- вод), Мушка гимназија у Скопљу: Извештај
  • А. Јовановић, Четнички покрет у Јужној Србији под Турцима
  • Vlada Aleksandra Obrenovića: 1897-1903
  • Dokumenti o spoljnoj politici Kraljevine Srbije 1903-1914

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