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For what it's worth, I'm not sure that the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) is very unusual in its scope. Many U.S. laws apply outside the United States (in the sense in which I think you mean).
For example, as noted in the article, U.S. federal income tax law applies world wide, generally. Indeed, U.S. federal income tax law is not even limited to U.S. citizens or residents. A citizen of China who has never been a citizen or resident of the United States and who has never even visited the United States is still subject to U.S. federal income tax law in certain limited circumstances.
Similarly, a foreign individual who commits the crime of piracy on the high seas in violation of international law thereby violates U.S. federal criminal law and, if that individual is seized and brought to the U.S. (or if he comes here voluntarily) he can be charged, tried, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison -- even if his victims were not American and even if the boat on which the victims were riding had no connection to the United States.
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